CONTENTS

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CONTENTS

1. SYNOPSIS 2. INTRODUCTION TO CAD/CAM 3. INTRODUCTION TO PRO-ENGINEER 4. INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS 5. DESCRIPTION OF CARBURETTOR 6. CONCLUSION 7. PHOTOGRAPHY 8. BIBLIOGRAPHY

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SYNOPSIS

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Since different SI engine alternative fuels such as LPG. In this work three parameters namely pressure drop and fuel discharge nozzle angle of the carburetor will be analyzed using computational fluid dynamics. 4 . For this analysis CFD will be done using 2 softwares namely GAMBIT and FLUENT. One of the important factors that affect the fuel consumption is that design of carburetor. Still for a better economy and uniform fuel air supply there is a need to design the carburetor with an effective analytical tool or software.SYNOPSIS Modern passenger vehicles with gasoline engines are provided with different compensating devices for fuel air mixture supply. CNG are used in the present day vehicles to reduce the pollution and fuel consumption. The venturi of the carburetor is important that provides a necessary pressure drop in the carburetor device. The results obtained from the softwares will be analyzed for optimum design of a carburetor. Even then there is a high fuel consumption because of many factors.

INTRODUCTION TO CAD/CAM 5 .

This technology is moving in the direction of greater integration of design and manufacturing. analysis. keyboards. Computer – aided design (CAD) can be defined as the use of computer systems to assist in the creation. and numerical control part programming. It is the technology concerned with the use of digital computers to perform certain functions in design and production. CAD/CAM will provide the technology base for the computer-integrated factory of the future. Examples of these application programs include stress-strain analysis of components. The CAD software consists of the computer programs to implement computer graphics on the system plus application programs to facilitate the engineering functions of the user company. The CAD hardware typically includes the computer. The computer systems consist of the hardware and software to perform the specialized design functions required by the particular user firm. heat-transfer calculations. and control the operations of manufacturing plant through either direct or indirect computer interface with the plant‟s production resources. Ultimately. or optimization of a design. manage. 6 . modification. and other peripheral equipment. one or more graphics display terminals. dynamic response of mechanisms. two activities which have traditionally been treated as district and separate functions in a production firm.INTRODUCTION TO CAD/CAM CAD/CAM is a term which means computer-aided design and computeraided manufacturing. Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) can be defined as the use of computer systems to plan.

In fast moving world the time is very important criteria. But in the manual program time takes more and more for every work in the world

In the production department drawing is very important for design the various parts. In the manual work, its takes more time and is also very difficult to draw various components compare to CAD. So, to avoid these difficulties, CAD implements for quick & accurate design. Computer aided design have various packages are Auto CAD, Pro-E, etc. Auto CAD is using for 2D drawing and Pro-E is the latest implement in CAD, Which is especially using for 3D modeling. Most of the industry Pro-E is using for creating a new Design and modification of existing Design. Before to start the production we can visualize entire parts and assembly view of the model by using Pro-E. We were design the entire part of SINGLE PLATE CLUTCH and assembled it. Ansys software is used for analyzing the 3d modeling objects. The ANSYS program has much finite element analysis, capabilities, ranging from a simple, linear, static analysis to a complex non–linear, transient dynamic analysis. THE DESIGN PROCESS: The process of designing is characterized by six identifiable steps or phase 1. Recognition of need 2. Definition of problem 3. Synthesis 4. Analysis and optimization 5. Evaluation
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APPLICATION OF COMPUTERS FOR DESIGN: The various design-related tasks which are performed by a modern computer-aided design system can be grouped into four functional areas: 1. Geometric modeling 2. Engineering analysis 3. Design review and evaluation 4. Automated drafting Geometric modeling In computer-aided design, geometric modeling is concerned with the computer- compatible mathematical description of the geometry of an object. The mathematical description allows the image of the object to be displayed and manipulated on a graphics terminal through signals from the CPU of the CAD system. The software that provides geometric modeling capabilities must be designed for efficient use both by the computer and the human designer. There are several different methods of representing the object in geometric modeling. The basic form uses wire frames to represent the object. Wire frame geometric modeling is classified into three types, depending on the capabilities of the interactive computer graphics system. The three types are: 2D. 2½D. Two Dimensional representation is used for a flat object. this goes somewhat beyond the 2D capability by permitting a three-

dimensional object to be represented as long as it has no side wall details. 3D. this allows for full three dimensional modeling of a more complex geometry.
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The most advanced method of geometric modeling is solid modeling in three dimensions. Another feature of some CAD systems is color graphics capability. By means of color, it is possible to display more information on the graphics screen. Colored images help to clarify components in an assembly, or highlight dimensions, or a host of other purposes. Engineering analysis CAD/CAM systems often include or can be interfaced to engineering analysis software which can be called to operate on the current design model. Examples of this type are 1. Analysis of mass properties 2. Finite element analysis The analysis may involve stress –strain calculations, heat-transfer computations, or the use of differential equations to describe the dynamic behavior of the system being designed.

