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Age Calculation ABS AND AutoSum shortcut key AVERAGE BIN2DEC Brackets in Formula CEILING CELL CHAR CHOOSE CLEAN CODE COMBIN CONCATENATE CONVERT CORREL COUNT COUNTA COUNTBLANK

COUNTBLANK COUNTIF DATE DATEDIF DATEVALUE DAVERAGE DAY DAYS360 DB DCOUNT DCOUNTA DEC2BIN DEC2HEX DELTA DGET DMAX DMIN DOLLAR DSUM EDATE EOMONTH ERROR.TYPE EVEN

EXACT FACT Filename Formula FIND FIXED FLOOR FORECAST FREQUENCY GCD GESTEP HEX2DEC HLOOKUP HOUR IF INDEX INDIRECT INFO Instant Charts INT ISBLANK ISERR .

ISERROR ISEVEN ISLOGICAL ISNA ISNONTEXT ISNUMBER ISODD ISREF ISTEXT LARGE LCM LEFT LEN LOOKUP(Array) LOOKUP(vector) LOWER MATCH MAX MEDIAN MID MIN MINUTE .

MINUTE MMULT MOD MODE MONTH MROUND N NA NETWORKDAYS NOT NOW ODD OR Ordering Stock Percentages PERMUT PI POWER PRODUCT PROPER QUARTILE .

QUARTILE QUOTIENT RAND RANDBETWEEN RANK REPLACE REPT RIGHT ROMAN ROUND ROUNDDOWN ROUNDUP SECOND Show All Formula SIGN SLN SMALL Split Forename Surname STDEV STDEVP SUBSTITUTE .

SUM SUM as Running Total SUM using names SUM with OFFSET SUMIF SUMPRODUCT SYD T TEXT TIME TIME Calculation TIMEVALUE TODAY TRANSPOSE TREND TRIM TRUNC UPPER VALUE .

VALUE VAR VARP VLOOKUP WEEKDAY WORKDAY YEAR YEARFRAC OMs .

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Basis) Basis : Defines the calendar system to be used in the function.D5) =YEARFRAC(C6.D4) =YEARFRAC(C5.EndData. The Pro Rata Salary which represents the annual salary is entered. . but can be formatted as a percent.C34+1.4)*D33 30-Jun-98 £12.000 =YEARFRAC(B33.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . 3 : 29 or 30 0r 31 days per month divided by 365.000 =YEARFRAC(B32. The =YEARFRAC() function is used to calculate Actual Salary for the portion of the year.000 =YEARFRAC(B34.4)*D32 31-Mar-98 £12. Start 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 End Pro Rata Salary Actual Salary 31-Dec-98 £12.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H YEARFRAC Page 34 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 Start Date 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 End Date 1-Apr-98 31-Dec-98 1-Apr-98 Fraction 0. Syntax =YEARFRAC(StartDate. the End date.D6) What Does It Do? This function calculates the difference between two dates and expresses the result as a decimal fraction.000 £12.C33+1. 0 : or omitted USA style 30 days per month divided by 360.000 £3. 1 : 29 or 30 or 31 days per month divided by 365. Formatting The result will be shown as a decimal fraction.25 1 25% =YEARFRAC(C4.C32+1. 4 : European 29 or 30 or 31 days divided by 360. The Start and End dates of the contract are entered. but not including. Example The following table was used by a company which hired people on short term contracts for a part of the year.4)*D34 Note The extra 1 has been added to the End date to compensate for the fact that the =YEARFRAC() function calculates from the Start date up to.000 £6. 2 : 29 or 30 or 31 days per month divided by 360.

