You are on page 1of 38

3EE -203

A Lab Manual Of Power System Protection

U.V. PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING


DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING GANPAT VIDHYANAGAR KHERVA - 382 711

U.V.Patel College of Engineering

LABORATORY JOURNAL
M.TECH. SEMESTER II (E.E.) 3EE 203 power system protection
NAME : ROLL NO: BATCH:

U.V.PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING


GANPAT VIDHYANAGAR KHERVA 382 711 DIST. :- MEHSANA PHONE NO. :- (02762) 286805

U.V.Patel College of Engineering

U.V.PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING


GANPAT VIDHYANAGAR KHERVA 382 711 DIST. :- MEHSANA PHONE NO. :- (02762) 286805

C ERTIFI CAT E
This is to certify that Shree / Kum.

Roll No.

& Exam No.

Of

class

has satisfactorily Completed the course in

Within walls Of U.V.Patel College of Engineering, Kherva.


Date of submission Staff in charge

four

HEAD OF DEPARTMENT
U.V.Patel College of Engineering

INDEX
SR. NO. TITLE OF PRACTICAL
To study current transformer models and fault simulation To study the inrush phenomena when energizing a transformer
To perform parallel operation of two singlephase transformers To perform the Sumpners Test on Single Phase Transformer & obtain efficiency and regulation To obtain Two phase supply from Three phase supply. To perform load test on D.C. compound generator To perform load test on D.C. Series Generator. To perform the speed control of a D.C. Shunt Motor. To perform magnetization characteristics of shunt generator. To perform the internal and external characteristics of a DC shunt motor. To find the performance of 3 phase induction motor on load condition. To study the D.C. Motor Starter.

PAGE NO.

ST. COMP. MARKS/ DATE DATE GRADS

SIGN. OF STAFF

5 6 7 8

10

11 12

U.V.Patel College of Engineering

EXPERIMENT NO: 1
AIM: To study current transformer models and fault simulation. Objectives:
Understanding models related to fault simulation. Comparing different CT models.

Procedure:
T1.1 Create a new case by using either the Menu or Toolbar. A new case should appear in the Workspace settings entitled noname [psc]. Right-click on this Workspace settings entry and select Save As and give the case a name. NOTE: Do not use any spaces in the name! Create a folder called c:/PscadTraining/Faults. Save the case as case01.psc

T1.2 Open the main page of your new case. The single line diagram shown below is a part of a substation feeding a shunt reactor. The reactor is modeled in two parts to enable a fault at point B, inside the turns. The component data is as shown. (make the transformer losses zero to limit the number of nodes if using the student version)

U.V.Patel College of Engineering

SIMULATION CIRCUIT:
Station 115 kV bus

Short line
RL RRL #1 #2 0.005 0.1 115 kV,50 Hz Source Z+ = 1.1Ohms / 88 deg Z0 = 2 Ohms / 86 deg Ea
EL

Y-D Transformer Z = 8% Full load loss = 0.3% No load loss = 0.5% REACTORS Ir2 0.0125 B 0.0125

Station 13.8 kV bus

Ir1 A

RESULT:

Figure:1 dc offset present in load voltage

T1.3 Build the case in PSCAD and enter the component data.

T1.4 Plot the current IL and the voltage EL.

U.V.Patel College of Engineering

IL

T1.5 Use the fault component to simulate a phase A to ground fault at location A at 0.1s.

Timed Fault Logic

T1.6 Observe the fault curent, IL. What is the reason for the presence of the initial DC exponential component?

T1.7 What affects the rate of decay of the DC components. Change the resistance of the short line to 1 Ohm and observe the results.

Figure 2: line current during fault

T1.8 Does the instant of the fault inception have an effect on the DC offset.?

T1.9 What negative impacts can the DC offset have on the system protection.?

T1.10 Connect the phase A line current at point A to the CT model as shown below. The CT ratio is 5:400. The CT burden is 0.15 Ohms in series with 0.8mH. Plot the secondary current and the flux density.

U.V.Patel College of Engineering

IL1
Burden resistance 1 and 0.1 Ohms

T1.11 Increase the burden resistance to 4 Ohms and observe the results. Note the half cycle saturation effects due to the dc offset in the primary current.

