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Coastal & Marine

Environment

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Coastal & Marine Environment

Wave Transformation
Mazen Abualtayef Assistant Prof., IUG, Palestine

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Wave Transformation
Wave transformation describes what happens to waves as they travel from deep into shallow water

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Diffraction

Shoaling

Deep

Refraction

Shallow

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Wave Transformation
Wave transformation is concerned with the changes in H, L, C and a, the wave angle with the bottom contours; wave period T remains constant throughout the process. To derive the simpler solutions, wave transformation is separated into wave refraction and diffraction. Refraction is wave transformation as a result of changes in water depth. Diffraction is specifically not concerned with water depth and computes transformation resulting from other causes, such as obstructions. Discussions about wave refraction usually begin by calculating depth related changes for waves that approach a shore perpendicularly. This is called wave shoaling.

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Shoaling
b0 H0

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E is the wave energy density Ks is the shoaling coefficient

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Wave refraction
As waves approach shore, the part of the wave in shallow water slows down The part of the wave in deep water continues at its original speed Causes wave crests to refract (bend) Results in waves lining up nearly parallel to shore Creates odd surf patterns

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Wave refraction

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Wave refraction

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We can now draw wave rays (lines representing the direction of wave propagation) perpendicular to the wave crests and these wave rays bend

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Wave refraction
When the energy flux is conserved between the wave rays, then where b is the distance between adjacent wave rays.

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Kr is the refraction coefficient

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Another way to calculate Kr using the wave direction of propagation by Snells Law

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Example 7.1
Simple Refraction-Shoaling Calculation
A wave in deep water has the following characteristics: H0=3.0 m, T=8.0 sec and a0=30. Calculate H and a in 10m and 2m of water depth. Answer: L0 = gT2/2 = 100m

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For 10m depth: d/L0 = 0.10 and from wave table, d/L = 0.14, Tanh(kd) = 0.71 and Ks = 0.93 a = 20.9
Kr = 0.96 H = 2.70 m

n = 0.81

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Wave breaking
Wave shoaling causes wave height to increase to infinity in very shallow water as indicated in Fig. 7.1. There is a physical limit to the steepness of the waves, H/L. When this physical limit is exceeded, the wave breaks and dissipates its energy. Wave heights are a function of water depth, as shown in Fig. 7.7.

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Wave breaking
Wave shoaling, refraction and diffraction transform the waves from deep water to the point where they break and then the wave height begins to decrease markedly, because of energy dissipation. The sudden decrease in the wave height is used to define the breaking point and determines the breaking parameters (Hb, db and xb).

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Wave breaking
The breaker type is a function of the beach slope m and the wave steepness H/L.

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Miche, 1944

b = 0.78

McCowan, 1894; Munk, 1949

Kamphuis,1991

(7.32)

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Example 7.2 - RSB spreadsheet


Refraction-Shoaling-Breaking

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Wave Height (m)

6.00 5.00 4.00 3.00 2.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 H (rs) Hb (H/L) Hb (d/L)

5.00 Depth (m)

10.00

15.00

For this example with the beach slope m=0.02, Hb=2.9m (Eq. 7.32) with ab=15.3, in a depth of water of 4.9 m.

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Problem
Given: T=10 sec, H0=4 m, a0=60 Find: H and a at the depth of d =15.6 m Check if the wave is broken at that depth Assume b 0.78

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Wave diffraction
Wave diffraction is concerned with the transfer of wave energy across wave rays. Refraction and diffraction of course take place simultaneously. The only correct solution is to compute refraction and diffraction together using computer solutions. It is possible, however, to define situations that are predominantly affected by refraction or by diffraction. Wave diffraction is specifically concerned with zero depth change and solves for sudden changes in wave conditions such as obstructions that cause wave energy to be forced across the wave rays.

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Wave diffraction
Propagation of a wave around an obstacle

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Wave diffraction

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Wave diffraction
Semi infinite rigid impermeable breakwater Through a gap

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Wave diffraction

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Wave diffraction

The calculation of wave diffraction is quite complicated. For preliminary calculations, however, it is often sufficient to use diffraction templates. One such Chapter template is presented in Fig. 7.10.

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Wave diffraction

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Wave diffraction
When shoaling, refraction and diffraction all take place at the same time, wave height may be calculated as

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Wave reflection
H r Cr .H i aI Cr 2 b Ir
2 r

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Ir

m H i / L0

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Reflection
Wave energy is reflected (bounced back) when it hits a solid object.

The Wedge, Newport Harbor, Ca

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waves

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Summary
What can affect the way that waves travel? Wave refraction: the slowing and bending of waves in shallow water. Wave diffraction: propagation of a wave around an obstacle. Wave reflection: occurs when waves bounce back from an obstacle they encounter. Reflected waves can cause interference with oncoming waves, creating standing waves. Standing waves: are found in inlets and bays They remain in a fixed position

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