Syntax =YEAR(Date) Formatting The result is shown as a number.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J YEAR Page 35 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Date 25-Dec-98 Year 1998 =YEAR(C4) What Does It Do? This function extracts the year number from a date.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .Cells.Number.Date.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H WORKDAY Page 36 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 StartDate 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 Days 28 28 Result 35836 10-Feb-98 =WORKDAY(D4.E25. The function excludes weekends and holidays and can therefore be used to calculate delivery dates or invoice dates. Example The following example shows how the function can be used to calculate delivery dates based upon an initial Order Date and estimated Delivery Days.E5) What Does It Do? Use this function to calculate a past or future date based on a starting date and a specified number of days.Holidays) Formatting The result will normally be shown as a number which can be formatted to a normal date by using Format.Days.D28:D32) Bank Holiday Xmas New Year New Year New Year . Syntax =WORKDAY(StartDate.E4) =WORKDAY(D5. Order Date Mon 02-Feb-98 Tue 15-Dec-98 Holidays Fri 01-May-98 Fri 25-Dec-98 Wed 01-Jan-97 Thu 01-Jan-98 Fri 01-Jan-99 Delivery Days 2 28 Delivery Date Wed 04-Feb-98 Tue 26-Jan-99 =WORKDAY(D25.

Syntax =WEEKDAY(Date.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H WEEKDAY Page 37 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Date Thu 01-Jan-98 Thu 01-Jan-98 Thu 01-Jan-98 Thu 01-Jan-98 Thu 01-Jan-98 Weekday 5 5 5 4 3 =WEEKDAY(C4) =WEEKDAY(C5) =WEEKDAY(C6.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .C39:D45) Booking Rates Day Of Week Cost 1 £50 2 £25 3 £25 4 £30 5 £40 6 £50 7 £100 . Formatting The result will be shown as a normal number. The Actual Day is calculated. The Booking Cost is picked from a list of rates using the =LOOKUP() function.1) =WEEKDAY(C7.Type) Type : This is used to indicate the week day numbering system.3) What Does It Do? This function shows the day of the week from a date. Custom and set the Type to ddd or dddd. Cells. If no number is specified. Booking Date Actual Day Booking Cost 7-Jan-98 Wednesday £ 30. Excel will use 1. To show the result as the name of the day. 1 : will set Sunday as 1 through to Saturday as 7 2 : will set Monday as 1 through to Sunday as 7. The hotel charged different rates depending upon which day of the week the booking was for. Example The following table was used by a hotel which rented a function room.00 =LOOKUP(WEEKDAY(C34). The Booking Date is entered. use Format. 3 : will set Monday as 0 through to Sunday as 6.2) =WEEKDAY(C8.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . It then calculates the position of the month in the list. they are part of the illustration.FALSE) What Does It Do ? This function scans down the row headings at the side of a table to find a specified item. The ColumnToPickFrom is how far across the table the function should look to pick from. Unfortunately. The RangeToLookIn is the range of data with the row headings at the left hand side. so and extra 1 is added to compensate. Bob Eric Alan Jan 10 20 30 Feb 80 90 100 Mar 97 69 45 . Example 1 This table is used to find a value based on a specified name and month. Formatting No special formatting is needed. The =VLOOKUP() uses FALSE at the end of the function to indicate to Excel that the row headings are not sorted. Syntax =VLOOKUP(ItemToFind. TRUE for yes. To solve the problem the =MATCH() function is used.RangeToLookIn. The Sorted/Unsorted is whether the column headings are sorted. col 1 col 2 col 3 col 4 col 5 col 6 Jan Feb Mar 10 80 97 20 90 69 30 100 45 40 110 51 50 120 77 Type a month to look for : Which column needs to be picked out : The result is : Feb 4 100 =VLOOKUP(G11. FALSE for no. The problem arises when we need to scan across to find the month column.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J VLOOKUP Page 38 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 The column numbers are not needed. it then scans across to pick a cell entry.G12. When the item is found. The =MATCH() looks through the list of names to find the month we require. because the list of months is not as wide as the lookup range. The =VLOOKUP() now uses this =MATCH() number to look across the columns and picks out the correct cell entry.ColumnToPickFrom. the =MATCH() number is 1 less than we require.SortedOrUnsorted) The ItemToFind is a single item specified by the user.C6:H8. The =VLOOKUP() is used to scan down to find the name.