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INTRODUCTION TO PRO-ENGINEER 10 .

The four distinct elements of the window are:  Pull-down menu  Tool bar  Display area  Message area Pull-Down Menus: The Pro-E pull-down menus are valid in all modes of the system. It is ideal for capturing the design intent of your models because at its foundation is a practical philosophy.Pro-e Wildfire. 11 . Pro-E 2001. the main window opens on desktop.INTRODUCTION TO PRO-ENGINEER Pro-Engineer is a powerful application. Screen Lay Out: Main Window: When the Pro-E is started. After this version they are released Pro-E 2000i2 . File: Contains commands for manipulating files Edit: Contains action commands. Founder of this Pro-Engineer is Parametric Technology Corporation. Pro-e Wildfire2.

Tool bar: The Pro-E toolbar contains icons for frequently used options from the pulldown 12 . Windows: Contains commands for managing various Pro-E windows. Analysis: Provides access to options for model. as well as sensitivity and optimization studies. surface. Help: Contains commands for accessing online documentation. curve and motion analysis. Info: Contains commands for performing queries and generating reports. Application: Provides access to various Pro-E modules.View: Contains commands for controlling model display and display performance. Datum: Creates datum features. Utilities: Contains commands for customizing our working environment.

 Displaying icons in the message area. An object‟s on the current environment settings. Constrain 4. which represent different forms of information such as warnings or status prompts. Dimension 3. assemblies. Display area: Pro-E displays parts. Move 6. Modify 5.  Providing queries/hints for additional information to complete a command/task. Message area: The message area between the toolbar and the display area performs multiple Functions by:  Providing status information for every operation performed. Geometric Tools 13 . drawings. The tool bar is also customized. Delete 7. Sketch 2.menus. SKETCHER Sketcher consists of 1. and models on the screen in the display area.

Undo 10.8. Centerline Both geometry and center line has the following options  2 points  2 tangent 14 . Geometry 2. Line: There are two options to draw a line 1. Point: It has been drawn by picking the point directly on desired place.Redo SKETCH: The sketch includes basic geometrical primitives such as  Point  Line  Rectangle  Arc  Circle  Advanced geometry which are used in two dimensional as well as three dimensional drawing. Section Tools 9.

Fillet Circle: There are two basic types of drawing a circle. They are geometry and construction. Arc: The following are the options in drawing the arc: 1. Both the above said types include the following options  Center/point  Concentric  3 tangent  Fillet  3 point 15 . 3 tangent 4. Concentric 3. Tangent End 2.Rectangle: Rectangle is drawn directly using the command rectangle.

we have to choose Delay Modify first. After the desired changes have been made. a weak dimension or constraint will be removed automatically. Although extra dimensions are no longer allowed. When a dimension is added. MODIFYING DIMENSIONS: When dimension values are modified. it is now possible to make reference dimensions in Sketcher. the section is updated immediately.ADVANCED GEOMETRY: It includes several advanced features such as  Conic  Coordinate system  Elliptic fillet  Ellipse  Spline  Text  Axis point DIMENSIONING: Dimensions can be added to sections as before. Regenerate should be chosen. If we don't want the section to update until we have modified several dimensions. MOVE: The Move command allows modifying the section by dragging an entity or vertex to a new position without having to specify which dimensions to be 16 .

Delete has many options such as  Delete item  Delete many  Delete all 17 . DELETE: Delete command is used to remove the features from the basic window.changed. Move can also be used to drag a dimension to a different location. Move will automatically determine which dimensions to be varied so that the section changes in a natural way while preserving all constraints.

Redo is provided. We can hit Undo repeatedly to reverse actions one after another.GEOMETRIC TOOLS: Geometric tool has the following options:  Intersect  Trim  Divide  Use edge  Offset edge  Mirror  Move entity SECTION TOOLS: Section tool has the following options:  Copy draw  Integrate  Place section  Start point  Toggle UNDO All Sketcher operations can now be undone with the Undo command. as well. 18 .