Figure 3: current IL1 of C.T. 1

T1.12 The reactor is protected by a differential relay scheme. Use the 2-CT model in PSCAD to connect one phase of the reactor protection scheme.
Ir1 1 Ir2 1

T1.13 Verify the burden current in the differential CT connection for faults at A and B.

Figure 3: current Ir1 and Ir2 of 2-C.T. model

U.V.Patel College of Engineering

T1.14 Does the impedance of the connection leads have an effect on the results.? How is this impedance accounted for.? T1.15 Open the case ftdiff.psc. Check the performance of the differential relay during transformer energization.

Conclusion:

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Date of Completion:Signature of Faculty:-

U.V.Patel College of Engineering

EXPERIMENT: 2 AIM: To study the inrush phenomena when energizing a transformer.


Objective:
Learning about the transformer and breaker operation Creating inrush phenomena when energinzing a transformer Understanding plotting and control

Procedure:
Create a new case by using either the Menu or Toolbar. A new case should appear in the Workspace settings entitled noname [psc]. Right-click on this Workspace settings entry and select Save As and give the case a name. NOTE: Do not use any spaces in the name! Create a folder called c:/PscadTraining/Tutorial_01. Save the case as case01.psc T1.2 Open the main page of your new case. Build a case to study the inrush phenomena when energizing a transformer. The component data is as shown. The transformer is rated 66/12.47 kV.

RL
66 kV,60 Hz Source Z+ = 3.9Ohm s / 75.58 deg Z0 = 14.95 Ohm s / 80.46 deg

RRL

66 kV BUS
E_66

Ia

BRK

BRK Y-Y Transformer 7.5 MVA Z = 6.14 % Full load loss = 0.3% No load loss = 0.5% No load current 1 %

Timed Breaker Logic Open@t0

#1

Fig.1 Transformer Energizing Circuit

#2 1e6

U.V.Patel College of Engineering

T1.3 Plot the currents (Ia) and voltages (E_66) on the HV side of the transformer. Note: Ia and Ea contains the three waveforms of the three phases.

Fig.2 Basic steps to create a graph with a selected signal.

RESULT:

Figure:3 graph of Ia

U.V.Patel College of Engineering

Figure :4 graph of 66-kv Voltage

T1.4 The LV side of the transformer is not connected to a load or any other system equipment. The breaker is closed at 0.5 s to energize the transformer 66 kV side. Inrush is related to core saturation. Verify that saturation is included in the model used for this simulation. Ask your instructor to explain the large resistance connected to the HV side. Inrush current magnitude depends on the point on wave switching conditions. Use a manual switch to operate the breaker. Note the point on wave dependency of the inrush peak.
Main ... BRK_Control
C O

BRK

Fig.5 Two state switch attached to a control panel

.
U.V.Patel College of Engineering

Figure 6: current after operation of C.B.

Conclusion:

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Date of Completion:Signature of Faculty:-

U.V.Patel College of Engineering

EXPERIMENT No. 4
AIM: To Study Ferranti effect of Transmission Line for 400km. SPECIFICATIONS:
Sending End Transformer: Pri: 0-110-220V, Sec:220V, VA:1250 Receiving End Transformer: No. Of section: 5 each section: 80 kms Each Section : L=35 mH(5A max.) Resistance : R=2.6 Capacitance : C=1.6F Line Parameters: R=0.0325/km, L=0.4375mH/km, C=0.015F/km, 0.02F and 0.035F(Selectable) For 400kms: R=13, L=175mH, C=6F, 8F & 1.68F(Selectable) External Potential Transformers: Pri:440V, Sec:220V, VA:25VA-3 Nos.-external for meters External Potential Transformers: Pri:10A, Sec:5A, VA:5, CL.0.5- 3 Nos.-external for meters For OC Relay: Pri:5A, Sec:1A, 5VA, CL 0.5 FOR SENDING END POWER ANALYZER: SE1 PT: NIL CT: Pri 10A, Sec: 5A, VA: 5, CL: 0.5 MCBS Mains MCB: 20A, 2 Pole Control MCB: 2A Variac- Sending End: 6A Variac- Receiving End: 6A METERS:

U.V.Patel College of Engineering

Voltmeter- 1 No. 0-750VAC, Meco-SMP45S Ammeter- 1 No. 0-20A, Meco-SMP35S+ Time Interval Meter- 1 No. 0.01 sec to 9999 sec, TI103C- Selectron Power Analyzer- 4 Nos. Circutor- model: CVM-NRG-96-ITF-RS485C, AUX: 230V AC Push Button: Schneider 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. CB-1 ON/OFF- SENDING END CB-1 ON/OFF- RECEIVING END CB-3 ON/OFF- LOAD ACCEPT OR ACKNOWLEDGE FOR FAULT FAULT/RESET

INTRODUCTION: Ferranti Effect:


Ferranti Effect occurs in transmission lines which carry electricity from one place to another. The receiving end voltage will be more than the sending end voltage. This is called ferranti effect. It occurs in longer transmission lines due to the effect of Inductance and Capacitance. The longer transmission lines draw a sufficient amount of charging current during transmission. When this line is open circuited or lightly loaded, the reactive power supplied by the capacitors is combined with the voltage at the receiving end. Hence the voltage at the receiving end is higher than the sending end. This phenomenon can be explained with following reasonings: (1) Assume no load conditions:

( Reduces to

( )

( )

U.V.Patel College of Engineering

When x=l and Ir=0 At l=0 ( ) ( )

As l increases, the incident component of sending end voltage increases exponentially and turns the vector anti-clockwise through and angle I whereas the reflected part of sending end voltage decreases by the same amount and is rotated clockwise through the same angle I. The sum of these two components of sending end voltage gives a voltage which is smaller than Vr.

PROCEDURE:
1. Select initial length of line(say 400kms). 2. Start the supply. 3. Note down the sending end voltage Vs, sending end current Is and receiving end voltage Vr. 4. Reduce the voltage and disconnect the supply. 5. Decrease the length of line. 6. Repeat the steps 2-5.

RESULTS:
The experiment was carried out for line lengths of 400 Kmtransmission lines. In each case the voltage of sending end and receiving end for three phases were observed. The sending end and receiving end were tabulated.In every case it is observed that the value of voltage increases from sending endside to receiving end side at no load condition. Sending End Parameters Vs Is Cos 220.0 0.510 0.03 219.7 0.686 0.0 221.8 0.180 0.0 Receiving End Parameters Vr Ir Cos 233.5 0 0 90 237.9 0 0 90 253.9 0 0 90

C 0.6 0.8 1.4

91 90 90

CONCLUSION:
The over voltage can be confirmed due to ferranti effect along the transmission lineLength. Itoccurs when the line is energized but there is a very light load or the load is disconnected. The effect is due to the voltage drop across the line inductance being in phase with the sending end voltages. Therefore inductance is responsible for producing this phenomenon. The ferranti effect will be more pronounced the longer the line and the higher the voltage applied. From the knowledge of ferranti effect and by compensating this effect the temporary overvoltage in the transmission line can be reduced and thus the line can be protected.

U.V.Patel College of Engineering

U.V.Patel College of Engineering

EXPERIMENT No. 5
AIM: To study about the series compensation of a transmission line. SPECIFICATION:
Sending End Transformer: Pri: 0-110-220V, Sec:220V, VA:1250 Receiving End Transformer: No. Of section: 5 each section: 80 kms Each Section : L=35 mH(5A max.) Resistance : R=2.6 Capacitance : C=1.6F Line Parameters: R=0.0325/km, L=0.4375mH/km, C=0.015F/km, 0.02F and 0.035F(Selectable) For 400kms: R=13, L=175mH, C=6F, 8F & 1.68F(Selectable) Capacitor Selector Switch- 5 nos. 1 for each section POS1: C=0.6F POS2: C=0.8F POS3: C=1.68F Loading Units: RLC Unit-1: Variable Potentiometer: 1k, 100W Resistance Bank: @ 220V SW1: 5k/10W & 10k/5W SW2: 2k4/20W SW3: 1k2/40W SW4: 605E/80W SW5: 302E/160W Inductor Bank: @ 220V, 7.5VA to 112.5VA SW1: 7.5VA SW2: 15VA SW3: 15VA SW4: 30VA SW5: 45VA Capacitor Bank: SW1: 0.8F SW2: 1.2F SW3: 3.15F SW4: 6F SW5: 8F

