CHOOSE THE BEST ANSWER
1 The early railway in Britain
In 1830, there were under 100 miles of public railway in Britain. Yet within 20 years, this (0)……. had grown to more than 5,000 miles. By the end of the century, almost enough rail track to (1) the world covered this small island, (2) ...the nature of travel for ever and contributing to the industrial revolution that changed the (3) ... of history in many parts of the world. Wherever railways were introduced, economic and social progress quickly (4) ....... In a single day, rail passengers could travel hundreds of miles, (5) ........previous journey times by huge margins and bringing rapid travel within the (6) of ordinary people. Previously, many people had never ventured (7)……. the outskirts of their towns and villages. The railway brought them (8) ........freedom and enlightenment. In the19th century, the railway in Britain (9)……..something more than just the business of carrying goods and passengers. Trains were associated with romance, adventure and, frequently,(10)…… luxury. The great steam locomotives that thundered across the land were the jet airliners of their (11) ........, carrying passengers in comfort over vast distances in unimaginably short times. But the railways (12) .........more than revolutionise travel; they also (13)……. a distinctive and permanent mark on the British landscape. Whole towns and industrial centres (14)……. up around major rail junctions, monumental bridges and viaducts crossed rivers and valleys and the railway stations themselves became (15)……. places to spend time between journeys. 0 A amount 1 A revolve 2 A altering 3 A route 4 A pursued 5 A cancelling 6 A reach 7 A further 8 A larger 9 A served 10 A considerable 11 A date 12 A caused 13 A laid 14 A jumped 15 A preferable B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B figure enclose amending way followed subtracting capacity over higher functioned generous stage did set stood liked C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C sum encircle adapting line succeeded cutting facility beyond bigger represented plentiful day produced settled burst desirable D quantity D orbit D adjusting D course D chased D abolishing D hold D above D greater D performed D sizeable D phase D turned D left D sprang D wanted
Driving from Beijing to Paris
Every (0) ... begins with a single step.' We might (1) ......this proverb for the 16,000 km Beijing to Paris car rally, and say that every rally begins with a (2) .......... of the wheel. From China, several hundred courageous men and women will (3) ...out for Paris in pursuit of what, for many, is likely to prove an impossible (4) ... .Everybody is prepared for the worst and expects a high drop-out (5) ... , especially on the rally's difficult first (6) ... across central China and over the
high mountain (7) ...of the Himalayas .`If twenty-five cars (8) ... it to Paris, we'll be doing well,' says Philip Young, the rally organiser. Now planned as an annual event, the first Beijing-Paris car rally took place in 1907. It was won by Prince Borghese, an Italian adventurer, who crossed the (9) ... line just a few metres (10) ... of the only other car to complete the race. Nowadays, not many people know about Prince Borghese, but at the time his achievement was (11) ... as comparable to that of Marco Polo, who travelled from Venice to China in the thirteenth century. According to the (12) ... , all the cars in the rally must be more than thirty years old, which means that the (13) ... roads and high altitude are a (14) ...test of both the cars and the drivers. A sense of adventure is essential. One driver said,`Our (15) ...is to have a good time, enjoy the experience and the magnificent scenery - and the adventure of a lifetime.' 0A 1A 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A 9A 10 A 11A 12A 13 A 14 A 15 A journey adapt revolution head vision rate period crossings get closing forward thought orders crude firm aim B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B travel moderate circle move fantasy number stage passes take final ahead referred rules undeveloped strict target C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C route improve rotation set hope speed time directions have ending front regarded laws broken severe proposal D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D way form turn try dream frequency round passages make finishing advance noted customs rough grave intent
3 Smart shoes
Smart shoes that (0) ... their size throughout the day could soon be available. A prototype of such a shoe has already been produced and a commercial (1) ... may be in production within a few years. The shoe contains sensors that constantly (2) ...he amount of (3) ... left in it. If the foot has become too large, a tiny valve opens and the shoe (4)…slightly. The entire control system is about 5mm square and is (5) ... inside the shoe. This radical shoe (6) ... a need because the volume of the (7) ... foot can change by as much as 8% during the course of the day. The system is able to learn about the wearer's feet and (8) ... up a picture of the size of his or her feet throughout the day. It will allow the shoes to change in size by up to 8% so that they always fit (9)... .They are obviously more comfortable and less likely to (10)…blisters. From an athlete's point of view, they can help improve (11) ...a little, and that is why the first (12)… for the system is likely to be in a sports shoe. Eventually, this system will find a (13)… in other household items, from beds that automatically change to fit the person sleeping in them, to power tools that (14) …..themselves to the user's hand for better grip. There is no reason why the system couldn't be adapted for use in hundreds of consumer (15) ... 0 A adjust B fit C reform D move 1 A assortment B version C style D variety 2 A prove B confirm D check C inspect 3 A room B gap C area D emptiness 4 A amplifies B develops C expands D increases 5 A located B sited C established D laid 6 A detects B finds C meets D faces 7 A average B general C usual D medium
8 A 9 A 10 A 11 A 12 A 13 A 14 A 15 A
build exactly provoke achievement purpose function shape commodities
B B B B B B B B
pick absolutely form performance exercise part change possessions
C grow C completely C initiate C success C use C way C respond C goods
D D D D D D D D
set totally cause winning operation place convert objects
We really can tell if we are being watched
Stories about how people somehow know when they are being watched have been going around for years. However, few (0)…. have been made to investigate the phenomenon scientifically. Now, with the completion of the largest ever study of the so-called staring effect, there is impressive evidence that this is a recognisable and (1) ... sixth sense. The study (2) ...hundreds of children. For the experiments, they sat with their eyes (3) ... so they could not see, and with their backs to other children, who were told to either stare at them or look away. Time and time again the results showed that the children who could not see were able to (4) ... when they were being stared at. In a (5) ... of more than 18,000 trials(6)…… worldwide, the children (7)……. sensed when they were being watched almost 70% of the time. The experiment was repeated with the (8) ... precaution of putting the children who were being watched outside the room, (9)… from the starers by the windows. This was done just in case there was some (10) ... going on with the children telling each other whether they were looking or not. This (11) ... the possibility of sounds being (12) ... between the children. The results, though less impressive, were more or less the same. Dr Sheldrake, the biologist who designed the study, believes that the results are (13)….enough to find out through further experiments (14)….. how the staring effect might actually (15) ... 0A 1A 2A 3A 4 A 5A 6A 7A 8A 9A 10 A 11 A 12 A 13 A 14 A 15 A tries genuine involved shaded find sum worked over correctly attached separated pretending prevented delivered satisfying really come about B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B tests accepted contained wrapped notice collection worked through exactly added parted lying omitted transported convincing carefully be looked at C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C attempts received comprised masked tell mass carried on thoroughly connected split cheating evaded transmitted concluding definitely set out D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D aims sure enclosed covered reveal total carried out perfectly increased divided deceiving ended distributed persuading precisely be held up
Just (0)….a day without paper,' reads one advertisement for a Finnish paper company. It adds, `You almost (1) ...see our products every day.' And they're right. But in most industrial countries, people are a]so (2) ..... to paper - whether it's for holding their groceries, for drying their hands or
for (3) .... them with the daily news - that its (4) ..... in their dailylives passes largely unnoticed. At one (5)….paper was in short supply and was used mainly for important documents, but more recently,
growing economies and new technologies have (6) ...a dramatic increase in the (7) ...of paper used. Today, there are more than 450 different grades of paper, all designed for a different (8) ... Decades ago, some people predicted a `paperless office'. (9) ... , the widespread use of new technologies has gone hand-in-hand with an increased use of paper. Research into the relationship between paper use and the use of computers has shown that the general (10) ... is likely to be one of growth and interdependence. However, the costs (11) ... .. in paper production, in terms of the world's land, water and air resources, are high. This (12) ... some important questions. How much paper do we really need and how much is wasted? 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
A believe A positively Aconscious A providing A task A time A called on A total A point A Instead A method
A involved A puts
B imagine B obviously B acquainted B delivering B operation B instance B come around B portion B goal B Besides B order
B contained B raises
C realise C certainly C familiar C contributing C service C date C brought about C number C purpose C Otherwise C trend
C held C gets
D suppose D absolutely D accustomed D giving D role D occasion D drawn up D amount D result D Alternatively D system
D connected D places
THE MUSTARD SHOP
Norwich, a city in the east of England, is a (0) .... shopping centre for thousands of people. In particular, visitors love to (1) ..... the small, unusual shops hidden away in Norwich's narrow streets. The Mustard Shop is usually high on everybody's (2) .... of interesting shops to see. The (3) ..... between mustard, a type of sauce, and Norwich (4) ... back to the nineteenth century. Jeremiah Colman began to make mustard in 1814 in a nearby village. The yellow fields, full of ustard flowers whose seeds were required for Colman's factory, soon changed the appearance of the local (5) ...The company (6) .... rapidly and in 1854 it moved to a suburb on the (7) .... of Norwich. By this time, Colman's mustard was famous in many countries. The company is still in (8) ... .. and many people continue to enjoy eating mustard with meat, cheese and other food. In 1973, the company opened The Mustard Shop. It is a careful reproduction of a typical mustard shop of a hundred years ago and sells a wide (9).... of mustards. Upstairs there is a small museum where visitors can (10) ... a collection of old Colman's posters and an exhibition (11) .... the history of mustard. It is a shop not to be (12) ..... when visiting Norwich. 0 1 2 3 4 A known A explore A account A joinn A comes B common B enquire B brochure B tie Bgoes C popular C research C list C union C belongs D normal D analyse D guide D link D leads
acting or (1) . with great (4) .. an American architect.. For many children..... a musical instrument. They looked forward to these (3) . circus or ballet. As they (2) ... and children quickly accept these marvellous (7) . 0 A advantage 1 A controlling 2 A developed 3 A circumstances 4 A sensation 5 A supply 6 A applicable 7 A designs 8 A special 9 A attendance 10 A spectators 11 A want 12 A famous B benefit B handling B grew B occasions B action B send B convenient B inventions B peculiar B presence B onlookers B appeal B favourite C profit C doing C advanced C incidents C thrill C stock C available C exhibits C specific C being C viewers C pressure C popular D gain D playing D brought D situations D excitement D store D free D appearances D particular D company D listeners D desire D approved
Victor Gruen... The (9) . the sense of witnessing a very (8) ......live performance is gone forever.... of adults... up they were taken to public places of entertainment . and would remember and discuss what they had seen for many weeks afterwards. But nowadays television and computers (5) . But all is not lost..as a very ordinary part of their everyday lives... opera....the theatre. of a TV set may have encouraged a very lazy response from (10) . . British children were frequently encouraged to try out their performing skills for the (0) ..... entertainment.. They did this by reading aloud.5 A view 6 A expanded 7 A limits 8 A reality 9 A amount 10 A review
B scenery B enlarged B frontiers B fact B extent B watch
C C C C C C
background increased sides existence range examine
D nature D strengthened D outskirts D force D set D remark
A explaining A unnoticed
B announcing B missed
C expressing C escaped
D discovering D left
THE PERFORMING ARTS
In the past. but the (11) . . And live performances in public are still relatively (12) .. revolutionised shopping in the 1950s by creating
. more specialist audience.... an endless stream of easily (6) .. of those with ambitions to become performing artists themselves does not seem to have been at all diminished. in their own homes. albeit with an older.
cinemas. urban consumers in Sri Lanka cannot afford the luxury of waste.. Most Items .the type of shopping centre that we now (0) . Access to the whole shopping mall was gained by using the main doors.. colourful (13)… beckons from the shelves. we compare the situation here with the one back home. from shop to shop. .. He also wanted people to be able to shop in all kinds of weather.. There are no supermarket (4)… to push around. shopping malls now (11) .. compared with this. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 A consider A direction A resulted A insisted A favourable A model A measure A disconnected A strips A hold A freely A contain A becoming B know B aim B sought B demanded B agreeable B imitate B height B withdrew B lines B get B loosely B concern B growing C call C search C intended C requested C comfortable C repeat C size C separated C areas C stay C simply C consist C raising D label D view D meant D emphasised D enviable D shadow D scale D parted D plots D keep D entirely D compose D advancing
Reduce! Re-use! Recycle!The message hits Canadian (0)……… through all the media.. Sri Lanka. people need to buy in small quantities. A (12)… of imported goods.. Most people do not buy more from the grocers than they know they will actually consume. . Like many shoppers in Colombo. Gruen's shopping malls were on a much grander (6) . Gruen's (1) was to provide a pleasant. For eggs we took a reusable plastic tray with us. restaurants and other forms of entertainment are also (12) . He (3) . We may not be the most environmentally (1) …citizens in the world but.. When income (7)…are low. flour. on using building designs that he knew people would feel (4) .. This was done to (5) . in popularity. vegetables.. At (6) …we would carry one plastic bag separately..... dressed up in their layers of attractive.rice..... the shopping `streets' from the parking (8) . As newcomers from Sri Lanka.They re-use whatever they can and are loath to discard bags. some of the older shopping arcades of city centres. with them. (15)… . streamlined service to customers. The (9)… is that. shops no longer needed windows and doors. You need a good strong basket at the po/a.. my partner Shahid and I used to have a cane basket we (2)… with us to the Sunday market or pola every week.. They hold out the (11)…of a clean...to other uses.. tins or boxes that can be (10). like so many otherdeveloping countries. But in recent years Western-style supermarkets have begun to spring up in Colombo. eggs .. and people could wander (10) . fruit. much more than just shops... As there was no need to (9)… out bad weather.yet.. jars. but while these housed only small speciality shops. quiet and spacious shopping environment with large car parks. with. . .. we do not have a rubbish problem .are bought (5)or wrapped in newspaper. but placed them in landscaped `streets' that were entirely enclosed and often covered with a curved glass roof. for the most part. In many cities. which usually (2) . No environmentalist could have (3) …about it.. building in the suburbs. These are the (14)…products that demand your attention on the TV advertisements. . biscuits. outside. which (7) .. may have imported a problem that once never
.. It is quite normal to ask for a (8)… envelope. efficient.. two eggs or 100 grams of sugar. a shopping mall.