The Orders Table is used to enter the orders and calculate the Total. Maker Vauxhall VW Ford VW Ford Ford Vauxhall Ford Spare Ignition GearBox Engine Steering Ignition CYHead GearBox Engine Cost Lookup Table £50 Vauxhall Ford VW £600 GearBox 500 450 600 £1. This ensures that when the formula is copied to more cells. The FALSE option has been used at the end of the function to indicate that the product names down the side of the Unit Cost Table are not sorted.0)+1.2000 Peter Noneley A 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 B C Carol David D 40 50 E 110 120 F 51 77 eric mar G H I J VLOOKUP Page 39 of 223 K Type a name to look for : Type a month to look for : The result is : 69 =VLOOKUP(F56.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D49:F49. If a match is not found. The =VLOOKUP() scans down row headings in column F for the spare part entered in column C.200 Engine 1000 1200 800 £275 Steering 250 350 275 £70 Ignition 50 70 45 £290 CYHead 300 290 310 £500 £1. The Unit Cost of the item is then looked up in the Unit Cost Table. Using TRUE will allow the function to make an approximate match. the =VLOOKUP() then scans across to find the price.2. =VLOOKUP(C126.G74:I74.FALSE) Example 2 This example shows how the =VLOOKUP() is used to pick the cost of a spare part for different makes of cars. Wood and Glass.200 =VLOOKUP(C81.C114:D116. the function will produce an error. The TRUE option has been used at the end of the function to indicate that the values down the side of the Discount Table are sorted. The functions use the absolute ranges indicated by the dollar symbol .MATCH(B81.FALSE) Example 3 In the following example a builders merchant is offering discount on large orders.0)+1. When the make is found. If the Quantity Ordered does .F75:I79. All the calculations take place in the Orders Table. the ranges for =VLOOKUP() and =MATCH() do not change.C50:F54. using the result of the =MATCH() function to find the position of the make of car. The name of the Item is typed in column C of the Orders Table.MATCH(F57. The Discount Table holds the various discounts for different quantities of each product. Using the FALSE option forces the function to search for an exact match. The Unit Cost Table holds the cost of 1 unit of Brick.FALSE) The discount is then looked up in the Discount Table If the Quantity Ordered matches a value at the side of the Discount Table the =VLOOKUP will look across to find the correct discount.

0)+1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .G113:I113. the next lowest value is used.275 Formula for : Unit Cost =VLOOKUP(C126.2000 Peter Noneley A 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 B C D E F G H I not match a value at the side of the Discount Table.G113:I113. =VLOOKUP(D126.C114:D116.TRUE) Discount Table Wood Glass 0% 0% 0% 6% 3% 12% 8% 5% 15% J VLOOKUP Page 40 of 223 K Unit Cost Table Brick £2 Wood £1 Glass £3 Brick 1 100 300 Item Brick Wood Glass Brick Wood Glass Units 100 200 150 225 50 500 Orders Table Unit Cost Discount £2 6% £1 3% £3 12% £2 6% £1 0% £3 15% Total £188 £194 £396 £423 £50 £1.0)+1.2.F114:I116.MATCH(C126.F114:I116.FALSE) Discount =VLOOKUP(D126.TRUE) Total =(D126*E126)-(D126*E126*F126) . Trying to match an order of 125 will drop down to 100. and the discount from the 100 row is used.MATCH(C126.

0) This looks down the Machine column to =INDEX(C32:C34.1875 =VARP(C4:C7) Values 10 10 11 10 0.0125 The smallest variance is : 0. =(MIN(H32:H34) This finds the position of the lowest value.5 0.0050 1.MATCH(MIN(H32:H34).H32:H34.6 1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .0019 1.1875 =VARP(E4:E7) Values 10 11 9 12 1. Syntax =VARP(Range1.4 1.0)) find the machine name.0019 Machine 1 Machine 2 Machine 3 =VARP(D32:G32) =VARP(D33:G33) =VARP(D34:G34) =MIN(H32:H34) The machine with the smallest variance is : Machine 2 =INDEX(C32:C34. =MATCH(MIN(H32:H34).4 1. The machine with the smallest variance was the most consistent.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J VARP Page 41 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Values 10 10 9 10 0.H32:H34.0)) Explanation of formula: This finds the lowest value.7 1.5 1.H32:H34. Soap Powder Box Filling Machine Test Results Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Variance 1.8 0.Range3 through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.MATCH(MIN(H32:H34).6 1. .5 0.5 1. The boxes were weighed and the =VARP() function used as these boxes represented the entire test run.25 =VARP(G4:G7) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the variance of a list of values.5 1. The variance is calculated on the basis that the values represent the entire population. Example The table below was used by a company interested in buying a new machine to pack washing powder.5 1.Range2. A trial run a just four boxes per machine were produced.