The drawn sketch must be a closed loop. Protrusion adds the material perpendicular to the selected plane. Enough references should be mentioned. EXTRUDE 2. Up to point/vertex: 19 . REVOLVE 3. Thru until: Adds the material that goes through all the surfaces until it reaches the specified surface. we can give directly numerical value. BLEND EXTRUDE: Extrusion means adding the material from a specified side. 3. Options for giving depth: Blind: By choosing the option blind. Condition 1. SWEEP 4.PART PROTRUSION: Protrusion consists of following options : 1. 2.

specify the elements in the following order:  Attributes  Section  Direction  Angle 20 . REVOLVE: The revolve option creates a feature by revolving the sketched section around a centerline. or symmetrically on both sides of the sketching plane. A revolved feature can be created either entirely on one side of the sketching plane. There is no chance for giving two side blend if one side was chosen.Adds the material with a flat bottom that continues until it reaches the specified point or vertex. thru all and thru until. Exemption: For the basic (first) component. Up to Curve: Adds the material with a flat bottom that continues until it reaches the specified curve that you draw in a plane parallel to the placement plane. Up to Surface: Adds the material from the selected plane to the selected surface. To create or redefine a revolved feature. there is no option for giving thru next.

Up To Point/Vertex: 21 . 270 : Creates the feature with a fixed angle of 270 degrees.  The section must be closed Options for Specifying the Angle of Revolution: Variable: Any angle of revolution less than 360 degrees is specified by using this variable 90 : Creates the feature with a fixed angle of 90 degrees.Rules for sketching a revolved feature:  The revolved section must have a centerline  The geometry must be sketched on only one side of the axis of revolution  If more than one centerline in the sketch. Pro-E uses the first centerline sketched as the axis of rotation. 180 : Creates the feature with a fixed angle of 180 degrees. 360 : Creates the feature with a fixed angle of 360 degrees.

Up to Plane: Create the revolved feature up to an existing plane or planar surface that must contain the axis of revolution. 22 . The revolved feature ends when the section plane reaches the point or vertex.Creates the revolved feature up to a point or vertex.

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS 23 .

A typical ANSYS analysis has three distinct steps:  Building the model  Applying loads and obtains the solution  Review the results. such as cross sectional properties of a beam element. moment of inertia(IZZ). shell. First you specify the job name and analysis title. DEFINING ELEMENT REAL CONSTANTS: Element real constant are the properties that depend on the element type. Then. linear. For example real constants for BEAM3 . the 2-d beam element. pipe. Example: beam. shear 24 . or area. real constants. DEFINING ELEMENT TYPES: The analysis element library contains more than 100 different element types. plant. height . static analysis to a complex non – linear. Each element type has a unique number and a prefix that identifies the element category.The ANSYS program has many finite element analysis capabilities. transient dynamic analysis. and material properties. and the model geometry. BUILDING THE MODEL: Building a finite element model requires a more of an ANSYS user‟s time than any other part of the analysis. ranging from a simple. solid. define the element types.

then retrieve the set and reuse it in multiple analysis.deflection constant (SHEAR Z). 25 . initial strain (ISTRN) different elements of same type may have different real constant values. application. Within. material properties may be: Depending on the  Linear or non linear  Isotropic. DEFINING MATERIAL PROPERTIES: Most elements types require material properties. each set of material properties has a material reference number. the ANSY program enables you to store a material property set in an archival material library file. Arthotropic. The table of material reference number verses material property set ids called material property table. MATERIAL PROPERTY TEST: Although you can define material properties separately for each element analysis. one analysis you may have multiple material properties set. The material library files also enable several ANSYS user to share common used material property data. or an isotropic  Constant temperature or temperature – dependant As with element type and real constant.

The ANSYS program offers you the following approaches to model generation:  Creating a solid model within ANSYS. material properties. boundary conditions. MESHING YOUR SOLID MODEL: The procedure for generating a mesh of nodes & elements consists of three main steps:  Set the element attributes  Set mesh controls  Generate the mesh controls. Thus. elements. this model comprises all the nodes. and other features that are used to represent the physical system. the analysis must be an accurate mathematical model of a physical prototype. 26 . model generation in this discussion will mean the process of define the geometric configuration model‟s nodes and elements.  Using direct generation Reporting a model created in CAD system.OVERVIEW OF MODEL GENERATION: The ultimate purpose of finite element analysis which to recreate mathematical the behavior of an actual engineering system. In the broadest sense. In other words. In ANSYS terminology. real constant. the term model generation usually takes on the narrower meaning of generating the nodes and elements that represent the spatial volume and connectivity of actual system.