A.A. consumers B.A.. case B.served C.share D.A. levels D. singular B... took along C. worried C.role C... As well
C.A. He possessedthe key characteristics that an inventor needs to (8)…… a success of inventions. store C. Few inventors have (4) . A. to his colleagues: 'Well.effect A. but someone whose products transform the lives of millions.. concerned B.turned out A.. loose D. in homes and offices from New York to California. took up D. the death of arguably the most important inventor of (3) . trolleys C.. customers 1. just B..decrease C.4 5 6 7 A joined A. reacting to failure by cheerfully (9) . sight D. point 10. with total disbelief by eminent scientists.. sole D.place B. sizes C. Lights (1) . set B. The ceremony (2) . In many ways. millions of Americans (0) . and many of his inventions played a crucial(5) in the development of modern technology.. up clever gadgets. given C. example C.all D. In addition
B. Edison's proposal for electric lighting circuitry was (12) ... band D.A.lower B. not just someone who (7)..A.. evidence C.put off D.that is.set D.went out C. Edison is the perfect example of an inventor .A. set 13. took D. promise 12. One should never (6)…how revolutionary some of Edison's inventions were. packaging
D. criticised B.entire C.000 things that don't work.A. question D. accused D. range B.whole A. complained 4... in pieces B.' Knowing when to take no (11) .came off B. time:Thomas Alva Edison.. best D. advantage B. single C.full B. wheel barrows 5.A.A. bit by bit C highest C. most B.mislead D. took over 3.. 0 1 2 3 . Edison famously tried thousands of materials while working on a new type of battery.indicated D. such an impact on everyday life...A.A.. 0. made 11. similar C Among
D. free 6.A.had B.forms
.A.creates B held B. took away B. wagons B.noted C. notably sheer determination..existed. very 15. carriages D.dreams D..distinguished B. put D..put A. of experts is also important. likely D.. (10). maximum 7. qualified 2.. buyers D. Along
On the night of 21 October 1931. experienced D. we know 8. padding
14. amounts B.marked A.shapes C were C. disapproved C. packets
B. simple 9... clients C. rates 8.underestimate A. until he lit up whole streets with his lights.. packs
C. part in a coast-to-coast ceremony to commemorate the passing of a great man.
then C.has C.cut
A good start to a holiday
I had never been to Denmark before.rims D.covered 3 A.regard B. there are more than 150 kilometres of rivers under the streets of London.caught
C.keeps D.. Most have been (2) .. Along some underground railway lines.brought D top D.informing B. out of town and own to Ribe. forgotten or neglected by all but a tiny (1).brief B... .notifying D.. great river which previously had beautiful houses on its (6) ..by far 11 Anotice 12 Agathered
B. to the city is the River Fleet.. Some have had their entrances on the street turned into restaurants and shops..few D.contains B.stops B. of most major cities.make B.sharp D..once 6 A.even though C. . I little (1) ...... and when I set out to (0) .. my time well.lie 12 A. over and.announcing 10 A.drawn
D. The London Underground (8) . most (11) . commuters can sometimes catch a (9) . . down.view D.. that by the end of the trip I'd have made such lasting friendships.1.Although C... I wanted to (2) .flows B.ive C. is their names.received
Under the city streets
While skyscraper offices and elegant apartment blocks remain the public (0) .coasts B.of engineers and historians For example.Unless B.loss D..lay D.at least B.leaks C. sadly. these cities also have a mass of secret tunnels and hidden pipes below ground which keep everything working...
.past B.holds 9 A.broken C surface Ctotal C... It now goes underground in the north of the city and (7) . .gain 9 A.achieve C.for all D.Despite 11 A. ..stays 4 A. Perhaps the greatest (4) .borders 7 A.sheltered D.number 2 A.get D.instructing C..000 kilometres of underground railway track winding under the capital
and more than 100 stations below street level. a (5) .. where tourist information can be obtained and money changed.pulled B outline Bamount B.. so I had planned a route which would (3) . forgotten.lets D.miss 5 A.banks C.hidden C.... the ferry in early May.absence B. . face 1 A.attention C..remains C.. A cycle track (5) . all that (3) . but most entrances have been (12) .This other world exists.fast C.prior D. glimpse of the platforms of more than 40 closed stations which have been left under the city... (10) ..waste C.Since D... a (4) .. port for a cyclist's arrival.. I arrived at Esbjerg. .. several small islands and various parts of the countryside..last B.8 A. 0 A .. some are used as film sets...rapid 10 A............consists D.. into the River Thames by Blackfriars Bridge.protected B.. where I spent my first night.gets 8 A..
..calls C. Mountaineers climb in groups of three or four. enclose C favourable C..insists B.out B... in C. Then I was(11) . contrast D.. And the (12) ..work B.. Rock climbing (2) .. his family for lunch..... begun C.. With much mountain climbing..fixed B.rides B.sent B. he or she can be held by the others and (10) . exception C.. approach D.take A. Climbers always tie themselves together so that.. Within minutes.. I got into conversation with a cheerful man who turned (8) . observation C.. information D..greet A....hold of the rope..doubted C.. he had (10) .. .In my (6) . over D. each climber at a distance of approximately six metres from the next.own 2 A. 0 A. making the rope secure so that it is (7) . priceless 1 A. back to safety... but perhaps the most necessary skill is being able to (3) .leads A...Include A..suspected B. snow skills (8) .In Ribe.orders Dset
. pick B.serve B. if the leader falls. Usually one person climbs while the other climbers (5) .hold B... . he contacted his daughter in Odense.difference A. a very important part. of oxygen at high altitudes makeslife even more difficult for mountaineers. for the others to follow..see B.contain B. Ice axes are used for 9) ..rewarding B.change B.steps into the snow and for testing the ground.. on my way with a fresh loaf of bread to keep me (12) .... join C. imagination and observation.ready B.. The modern climber must (1) .making C. prized D. use D. settled C. many different skills.. of pastimes is mountain climbing.. The number of dangers (11) . for me to visit her and her family.. a combination of gymnastic ability. and this trip was no (7) . by climbers is almost endless. gain D judged D.. put D ..... moves C. ordered D.. out how much weight a particular rock will (4) .. He insisted that I should (9) ...going
One of the most difficult but (0) ..capable A... connects D.. and the feeling that this would turn out to be a wonderful holiday.up A.. The most experienced climber goes first and (6) ..passed A.stand D.. to be the local baker. and.try C precious C.. exercise C.requires 3 A.arranged A.knowledge B... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 A catch A.wondered A... being D.doing B. . find C. the otherclimbers which way to go. while we were eating. a person travelling alone sometimes meets with unexpected hospitality.. consist D convenient D.control C.experience A...possess D.
faced D.put C. of that sort of thing but I will now..pulled B. I don't know why the driver didn't see her.supply 5 A. on Friday. "I tried to (3) .stay B. "He could at (11) .safe 8 A. to ride a bike..act 9A. but I couldn't." said
back to (15) .splitting D.continue C. 13th May..a name or address and before Sarah could get his number..30pm as Sarah was making her (9) ." The accident(7)…. I'm not a bit (5)… and wouldn't change any of my plans just because Friday 13th is supposed be unlucky.do B.demand
FRIDAY THE THIRTEENTH
Police are hunting for a hit-and-run driver who knocked a teenage cyclist off her bike in East Street. had a lucky (0) . home to the Harley Estate.4 A.offer D..lack
D. touched B.. It is (13)…that nobody took down the number..attention. . She bruised her thigh and shoulder and her bicycle was (1) . Sarah Tucker. her father. "Everyone at work kept (4) .play C. The Volvo (10) . have helped her up.breaking C.shows D..keep 6 A.gap
C.cutting 10 A....sure B.reliable D. Sarah was able to go out of Westwood Road onto Henley Road in front of the teenager's bicycle..need
B. ." Though still too (14)….provide B... I think I'll stay in bed...maintain D.out of his way.. Derek.indicates 7 A.. I don't usually take any (6) . "Sarah was lucky.. in Marlow on Monday.points C. on about it being Friday to 13th.marked 12 A." she said.support C. when she was sent reeling by a black Volvo on her way home from work.dependable C.at the (8)…with Westwood Road at about 6.given 11 A.make D.tearing B..sent D.felt C.. He can't have been (12) …. I don't see why he should get away with it..signals B..The driver stopped for a moment but then drove off without (2) . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A break crashed leaving go chatting irrational notice took place junction route pulled once paying unfavourable discouraged work B escape B harmed B presenting B get B running B prejudiced B consideration B came about B joining B course B thrust B least B giving B inopportune B shaken B post C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C escapade devastated noting be going unreasonable note finished up roundabout way ran most attracting undesirable overcome job D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D incident damaged suggesting stay rambling superstitious care turned up crossing path crashed best providing unfortunate confused employment
... the opening of the project's first phase for yet another two years. ingredient of many of their medicines. like fingernails.. for there is a (15)…between the two commodities. is made of keratin and has no proven medicinal (12)…Traditional substitutes. in rhino horn.THE TRADE IN RHINO HORN
Last year thieves broke into a Scottish castle and stole only one thing: a rhino horn. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ` A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A factories amounts reason essential chance design hardly vary threat rejection business recipes capacity regarded imagined variation B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B plants bundles intention real search plan even switch danger denial commerce aids values valued dreamed difference C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C workshops collections need actual fight programme nearly modify disaster refusal selling remedies control known thought gap D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D studios groups purpose true race form still adjust 'menace protest trading doses powers reputed viewed comparison
THE NEW BRITISH LIBRARY
Originally commissioned 14 years ago.. an association of writers and scholars who are not happy with plans for the new library. Ivory is a luxury. In China pharmaceutical (0)…have been building up (1) of antiques made from rhino horn..its £164 million project in1978.. conservationists met to (5)… a campaign to persuade countries where rhino horn is (6)... secretary of the Regular readers. The biggest (8) to the survival of the rhinoceros is the (9) … of certain countries to enforce a ban on domestic (10) . for the black rhino.of smashing them to powder to make the (3) ..5 metres was the longest in the world. to open in1990.came in June when inspectors discovered that 60 miles of new metal shelving had started to (3)… and needed to be (4) . part of the traditional medicine to (7) . people believe...That would (5) .. "Things have gone from bad to worse. However. are (13) . "It is a grand national project that has become a great national scandal.The rhino horn is included in many (11) for disorders ranging from fevers to nosebleeds. the new British Library was (0) .. But it may be harder than the battle against the trade in ivory.The battle is (14)… to be winnable... rhino horn. And in Africa poachers continue to die in the (4) .. .. the project has been(1)… by political infighting. The most recent (2) .. as second best. such as horn from buffalo or antelope. could save the life of their child..." said Brian Lake.. Horn.. which at 1. for the sole (2) .. Recently. to substitutes. poor planning and financial problems....
." It sounded like a splendid idea when the government (6) .
forty passengers. Write for a copy to any of their offices.. Adventure and Special Interest Holidays in Scotland..can choose from a wide range too . For creative people. to the many prehistoric (5) .. (12) .from bird watching to camping...Sophisticated electronic (7)…would help keep the library's irreplaceable stock at an optimal (8)… and humidity. week-long voyages in the Tall Ship Malcolm Miller. a 300-ton schooner. the library would also include (11)… galleries.