The machine with the smallest variance was the most consistent.4 1.25 =VAR(E4:E7) Values 10 11 9 12 1.H34:H36.Range2. .0) This looks down the Machine column to =INDEX(C34:C36. =MIN(H34:H36) This finds the position of the lowest value. The boxes were weighed and the =VAR() function used as these boxes only represented a sample of the complete days production.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . A sample population is used when the list of values represents a sample of a population. Three machines were short listed and allow to run for a day.0167 The smallest variance is : 0. =MATCH(MIN(H34:H36).5 0.0)) Explanation of formula: This finds the lowest value.0067 1.25 =VAR(C4:C7) Values 10 10 11 10 0.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J VAR Page 42 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 Values 10 10 9 10 0.MATCH(MIN(H34:H36).5 0.6 1.5 1.0025 Machine 1 Machine 2 Machine 3 =VAR(D34:G34) =VAR(D35:G35) =VAR(D36:G36) =MIN(H34:H36) The machine with the smallest variance is : Machine 2 =INDEX(C34:C36.4 1. Example The table below was used by a company interested in buying a new machine to pack washing powder.6 1.MATCH(MIN(H34:H36).Range3 through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Syntax =VAR(Range1.0)) find the machine name.5 1.H34:H36.8 0.6666667 =VAR(G4:G7) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the sample population variance of a list of values.0025 1.7 1.5 1.5 1. Soap Powder Box Filling Machine Test Results Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Variance 1.H34:H36. At the end of the day four boxes of soap powder were picked at random from the production of each machine.

5)) =VALUE(MID(C17. There is no way to identify the beginning of the value. 1 Only a 2% increase in sales.02 There was a 50% increase in sales. To extract the values from the following text is complicated! The actual percentage value is of variable length. Now when the extraction takes place any unnecessary characters will be spaces which are ignored by the =VALUE() function. two or three digits long. The winning time was 0:30 seconds.5)) =VALUE(MID(C16. 0.5 A 100% increase was achieved. =VALUE(MID(SUBSTITUTE(C11. =MID().Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .SEARCH("£". The result will be shown as a value. 0.SEARCH("??:??". 0.SEARCH("??:??". There was a 100% increase in sales. The same will be true for other recognised formats. it can be either one. If the original text format appears as a time hh:mm the result will be a time. If the extraction assumes the maximum length of three digits and the % sign. There was a 2% increase in sales. =SUBSTITUTE.5)) What Does It Do ? This function converts a piece of text which resembles a number into an actual value. the result will be a decimal fraction which can then be formatted as a percentage. To get around the problem the =SUBSTITUTE() function was used to increase the size of the spaces in the text." ".SEARCH("??:??".SUBSTITUTE(C11. =FIND(). If the £ sign is included in the text it will be ignored. The main problem is calculating the length of the value to extract.5)) =VALUE(MID(C15. The winning time was 1:30 seconds. =LEFT() or =RIGHT().SEARCH("??:??". 0. 100% * See explanation below.SEARCH("???%".C16). Syntax =VALUE(TextToConvert) Formatting No special formatting is needed.4)) =VALUE(MID(C14.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H VALUE Page 43 of 224 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 Text Containing A Number Annual turnover was £5000 Value #VALUE! =VALUE(MID(C4." "). based upon the original text. Explanation of formula shown above. If the % sign is included in the text." ".C17). If the number in the middle of a long piece of text it will have to be extracted using other text functions such as =SEARCH(). other than it is preceded by a space.C15). as alphabetic characters will be included.02 0. 2% Approx 50% increase in sales." The winning time was 1:30 seconds.99)) There was a 2% increase in sales. The only way to identify the value is the fact it always ends with the % sign.5 1 .0625 1:30 10:30 0:30 ")). The winning time was 10:30 seconds. 50% There was a 100% increase in sales. errors will occur when the percentage is only one digit long.C4).C14). There was a 50% increase in sales.