SETTING ELEMENT ATTRIBUTES: Before you generate a mesh of nodes and elements. you can use the small size feature to produce a better quality free mesh. a mapped mesh is restricted in terms of the element shape it contains and the pattern of the mesh. with obvious rows of elements. A free mesh has no restrictions in terms of element shapes. you must first define the appropriate element attributes. is not always necessary because the default mesh controls are appropriate for many models.The second step. and even before building the model. In addition. you must build the geometry as series of fairly regular volumes and or areas that can accept a mapped mesh. a mapped mesh typically has a regular pattern. and has no specified pattern applied to it. the program will use the default setting on the de size command to produce a free mesh. FREE ARE MAPPED MESH: Before meshing the model. If no controls are specified. it is important to think about whether a free mesh or a mapped mesh is appropriate for the analysis. setting mesh controls. If you want this type of mesh. That is. A mapped area mesh contains either only quadrilateral or only triangular elements. As an alternative. while a mapped volume mesh contains only hexahedron elements. you must specify the following: Element type 27 . Compared to a free mesh.

infinite Fluid: Velocities and pressures A DOF constraint fixes the degrees of freedom of a known value. Examples of constraints are specified displacement and symmetric boundary conditions in structural analysis. You can apply loads on the model in variety of ways in ANSYS program. Conditions and externally or internally applied forcing functions. and internal heat generation. magnetic flux. Example of loads in different disciplines are: Structural: displacement. charge densities. charges. forces. convections. gravity Thermal: temperatures. and magnetic current segment Electric: electric potentials. heat flow rate. electric current. LOADING: The main goal of finite element analysis is to examine how a structure or component response to certain loading condition. therefore. pressures. Specifying the proper loading conditions.Real constant set Material properties set Element co-ordinate system. and flux parallel boundary conditions. infinite surface Magnetic: Magnetic Potentials. prescribed temperatures in thermal analysis. a key stepping analysis. 28 . LOADS: The word loads in ANSYS terminology includes boundary. temperatures (for thermal strain) .

which form the element solution. which form the primary solution. line. For examples you may apply magnetic forces calculated in magnetic field analysis are force loads in structural analysis. you can specify forces at a key point or a node. Examples are pressures in structural analysis and convections and heat fluxes in thermal analysis. No matter how you specify loads. Therefore if your specify loads on the solid model. The element solution is 29 . Similarly. and b) derived values. The result of the solution are: a nodal degree of freedom values. the solver expects all loads to be in term of finite element model. SOLUTION: In the solution phase of the analysis. For example. heat flow rates in thermal analysis. the program automatically transfers them to the nodes and element at the beginning of the solution.A force is concentrated load applied at a node in a model. HOW TO APPLY LOADS: You can apply loads most loads either on the solid model (on key points. the computer takes over and solves the simultaneous equations that the finite element method generates. where results from analysis are used as loads in another analysis. Examples are forces and moments in structural analysis. you can specify convections (and other surface loads) on lines and areas or nodes and element faces. Coupled field loads are simple case of one of the above loads. A surface load is distributed load applied over a surface. areas) or on the finite element model ( on nodes and elements).

Post processing means reviewing the results of an analysis. because you are trying to understand how the applied loads affect your design. sparse direct solution. but you can select a different solver. In a static structural analysis. incomplete cholesky conjugate (ICCG) solution. Jacobi Conjugate gradient (JCG solution. The frontal solver is the default. and post 26. automatic iterative solver option (ITER). Several methods of solving the simultaneous equations are available in the ANSYS program: frontal solution. POST PROCESSING: After building the model and obtaining the solution. Two post processors are available review your results: Post 1 . 30 . how good you finite element mesh is. you will want answers to some critical question: will the design really work when put to use? How high are the stresses in this region? How does the temperature of this part vary with time? What is the heat loss across my model? How does the magnetic flow through this device? How does the placement of this object affect fluid flow? The post processors in the ANSYS program can help you find answer these questions and others.usually calculated at the elements integration points. for example. it is probably the most important step in the analysis. and so on. the time history post processor. Post 1 allow you to review the results over the entire model at specific load steps and sub steps ( or at specific time – points or frequencies). the general post processor. preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG) solution. The ANSYS program writes the results to the database as well as to the result file.