. a restaurant and a conference hall. You can. Four years later. ... other needs of the reading public. for example. The start of construction was delayed until 1982 by arguments about planning and by a (13) .. A computer-controlled delivery system would provide books to readers within minutes of a (9) ...the project hadn't met in four years. of Scotland from the sea but haven't got your own boat and prefer an experienced hand at the helm. The Scottish Tourist Board publishes an excellent (1) ... silversmithing and (9)…Outdoor (10) ... . Subjects range from painting and music to wood-carving... of government... That was the plan..... a luxury floating hotel with a crew of thirty (14) .. And to (10) ... . rather than days. containing (2)…of dozens of ideas for 'different' holidays together with addresses to (3) . If you're lucky with the weather and can (15) ... ... Hebridean Island Cruises offer a variety of cruises to many of the most beautiful spots on the western seaboard in the Hebridean Princess. it. depending on the (8) . and part of the experience is that you are one of the (13) . members of the cabinet ordered a (14)… report and discovered that the committee responsible for (15) . this could be the ideal holiday for you.a pleasure for which you pay quite a lot. They (12) ... If you've always wanted to see the west (11) . of teaching and accommodation. there are any number of arts and crafts (6)…that offer instruction as well as (7)… ... . from gliding to golf. on the Solway Coast and the Early Christian remains at Whithorn.. 0 1 2 3 4
A A A A A
projected delayed comeback fade substituted
B supposed B bothered B setback B melt B replaced
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
A A A A A A A A A A
imposed items heat reservation fit exposition especially variation progress guarding
B unveiled B computers B temperature B demand B serve B show B anyway B difference B progression B supervising
C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C
assumed infected drawback mould abandoned postpone claimed equipment cold wish bring exhibition eventually shift progressive overlooking
D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D
pretended restricted cutback rust rejected postdate manifested tools warmth request obey demonstration meanwhile change progressing watching
THEME HOLIDAYS IN SCOTLAND
If you like to build your holiday round a theme or particular (0) .. try STA Schooners. go on an archaeological holiday and be (4) ..... there are many opportunities open to you.Prices vary....
but that (3) .. However.... this we must first go back to the time when primitive. man (2) ... to (1) ... in childhood and persisting into old age... to throw things is one of the most primitive and deep-seated of our instincts.... It was to be centuries before man himself could fly.0 A 1 A 2 A 3 A 4 A 5 A 6 A 7 A 8 A 9 A 10 A 11 A 12 A 13 A 14 A 15 A
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THE BEGINNINGS OF FLIGHT
The story of man's mastery of the air isalmost as old as man himself. of conscious design marked the first step on a road that (4). We cannot know with any certainty when man first deliberately shaped weapons for throwing. The arrow was the first true weapon capable of maintaining direction over considerable (15) . 0 A clues 1 A value 2 A pursued 3 A act 4 A brings 5 A instant 6 A feeling 7 A coming 8 A exterior 9 A suitable 10 A involved 11 A invented 12 A last 13 A matters 14 A destroyed 15 A lengths B keys B approve B hunted for B deed B moves B day B urge B arriving B outside B fitting B meant B magined B older B substances B ruined B extents C responses C understand Cchased C action C takes C hour C encouragement C appearing C external C related C told C planned C latest C materials C spoiled C areas D resolutions D realize D followed up D event D leads D moment D emotion D growing D outdoor D chosen D showed D produced D final D sources D exploded D distances
BECOMING A TRANSLATOR
The role of the translator in enabling literature to pass beyond its natural frontiers is receiving
. weapon and the ability to throw it with force and accuracy (10) .. his food. . It is significant that such weapons were (11) . ... the difference between eating and starving. from the spear and the arrow to the aeroplane and the giant rocket of the present (5) ... form at an early stage in history. which is the origin of most (8) . probably has its roots in the ages when the possession of a (9) . it is doubtful if we could produce better bows and arrows than those that (14) . in fact. that this (6) ..... a puzzle in which the essential (0) . If we were restricted to the same (13) . games... It would seem.. the armies of the past... The more mature ambition to throw things swiftly and accurately. were not found until a very late stage... ... and brought to their (12) .. and only birds and insects flew.. (7) .
If opportunities like these
. The first step towards preventing crime is understanding its (2) . Much is being done . even... by adolescents and young men.In (0) .. nor is it carefully planned... age for offending is fifteen.. of the applicant's work. the (7) ...the (6) .. however.. Property crimes (4) ... has been a growing problem all over the world in the last thirty years.growing recognition. More (12) . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A regard field work made encounter formed instruct instance eager substantial fit finish surely exclude impressed common B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B view category employment given involve set oblige case nervous main right lead probably reject convinced same C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C awareness ground occupation told reveal founded demand specimen agitated grand convenient effect certainly object affected similar D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D consideration class line shown introduce established direct model excited plentiful suitable result expectedly disapprove taken joint
CRIME .. they may very possibly commission some other book of a (15) . . Motor cars.. before commissioning a translation is a fairly lengthy (7) ... nature which they already have in mind. by the translation......to reverse the trend. to translate... . in a commission to translate the book. of being a victim of crime (8) .. The least publishers will (6) .. to secure their cars by locking all the doors and shutting all the windows. The first difficulty the beginner will (4) . to such would-be translators. This (9) . Also.. and not surprisingly.. to much crime prevention. on the easy opportunity. Most crime is against property. as we are all (0) . and most crime is not carried out by professionals. the majority of whom stop offending as they grow older .... not (3) .. opportunity is the (10) . .. against crime.. If he or she is extremely lucky.. Some advice may usefully be (3) .... by criminals on the easy.and more can be done ... section of the book and then submit the book and the translation to a (10) ... . publisher.REVERSING THE TREND
Crime. publishers will (13) ... But we are not (1) . You can play a part in it.... and in 30 per cent of domestic burglaries the burglar simply walks in without having to use (12) . Surveys have shown that approximately one in five drivers do not always (11) ..... a reputation for sound work. for example. this may (11) . are a sitting target for the criminal. if unpublished.... the book as such but if they are favourably (14) . greatly depending on where you live. translate a (9) . it is not surprising that many people with literary interests and a knowledge of languages should think of adopting translating as a full-or part-time (2) .. Perhaps the best way the would-be translator can begin is to select some book of the type which he or she feels competent and (8) .. They are often (5) . is the unwillingness of publishers to entrust a translation to anyone who has not already (5) . .. of the general increase in this (1)… ..
.. there are many ways you can help reverse the trend. criminals would have a much harder time. which would release more police time for (13) . the silent ones mysteriously (4) .. .. . the primary esponsibility for (14) .. serious crime. the jobs which secretaries are being asked to do... and then returning mouse-like to his or her station behind the typewriter. out of sight.of word processing packages.. Companies are (10) . that secretarial staff should already be (11) . .. In the past it was usual to regard the secretary as almost dehumanised.did not exist.. A few years ago `something hidden' probably meant (5) .. way D key 11 A trouble B bother C care D ensure 12 A force B threat C tools D tricks 13 A removing B facing C tackling D dealing 14 A containing B destroying C fighting D coping 15 A quality B peacefulness C enjoyment D way
What's in a name? In the case of the secretary. tucked away with all the other secretaries and typists.... but. 0 1 A orders A explanation B B handles detail C C runs definition D controls D characteristic
.. The word itself has been with us since the 14th century and comes from the mediaeval Latin word secretarius meaning `something hidden'. keeps records and does clerical work for others'... correspondence. to be seen and not heard. the word's original meaning is a hundred times more exotic and perhaps more (3) .. trained in. . but.. if you care about improving the (15) ... 0 A aware B conscious C informed D known 1 A unprepared B hopeless C powerless D weak 2 A nature B type C reason D method 3 A the victim B the public C residents D citizens 4 A increase B thrive C develop D happen 5 A performed B started C committed D done 6 A peak B major C maximum D top 7 A percentage B seriousness C rate D risk 8 A varies B adapts C transforms D adjusts 9 A awareness B seizing C reliance D taking 10 A answer B method C.. and more technical... . with the
(7) . It may also encourage a dramatic (15) .. . in office practice. upgraded itself and the role has changed to one closer to the original meaning... it can be something rather surprising.. business see all these developments as (14) ...... But while this particular job (1) ... .. The dictionary calls a secretary `anyone who (0) . of life for yourself and your community. In addition to this they need the management skills to take on some administration.. the secret machinery of organisations. A good secretary was an unremarkable one.... looks a bit (2) . Of course. . Secretaries started out as those members of staff with knowledge hidden from others.. efficiently (6) . The skills required are more (9) .. The chances are that many crimes would not be committed. .
of new technology. The professionals in the (13) .. orders.. ... some personnel work and some research.. or at least familiar with.. a (12) . the job (8) . with crime rests with the police and the courts.
At the (0) ..... And when they look at sports photography. But the best sports photographers today still do more than (14) .. the still image as a reminder of the game. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 A A A A A A A A A A A turn exhibit enlarged splash put improved choose high visit preservation identify B B B B B B B B B B B opening show extended drop keep aided value wide attend store share C C C C C C C C C C C origin feature prolonged dash lay benefited praise main follow mark unite D D D D D D D D D D D introduction demonstrate spread drip leave assisted cheer vast meet record join
. with all its movement and action. of milk hitting the surface of a dish of milk. Edward Muybridge was experimenting with photographs of movement. sports events... His pictures of a runner (1)…in every history of photography. of the 20th century... sports photography has changed.. they look not so much for a (9) .. and photography as a way of recording action.2 A elderly 3 A characteristic 4 A operating 5 A kept 6 A satisfying 7 A advent 8 A truly 9 A thorough 10 A insisting 11 A considerably 12 A group 13 A appointment 14 A improving 15 A turn
B B B B B B B B B B B B B B
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Sport as a spectacle..... the prospects of still photographers.. ...... the colour and the action. All those people who watch a sports event on TV... The significance of television as a transmitter of sport has (5) .. have developed together. but see them through the eyes of the media. the limits of photographic technology with his study of a (3) . of the event as for emotions and relationships with which they can (10) .. . sports photographers were as interested in the stories behind the sport as in the sport itself... Another advance was the development of miniature cameras in the late 1920s which made it possible for sports photographers to (4) . (6) . tell the story of the event. majority of people do not actually (8) .They (15)…in a single dramatic moment the real emotions of the participants. . . the glamour of sport. The (7) ...... . their cumbersome cameras behind.... we can see how (11) .... Another milestone was when the scientist/photographer Harold Edgerton (2) .. Looking back. (12) .. Contemporary sports photography (13) .
.. the length of the island and this is perfect for all manner of water sports.. Strict regulations (9) ..... Eventually. and just sit back and watch the pelicans diving for fish. an island resort about 18 km long and (11) . of the city's past.. is one of the most interesting cities in America and is where the first shots in the Civil War were (7) ... Charleston. . if you feel like doing nothing. (13) . In fact. Dolphin watching is just one of the many unexpected attractions of a holiday in South Carolina... our eyes open..11 12 13 14 15
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HOLIDAYS IN SOUTH CAROLINA
Roaring across the bay in a motorised rubber boat....... settled last week. The state has long been popular with golfers and. .. a golfer's paradise. It has a fantastic sandy beach (12) ...... With the engine (1) . we were told by the captain to (0) ... of sunshine.... in the USA. it is (4) . beside the boat and popped their heads out of the water to give us a wide grin.... are preserved South of Charleston lies Hilton Head. two came up (2) ..
...... which is midway along the (6) . with a good (1) .. .. (14) .. ... with dozens of (3) . like a foot. a chair and umbrella. . head for an open (15) ..... it wasn't long before half a dozen dolphins came swimming around us.. in the area. 0 A stand B keep C hold D fix 1 A turned out B turned away C turned off D turned over 2 A direct B right C precise D exact 3 A courses B pitches C grounds D courts 4 A fully B truly C honestly D purely 5 A show B provide C offer D supply 6 A beach B coast C sea D shore 7 A thrown B aimed C pulled D fired 8 A significance B meaning C sense D comprehension 9 A apply B happen C agree D occur 10 A points B characters C aspects D features 11 A formed B shaped C made D moulded 12 A lying B running C going D following 13 A alternately B Conversely C Contrastingly D Alternatively 14 A charge B lend C hire D loan 15 A space B room C gap D place
UNIVERSAL WET WEEKEND
The weather across much of the British Isles (0) ... ... But even the keenest golfer needs other diversions and we soon found the resorts had plenty to (5) . to buildings so that original (10) . Taking a guided horse and carriage tour through the quiet back streets you get a real (8) ......
.. showers. .. . of England was 28.. hit Hong Kong on Saturday morning.. plastic is a word you tent to say with a sneer or a snarl. the showers and (6) . however. of the globe... .. for the month of August. From noon on Friday. was coping with some (4) ... It’s not really the plastics themselves that are the environmental evil – it’s the way society chooses to use and (3) _________ them.... On the other (12) . of rain became more and more frequent so that by midnight on Sunday. tropical storm Gabrielle moved across the Gulf of Mexico and overnight rain (13). The town centre of Shanwei. But there seems little (1) _________ it is here to say. ..