RLC Unit-2: Variable Potentiometer: 1k, 100W

U.V.Patel College of Engineering

Resistance Bank: SW1: 2k/20W SW2: 969E/50W SW3: 484E/100W SW4: 242E/200W SW5: 141E/400W Inductor Bank: SW1: 15VA SW2: 30VA SW3: 60VA SW4: 60VA SW5: 10mH-unity pf Capacitor Bank: SW1: 1.2F SW2: 3.15F SW3: 6F SW4: 8F SW5: 12.5F External Potential Transformers: Pri:440V, Sec:220V, VA:25VA-3 Nos.-external for meters External Potential Transformers: Pri:10A, Sec:5A, VA:5, CL.0.5- 3 Nos.-external for meters Internal CT for Impedance Relay: Pri:7A, Sec:3.5A, VA:5, CL.0.5- (10A primary max.) 1 No. For OC Relay: Pri:5A, Sec:1A, 5VA, CL 0.5 FOR SENDING END POWER ANALYZER: SE1 PT: NIL CT: Pri 10A, Sec: 5A, VA: 5, CL: 0.5

MCBS Mains MCB: 20A, 2 Pole Control MCB: 2A Variac- Sending End: 6A Variac- Receiving End: 6A Output Voltage Selector Switch: 1 Pole 12 Way, 6A
U.V.Patel College of Engineering

All Toggle Switch: 15A All Connectors: BTI-15, Elcom Make Impedance Relay: High Voltage Make, Aux: 230V AC (-15%,+10%) Over Current Relay: L&T, CT Sec. 1A, Aux. 90-240V AC/DC METERS: Voltmeter- 1 No. 0-750VAC, Meco-SMP45S Ammeter- 1 No. 0-20A, Meco-SMP35S+ Time Interval Meter- 1 No. 0.01.1 sec to 9999 sec, TI103C- Selectron. Power Analyzer- 4 Nos. Circutor- model: CVM-NRG-96-ITF-RS485C, AUX: 230V AC (4.2VA, -15%, +10%), I/P: 240 Fault Switch- 2 Pole, 2Way, WO/O, 32A- Salzer Push Button: Schneider 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. CB-1 ON/OFF- SENDING END CB-1 ON/OFF- RECEIVING END CB-3 ON/OFF- LOAD ACCEPT OR ACKNOWLEDGE FOR FAULT FAULT/RESET

INTRODUCTION:
The line impedance, which consists of resistance and inductive reactance, limits line performance in several important ways:

The resistance causes real power (I2R) losses, and IR voltage drop. The inductive reactance causes reactive (I2X) losses and IX voltage drop. The inductive reactance limits the amount of power that can be transferred:

The series impedance, which consists of resistance and inductive reactance, limits line performance in several important ways:

The resistance causes real power (I2R) losses, and IR voltage drop. The inductive reactance causes reactive (I2X) losses and IX voltage drop. The inductive reactance limits the amount of power that can be transferred:

U.V.Patel College of Engineering

Since X is in the denominator, reducing the X increases the Pmax. Alternatively, reducing the X reduces the amount of voltage phase angle displacement required to achieve a certain power transfer. This tends to help improve the power system dynamic stability. Series compensation is most effective on the higher-voltage transmission lines (230 kV and above) because they have relatively high ratios of series X to series R; typically 7 to 20 or so. For example, the typical 345 kV line has an X/R ratio of about 10 and a 500 kV line has an X/R of about 18. Series capacitors are an important and valuable technique for improving the electrical performance of a line, and the power system of which it is a part. The reduction achieved in net series line impedance improves power system performance from the standpoint of both dynamic stability and voltage stability. Unlike shunt capacitors, series capacitors do not ordinarily need to be switched in or out in response to changes in power system conditions, and their reactive output is not dependent on bus voltage.

PROCEDURE:
Open circuit the receiving end. Adjust the sending-end voltage to 220V. Note the receiving-end voltage. Introduce the compensation equipment and adjust its L and C till the receiving end voltage also reached 220V. (Vs=Vr) Note the current taken by the compensator (which includes L and C in parallel ) and determine its Var rating and its ohmic value NOTE: METER DISPLAY WILL READ LAG = +SIGN, LEAD IS VE SIGN. LINE COMPENSATION AT NO LOAD USING L AND C, C=0.015MFD / KM SENDING END PARAMETERS.