Post 1 has many capabilities. THE GENERAL POST PROCESSOR: You use Post1.you can display the stress distribution for load step 3 or. THE RESULT FILES: The ANSYS solver writes results of an analysis to the results file during solution. of a specifically defined loads at a single time ( or frequency). ranging from simple graphics display and tabular listing to more complex data manipulation such as load case combinations. The name of the results file depends on the analysis discipline: Job Name. combination of or selected portion of the model. the general post processor. DISPLAYING RESULTS GRAPHICALLY: Graphics display is perhaps the most effective way to review results. rst for structural analysis. to review analysis results over the entire model. You can display the following types of graphics in post1:  Contour displays  Deformed shape displays  Vector displays 31 . you can display the temperature distribution at time – 100 seconds. in a transient thermal analysis.

Types of structural analysis. and creep. Path plots  Reaction force displays  Particle flow traces. stress stiffening . contact surfaces. machine parts and tools. aircraft bodies and machine housings. Static analysis: used to determine displacement. Modal analysis: used to calculate the natural frequencies and mode shapes of a structure. The term structural (or structure) implies not only civil engineering structures such as bridges and buildings. aeronautical and mechanical structures such as ship hulls. Both linear and non-linear static analyses. hyper elasticity. 2. 3. large strain. INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS Structural analysis is probably the most common application of the finite element method. The seven types of structural analysis provided by ANSYS are given below. under static loading conditions. stresses etc. Non – Linearity‟s can include plasticity. Different mode extraction methods are available. large deflection . Harmonic analysis: used to determine the response of a structure to harmonically time varying loads. 1. as well as mechanical components such as pistons. but also naval. 32 .

Transient dynamic analysis: used to determine the response of a structure to arbitrarily time varying loads. All non-linearity‟s mentioned under static analysis above are allowed.4. used to calculate stress and strain due to response spectrum or a PSD input (random vibrations). Spectrum analysis: an extension of the model analysis. Explicit dynamic analysis – ANSYS provides an interface to the LS-Dyna explicit finite element programs is used to calculate fast solution for large deformation dynamics and complex contact problems. 5. 33 . Buckling analysis: used to calculate the buckling load and determine the buckling mode shape. 6. Both linear (eigenvalue) buckling and non –linear buckling analyses are possible. 7.

with constant material properties.INTRODUCTION TO THERMAL ANALYSIS A steady state thermal analysis calculates the effects of steady thermal loads on a system or component. so the analysis usually is non linear. 34 .  Convections  Radiations  Heat Flow rates  Heat fluxes (heat flow per unit area)  Constant temperature boundaries. The thermal properties of most material do vary with temperature. A steady – state analysis also can be the last step of a transient thermal analysis. A steady state thermal analysis may be either linear. thermal gradients. and thermal loads that do not vary over time cause heat fluxes in an object that. Engineer/analysts often perform a steady state analysis before doing a transient thermal analysis. or non linear. performed after all transient effects have diminished. Such loads include the following. You use steady – state thermal analysis to determine temperatures. including radiation effects also makes the analysis non linear. heat flow rates. to help establish initial conditions. with material properties that depend on temperature.

suction is created and fuel-air mixture is drawn into the cylinder. At this time the intake valve is open where as the exhaust valve is closed. power and exhaust. compression. the charge sucked during the intake stroke gets compressed. Suction: Suction strokes starts when the piston is at the top dead center. In case of such engines the cycle is completed in 4 strokes of the piston namely suction. SI Engine SI engine is known as spark ignition engine. Due to the ignition the chemical energy of the fuel is converted into heat energy and the temperature rises to about 20000C. During this stroke both valves are in open condition. Expansion: During this stroke both the valves remain in closed position and power is also produced. gasoline or diesel engine.Introduction: Internal Combustion Engines Engine is a device that transforms one form of energy into another form. At the end the mixture is ignited with the help of a spark plug. Heat energy is a device that transforms the chemical energy contained in a fuel to another form of energy and utilizes that energy for some useful work. 35 . Compression: During the return of the piston from the bottom dead center towards the top dead center. Internal combustion engine is a device in which the combustion of the working fluid takes place inside the engine e.g. When the piston moves towards the bottom dead center.

The piston moves from bottom dead center to the top dead center and sweeps the burnt gases out of the cylinder. CI Engine CI engine is known as compression ignition engine. Heat is assumed to be added at constant pressure. 36 . Compression: The air inducted into the cylinder gets compressed due to the movement of the piston from bottom dead center to the top dead center because both the valve remains in closed position. In case of such engines also the cycle is completed in 4 strokes of the piston but it operates at a much higher compression ratio. so when the piston movers from the bottom dead center towards the top dead center the product of combustion gets expelled from the cylinder. When the piston moves from top dead center towards the bottom dead center the product of combustion expands.Exhaust: During this stroke the inlet valve remains in closed position whereas the exhaust valve remains open. Suction: During this stroke the inlet valve opens and the exhaust valve closes. Both the valves are still in closed position. Exhaust: Since during this stroke the inlet valve is in closed position whereas the exhaust valve is in opened position. Only air is inducted into the cylinder. Expansion: Fuel is injected into the cylinder at nearly the beginning of the stroke.