. not far off the (8) . there had been 333 mm of rainfall. .. throw-away society. conditions.On Saturday. The (3) ..2°C... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 A kept A extent A shore A residue A extreme A waited A outbursts A after A general A sting A drowned A only A section A overtook A total A huge B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B remained quantity coast remnant extravagant found outbreaks plus standard prick flooded fairly side exceeded sole weighty C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C lasted proportion sands rest excessive felt outputs later medium stab immersed hardly face passed single heavy D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D held deal beach remains exaggerated warned outlets more average poke overflowed nearly part beat whole strong
If you’re an environmentalist. was (10) . though her presence had been (5) . near Hong Kong. which compared favourably with Alicante in southern Spain at 29°C.. the usual rainfall for the (14) .. and the truth is.. a thunderstorm at Lyons in eastern France deposited 99 mm of rain in just six hours.. A tropical storm.. of course. It has become a symbol of our wasteful. Even on Sunday there was a (9) . at 367 mm. the high temperatures were ufficient to set off some (15) .. . that plastics have brought enormous (2) _________ even environmental ones.. (11). given the name Helen. when 468 mm of rain fell in
the sixty hours leading up to midday on Sunday. of the world... in Helen's tail. . Although most of Europe enjoyed sun. the lunchtime temperature at Bridlington on the north-east (2) .... ... On Tuesday morning.. in advance. twice the normal August rainfall. month. thirty-six hours (7) ..
sparkles C. A. argued B. The simplest way is to utilise the flat-plate collector sited on the …(4)… of a house. 1. warms B. A. amount B. A high (5) _________ of our annual consumption is in the (6) ________ of packaging and this constitutes about seven per cent by weight. evidence 2. rectifying 9. preventing B. A. A. wall C. vitality D. A. endanger C. entices D. On cloudy days and in winter a flat-plate collector may fail to provide sufficient …(10)…to warm a full tank of water. domestic B. flush C. industry D. imagination and life skills. As sunshine rapidly…(6)…the plate. its importance should never be underestimated. It is essential that the sun must be high enough in the sky to …(9) … the water. A. products C. Games are not the haphazard creations of parents or educators.(1)…from the sun. process D. We import well over three million tones of the stuff in Britain each year and. likelihood D. most of it is thrown away. concern B. their choice of game and the importance they (5)…upon it.. Whether they are hostile or whether they are friendly. conversion B. A. private D. extols C. beginning 2. strength C. trigger C. It is wiser for mankind to…(2)…it immediately. measure 9. capture C. doubt C. mould B. A.Almost all the 50 or so different kinds of modern plastic are made from oil.A. rate D. way 7. show their attitude and relationship to their environment and how they relate to their (6… human beings. muscle
In child development there is an important phenomenon that shows very clearly the process of preparation for the future: play. store B.It …(7)…the sunshine in. (1) … to popular belief. A. They should be seen as educational (2) … and as stimuli for the child’s (3) …. A sheet of glass serves a dual purpose . The plate is kept warm by…(8) … the release of infra-red radiation. enclose 3. sooner or later. henceforth B. A. national C. lock D. fuels D. piecemeal D. A. form D. window 5. It operates when pipes on the plate channel water to and from the …(5)…hot water tank. energy B. international 6. proportion C. favoured C.. type C. of our domestic refuse. A. presented D. originally C. gas or coal – nonrenewable natural (4) _________. A. the prevailing heat is absorbed by the water as it passes. processes B. portion 6. lures 8. A. warm D. discharging C. imprison B. promoting D. The manner in which children (4) … a game. benefits B. manufacture 8. kind B. mechanism C. boil B. 1. simmers D. melting C. replacement
Everyone knows that our energy is derived . Every game is a preparation for the future. and traps the infra-red radiation. factory C. A. The plastics themselves are extremely energy rich – they have a higher calorific value than coal and one (8)___________ of ‘recovery’ strongly (9) _________ by the plastic manufacturers is the (10)_________ of waste plastic into a fuel. allows B. spin 4. savings C. though the plastic recycling (7) _________ is growing fast. dispose 4. desired 10. plant B. roof B. medium D. gleams 7. A. rather than wait for the slow forces of nature to …(3)…it into fossil fuels. resources 5. bathroom D. A. change D. method B. abuse D. Almost all of it could be recycled. but very little of it is. and particularly whether they show
. A. pleasures 3. A. profits D. burst 10.
nerves 4.... noticeable D.. A.. When you get home from a day’s studying or work it’s all too (10) .. with the stomach pulled firmly in... 1.. most 9...distinct B.... In general.... But (1) ... sources C.. on 15.. immediately we can not only look and feel better but protect our body for the future.. Contrary C.. A. spoil B.without doubts B. Games are (9)… communal exercises that enable children to develop their social feeling. A.. lay 6.... feel comfortable but it prevents you from breathing properly. adjusted C. 1 A head B feet C eyes D hands 2 A so B quite C all D rather 3 A customs B habits C rituals D practices 4 A course B something C moves D action 5 A evade B prevent C avoid D restrain 6 A existing B topical C contemporary D current 7 A various B several C considerable D numerous 8 A concern B problem C trouble D fuss 9 A scatter B circulate C disseminate D distribute
. The (6) ... Do you see a long elegant back or are your shoulders as rounded as the hump of a camel? Bad posture normally starts in our teenage years when we slouch around with our (0) ... fellow B.... peer 7 .... in all C... vanish D...... but by taking (4) ..... evident C.. attached B. As we grow older these poor (3) . A. (9) . (5) ... Due 2.. Make sure you sleep on a firm mattress at night.. self-esteem C. scale
C. marked 8. the weight evenly by wearing a rucksack or even a bag around your waist. Try to sit (12) . Don’t load everything into a bag that you wear on one shoulder or you’ll end up lopsided.. means B.. likely 11.. accord C.. centimetres high is just asking for (8) ...... play is of the (8) …importance to every child. development D. A.. Pride..... A... physiology C. to slump on the sofa in front of the telly........ mindset D. lying flat on your back. open C... prone D.. A. process D...qualities as leaders.. A.. contemporary C. changed D.. are clearly (7)…in their play. A. In observing children at play we can see their whole attitude towards life......... worsen
13.... egoism B. grown 12.... A. too easy to neglect something as essential as good posture... survived B. aids 3.... by far D... A.... A.. A...... give B... damage C.. level
B.. for D.. we can determine (14)… great certainty the (15) … and quality of their social feeling... instead try sleeping in a curled position on your side... Sitting in this way (11).. extent
HOW TO HAVE PERFECT POSTURE
Next time you take a look in the mirror..... maturity 14. These children gladly withdraw from all games. approach C. try standing sideways on..... with C. psyche B. In contrast B...... prime D.... present D..great B...... A. trying to look cool... A... up those who now while away their days sitting in front of a computer where it’s (2) . revival in platform shoes doesn’t help and wearing shoes with heels more than (7) ... tools D.. scope
D. above all 10.operate B. But play is more than preparation for life. place D. lack of (13)… and the consequent fear of ‘getting it wrong’ are the main reasons for this behaviour... are exacerbated.... experience 5.... According D... by watching children at play.... utmost C. or when they are sent to the playground with other children usually (12… the pleasure of others..... Children who avoid games and play are always (10) … to the suspicion that they have not (11)… satisfactorily to life.... in B.
even if it were by myself. qualification.... only a very small proportion of us actually have a phobia of these things. (8) . progress were high. Already fluent in four languages and with a sound knowledge of teaching methodology her chances of (10) ...... thinking that the most expensive courses are the best. of second language acquisition.... to treat anxiety and many people opt for alternative therapy such as acupuncture or hypnosis to help them come to (12) . 0 1 2 3 A reason A face A choose A very B B B B POINT confront distinguish absolutely C fact C meet C select C quite D logic D join D pick D truly
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SOUND ADVICE FOR LANGUAGE LEARNERS
A recent (0) .... her first experience......... By far the most (6) ... will be your own time and effort... She feels her biggest mistake was not to follow (12) .. between a fear and a phobia. Three years (11) ." 0 1 A series A domain B ISSUE B branch C programme C field D release D area
. treatment for what could potentially be a phobia...10 A enticing 11 A may 12 A level
B attractive B could B erect
C C C
irresistible will vertical
D tempting D should D upright
The (0) .. When these fears begin to (4) ....... tried to teach herself German by enrolling on a (9) ..... If you don't set achievable aims you are more likely to give up.. a language course. she remembers very little. with their fear and conquer it... Also.. "I should have consolidated what I'd learn by continuing to study.... Therefore you must make sure that the course on offer leads to a (5) . However..... Treatment of phobias usually consists of the patient (10) ..... It is important to (2) .. whether you are likely to be successful at learning a language... course..... of Phobia Awareness Week is to highlight the difficulties that many people (1) . in which people (9) ..... you embarrassment or you feel that your life is being disrupted then you would be wise to (5) ...... of a language learning magazine has consulted a number of experts in the (1) .. for example? Do you have enough time to learn a language? The major (4) .... around to get the best possible value for money....... Do not be deceived (7) . Did you enjoy studying languages at school. behavioural therapy during which they gradually get used to being near the object or the situation that causes them fear............ for example being anxious around snakes or nervous about flying.. Their advice may prove invaluable for those (2) .... be realistic in your (6) ... a French teacher... You should also bear in mind that the quicker you learn a language the more quickly you forget it.... in everyday situations...... Sandra Miller. going outside because of the awful feelings of anxiety that arise.. ..... means 'fear of the marketplace' but we apply it today to describe a distressing (8) .. phobia and potentially the most disruptive is agoraphobia.... The word derives from Greek and (7) ...... One suggestion is that you (3) ... usual for all of us to have our own peculiar fears.... It's (3) ...... Drugs may be (11) ....
. 0 A situation 1 A although 2 A continues 3 A already 4 A alone 5 A sooner 6 A quite 7 A development 8 A stopped 9 A doing 10 A natural 11 A hold 12 A last B place B still B repeats B just B individual B neither B greatly B result B narrowed B having B real B maintain B stand C position C yet C carries C for C lone C either C utterly C reaction C reduced C taking C living C stay C go D site D despite D follows D entirely D lonely D rather D completely D product D cut D making D genuine D keep D remain
WRITE THE PERFECT CRIME NOVEL
Most people are born with the natural ability to (0) .. us fed. water.... Renewable resources are exploited so much that they will never be able to recover (6) . to stay alive we are rapidly destroying the (4) .. The Earth's (10) . As a (7) . is
. of bestselling books. We need food. air. comfortable. built on or washed into the sea.. Agatha Christie what should you do? The best starting (6) . We discharge pollutants into the atmosphere without any thought of the consequences. on consuming two-thirds of the world's resources while half of the world's population do so (3) .. healthy and active... resource we have by which all people can survive and prosper... but only a rare few have the determination to become professional authors. But if we use them wastefully and excessively they will soon run out and everyone will suffer. Who can (3) . we know of in the universe that can support human life.. warmth.. medicines. at the very time when rising human numbers and consumption are (9) ... and even fewer have the joy of seeing their novels top the (1) ..2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
A A A A A A A A A A A
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B B B B B B B B B B B
thinking review cost understood ends about push crash doing forward on
C C C C C C C C C C C
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D considering D survey D valuation D regarded D goals D in D shop D fast D making D onward D out
Earth is the only (0) .. books you will have seen them in films or on the TV... Miss Marple or Hercule Poirot? Even if you haven't read the (4) . resources are there for us to use.
shelter and minerals to (11) .. As the western world (2) . success of all. (1) .. indefinitely.. the appeal of famous detectives like Sherlock Holmes. increasingly heavy demands on it... the planet's ability to support people is being (8) . stories.... Everywhere fertile soil is (5) .. human activities are making the planet less fit to live on..... energy.. If you have an ambition to become the (5) ..... Some of the world's famous crime writers have achieved the (2) .. If we are sensible in how we use the resources they will (12) ..
Exciting? Certainly. (7) . another
NO MORE CLASSES
boring lesson. and be transported into an imaginary school.. They might (5) ... At the (6) ....... at the computer. a virtual English companion... to catch the bus to college. computers has meant students can study language programmes (1) . the bank or the restaurant. for your first bestseller. These are: an original story..... What's more. strong characters and a memorable setting.to read lots of examples of crime fiction written by good authors. some loose (8) .... better. choose to pay a visit to the supermarket or the train station. maybe getting a hand (8) . of a button they would be transported to (7) . watching a woman get (10) . After all. in the virtual classrooms of the future the student will (3) . You will need a notebook to carry around with you or. or a plane to England.. and an interesting alternative to traditional classroom lessons.. the classroom? Hopefully not. of paper that you can (9) . their own speed when and for how long they want . But would it ever (10) ... take the books they need off the shelf and (4) . a train . All this perhaps. notes on and then file into a folder.. realistic settings where they could practice their English..for example. from the comfort of their home: no (9) .and no need to worry about the teacher having a favourite or doing (2) . the most everyday situation .. of a successful novel..may be the (11) . the need to relate to real people talking about real issues and generally learning a little more about others will always lead language learners to (12) .... conversations with other computerised students. 0 A in B at C of D to 1 A With B for C at D in 2 A Still B for C yet D already 3 A Place B put C set D get 4 A Take B do C catch D hold 5 A although B referably C instead D contrary 6 A force B hit C depress D push 7 A so B such C like D alike 8 A with B to C from D for 9 A role B duty C obligation D need 1 0 A replace B restore C succeed D recover 11 A definitely B mainly C totally D surely
.. on their headset... (11) . Like any good recipe you have to know the main (12) ...... choose their class. at least a little of their time with real people.. 0 A say B TELL C speak D announce 1 A queue B list C row D line 2 A largest B greatest C highest D prime 3 A deny B refuse C insist D hide 4 A first B initial C early D original 5 A next B following C subsequent D later 6 A spot B tip C point D mark 7 A even B still C very D so 8 A strips B sheets C layers D pieces 9 A complete B do C fill D make 10 A out B down C off D from 11 A notion B idea C invention D inspiration 12 A parts B ingredients C pieces D sections
The use (0) .