SEARCH("???%"." D E F G H "))." ." ".2000 Peter Noneley A B 53 54 C =VALUE(MID(SUBSTITUTE(C52.4)) VALUE Page 44 of 224 I ").Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 ." ".SUBSTITUTE(C52.

Syntax =UPPER(TextToConvert) Formatting No special formatting is needed.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . . Example See the example for FREQUENCY.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H UPPER Page 45 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Original Text alan jones bob smith carOl wiLLiamS cardiff abc123 Upper Case ALAN JONES BOB SMITH CAROL WILLIAMS CARDIFF ABC123 =UPPER(C4) =UPPER(C5) =UPPER(C6) =UPPER(C7) =UPPER(C8) What Does It Do ? This function converts all characters in a piece of text to upper case.

D11) 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Number 1.D4) 1 1.4 =TRUNC(C7.Precision) Formatting No special formatting is needed.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .47589 -1. Syntax =TRUNC(NumberToTuncate.D5) 2 1.48 13643.D7) 2 -1.D8) -1 13640 =TRUNC(C9.47589 13643.48 13643.47589 1.D9) -2 13600 =TRUNC(C10.47589 -1.D6) 1 -1.47 =TRUNC(C8.4 =TRUNC(C5.47589 1.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J TRUNC Page 46 of 223 K 1 2 Precision For Truncated Truncation Number 0 1 =TRUNC(C4. .48 What Does It Do ? This function removes the decimal part of a number. it does not actually round the number.D10) -3 13000 =TRUNC(C11.47 =TRUNC(C6.

. The spaces before and after the text will be removed completely. Multiple spaces within the text will be trimmed to a single space Syntax =TRIM(TextToTrim) Formatting No special formatting is needed.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I TRIM Page 47 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Original Text ABCD A B C D Alan Jones ABCD Trimmed Text ABCD ABCD Alan Jones ABCD =TRIM(C4) =TRIM(C5) =TRIM(C6) =TRIM(C7) What Does It Do ? This function removes unwanted spaces from a piece of text.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

E5:E10)} {=TREND(C5:C10.997 {=TREND(C8:C13. The months to predict were entered. To prove to the bank that.B5:B10.500 7 -£4.500 4 £3.500 5 £3.500 12 -£2. The prediction is based upon the Linear Trend of the original values.KnownXs.000 3 £2. such as Sales Figures. Syntax =TREND(KnownYs.Constant) The KnownYs is the range of values.800 Predicted Values Month Profit 13 -£2.B5:B10.750 5 -£4. 13 to 24.E5:E10)} {=TREND(C5:C10. months 1 to 12. the =TREND() function was used.B5:B10. such as Months.800 6 -£4. based upon the past years performance.000 8 -£3.968 15 -£1.226 14 -£1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .600 4 -£4.800 6 £4.E5:E10)} {=TREND(C5:C10.B5:B10.E8:E13)} {=TREND(C5:C10.300 10 -£2.800 9 -£3.000 Predicted Values Month Sales 7 £4.800 3 -£4.551 9 £6.B5:B10. Their bank manager had told the company that unless they could show a profit by the end of the next year. The =TREND() function shows that it will be month 22 before the company make a profit.E41:E52)} The same function used in all cells as an array formula .163 10 £6.RequiredXs.193 18 -£935 19 -£676 20 -£418 21 -£160 22 £98 23 £356 24 £615 {=TREND(C41:C52.E5:E10)} What Does It Do ? This function predicts values based upon three sets of related values. The historical data for the past year was entered. Example The following tables were used by a company to predict when they would start to make a profit.774 11 £7.940 8 £5.000 2 -£4.386 12 £7. The function is an array function and must be entered using Ctrl+Shift+Enter.000 11 -£2.000 2 £2.451 17 -£1. such as Months. The RequiredXs is the range for which you want to make the prediction.709 16 -£1. the company would start to make a profit at the end of the next year. The KnownXs is the intervals used when collecting the data. the bank would no longer provide an overdraft facility.B8:B13. Historical Data Month Profit 1 -£5.E5:E10)} {=TREND(C5:C10.B41:B52.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J TREND Page 48 of 224 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 Historical Data Month Sales 1 £1. Formatting No special formatting is needed.