U.V.Patel College of Engineering

U.V.Patel College of Engineering

EXPERIMENT No. 6
AIM: To determine the shunt compensation to counteract the voltage rises on no-load. SPECIFICATION:
Sending End Transformer: Pri: 0-110-220V, Sec:220V, VA:1250 Receiving End Transformer: No. Of section: 5 each section: 80 kms Each Section : L=35 mH(5A max.) Resistance : R=2.6 Capacitance : C=1.6F Line Parameters: R=0.0325/km, L=0.4375mH/km, C=0.015F/km, 0.02F and 0.035F(Selectable) For 400kms: R=13, L=175mH, C=6F, 8F & 1.68F(Selectable) Capacitor Selector Switch- 5 nos. 1 for each section POS1: C=0.6F POS2: C=0.8F POS3: C=1.68F Loading Units: RLC Unit-1: Variable Potentiometer: 1k, 100W Resistance Bank: @ 220V SW1: 5k/10W & 10k/5W SW2: 2k4/20W SW3: 1k2/40W SW4: 605E/80W SW5: 302E/160W Inductor Bank: @ 220V, 7.5VA to 112.5VA SW1: 7.5VA SW2: 15VA SW3: 15VA SW4: 30VA SW5: 45VA Capacitor Bank: SW1: 0.8F SW2: 1.2F SW3: 3.15F SW4: 6F SW5: 8F

RLC Unit-2: Variable Potentiometer: 1k, 100W

U.V.Patel College of Engineering

Resistance Bank: SW1: 2k/20W SW2: 969E/50W SW3: 484E/100W SW4: 242E/200W SW5: 141E/400W Inductor Bank: SW1: 15VA SW2: 30VA SW3: 60VA SW4: 60VA SW5: 10mH-unity pf Capacitor Bank: SW1: 1.2F SW2: 3.15F SW3: 6F SW4: 8F SW5: 12.5F External Potential Transformers: Pri:440V, Sec:220V, VA:25VA-3 Nos.-external for meters External Potential Transformers: Pri:10A, Sec:5A, VA:5, CL.0.5- 3 Nos.-external for meters Internal CT for Impedance Relay: Pri:7A, Sec:3.5A, VA:5, CL.0.5- (10A primary max.) 1 No. For OC Relay: Pri:5A, Sec:1A, 5VA, CL 0.5 FOR SENDING END POWER ANALYZER: SE1 PT: NIL CT: Pri 10A, Sec: 5A, VA: 5, CL: 0.5

MCBS Mains MCB: 20A, 2 Pole Control MCB: 2A Variac- Sending End: 6A Variac- Receiving End: 6A

U.V.Patel College of Engineering

Output Voltage Selector Switch: 1 Pole 12 Way, 6A All Toggle Switch: 15A All Connectors: BTI-15, Elcom Make Impedance Relay: High Voltage Make, Aux: 230V AC (-15%,+10%) Over Current Relay: L&T, CT Sec. 1A, Aux. 90-240V AC/DC METERS: Voltmeter- 1 No. 0-750VAC, Meco-SMP45S Ammeter- 1 No. 0-20A, Meco-SMP35S+ Time Interval Meter- 1 No. 0.01.2 sec to 9999 sec, TI103C- Selectron. Power Analyzer- 4 Nos. Circutor- model: CVM-NRG-96-ITF-RS485C, AUX: 230V AC (4.2VA, -15%, +10%), I/P: 240 Fault Switch- 2 Pole, 2Way, WO/O, 32A- Salzer Push Button: Schneider 6. CB-1 ON/OFF- SENDING END 7. CB-1 ON/OFF- RECEIVING END 8. CB-3 ON/OFF- LOAD 9. ACCEPT OR ACKNOWLEDGE FOR FAULT 10. FAULT/RESET

INTRODUCTION: Shunt compensation:


Shunt compensation is used by utilities at both transmission and distribution levels.

Fig 1: shunt compensation

U.V.Patel College of Engineering

In the shunt compensation applications, passive shunt capacitors are extensivelyused for power factor correction and to improve the system voltage profile by economicalmeans. The principal advantages of shunt capacitors could be listed as their low cost, flexibility on installation and practical operations. To show the effect of shunt compensation on the system voltage profile, a simple two-bus system given in Fig. 1 is used and a shunt capacitor is added.. The effect of shunt compensation can be introduced using Thevenins theorem by keeping the load phase angle at a constant value. For this case, the Thevenin equivalent voltage (Vth) and impedance (Zth) seen from the end of the line (point of r) can be written for each line model, given in Fig. 1, by neglecting the active losses of the shunt capacitor.