a passenger had (10)…. but had acted (12)…. tend to identify (7)________ desirable education with the transmission of the cultural heritage. he was completely (13)… of the fact that a young woman was about to hurl herself into the path of the oncoming train. The conservatives. a young woman (2)… herself into the path of the moving train. a no-nonsense (8)_______ featuring the three R's at the elementary-school level. The young woman (6)… out to be a gifted architect who was recovering from a nervous (7)… . not merely in training the child's mind or in preparing the child for adult (11)_______ in a remote future. essentialists and progressives. Unbelievable as it sounds. any other. and arithmetic . tend to be interested in the development of the (10)_______ child. meaningful school living in the present. In fact. the conflict over educational goals can be (5)_______ as a conflict between conservatives and liberals. It was revealed that. Her amazing rescue from death was based on a remarkable (8)… . writing. or progressives. The first carriage had to be jacked up to free the badly (4). down the emergency handle.12 A spend
A LUCKY ESCAPE
This is about an extraordinary incident that took place in London a few years ago. and they view subject matter as a resource
.it often seems impossible to (3)_______ agreement on any goal beyond that.. In the broadest (4)________. They put (9)_______ on the training of the mind and cultivation of the intellect. The passenger had had no particular reason for doing so. woman. and academic studies or strong vocational or business courses in the secondary school. or.reading. the platform. a train was (1)... (6)_______ they are sometimes called. seconds before. It was a day (0) . The liberals. .which automatically (11) …the brakes of the train.Suddenly. or essentialists. but the wheels had not passed over her and she (5)…. certain that there was no way to stop the train before the woman was (3)… under the wheels. the Transport Authority (14)… prosecuting the passenger on the rounds that he had had no (15)…cause for using the emergency system! 0 A so B like C by D such 1 A arriving B approaching C catching D advancing 2 A leapt B tossed C plunged D threw 3 A crushed B smashed C broken D squeezed 4 A damaged B wounded C survived D continued 5 A succeeded B overcame C made D turned 6 A proved B came C outbreak D setback 7 A breakdown B failure C injured D harmed 8 A coincidence B correspondence C occasion D opportunity 9 A examination B inquiry C view D search 10 A taken B handed C pulled D lifted
11 12 13 14 15
A joins A for a change A uninformed A considered A noticeable
B applies B by accident B unsure B meant B expected
C presses C at random C unaware C advised C correct
D attaches D on impulse D uncertain D faced D reasonable
While (1)________ everyone accepts the goal of developing (2)_______ in the three "R's" . The horrified driver slammed on the brakes. for the subsequent (9)… into the accident revealed that the train had not stopped during the river's hasty breaking.But miraculously the train did stop. They emphasize rich. On one of the city's underground stations..
viewed B. Third. A. required C. its C. A. object D.it is very strong(15)… the case of religious groups. thought C. program 9. people often (4)…good social relations as a reason for their happiness. A. at B. A. but for B. actions C. 1. A happiness seems to correlate quite (3) with the main dimensions of personality: extroverts are generally happier. Marriage similar (7)… relationships can also form the basis of lasting happiness. letters D. They do not downgrade content but believe it should be (14)_______ not for (15)________ own sake but as a means of fostering thought and inquiry. acquired D. in C. it B. partly because of the agreeable things they do together. A. but (10)…by social interactions with co-workers. certain B. requested 15. all-round D. whole C. stress C. Unemployment.perhaps this is why some
people are happy in boring jobs: it (9)…both ways. utmost 2. In particular.into happiness. life 12. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 A research A fallen back on A arrives A strongly A explain A meaning A movements A near B inquiry B gone in for B runs B nearly B prefer B origin B motions B close C examination C got down to C goes C firmly C talk C base C slogans C tight D study D come up with D descends D hardly D report D source D signals D heavy
. them D. means 5. skills D. rather than C. instead D. to affirm their friendship. accomplish C. Activities (13)… sport and music. there is. lives C. but B. a C. talents B. A. living B. in some people. The researchers have (1)… a number of factors which contribute to a definition of happiness. Fourth. A. inquired B. of D. neurotics are less so. on the (11)…can be a serious cause of unhappiness. leisure is important because it is more under individual (12)… than most other causes of happiness. for 13. their
In recent years there has been a remarkable increase in (0) …. A. techniques 3. A. strength 10. as 7. First of all. get B. partly because of the way friends use positive non-verbal (6)…such as caressing and touching. happiness (2)… in families. friends are a great (5)…of joy. counted D. A. A. liveliness D. better 14. and participation in voluntary work and social clubs of various kinds. complete B. terms B. A. when C. subject B. named 6. mostly C. A. the D. can give great joy. a moderate genetic predispositio to be happy: in other words. as 8. although D. most B. reach 4. but also because of the social support of other group members . A. This is partly because of the (14)… themselves. curriculum C. almost D. significance B. Job satisfaction is caused not only the essential nature of the work.(12)________ total human development (13)_______ as a goal in itself. Second. total 11. A. emphasis D. job satisfaction undoubtedly (8)…overall satisfaction and vice versa . words C. take D.
even something as basic as the case can (3)… a difference. The picture (5) …more complicated by two factors.This fact. sick pay and maternity leave . if it is wider.(4)… the computer magazines and you will see that cases come in all sort of shapes and sizes: small. to violence and revolution. A (3)…point for such an investigation would be to try to decide the ratio which ought to (4)… between the highest and the lowest paid. in extreme cases. If the ratio is narrower. (2)… a video card. But if you have had one (1). the (14)…between rich and poor will be so great that it will (15)… to social tension and. The first is the `social wage'. say. the benefits -(6)… as holidays. should not (2)… us trying to devise a mechanism for deciding what is the right pay for the job.But. In choosing the components. however. wide. you are ready to enter the do-it-yourself PC business. most countries now (10)…as socially acceptable a ratio of 7:1 between the best and the (11)…paid.. the highly-qualified people who usually (12)… heavy responsibilities may become so dissatisfied that they (13)… emigrating (the so-called `brain drain'). 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 A amount A by all means A admit A opening A remain A results A such A ensured B size B for instance B prevent B beginning B exist B is drawn B so B enabled C lot C in reality C forbid C starting C stand C becomes C just C entrusted D sum D out of the question D prohibit D commencing D become D is made D like D entitled
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
A engine A rate A require A smallest A hold A pull away A gap A drive
B instrument B cost B regard B least B wear B turn out B space B lead
C appliance C range C review C lowest C carry C set off C hole C aim
D apparatus D value D respect D fewest D bring D end up D size D urge
Building (0)… own computer may appear a difficult task. the taxation system is often used as an (8)…of social justice by taxing the rich at a very high (9)…indeed. Allowing for these two things.
. Secondly.8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
A consists of A works A too A common A check A like A facilities A by
B applies to B effects B as well B contrast B power B such B activities B for
C contributes to C makes C also C comparison C control C so C exercises C in
D counts on D turns D plus D contrary D choice D thus D amenities D with
A FAIR WAGE?
What constitutes a fair wage? The (0)… of money that people earn is (1)… determined not by fairness but by market forces.which everycitizen is (7)… to. that is. tall.and have even progressed to being able to.
25 years a helicopter pilot and veteran of typhoon conditions off oil rigs in the South China Sea... that most painful decision to say ‘no’. Sundancer its horrible face.. say ‘yes’ in all conditions and at all (15)....
The terrified crews on Sundancer and Heather Berry are only half-a-mile from disaster when Hotel Oscar.. the Irish Marine Emergency Service helicopter arrives and the winch crew (3).. By the time the exhausted winchman has (6).. from the sound card and graphics cards to the backup device of your (9) Of course. You can (8)… your requirements and get exactly the machine you want: everything. and you may soon have the (15)… you need to continue.. So.. of night and day. you can find a case to (6)… your needs... (10)…. this was the worst experience in a distinguished (9). screaming winds make for a treacherous flight out of the bay. that is available too.. for the boats – the conditions are too bad for that. it is said should be given to those who have to (13). There’s no (4). saving their lives. most crews can and (14). start by upgrading your existing machine. esle is to survive. the two crew members of Heather Berry. The pair on Sundancer will have to be abandoned if (8).. If you want a casethat will (7)…in a drawer.. something will go wrong. 0 A your B an C the D its 1 A in time B for a while C at the moment D since then 2 A put B install C place D set 3 A make B do C give D take 4 A Revise B control C Check D Inspect 5 A dream B fancy C hope D long 6 A respond B call C fill D meet 7 A arrange B conform C fit D get 8 A satisfy B notify C qualify D specify 9 A choice B pick C selection D pleasing 10 A before B sooner C earlier D after 11 A occasional B seldom C rare D sometimes 12 A in trouble B by mistake C out of use D at fault 13 A get B leave C find D stop 14 A their B who's C the D whose 15 A trust B confidence C belief D wish
39 OSCAR’S WINNING PERFORMANCE
Two boats.... If you get (11)… crashes. rolling decks as the pilot. . For Captain Lockey. Fortunately. is Clew Bay in County Mayo. Captain Al Lockey hovers directly (5). a change in wind direction was to (10). In fact.. much to the (11). the CPU.. the hard diskor the software that is (12)… ? You could (13)…yourself having to deal with all the various manufacturers of the different pieces in order to find out (14)…piece or program is causing the problem... if you want to become a DIY expert..... The threatening rocks will make matchwood of them.. its (2).
... Medals. As if that decision isn’t difficult enough. of the rescue crew whose hearts were breaking as they were forced to turn their backs and (12)... Gale-force winds are blowing as a distress message is relayed to the (1)… The west coast search-and-rescue helicopter takes off from Shannon. on fuel. It’s not easy to get the rescue line down on the pitching..or later.narrow – whatever you (5)… If you think you would like to have ten hard disks in your computer.. is it the memory chip.. engines paralysed are drifting helplessly towards rocks in a raging sea. for home.. the helicopter is running (7).
point D. make D. periods B. A. ought B. everyone B. immoral 10. 3. pastime 7. way B. short C. looks (0) ____ like any other fairly old house in Drugland. arrival D. proper D. As well as C. task B. complete C. 12. above A. With computer games. out D.That was Mission 47. fly B. wrong B. no one A. story B. is that watching a movie is a passive (76)…You have no say in how the plot develops or which characters dominate the story. give A. Their parents
. A. capture your imaginationand play with your emotions. profession C. hope C. 6. biggest
D. affair D. does D. gaze B.game is likely to signal the beginning of a lasting love (78)…with the interactive world of make-believe. right B. William Straw. satisfaction A. prevent D. It is hardly surprising that video gaming has become one of the most popular (74)…of entertainment today. you direct the action and that is what makes them so exciting. save B. land B. spare A. branches C. control
6. A. Finding the (77)…. 10. A good game is like a good film. set up B. should A. gains 3. They lived (3) ____ a strict routine. 8. 11. accomplished just over three months after Hotel Oscar’s contract began in July 1991. 14. 7. set out C. 4. direction A. longest
B. forms 5. deepest
To the passer-by. As far as D. 5. relief C. A. The big difference. picked out A. rescue C. head C. clown B. will D. 9. over D. breath D. A. job A. role B. In fact. all D. lend D. 13. A. set off A. 2. luck A. 15. They had no social life and callers were never (5) ____ into the house. destination B. who died in 1990. As long as 4. makes C. (73)…a family buy a new PC. shore A. routine C.A. low A. ahead C. may C. dishonest D. do B. hours D. higher B. seaside D. taken over C. But (1) ____ inside and you go back into a vanished world.A. it will hold your (75)…. journey C.A. has B. say C. career D. comfort B. widest
C. accurate 8. however. You might be surprised to learn that the games industry now (72)…more money than Hollywood. It is (79)…to think of gaming as something simply for children and teenagers. the (80)…growth area of the market is the 25-35 age group. do B. taken off D. lived in the house with his brother Walter after his parents' deaths. never married and had no (4) ____ friends. need D. 1. gratitude D.A. beach C. should C. 1. someone C. As soon as B. Fantasy. attention C. may 2. minutes
FUN AND GAMES
Do you think computer games are just for kids? Then you (71)… think again. A. (2) ____ William Straw's house is exactly as his parents left it when they died in the 1930s. all they really want to do is to play games. go A. secret C. employment D. makes B. match 9. picked up B. shapes D. moments C. number 20 Grayleave. false C. set about D.
the house is open to the public and visitors quickly (15) ____ that it is the closest they are ever likely to come to time travel. Nothing that their parents had owned was ever moved or (11) ____ away.(8) live or on the small screen rush the next day to read a . the power of newspapers seems to be on the .. who had been (9) ____ the shop since their father's death. 15. 1. 8. When it finally goes. (3) past people were predicting that the influence of the written word would diminish in ... This is odd because in the relatively . Their father died in 1932 and their mother in 1939. Towards the end of their lives. 2. the two cut themselves off from the rest of the world. cable and satellite television. though.a huge (6) ____ in those days .. A yet A step A then A based on A close A greeted A quantity A absolute A gave up A leading A Ever since A removed A clear A certificates A originally A catch B still B stamp B for B according to B deep B requested B wealth B whole B finished off B commanding B At the moment B thrown B aware B posters B at the earliest B regard C just C tread C from C along with C familiar C invited C fund C throughout C ended with C running C From then on C done C thoughtful C messages C from the start C distinguish D even D trip . many may come to mourn its (15)… 1 A flies B passes C goes D drags 2 A increase B rise C expansion D build 3 A latest B distant C immediate D recent 4 A exact B direct C precise D equal 5 A all B any C every D one 6 A done B gone C stood D set 7 A flourished B bloomed C flowered D rooted 8 A game B set C match D meeting 9 A curtailed B cut C reduced D potted
. How have these organs survived. then a history lecturer at Welldone Univeristy. 12. (10) ____ . explaining where they (14) ____ came from. He (8) ___ his job and set up house with Walter. 11.. 13. 14.(4) proportion to the rate of increase of the spoken word and moving image through TV and video.to see if our ideas on any .. particularly on a Sunday? Why do people who have seen a football or tennis . 0.had a successful grocery shop and the family moved into the house in 1923. 6. D so D as from D warm D offered D sum D total D got out D conducting D That time D dismissed D wise D labels D sooner D realize
As time . 4..(2)...on (7) ____ redecoration. because they began to put (13) ____ on various pictures and items of furniture. subjective editorials and hyperbolic sports pages still doing in our lives? It seems for the time ... The Internet. Teletext and multi-media computers in(5)… other home should surely have . 7..wayward comment.. particularly alongside a perceptible resurgence in the audiences for news-carrying radio stations. when William. returned to Workshop..(1). it seems that they became (12) ___ of the value of what they had done...(9) version of it in four or five columns which surely cannot mean more to the reader than that self-same viewer of the previous afternoon or evening? Why would anyone who has seen a film and formed a (10)… impression of it the following day read a review of the . let alone (7)…..(13) of not much more than outrageous headlines.. immediately spending $170 .(12) song.. film or programme tally with others'? What is this product that . Today.. 9.(14) to be leading a charmed life. 10..(6) for newspapers by now.(11) film in a newspaper? To see if s/he is right? Isn't that what friends are for? Don't we
have colleagues for just that purpose . 5. 3..