So carburetion is required to provide a combustible mixture of fuel and air in required quantity and quality. Definition of Carburetion The process of forming a combustible fuel-air mixture by mixing the right amount of fuel with air before admission to the cylinder of the engine is called carburetion and the device doing this job is called carburetor. To achieve this. a venturi is provided in the path of air. Engine speed 2. Design of the carburetor Since the engines are of high speed type there is very little time available for mixture preparation. So to have a high quality carburetion the velocity of the air at point of injection of fuel has to be increased. Temperature of incoming air 4. 2. Vaporization characteristics of the fuel 3.3 Factors Affecting Carburetion The various factors affecting the process of carburetion are 1. The fuel droplets that remain in suspension also continue to evaporate and mix with air during suction and compression processes also. 37 . The preparation of the fuel-air mixture is done outside the engine cylinder.Introduction SI engines generally use volatile liquids.

Higher atmospheric air temperature increases the vaporization of the fuel and hence a more homogeneous mixture is produced.[2] Frederick William Lanchester of Birmingham.Presence of highly volatile hydrocarbons in the fuel also ensures high quality carburetion. A carburetor was among the early patents by Karl Benz as he developed internal combustion engines and their components. Unhappy with the performance and power. Wilhelm Maybach and Gottlieb Daimler developed a float carburetor for their engine based on the atomizer nozzle. experimented with the wick carburetor in cars. a single cylinder 5 hp (3.7 kW) internal combustion engine with chain drive. 1. In 1885. England. The pressure and temperature of the surrounding air also affects the process of carburetion. This was further improved by the Hungarian engineers János Csonka and Donát Bánki in 1893.[3] 38 .225 cc) prototyped on 5 August 1882. In 1896. the first petrol combustion engine (one cylinder. Frederick and his brother built the first gasoline driven car in England. A carburetor was developed by Enrico Bernardi at the University of Padua in 1882. they re-built the engine the next year into a two cylinder horizontally opposed version using his new wick carburetor design. for his “Motrice Pia”. its intake system and the combustion chamber also affect the uniform distribution of mixture to various cylinders of the engine. The Austrian automobile pioneer Siegfried Marcus invented the “rotating brush carburettor”. Design of the carburetor.

though NASCAR's 2011 season was the last one with carbureted engines. such as those designed for stock car racing. electronic fuel injection is used beginning with the 2012 race season. Honda Prelude (2. Carburetors are still found in small engines and in older or specialized automobiles.0 S Base Model)  1991 (Police): Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor with the 5.[citation needed] Elsewhere. made gasolinefueled engines up until the late 1980s. Buick Estate Wagon. the Suzuki Swift until its end in 1999. the last being the Mitsubishi Express van in 2003. when fuel injection became the preferred method of automotive fuel delivery.Carburetors were the usual fuel delivery method for most U.[7] 39 .[4] In the U.S. Daihatsu Charade until 1997. the last carbureted cars were:  1990 (General public) : Oldsmobile Custom Cruiser.8 L (351 cu in) engine. Mazda 323 sedan (1996). certain Lada cars used carburetors until 2006. some cars continued to use carburetors well into the 1990s.S. and Mitsubishi Magna sedan (1996). 1994 (Light truck) : Isuzu[5] In Australia. these included the Honda Civic until 1993. Low-cost commercial vans and 4WDs in Australia continued with carburetors even into the 2000s.   1991 (SUV): Jeep Grand Wagoneer with the AMC 360 engine. as well as the Ford Laser (1994). market.

40 . So this is positioned just below the throat of the venturi. Maximum amount of fuel gets atomized and some part gets vaporized. In order that the fuel is strongly atomized the suction effect must be strong and the nozzle outlet must be comparatively small. the air passing into the combustion chamber picks up the fuel discharged by a fine orifice in a tube called the carburetor jet. The venturi tube has a narrower path at the center so that the path through air is going to travel is reduced. In the carburetor. The rate of discharge of the fuel depends on the pressure difference between the float chamber and the throat of the venturi of the carburetor and the area of the outlet of the tube.Principle of Carburetion Both air and gasoline are drawn into the cylinder due to suction pressure created by the downward movement of the piston. To produce a strong suction. This restriction is called throat. As same amount of air must travel must travel through the path of the tube so the velocity of the air at the venturi is increased and suction is created. a restriction is generally provided in the pipe in the carburetor carrying air to the engine. In this throat due to increase in the velocity of the air the pressure is decreased and suction is created. The spray of the fuel from the fuel discharge jet and the air are mixed at this point of the throat and a combustible mixture is formed. Usually the fuel discharge jet is located at the point where the suction is maximum. Due to increase in the velocity of the air at the throat the vaporization of the fuel becomes easier.