PROCEDURE:
Open circuit the receiving end. Adjust the sending-end voltage to 220V. Note the receiving-end voltage. Introduce the compensation equipment and adjust its L and C till the receiving end voltage also reached 220V. (Vs=Vr) Note the current taken by the compensator (which includes L and C in parallel ) and determine its Varrating and its ohmic value NOTE: METER DISPLAY WILL READ LAG = +SIGN, LEAD IS VE SIGN. LINE COMPENSATION AT NO LOAD USING L AND C, C=0.015MFD / KM SENDING END PARAMETERS

RESULTS:
C Before Compensation SE-Vs RE-Vr 220.0 V 232.3 213.6 213.6 0 0 0 0 Before Compensation SE-Vs RE-Vr 220.0 V 232.3 213.6 213.6 0 0 0 0 VAR Load V 232.3 0 220 0 I 0 0 0.276 0 PF 0 0 0.8 0 KW 0

R L C

LINE COMPENSATION AT NO LOAD, C=0.015 MFD/KM. C Before Compensation SE-Vs RE-Vr 220.0 V 232.3 Before Compensation SE-Vs RE-Vr 220.0 V 232.3 VAR Load V 220 I 0.172 PF 0 KW 0.02

0.6

U.V.Patel College of Engineering

LINE COMPENSATION AT NO LOAD USING L AND C C=0.015 MFD/KM C Before Compensation SE-Vs RE-Vr 220.0 V 232.3 213.6 213.6 0 0 0 0 Before Compensation SE-Vs RE-Vr 220.0 V 232.3 213.6 213.6 0 0 0 0 VAR Load V 232.3 0 220 0 I 0 0 0.276 0 PF 0 0 0.8 0 KW 0

R L C

INPUT SE: INPUT: 221.3 V, I=0.316 A, W=46, VARC: 48, VA:69, PF:0.67, COS :0.70 RE: 221.4 V, 0.277 A,49 W, 37 VARL, 61 VA, PF: 0.8, =0.8 INDUCTOR 15 VA + 30VA + 0.8 (V RESISTANCE ADDED) ITS OHMIC VALUE IS: 638.611

CONCLUSION:
After performing this experiment we can conclude that voltage sensitivities of load have significant effects on receiving end voltage magnitude of the line, transferred power and power losses for different sizes of series and shunt capacitors. Effects of shunt and series capacitors on the load voltage increase when voltage sensitivities of loads decrease. It is concluded that for a fixed load voltage level, the required shunt compensation levels decrease with increasing voltage sensitivity of the loads.

U.V.Patel College of Engineering

EXPERIMENT No. 7
AIM: To study about the fault occurs in Transmission Line. SPECIFICATION:
Sending End Transformer: Pri: 0-110-220V, Sec:220V, VA:1250 Receiving End Transformer: Pri: 0-220V, Sec:110,130,160,170,190,210,220,240V, VA:1000 No. Of section: 5 each section: 80 kms Each Section : L=35 mH(5A max.) Resistance : R=2.6 Capacitance : C=1.6F Line Parameters: R=0.0325/km, L=0.4375mH/km, C=0.015F/km, 0.02F and 0.035F(Selectable) For 400kms: R=13, L=175mH, C=6F, 8F & 1.68F(Selectable) Capacitor Selector Switch- 5 nos. 1 for each section POS1: C=0.6F POS2: C=0.8F POS3: C=1.68F Loading Units: RLC Unit-1: Variable Potentiometer: 1k, 100W Resistance Bank: @ 220V SW1: 5k/10W & 10k/5W SW2: 2k4/20W SW3: 1k2/40W SW4: 605E/80W SW5: 302E/160W Inductor Bank: @ 220V, 7.5VA to 112.5VA SW1: 7.5VA SW2: 15VA SW3: 15VA SW4: 30VA SW5: 45VA Capacitor Bank: SW1: 0.8F SW2: 1.2F SW3: 3.15F SW4: 6F SW5: 8F