the .. (14) before going on to fairly average jobs.. and the decision has been taken to (12)… him or her out.. (6) where...Much of this is a myth.. but there's surely a more serious side... and in the right light. A life-threatening fire can be (14)… upon to add millions to the ratings. while others. Offices and factory floors .(9). taking to it like a (1)… to water. (5) for her release. wait in the .(2) to serious study.(2) guilty of a series of fraudulent acts. A fair proportion of viewers were obviously . It's easy to (7)… off such idiocies as `a bit of fun'. (9) before moving off into the industrial or political (10)… . find themselves returning again and again.. but in many ways it is no more than a sleepy .. A national newspaper soon .10 11 12 13 14 15
A vivid A above-mentioned A given A comprises A out A perishing
B coloured B aforesaid B taken B contains B being B dying
C bright C latter C subjected C consists C given C falling
D direct D previous D written D informs D present D passing
A popular character in the nation's top television soap is .... but wait! Within hours the television station is being…(3) with calls of protest..(4) up a campaign to have her freed.(6) tothe sounds of animated debate. Having been .. If a character is (11)… to be past his or her sell-by date.. Oxford may like to . one feels as if one is . Everywhere. A good story-line.... millions will (10)… over their 7-day TV guide to get a preview of the week's soaps. she contemplates months of incarceration.. Hardship and hard work are very much part and (11)… of student life.. transitory students. The(12)…. Only for the tiny minority is Oxford the first ... of course.... such is the sense of unreality.(7) of their generation. The college lawns provide a gorgeous .. possibly to have them (13)… off in spectacular fashion.... It is even mentioned in Parliament.. to mix metaphors. (3) on air. (8). get through the three years' hard (13)… by simply putting their shoulders to the .(1) for something of which she was probably innocent. A major wedding can find half of Britain sitting (15)… to the screen! It's all very strange.(8) in by the story to such an extent that their perception of fact and fiction was clearly ..(15) on the ladder
. (4) that it is at the intellectual (5)… of things.. 1 A jailed 2 A arrested 3 A bombed 4 A opens 5 A demanding 6 A echo 7 A laugh 8 A thrown 9 A blurred 10 A flick 11 A decided 12 A write 13 A ridden 14 A leaned 15 A swamped B prisoned B called B attacked B starts B calling B ring B smile B carried B hampered B go B resolved B cast B taken B construed B stuck C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C sentenced found streamed puts insisting fill take indulged tampered pore deemed sort driven relied paralysed D charged D discovered D inundated D establishes D sounding D deafen D put D taken D glossed D sit D suspected D work D killed D improved D glued
Oxford is a city with such a . viewing figures are likely to soar by up to 25%.(0) reputation that many who come here find themselves intimidated by the place and can't wait to leave. Thousands of T-shirts are printed with slogans .. on a sunny winter's morning say. allowing their talents to .
They study in order to update their job skills or for personal (5… At the heart of most courses is a (6) … of specially written and professionally printed textbooks and workbooks which students receive by post. early D. A. starting C. out
B. addition 13. fit B. means C. A. That is why the University encourages students to set (15… and run informal study groups themselves. struggle B. trust C. join 5. handed D. introduce 15. take C. speak D. studying at the Open University can be a (13) … because students have few opportunities to (14… each other. in
C. A. put D. joy D. present B.A. in (12) … . give B. The (9) … of these programmes is to develop and broaden the study experience. needed B. method B. challenge
6. route D. students are (7… to watch television programmes on the BBC network. They study at home and their academic performance is assessed by (3… of written examinations or project work. so that students do not have to (10) … only on the printed material they are sent. make 1. 0. obtaining 3. system 4. bring C. unit 7 . some courses also include audio and video cassettes and computer software. meet C. Students are (11) … with all the notes and books they need and. believe B. A. the opportunity of studying and (2… a university diploma or degree. confide D. end C. hoped C. assist C. club B. off
.A. A. However. attend D. 0 A mind-blowing 1 A fish 2 A backdrop 3 A flying 4 A pretend 5 A wheel 6 A backwater 7 A froth 8 A pavilion 9 A flourish 10 A peak 11 A package 12 A level-headed 13 A push 14 A cart 15 A step
B clear-headed B duck B curtain B gliding B act B engine B stream B cream B dressing room B open B abattoir B section B hot-headed B pull B wheel B position
C backhanded C boat C scene C floating C dissemble C spoke C tributary C fat C wings C spread C dead-end C province C hot-blooded C grind C engine Celevation
D broken-hearted D swimmer D screen D swimming D produce D hub D watershed D caviar D foyer D float D fast-lane D parcel D kind-hearted D roughage D boat D ascent
THE OPEN UNIVERSITY
The Open University was created in 1968 to (0) … people who cannot afford to (1) … regular courses of study. A. delight B. pressure D. provided B. let D. fight 14. posted C. rely 11 A. A. particular B. A. reason B. initial B. heap D. A. A. satisfaction C. set C. managing B. battle C. reaching D. first 9. expected 8. which are usually broadcast in the (8) … hours of the morning. aim D. know B. considered D. On many of the courses. A. Most Open University students (4) … in study while also holding down a job or coping with a busy home life. A. return D. up
D. A.to fame and fortune. claiming C. advance C. apply 2. cause 10 . given 12.
.. Anyone D..46
ACTION SCENES IN FILMS
Modern cinema audiences expect to see plenty of thrilling scenes in action films..A.A.we deserve.. At an early (6)...A. known C... To do their own stunts. you have to be extremely (4)..A......... Everyone B..A. Once day we’ll get that (15). or feel aggrieved that nobody has yet recognized their leadership (10). displayed 3. permit D. Actors like to become (12).. and I can’t say I (6).. remarked B.A.. what about farmers? it is the conservation in the farmyard that keeps them captivated by the job? Work is power and a sense of status say those (9). 1....... in for the actors. get C. are usually (2).. and open that little shop we always dreamed of. although D. It’s the company of other people perhaps.. arranged C.. put D.A.. despite B. called 8.... or put it to others in moment of weakness or confidentiality.... but without the recent progress in safety equipment. given C.. drawn D. frontiers D. work B. actors need to be good athletes.. regards 11... but until then at least we have something to do..A...as stunts.....well done.. the family or the taxman.. plain C.up.. minute C.. And we are so busy doing it that we won’t have time to wonder why....... referred D. Someone C. I suspect...A... straight D.A. and tell the boss what we really think.. against C. the wishes of the director. can crash a car... the film would (15). performed B. ends C.. but if that is the (8). interests B..... he will usually only do this in the (10).. go
Have you ever asked yourself what you are working for? If you have ever had the time to (1).the same as I staggered along the swaying gangway trying to (7). sometimes stopping (5).. connected B.. since stuntmen don’t have to (11). some say with a smile.. led B. These scenes. insurance companies would never (13). named 2.. direct D... by stuntmen who are specially trained to do dangerous things safely. in all the important aspects of the character they are playing. of safety.. Or it’s the satisfaction of (4).out tickets without falling over into someone’s lap... or spend more time in the garden.... strict 6... to work out the action scenes and form a team. Many famous actors like to do the dangerous parts themselves. in front of the camera and film crew. part D.. hoping for something to (12).the world.. or go (14). purposes D. He is the only person who can go (8)..
..A.. in the production. fall C..Or we can blame it all on someone else... through D. pull D. an expert stuntman is (7)..... you (2).... stage 7.... over B.A.. fulfilled D. right B... this taboo question... come B..... the sense of achievement behind the clinching of an important (5). If they were to be hurt. involved D......... but if you are shooting a film. We’ll win the pools. allow B.A. admit 14.... needs C... detailed B...... exact C. (3).A.well have heard some or all of the (3). which produces better shots..... We’ll scrape together the (13)... and say this under my (11)..... let C. which are (1). taken C. stand 12. limits B.. but they must also be sensible and know their (14). have either attained these elusive goals.. to a sudden halt. affected 13.. (9). period B... I worked as a bus conductor once.A. as if explaining something to a small child.... them take the risk. across 9... No one 4. Micawber lived. so C.. that most of us work rather as
Mr. It’s the money of course. precise 5. borders 15... otherwise 10..
requirements D.remind my company about it. rest B.. will C. money D.. however. who C. A. presently 2. qualities 11. My own parents seem to (10) .. now and again D. the 8. I admit that there are a lot of retired people (8) …but I am not sure that all of them are dashing about learning hang-gliding or sailing single-handed (9) . can B. salary
. opportunities B. demand D. rest C. longer B. people D. enjoyed 7. survived B.. A. lifeline C. now C. A.. A. turn B. felt D. promotion
According to a magazine article I read recently. cost of living 15. former D.. nowadays C. pension B. to D. at the moment B.. over B. position B. live in an age of increasing leisure. resources 14. would 12.. A. at this time D. the whole thing is another one of (7) . to D. move 13. a work 5.. latter D. make 8. A. but the working week is becoming shorter and the opportunities for (4) . A. A. leisure C.. breath C. had C. a job B. into D. age with their taste for enjoyment and even adventure relatively (3) . issue C. might 3.. line B. meditate B..to spend less time travelling to work or may even be working from home. concern 7. A. but perhaps I just have to wait until I get my (15) .up at rain-swept platforms. following C. a task C. A. A.. A. their B. pressure D... the C. property C. must B. give D. intact D. into C. wished B. deal 6. have C. status B. the time.. at 13.. I haven't noticed any dramatic improvements in my (14) . 1.1. A. A. vocation
D. later C. third D. free C. in our days 9. insurance D. most of their time gazing at the television. A. livelihood D.. people 10. consider C. might D. A. oath 12. job C. What I can't understand. A.are becoming greater and greater all the time... end D. question C. I seem to be working longer and longer hours (12) ... suspicion B. launch D. to B.. for B. show C.the world. lifestyle B. is who these people are. round 15. engagement D. use B. one 9.. round 10. expect C. imagine B. A. use 6. have 11. A.. A. these C. A. in these times B. A. tend B. through C. A. take C. turn B. A. retirement C. over B.. this 5. Not only are more and more people reaching (2) . set D. those B.. retirement 3. keep 14. A... all D.. The little leisure time I have is eaten into by sitting in the traffic jams or waiting for trains to (13) . case B. propose 2. A. A. station
C. we (1) . As far as I can (6) . ambition
B. below 4. hoped C. some D. I wish someone (11) . A. Not to mention the fact that people (5) .. A. journalistic fictions. present 4. should D.. spend D.either. ease C.. And as for the shorter working week.. tell D. an effort D. A..
this B. are said to be growing in number by 25% a year. them D. at leasta quarter of China's (5)….Over the past thirty years or so. personal pensions. health care. raised 10 A. part of the fee from a worker's pay. A. and subsequent televised concerts. 1. (11) … pensions are concerned. swim and what have you. in the days when all industry was(1)…by the state. Foreign companies increasingly (6)…housing in order to attract the workers they want. Take housing. own
THE NEW CHINA
All is not well in the state of China. avoid B. A. with workers (12)… about two percent of their income.. used 5 A.