350. In this project a simple carburetor as was taken and its various dimensions were measured. 41 . Another analysis was done to calculate the throat pressure for different angles of the throttle plate. There are so many parameters to vary but in this case only the effect of the variation of the fuel discharge nozzle angle on the flow across the carburetor is studied. Then according to the measured dimensions a meshed structure of the carburetor was drawn with the help of GAMBIT software. Then the meshed structure was exported as the . 450 where ϴ is the angle between the axis of the fuel discharge nozzle and the vertical axis of the body of the carburetor.mesh file and was analyzed with proper boundary conditions using the software FLUENT and the results of this analysis were studied. The analysis was done for ϴ = 300.Procedure CFD stands for computational fluid dynamics. 400.

Fig 6.2 The model carburetor 42 .

Results and Discussions The inlet air was assumed to enter the carburetor at normal temperature and the pressure was taken to be 1 atm. 28 „ Fig 6.4 Fig 6. In fig 6.3 shows the statics pressure view for 450 throttle plate angle and fig 6.4. In this case the pressure at the throat of the venturi is found to be around 91000 Pascal. there is less amount of air flow through the inlet valve and hence the mixture is somewhat richer than the other cases. Fig 6.3 Fig 6. the mixture is slightly leaner than in case of 450 opened throttle plate condition.3 it is clear that when the throttle plate is 450 open. The following are results of the analysis of the carburetor for different angles of the throttle plate. In this case the pressure at the throat of the venturi is around 93000 Pascal. when the throttle plate is 600 open. From fig 6.4 shows the static pressure view for 600 throttle plate angle.3 43 .

Fig 6.5 44 .4 Fig 6.

6 45 .Fig 6.

8 46 .Fig 6.

Fig 6.9 47 .

From fig 6. From fig 6.8 Pascal The following pictures show the results obtained from the analysis of the carburetor with help of FLUENT. there will be maximum amount of air flow through the inlet of the carburetor but the fuel flow remains same so the mixture will be leaned in this case. In this case the pressure at the throat is found to be 87000 Pascal. when the throttle plate is 900 open.Fig 6. In this case the pressure at the throat is found to be 85000 Pascal.5 Fig 6. there is be more amount of air flow through the inlet of the carburetor.8 m/s2 Difference between the height of tip of fuel discharge nozzle and the float chamber = h= 8mm So the pressure at the inlet of fuel discharge nozzle = P = ρgh = 737 * 9.5. From the analysis done the throat pressure was found to be 90000 Pascal.5 shows the static pressure view for 750 throttle plate angle and fig 6. when the throttle plate is 750 open. 30 48 .6. Then by taking the previous boundary conditions and the throat pressure as 90000 Pascal.008) = 147780.6 shows the static pressure view for 900 throttle plate condition. So the mixture will be leaner.6 Fig 6.8*(. Throat pressure (in pascal) Throttle plate angle ( in degrees) Throttle plate angle ~ Static pressure at throat Series1 variation of throat pressure with throttle plate opening Density of gasoline = ρ = 737 kg/m3 Acceleration due to gravity = g = 9.

in this case the fuel will be easily atomized and will also be properly vaporized.8 shows the static pressure contour for fuel discharge nozzle angle of 300 and Fig6.9 whereas the pressure is the minimum at the venturi of the carburetor as shown in fig 6.8. 31 49 . It is clear from both the figures that the velocity is maximum at the throat of the venturi as shown in fig 6.8 shows a uniform distribution of pressure and fig 6. Since there is uniform distribution of pressure throughout the body of the carburetor. Fig 6.8 Fig 6.Fig 6.9 Fig 6.9 shows the velocity contour for fuel discharge nozzle angle of 300.9 shows that the velocity also uniformly increases from the inlet of the carburetor towards the throat.

10 50 .Fig6.

11 51 .Fig.6.