RLC Unit-2: Variable Potentiometer: 1k, 100W

U.V.Patel College of Engineering

Resistance Bank: SW1: 2k/20W SW2: 969E/50W SW3: 484E/100W SW4: 242E/200W SW5: 141E/400W Inductor Bank: SW1: 15VA SW2: 30VA SW3: 60VA SW4: 60VA SW5: 10mH-unity pf Capacitor Bank: SW1: 1.2F SW2: 3.15F SW3: 6F SW4: 8F SW5: 12.5F External Potential Transformers: Pri:440V, Sec:220V, VA:25VA-3 Nos.-external for meters External Potential Transformers: Pri:10A, Sec:5A, VA:5, CL.0.5- 3 Nos.-external for meters Internal CT for Impedance Relay: Pri:7A, Sec:3.5A, VA:5, CL.0.5- (10A primary max.) 1 No. For OC Relay: Pri:5A, Sec:1A, 5VA, CL 0.5 FOR SENDING END POWER ANALYZER: SE1 PT: NIL CT: Pri 10A, Sec: 5A, VA: 5, CL: 0.5

MCBS Mains MCB: 20A, 2 Pole Control MCB: 2A Variac- Sending End: 6A Variac- Receiving End: 6A Output Voltage Selector Switch: 1 Pole 12 Way, 6A
U.V.Patel College of Engineering

All Toggle Switch: 15A All Connectors: BTI-15, Elcom Make Impedance Relay: High Voltage Make, Aux: 230V AC (-15%,+10%) Over Current Relay: L&T, CT Sec. 1A, Aux. 90-240V AC/DC METERS: Voltmeter- 1 No. 0-750VAC, Meco-SMP45S Ammeter- 1 No. 0-20A, Meco-SMP35S+ Time Interval Meter- 1 No. 0.01.3 sec to 9999 sec, TI103C- Selectron. Power Analyzer- 4 Nos. Circutor- model: CVM-NRG-96-ITF-RS485C, AUX: 230V AC (4.2VA, -15%, +10%), I/P: 240 Fault Switch- 2 Pole, 2Way, WO/O, 32A- Salzer Push Button: Schneider 11. CB-1 ON/OFF- SENDING END 12. CB-1 ON/OFF- RECEIVING END 13. CB-3 ON/OFF- LOAD 14. ACCEPT OR ACKNOWLEDGE FOR FAULT 15. FAULT/RESET

INTRODUCTION:
High-voltage systems have an effectively grounded neutral. When a ground faultoccurs on an overhead transmission line, in a power network with grounded neutral, the fault current returns to the grounded neutral through the tower structures, ground return paths and ground wires. It is based on Kirchhoffs theorems, an analytical method in order to determine the ground fault current distribution in effectively grounded power network is presented. A phase-to-ground fault that appears on a phase of a transmission line, dividesthe line into two sections, each extending from the fault towards one end of the line.
U.V.Patel College of Engineering

PROCEDURE:
1. Select initial length of line (say 400kms). 2. Start the motor-generator set. 3. Note down the sending end voltage Vs, sending end current Is and receiving end voltage Vr. 4. Disconnect the supply of motor-generator set. 5. Measure the distances when fault will occur and note down the trip time. 6. Decrease the length of line. 7. Repeat the steps 2-5.

RESULTS:
Sr. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Distance when fault occur in kms 80 160 240 320 400 Trip time in scc. Trip current

CONCLUSION:

U.V.Patel College of Engineering

EXPERIMENT-1
Aim:To study the operation of Electro mechanical type an inverse time over current relay. Apparatus required:1. VPL-102A module 2. Power chord -1 no 3. Patch chord -2 nos

Connection procedure:1. Connection the patch chord from electro mechanical type relay contact that may be NO or NC depending upon provisions of contacts in the relay. Some manufactures may provide both NO and NC contact. 2. Keep the MCB ON/ OFF switch in OFF position. 3. Keep the current adjustment knob in minimum position. 4. Connect the power chord at the back side of VPL-102A module.

Experiment procedure:5. Select the desired plug setting of electro mechanical relay by using plug. Now switch ON power ON/OFF switch and keep MCB ON/OFF switch in ON position. 6. Reset the digital stop clock. 7. Press the start switch S1. Now the start LED glows to indicate the relay in START mode.