. perhaps on the street or at church. ability C. pay D. As to health care. The problems were becoming hard to (7) …. This was perhaps a reflection of the fact that young people felt increasingly concerned about the obvious differences between (6) …in Europe and the United States. raising 6 A. and of music in particular but also differed in style from other events. education and a pension. being B. The first hint of what was to become the most successful means of (5) …. By the end of the next decade. bought through life insurance companies. but they could be sure of a house or flat. donated B. where the artists donated their time and talent and the proceeds from sales went to a good cause..Some even (10)… private medical insurance. further D. famine B. underdeveloped C. sponsored B. At the beginning of this period.. the methods used for collecting money from the public to (1) …the developing world have changed out of all recognition. and which also began to sell articles manufactured in the developing world in projects set up by the parent charity. define D. After all. it would have been common to put (2) ….children. power 9 . them D. mass B. required D. freed C. Most people who (0)…an interest in China know that. you can afford something for the world's (10) ….to run. the workers had their basic needs takencare of. if you have enough money to buy CDs and a stereo player. handed in C. as is happening now with the (3)…of private industry and the end of the welfare state? The trend is clear. to guarantee a fair income to local people. Many towns are experimenting with pooled pension funds from all businesses. The 1960s saw the development of shops which sold secondhand goods. Under the old system. state firms (9). This (13)… well in places with lots of young people and high growth. or to receive a small ‘flag’ to wear in the lapel. fewer than half the workers arenow (4)… by the state. China will need to look for ways of replacing state welfare. and that in most of Africa and Asia. and this concern was reflected in songs besides being clearly shown on television. money C. and collected money from friends and relatives according to how far or long they managed to keep going. life C. but a feeling of frustration was building up. loaned B. When this happens. loan 2.. (3) …. if a state worker needed (8). cycle. and the increasing awareness among the population that something must be done. state and private.in a collecting box. style D. But what happens when the bowl breaks.of the media. aid C. They did not (2)…much. pooling means more people getting less. A. finance B. Today.by the public. In some provinces. lifestyles 7 A. borrowing B.money was the charity record. reflected the (8) …. the hospital simply sent the bill to his factory. This was the 'iron rice-bowl'. The next development was probably the charity 'event'. invited C. funds 3 A. pledged D. but in areas of declining economy. the end of free medicine is already (7)… . awarded 4 A. starving D. understand C.will be privately or self employed. People phoned up in their thousands on the day and (9)… money by quoting their credit card numbers. Why was so little being done? The huge success of Band Aid. implement 8. offered D. A. such C. along with the gravity of the problems faced. in which participants were (4) .
advancing A. Today there are 44. opinion
. 6. normal B. the first sign of test we take. fetched A. accord A. produce D.the whole (15)… of the tests is that they're against the clock. speak B. held A. They find out how much knowledge we have (2)…. 15. make A. sophisticated C. concern A. appointed A. get B. forward B. All the questions are straightforward and most people can answer them if (14)… enough time. on A. 4. 5. natural A. Anyone from the age of six can (13)… the tests. 3.000 in Britain and 100. count C. Although scientists are now preparing (6)…computer technology that will be able to 'read' our brains. reason B.Taken with China's other problems . take C. 11.it is not surprising that some people (15)…the coming of private enterprise as a mixed blessing. (7)…IQ tests are still the most popular ways of measuring intelligence. But do they realty show how intelligent we are? After all. to B. how A.(14)…inflation. at D. 7. answer C.A person's IQ is their intelligence (8)… it is measured by this special test. 13. association D. an organization that was founded in England in 1946. 0 A take B make C play D bring 1 A run B held C ruled D governed 2 A spend B gain C earn D pay 3 A growth B inflation C outburst D addition 4 A overtaken B used C requested D employed 5 A staff B workforce C personnel D manpower 6 A propose B offer C invite D suggest 7 A at present B on time C in sight D undersuspicion 8 A health B cure C remedy D treatment 9 A deduct B reduce C expect D discharge 10 A speak for B insist on C hold with D take in 11 A Although B As long as C Also D As far as 12 A combining B withdrawing C contributing D receiving 13 A works B makes C does D comes 14 A wide B high C fast D big 15 A regret B recall C regard D respect
School exams are. relation C. reply B. 8. enormously B. attached C.000 worldwide (11. kept C. provided D. mainly A. react D.300 members in Britain. at now A. common D. upper D. had B.)… in the US. caught D. By 1976 it (10)… 1. belonged D. run. People taking the test are judged in (12)… to an average score of 100. had B. 12. A. C. regard B. generally (1)…. 1. highly C. spoken A. for the time being B. considerably D. The most common IQ tests are (9)… by Mensa. so D. commanded B. 9. isn't it a fact that some people who are very successful academically don't have any (3)… sense? Intelligence is a speed (4)…which we can understand and (5)… to new situations and it is usually tested by logic puzzles. in speech D. and those who score over 148 are entitled to join Mensa. sharp C. as C. 2. at the time C. in C. rising unemployment and an increasing crime rate in the big cities . 14. given A.. let C. 10. But that's the problem. that B. matter D. now and then D. steered D. speaking C. acquired B.
they are probably unable to do anything at all. and two had been burgled five times. Even if my credit card of the future will be able to tell me exactly how much spending (9)… I have left in the computer files. Apparently.52
Ours is a vanishing world.. (4)… . and probably wouldn't know what to do with a Picasso. To put the record (3)… . Unless there is definite evidence. nothing will be able to replace the (10)… pleasure I gained from rattling the coins in my money. money as we(2)… it will probably (3)…to exist in technologically advanced countries. as hard-up young people who need a few pounds and some excitement. even if it lights up and plays a happy (or sad) tune at the same time.box. Three of them are students.. and you'll be sure to find being burgled fairly high on the (1) . and thank you politely. You won't have to dig (5)… in your pockets for change. This may have something to do with the fact that the (6) … burglar is in his (or her) late teens. So it should come (1) . where the burglars' (15)… included the family's pet poodle. And the shop of the future will be linked directly to the network of banking computers. even food from the freezer. it seems. (4) …Professor Gerry Montague of the Institute for Economic Reform.An informal survey I (2)… among friends at a party last week revealed that eight of them had had their homes broken into more than twice. I have felt (7)… attached to it. one in which the familiar is constantly disappearing and technological change is often difficult to cope with.no surprise to most of us to hear that yet another part of everyday lifeis about to go for ever. So no more instances of credit card (6)… But I am afraid that I shall miss money. none of my friends owns valuable paintings or a sideboard full of family silverware. And alarms or special locks don't (13)…to help either. You may not even have a number for your account as such. and kept it in a money-box. the familiar coins and banknotes will soon be replaced entirely by credit cards of various kinds. the police have no luck (12)… any of the stolen goods. the video. (5) the theft of easily transportable items – the television. Not that this makes having your house (9)… upside down and your favourite things stolen any easier to (10)…In most (11)… . 1) A rank 2) A called up 3) A straight 4) A as well B rating B held with B right B however C grade C set about C correct C in fact D list D carried out D steady D at any rate Din D believe D conclude D Owing to D deep D fraud D largely D gold D power D downright
. The most typical burglary. 1) A with B as C to 2) A have B see C know 3) A cease B stop C fail 4) A With reference to B Further to C According to 5) Afar B long C tall 6) A deceit B trickery C pretence 7) A heavily B strongly C widely 8) A cash B coins C money 9) A capacity B potential C capability 10) A sheer B complete C entire 53 Ask most people for their Top Ten fears.. (7)… selling a walkman or a vacuum cleaner is a much easier (8)… They are perhaps not so much professional criminals. as the computer may by then be able to read your handprint. within the next decade. The assistant will simply key in your bank account code number and the amount you have spent.. The only advice my friends could (14)… was 'Never live on the ground floor' and 'Keep two or three very fierce dogs'. ever since I received my first pocket (8)… when I was five. which reminded me of a case I read about.
and the buildings aresandwiched between a busy square and the river. The first obvious fact is that the chamber is very rarely full. Of course. television does not follow the work of committees.You have only to learn that the members (3)… to each other as 'TheHonourable Member to (4) … the picture of a dignified gentlemen's club. telling jokes to their neighbour. But the (10)…impression that voters receive of the workings of government is not a good one. what in fact (8)…when bills are discussed andquestions are asked. the Houses of Parliament look impressive. who are(7)…the electorate. over the past fewyears first radio. This is presumably why members (14)… for so long the efforts of the BBC to (15)… parliamentary matters on television. or shouting like badly-behaved schoolchildren. some of whom are quite clearly asleep. is clearly behind the (12)…and seems to be (13)…with bores and comedians. have shown the (6)…public. and now television. which is a second worrying point. Sadly.The architecture gives the place a traditional look. There is not enough room for them all in the chamber in any (9)… . making them a (2)… between the country house of an eccentric duke and a Victorian railway station.5) A means 6) A common 7) A whereas 8) A concern 9) A put 10) A submit 11) A examples 12) A taking 13) A sound 14) A come up with 15) A takings
B involves B medium B as yet B event B turned B receive B cases B making B look B make do with B profit
C affects C average C much as C situation C stood C accept C items C tracking C show C go through with C loot
D covers D middle D as soon as D matter D pulled D admit D occasions D recovering D seem D get off with D receipts
Viewed from the outside (1) ... and there may be only a handful of members present. which are the small discussion groups that do most of the real work of the House. To put it (11)… parliament looks disorganised. 1) A likewise 2) A mixture 3) A call 4) A finalise 5) A take away 6) A average 7) A after all 8) A comes up 9) A point 10) A total 11) A bluntly 12) A ages 13) A full 14) A prevented 15) A circulate B at least B combination B refer B end B bring about B ordinary B anyway B turns up B way B broad B shortly B times B filled B checked B beam C nevertheless C cross C speak C conclude C make up C normal C even C goes on C matter C overall C directly C moments C composed C defied C spread D as well D match D submit D complete D set in D general D furthermore D lets on D case D comprehensive D basically D years D comprised D resisted D broadcast
. with of course a few ladies to (5)…the numbers.
(4). not blow'. called 'spring cleaning' when the furniture was moved aside.
Until about 250 years ago..it was a fact of life.an exhausting and messy process. hygiene' appeared in households.. To (0)………. a dozen male Northern fur seals are on an island off south-western Alaska. The seals’ food supply may be 9 . Some people have suggested that the decline can be 11to entanglement in fishing nets. hung on ropes and had the dust . . for reasons that are 4 because the harvests by then tended to be fairly small.. Cleaning often consisted of an annual ...(7).(2). as they do now .(9). Carpets and rugs were taken outside..... the coveted prize during the huge commercial sea harvests that were legal here in the Bering Sea through the early 20th century. and all the linen products in the house were cleaned..(6).(5). became available to make homes cleaner. The industrial revolution brought about a major change .
.which can weigh up to 270 kilograms .. which no longer have as many great whales to eat because of harvesting of those mammals. fighting for territory on the rocks.'make it suck.have an important and symbolic 2 in Alaska’s history. one of which was the vacuum cleaner. households did not take dirt as . but scientists say they doubt that this alone could 12 the recent population decline.as new . or another species may be 10 on the seals ..(3).. and that was that.1 million.. 1 A middle B centre C inside D focus 2 A location B situation C place D spot 3 A drove B inspired C motivated D set 4 A unclear B unsure C unsettled D undecided 5 A speed B pace C scale D rate 6 A top B summit C crest D high 7 A long B far C on D forth 8 A flourish B mushroom C abound D escalate 9 A thinner B tighter C slimmer D scarcer 10 A preying B devouring C hounding D ravaging 11 A designated B attributed C stipulated D consigned 12 A reason with B answer to C account for D match up
56 THE VACUUM CLEANER. But lately it has been falling drastically. a corresponding interest in '. of further products. their numbers have fallen to about 1. out of them . and offered a bit of advice that was to become . was once so valuable it 3 Alaska’s economy.55 Example: A noticeB regardC look atD stare at 0 A B C D DISAPPEARING ALASKAN SEALS On a winter afternoon. So 7 no one has been able to establish a precise cause for this. has it that when one of the first vacuum cleaners was demonstrated. From a 6 of more than 2 million in Alaska in 1948.. although theories 8 . the seal population began a slow decline.perhaps killer whales. to the future evolution of the product .(1).. Starting in the 1950s. declining at an alarming 5 of 6 per cent a year since 1998. This in turn led to the . .(8).. Their soft and luxurious fur. them. a kindly scientist took the proud inventor... it’s hard to imagine that they are at the1of a baffling scientific mystery: why is this species beginning to disappear? These seals ..
finding A.were born in the 1920s.. give A. Unfortunately. to become portable that vacuum cleaners became common household items.. a 13. The household . a 3. which have to include one (6)…of fruit and one of vegetables. investigated
. piece A. that vacuum cleaners suck up is mostly dead skin cells . 6. provide B. schools have to (2)……meals at lunchtime.(14). shown C. b 6.(12).(10).. bowl C. and parents are the only ones who can (15)…it. c 4. factor D. A much smaller proportion comes from dust and soil carried into the house from . Lunchboxes (7) … by researchers contained sweet drinks. Children can (3)……to bring their own food or have lunch at the school canteen. want C. portion B.(11). informed A. appropriately A. d 14. 5. crisps and chocolate bars. A.. found ©. Children can easily develop bad eating (14)…. told B. procedures B.
1 A importantly 2 A ritual 3 A cleaned 4 A products 5 A house 6 A fabrication 7 A Story 8 A away 9 A standard 10 A laborious 11 A scientific 12 Abrands 13 A grit 14 A lose 15 A external
B crucially B result B taken B concepts B domestic B appearing B Epic B aside Bcrucial B hard B forward B marks B rubbish B outgrow B outside
C considerately C resolution C beaten C ideals C homely C recreation C Legend C aback C regular C nefarious C technological C makes C refuse C omit C beyond
D seriously D scrub D sucked D developments D internal D development D Tale D along D esteemed D straining D advanced D trademarks D dirt D shed D indoors
1. but it can remind them of the (12)… value of milk. choose D..humans . d 2. kilo D.. a dairy item and starchy food like bread or pasta. 3. d 7.The first vacuum cleaners appeared in the 1860s in the United States. properly B. make C.. d 12. fruit and vegetables. standards A. . a 11. figure C. The research will provide a better (9)… of why the ercentage of overweight students in Britain has (10)… in the last decade. It was only when electric motors had become sufficiently . Small changes in their children’s diet can (13)… their future health. probably C. b 10. Children (8)…. prefer A. including Electrolux and Hoover . a 5. of this research is that school meals are much ealthier than lunches prepared by parents. 2. One shocking (4)…. 4. do D. said D. taken D. ways D. 0... examined B. In Britain. possibly D.at this age. number B. as well as meat. the government can not (11)…parents. 7.twice as much sugar as they should at lunchtime. conditions C..(15).. b 9. They were operated by hand pumps and were almost as . There are strict (5)… for the preparation of school meals. Most of today's major .(13).. b 57
Research has (0) … that over half the children in Britain who take their own lunches to school do not eat (1)…in the middle of the day... c 8. as spring cleaning. 1. millions of cells every day. d 15. manage B.