Hold the Ctrl+Shift keys down. . but do not press Enter.2000 Peter Noneley A 53 54 55 56 57 58 B C D E F G H I J TREND Page 49 of 224 K How To Enter An Array Formula Select all the cells where the array is required. Press Enter to enter the formula as an array. such as F41 to F52.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Type the formula such as =TREND(C41:C52.B41:B52.E41:E52).

If changes need to be made to the formula. such as =TRANSPOSE(A1:A5). Syntax =TRANSPOSE(Range) Formatting No special formatting is needed. the edits can then be made and the Ctrl+Shift+Enter used to confirm it.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The transpose range must be the same size as the original range. and the data originally in rows is in columns. Next type the formula.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J TRANSPOSE Page 50 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 Alan Bob Carol Total 0 Jan Feb Jan 10 40 70 120 Alan 10 30 Feb 30 50 80 160 Bob 40 50 Carol 70 80 Total 120 160 {=TRANSPOSE(C3:E7)} As an array formula in all these cells What Does It Do ? This function copies data from a range. . and places in it in a new range. To enter an array formula you must first highlight all the cells where the formula is required. turning it so that the data originally in columns is now in rows. the entire array has to be highlighted. Finally press Ctrl+Shift+Enter to confirm it. The function needs to be entered as an array formula.

Syntax =TODAY() Formatting The result will normally be displayed using the DD-MMM-YY format. Example The following example shows how the Today function is used to calculate the number of days since a particular day.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G TODAY Page 51 of 223 H 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 Today Is 20-Jun-13 =TODAY() What Does It Do? Use this to show the current date.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Year 2000 ########## Days Until -4919 =C36-TODAY() . Date 1-Jan-97 10-Aug-97 Days Since 6015 5794 =TODAY()-C28+1 =TODAY()-C29+1 Example The following example shows the number of days from today until the year 2000. Date 1-Jan-97 10-Aug-97 Days Since 6014 5793 =TODAY()-C20 =TODAY()-C21 Note that the result is actually the number of days before todays date. To calculate a result which includes the current date an extra 1 will need to be added.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =TIMEVALUE(Text) Formatting The result will be shown as a number representing the time a fraction of the day. such as from mainframe computers. Formatting can be applied for either the 12 or 24 hour clock system. which convert all values to text. . It is useful when data is imported from other applications.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G TIMEVALUE Page 52 of 223 H I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Text 14:30:59 14:30:59 14:30:59 Time 0.604849537 14:30:59 2:30:59 PM =TIMEVALUE(C4) =TIMEVALUE(C5) =TIMEVALUE(C6) What Does It Do? This function will show an actual time based on a piece of text which looks like a time.

2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I TIME Page 53 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Hour 14 14 14 Minute 30 30 30 Second 59 59 59 Time 14:30:59 2:30:59 PM 0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .E4) =TIME(C5.60485 =TIME(C4.Second) Formatting The result will be shown as a time which can be formatted either as 12 or 24 hour style. Syntax =TIME(Hour.E6) What Does It Do? This function will convert three separate numbers to an actual time.D5.D4. If a normal number format is applied a decimal fraction is shown which represents the time as a fraction of the day. .D6.Minute.E5) =TIME(C6.