Procedure to check the relay in normal conditions (Without occurrence of fault):8. By using current adjustment knob of VPL-102A module set the actual current below the plug setting value. Here we say plug setting value is 8A and actual current is 3A. 9. Here the actual current (3A) is below the plug setting value (8A) i.e. normal condition which means there is no fault in the system. So the relay does not operate.

Procedure to check the relay in abnormal conditions (With occurrence of fault):10. Repeat the steps 5 to 7. 11. By using current adjustment knob of VPL-102A module set the actual current above the setting value. Here for example plug setting value is 8A and actual current is 15A. 12. Press the STOP button and reset the digital stop clock. After relay disc operating is stopped press the START button.

U.V.Patel College of Engineering

13. Here the actual current (15A) is above plug setting value (8A) i.e. abnormal condition which means there is fault in the system. So the disc of the relay rotates and the moving contact touching the fixed contact and relay proceeding the tripping of circuit. 14. After relay is tripped the relay time is stopped in digital stop clock. 15. By setting the various plug setting values, perform the relay in abnormal condition and tabulated the readings.

TABULATION:[1] plug setting = 2.5 amp.


S.NO. 1 2 3 PLUG SETTING CURRENT(A) 3.97 5.38 2.12 ACTUAL RELAY CURRENT(A) 9.93 13.45 5.30 TIME TAKEN TO TRIP THE RELAY(S) 6.24 5.05 10.60

[2] plug setting = 3 amp.


S.NO. 1 2 3 PLUG SETTING CURRENT(A) 3.17 2.0 1.208 ACTUAL RELAY CURRENT(A) 15.86 10.00 6.04 TIME TAKEN TO TRIP THE RELAY(S) 6.58 10.13 28.50

[3] plug setting = 7.5 amp.


S.NO. 1 2 3 PLUG SETTING CURRENT(A) 1.33 2.02 2.67 ACTUAL RELAY CURRENT(A) 10 15.03 19.96 TIME TAKEN TO TRIP THE RELAY(S) 19.48 9.73 7.38

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Date of Completion:Signature of Faculty:-

U.V.Patel College of Engineering

EXPERIMENT 2
AIM :To study the operation of micro controller based earth fault relay using VPL -04 Module. APPARATUS REQUIRED :1. 2. 3. 4. 5. VPL-04 MODULE VPL-01 ACC Power Chords -2 nos Patch Chords 3 nos PC interface cable 1 no

CONNECTION DIAGRAM :-

U.V.Patel College of Engineering

CONNECTION PROCEDURE:1. Connections should be given as shown in Figure 4.1 2. Connect output terminal (1) of variable AC current sources to NC contact (3) of earth fault relay. 3. Connect output terminal (2) of variable AC current sources to current coil input (L2) of earth fault relay. 4. Connect NC contact (4) of earth fault relay to current coil input (L1) of the earth fault relay. 5. Connect the power chords at the back side of unit of variable AC current source and microcontroller based earth fault relay. 6. Connect serial communication port of earth fault relay to PC by using PC interface cable . 7. Keep the current source variac at zero position . 8. Now switch on the power supply of variable AC current source and earth fault relay.

TABULATION:FOR DMT MODE:-

S.NO

Set Current (A)

Fault Current (A) 1.08 2.02 1.08 5 5.5 6.5

Set Time (Sec.)

Actual relay tripping Time (Sec) 5.05 5.5 6.5

1 2 3

0.5 0.5 0.5

U.V.Patel College of Engineering

FOR IDMT MODE :[1] Take set current and fault current constant. S.NO Set Current (A) 1 2 3 0.5 0.5 0.5 1.09 1.09 1.09 Fault Current (A) 0.5 0.7 0.9 Set Time (Sec.) Actual relay tripping Time (Sec) 4.57 6.48 8.33

[2] Take set current and set time constant. S.NO Set Current (A) 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 2.02 2.56 3.04 2.0 2.45 2.97 Fault Current (A) 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.7 0.7 0.7 Set Time (Sec.) Actual relay tripping Time (Sec) 4.37 3.72 3.14 6.64 5.48 4.5

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Date of Completion:Signature of Faculty:-

U.V.Patel College of Engineering

U.V.Patel College of Engineering

U.V.Patel College of Engineering