. occupation 4. If one is impolite or (6) … in these situations. Equally. adjusting C. destroy C. fitting D. plunging D. reduce C. contain B. consume C. A. A. expanded B.delay
1b 2b 3d 4a 5 a6 b 7a 8c 9c 10a 11a 12 a 13 d 14 d 15a 58
Scientists used to believe that our 24-hour cycle sleeping and walking was … (1) entirely by external factors. support D. our court system must punish people who disregard these formal rules. healthy
C. fall B. Shift workers are known to run a higher-than-average … (9) of having a number of health problems and the disruption of … (10) body rhythms is one possible explanation for this 1. operation B. A. Because illegal behavior generally harms other individuals or (4) … at large.8. danger C. A. which can greatly disturb their lives and even threaten their health. lessen D. made 8. good
13. added D. A. A. poor work performance and even accidents can all be … (7) or aggravated by inaccurate body clocks. nearly 5. decide
D. in C. other people often consider the (7) … immature and insensitive. Some people’s body clocks … (6) poorer time than others. define
B. affect D. understanding C. (2) … . suiting 9. A. gearing up for the day. But they have now established that there is a daily rhythm to a wide range of biological function – including temperature. steered C. altering B. prevent
B. styles B. or working in an office. take 9. activity C. formed C. A. preserve 7. hold C. written rules are often laws. often called "manners" or "etiquette" describe correct and incorrect (5) … in such situations as eating in a restaurant going on a date . common B. our body temperature starts to rise …(4) dawn. digestion and mental (3) … . risk B. setting 3. normal D. A. A.which are regulated internally by a special time-keeping mechanism within the brain. subtract 6. Insomnia. process D. behaviours 15. A. Individuals who (3) … laws may be fined or put in jail. around D. A. threat D. view 10. which (1) … how people act with each other. predict B. for example. keep B. attitudes C. descending B. increased 11. and they control how we drive. damage 14. severe problems can result from the difficulties of … (8) to different time zones and working by night instead of by day. A. used 59 Every nation has a set of rules. tell D. A. conducted B. fatigue. managed 2. The main function of this “ body clock” is to anticipate and prepare for external changes so that. consist D. and begin to …(5) in the early evening. either written or unwritten. instruct B. Informal rules. governed D. A. winding us down for sleep. depression. A. A. positive
D. they thought. beside B. opinion D. put B. conditional C. caused D. extended C. habits D. The most notable of these. operate a business or run a government. diving C. knowledge B. criticize 12. A. were the rising and … (2) of the sun. order C. hazard 10.
Answer : 1. D 8. rightly B. displease C. forces 2.000 road accidents in Michigan involving drivers aged over 55 showed that in eight out of ten (1) … it was a driver over the age of 71 who had (2) … a collision by failing to yield. While laws protect. turning carelessly or changing lanes.
1. For example. band 5. inequality D. More recently. argues D. the "unofficial" rules of (15) … help us to show friendliness and kindness toward each other.. displace 4. Older drivers are obviously more (3)… to injury in vehicle crashes. A. A
The point at which physical decline with age begins adversely to affect a driver’s capability has not yet been thoroughly studied. a new law was considered necessary to reflect that change. creative B. B
2. us from one another. Both laws and manners help a society run smoothly. A 11. Important C. misbehaves 7. independent C. C 14. prevented C. should 15. decides C. stopped B. many people who were dissatisfied with the imbalance between the rights of men and women worked hard to pass the Equal Rights Amendment. impossible B. behavior D. behavior D. A. will B. A 13. really D. as well as being a potential higher (4) … through their own driving (5)… Reaction (6)… in an emergency involves many different physical (7) … such as the production of the nerve impulse. B 12. behavior
C. perception of the signal. As women became more (12) … and took on new roles. Some of these (9) … more than others with age. or D. Laws seek to prevent (13) … and protect the rights of citizens. A unable 12. A legally 9. disrespect 14. disobey D. prohibited D. A. injustice C. society C. Formal 3. A. correctly C. treatment C. liar D. A nation without laws (14) … be unstable. but the overall effect increases the time it takes to respond for more (10) … drivers. A. This law. might C. offender B.
. A. A. free D. had to be changed because the government found it (11) … to force people to drink only nonalcoholic beverages. would D. the selling of alcohol was (10) … by the 18th Amendment to the Constitution. Decent D. and B. B 6. disrepute B. A. D
5. nor C. doer C.although we can strongly disapprove of such misconduct. (8) …of response and transmission to the muscles. Solemn B. thought B. A. determines B. both change as society develops. misunderstands C. however. disrepute B. all citizens would need to actively distrust everyone. etiquette
B. A not 10. D 15. eating
D. A survey of more than 3. A. D 10. rich 13. A breaker 8. C 9. Neither laws (9) . in the early twentieth century. action 6. violates B. illegal D. we cannot (8) … punish someone for simply being inconsiderate or unpleasant. group D. imbalance B. C
3. A discouraged 11. unlikely C. A 7. C
4. manners are inflexible. Both laws and manners are important to society.
And in wet weather (10) ... period 7. they simply stopheat escaping. choice 9. Just as important is the need to protect your neck from the effects of (7) .. A... as fifty to sixty percent of your body's heat is lost through the head and neck. sunburnt. reduce C. cases C. heat all the time. system D.. avoided 3.mature
B. A. section C. A. adequately in most conditions In cold climates. events 8. practice 6. If you prefer a baseball cap. A...sunlight.. preference D. process C. factors C. deteriorate B.. activity B. activated D.. degree 5. attempts D. prevented B. A. Clearly
this heat loss needs to be prevented. elderly
Don't forget your hat
An important point to remember if you like spending time out in the (0) .. parts B. the hood usually does not. D.. and the brim of your hat will do this. suggestion B. likely 4. wherever you're planning to go out and (1) . 0A open B free C clear D wide 1 A around B about C along D above 2 A job B task C role D duty 3 A giving away B sending out C dropping off D running down 4 A soon B long C well D much 5 A according B regarding C depending D relating 6 A maintain B stay C hold D keep 7 A sharp B keen C bright Ddeep 8 A consider B recommend C advise D suggest 9 A suffering B going C having Dgetting 10 A occasions B positions C cases D conditions 11 A alter B switch C turn D spin 12 A instead of B whereas C rather than D thereby
Keys 1. experience C. but it's important to remember that hats don't actually (6) .. (5) .. Surprisingly. chance B. A.. a single waterproof hat with a brim will do the (2) .your head. 1c 2a 3d 4b 5c 6a 7c 8d 9c
10a 11c 12b 13d 14d 15c
. (8) . on which scientist you believe.. improve 10... That's why a hat is a good investment. the hat goes withyou.. the problem is that the head is (3) . factor C. common D. hats are often more practical than pulling up the hoodof your waterproof coat because when you (11) .. ancient
C.you warm. possible C. behaviour D. air is that the human head doesn't work very well outdoors if it becomes too hot... users 2. forms. time B. caused C.1. A... A. points B. older
D. cold or wet.A. susceptible B.. A. As (4) . (12) ..buying one that has a drop down 'tail' at the back to stop your neck (9) . risk D. increase D.
1c 2c 34. 1c 2d 18. 1b 2d 28. 1c 2b 38. 1B 2b 33. 1b 2b
3c 3a 3d 3a 3d 3b 3a 3a 3d 3c 3a 3a 3b 3a 3d 3b 3a 3b 3b 3d 3b 3a 3c 3d 3c 3a 3b 3c 3a 3b 3a 3b 3a 3d 3a 3c 3a 3d 3a
4d 4c 4c 4d 4b 4d 4c 4c 4b 4d 4d 4c 4c 4b 4b 4c 4d 4a 4b 4a 4d 4b 4a 4a 4a 4b 4d 4a 4b 4d 4d 4d 4c 4a 4d 4b 4c 4c 4d
5a 5a 5d 5a 5b 5a 5b 5d 5c 5a 5a 5a 5d 5b 5c 5b 5b 5d 5c 5a 5a 5c 5c 5c 5a 5c 5c 5d 5a 5c 5a 5c 5c 5a 5d 5d 5b 5a 5b
6b 6c 6d 6c 6a 6c 6d 6c 6a 6c 6a 6d 6a 6d 6b 6d 6b 6c 6a 6b 6b 6b 6b 6a 6a 6a 6d 6d 6d 6d 6c 6d 6d 6d 6d 6a 6d 6b 6a
7b 7a 7a 7d 7d 7b 7c 7d 7c 7b 7c 7a 7a 7b 7c 7a 7c 7c 7d 7a 7d 7d 7c 7d 7a 7b 7b 7c 7c 7b 7a 7b 7a 7b 7b 7b 7c 7a 7b
8d 8a 8b 8c 8c 8a 8c 8b 8b 8c 8b 8c 8a 8a 8b 8b 8d 8a 8a 8d 8b 8c 8d 8b 8a 8b 8c 8b 8d 8c 8b 8c 8a 8b 8c 8d 8d 8b 8d
9d 9a 9a 9a 9c 9b 9d 9a 9a 9b 9c 9a 9c 9c 9d 9c 9a 9a 9c 9b 9d 9a 9a 9c 9c 9d 9d 9b 9b 9d 9d 9d 9b 9c 9a 9a 9a 9d 9b
10b 10d 10c 10c 10c 10c 10a 10d 10b 10c 10a 10b 10a 10d 10b 10d 10b 10d 10d 10a 10a 10d 10b 10a 10a 10b 10d 10a 10d 10a 10c 10a 10c 10c 10c 10b 10b 10a 10c
11c 11b 11a 11a 11a 11d 11a 11d 11a 11a 11b 11d 11b 11c 11c 11c 11d 11d 11b 11b 11b 11b 11d
12b 12c 12c 12b 12b 12c 12b 12b 12d 12a 12d 12c 12a 12d 12b 12b 12d 12b 12a 12d 12c 12b 12b
13d 14c 15a 13d 14a 15c 13b 14d 15a
13c 14a 15a
13d 13a 13d 13d 13c 13b 13c 13c 13c 13d 13b
14b 14c 14a 14a 14a 14a 14d 14a 14a 14c 14d
15a 15b 15b 15b 15d 15c 15a 15b 15c 15a 15c
11b 11a 11d 11a 11d 11d 11d 11b 11d 11d 11c 11a 11c
12a 12d 12b 12a 12a 12b 12a 12d 12d 12c 12c 12d 12c
13c 14c 15d
13c 13b 13a 13d 13c 13d
14a 14c 14b 14a 14c 14b
15d 15d 15c 15b 15b 15c
. 1d 2c 29. 1b 2d 4. 1a 2c 20. 1d 2a 14. 1c 2b 19. 1a 2b 17. 1c 2b 23. 1c 2c 22. 1c 2d 16. 1b 2d 35. 1c 2b 24. 1d 2b 8. 1c 2a 11. 1c 2a 21.2. 1a 2a 12. 1c 2b 26. 1a 2d 3. 1b 2c 10. 1b 2b 27. 1a 2b 30 1C 2d 31. 1b 2b 39. 1d 2b 25. 1b 2d 13. 1b 2d 9. 1a 2b 40. 1d 2a 15. 1a 2a 5. 1c 2c 36. 1d 2b 37. 1c 2d 6. 1C 2c 32. 1a 2c 7.
48.41. 43. 51. 46. 42. 50. 45.
1a 1b 1a 1b 1c 1b 1a 1c 1b 1a 1c
2b 2a 2c 2a 2d 2a 2a 2a 2b 2c 2b
3b 3d 3d 3c 3b 3c 3c 3d 3a 3a 3d
4a 4b 4b 4a 4a 4d 4b 4c 4a 4d 4d
5c 5c 5b 5d 5b 5a 5a 5b 5d 5b 5d
6d 6a 6a 6a 6c 6d 6d 6d 6b 6b 6c
7d 7a 7a 7b 7a 7d 7d 7b 7a 7c 7b
8a 8c 8d 8c 8d 8b 8b 8c 8d 8d 8c
9c 9d 9a 9a 9d 9c 9c 9a 9c 9a 9c
10c 10a 10c 10d 10a 10a 10a 10d 10c 10b 10b
11b 11b 11c 11d 11b 11d 11c 11a
12b 12a 12a 12a 12a 12c 12b 12d
13d 13c 13d 13c 13b 13b 13d 13c
14a 14b 14c 14b 14c 14a 14a 14b
15d 15d 15d 15a 15c 15a 15d 15a
11d 12c 13a 14b 15c 11a 12c 13c 14a 15c
. 49. 44. 47.