11 Fig 6.11 shows the velocity contour for fuel discharge nozzle angle of 350.10 6. It is clear from both the figures that the velocity is maximum at the throat of the venturi as shown in fig 6.Fig6.10 shows that the pressure is not distributed uniformly throughout the body of the carburetor and the distribution is also same in case of velocity as shown in fig 6.10 shows the static pressure contour for fuel discharge nozzle angle of 350 and Fig6.11.11. So. 32 52 . Fig 6.10 whereas the pressure is the minimum at the venturi of the carburetor as shown in fig 6. there will not be proper atomization and vaporization of fuel inside the body of the carburetor.

Fig 6.12 53 .

13 54 .Fig 6.

Fig 6.12 shows that the pressure is not distributed uniformly throughout the body of the carburetor and the distribution is also same in case of velocity as shown in fig 6.12 shows the static pressure contour for fuel discharge nozzle angle of 400 and Fig6. there will not be proper atomization and vaporization of fuel inside the body of the carburetor.12 whereas the pressure is the minimum at the venturi of the carburetor as shown in fig 6. Fig 6.12 Fig 6.13 Fig 6. It is clear from both the figures that the velocity is maximum at the throat of the venturi as shown in fig 6. 33 55 .13.13 shows the velocity contour for fuel discharge nozzle angle of 400.13. So.

56 .

14 57 .Fig 6.

Fig 6.15 58 .

15. there will not be proper atomization and vaporization of fuel inside the body of the carburetor. So.15 Fig 6.Fig 6.15.15 shows the velocity contour for fuel discharge nozzle angle of 450. 34 59 . It is clear from both the figures that the velocity is maximum at the throat of the venturi as shown in fig 6.14 whereas the pressure is the minimum at the venturi of the carburetor as shown in fig 6.14 shows that the pressure is not distributed uniformly throughout the body of the carburetor and the distribution is also same in case of velocity as shown in fig 6.14 shows the static pressure contour for fuel discharge nozzle angle of 450 and Fig6.14 Fig 6. Fig 6.

ADVANTAGES 60 .

(Some race vehicles have none or only small battery because of weight considerations)    Work well in most situations Can be swapped from one engine/car to another pretty easily More instant throttle response is possible than with Fuel Injection as we don't have to wait for sensors to tell a computer what's happening and wait for it to calculate a result!      Better mixture control No "choke" needed for cold starts Reliability less "flat spots" than carb system Higher peak power possible due to no restriction caused by carb venture 61 . simple to understand and light! (race use) Easy to swap some jets to change fuelling characteristics No electrics or battery required.Advantages:    Cheap.

 CONCLUSION 62 .

it was found that the pressure at the throat of the venturi decreased with the increase in opening of the throttle plate. But in other cases like where the fuel discharge nozzle angle was 350. But as obtained from the analysis above the pressure at the throat the throat also decreases with increase in opening of the throttle plate so the flow of fuel from the float chamber into the throat increases and hence the quality of the mixture tends to remain constant. Because when the throttle plate opening increases then the flow of air through the carburetor increases but the fuel flow remains constant. it was observed that the pressure distribution inside the body of the carburetor is quite uniform which leads to a better atomization and vaporization of the fuel inside the carburetor body. 35 63 . When analyzed for fuel discharge nozzle angle of 300. 400 or 450. So it is concluded that for gasoline operated engine the optimum fuel discharge nozzle angle is 300. When the flow inside the carburetor was analyzed for different angles of throttle plate opening.Conclusion From the above analysis the conclusions obtained are 1. So the mixture becomes leaner. the pressure distribution is quite non-uniform inside the body of the carburetor. 2.

PHOTOGRAPHY 64 .

65 .

BIBLIOGRAPHY 66 .

1974. INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES. Computational Fluid Dynamics. Inc. [4] Diego A. Mc Graw Hill. GAMBIT 5 User Guide.978-87-7681-9384.2009 [2] Diego A. Analysis and digital simulation of carburetor metering. 67 . University of Michigan. Volume 188. TMH publication. Pages 537548. PhD thesis. 1968. [7] Sayma Abdulnaser. Internal combustion engines fundamentals. 1999. Harrington. 2009 [8] D. 1988. L. Inst Mech Eng (Lond) Proc . Timothy A. FLUENT 5 User Guide. 1999. Steady and non-steady flow in a simple carburetor. Numerical and experimental study of air and fuel flow in small engine carburetors. [5] Fluent. Arias. [6] Gambit. Shedd. Arias. Abdulnaser Sayma and Ventus Publishers. Issue 53. 2005 [3] Heywood John B. New Delhi.REFERENCES [1] Ganeshan V. ISBN. University of Wisconsin-Madison.

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