3 =TEXT(C4."0.25 10.0") =TEXT(C9.3 £10. . The formatting for the text needs to be specified in the function."£0") =TEXT(C8.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I TEXT Page 54 of 223 J K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Original Number 10 10 10 10 10."£0.00") =TEXT(C6.00 £10.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .FormatForConversion) Formatting No special formatting is required.00 10 £10 10.00") =TEXT(C5."0") =TEXT(C7.25 Converted To Text 10."0. Syntax =TEXT(NumberToConvert."£0.0") What Does It Do ? This function converts a number to a piece of text.

the result is a blank.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . then the text is the result of the function If the value is not text. . If the value is text.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J T Page 55 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Cell To Test Hello 10 1-Jan-98 Result Hello =T(D4) =T(D5) =T(D6) =T(D7) What Does It Do ? This function examines an entry to determine whether it is text or not. Syntax =T(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is needed. The function is not specifically needed by Excel. but is included for compatibility with other spreadsheet programs.

F4. year 2 is £3000 and year 1 is £1500. Example 1 Purchase Price Of A Car : Salvage Value : Expected Life in Years : Depreciation in Year 1 : Depreciation in Year 2 : Depreciation in Year 3 : £10.166667 1.4) =SYD(F3.5 0.1 by £1500 to get £4500. 3.F5.857 £2.F5. The total depreciation of the item is then allocated on the basis of these percentages. £9.F4.3 becomes 3.F5. The depreciation is greatest in the earlier part of the items life.429 £2.000 £4. Invert the year digits.000 ===> £1. 33% being £3000. 2.5) =SYD(F3.143 £571 =SYD(F3. Divide the Total Deprectation by the SumOfTheYearsDigits.500 1 2 3 17% 33% 50% As the greater part of the depreciation is allocated to the earliest years the values are inverted.000 6 £3.000 £1. Multiply 3.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . 1.000 3 £4. year 1 is 17% 6.F4.1.000 £1. What is the Sum Of The Years Digits ? The sum of the years digits adds together the each of the years of the life. £9000/6=£1500. £1500.3) As % Of Total Depreciation 0.2) =SYD(F3. Subtract the Salvage from the Purchase Price to get Total Deprectation. 17% being £1500. these values are the depreciation .F4.F4. A depreciation of £9000 is allocated as 50% being £4500.286 £1. Year 3 is 50% of 6. Add together the digits of the Life to get the SumOfTheYearsDigits.500 ===> £3.F5. year 2 is 33% of 6. using the sum of the years digits.F4.F5.1) =SYD(F3.F5. 1+2+3=6. £10000-£1000=£9000.2.2.714 £1.000 =SUM(F7:F12) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the depreciation of an item throughout its life.6) £12. £3000.000 £8.E40.3) =SYD(F3.333333 0.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I SYD Page 56 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 Purchase Value Of A New Car Second Hand Value Number Of Years Ownership Deprecation in year 1 Deprecation in year 2 Deprecation in year 3 Deprecation in year 4 Deprecation in year 5 Deprecation in year 6 Total Depreciation : £20.2. 5. 4.500 ===> =SYD(E39.500 £3. Each of the years is then calculated as a percentage of the sum of the years.E41. year 1 is $4500. A life of 3 years has a sum of 1+2+3 equalling 6.

000 As % Of Total Depriciation 0.SalvageValue.4 0.600 £2.607 £1.000 £1.286 £964 £643 £321 As % Of Total Depriciation 25% 21% 18% 14% 11% 7% 4% £9.000 Syntax =SYD(OriginalCost.250 £1.000 4 £3.700 £1.2000 Peter Noneley A 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 B C D E F values for each of the three years in the life of the item.Life. Purchase Price Of A Car : Salvage Value : Expected Life in Years : Depreciation in Year 1 : Depreciation in Year 2 : Depreciation in Year 3 : Depreciation in Year 4 : Total Depreciation : £10. 100% .1 100% G H I SYD Page 57 of 223 J Example 3 This example will adjust itself to accommodate any number of years between 1 and 10.000 £1.3 0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2 0. Example 2 The same example using 4 years.PeriodToCalculate) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Purchase Price Of A Car : Salvage Value : Expected Life in Years (1 to 10) : Year Year Year Year Year Year Year Year Year Year 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 £10.000 7 £2.929 £1.800 £900 £9.

D35:D39) £9. The merchant needed to know the total purchase value of the stock. Product Red Wine White Wine Champagne Beer Lager Cases In Stock 10 8 5 50 100 Case Price £120 £130 £200 £24 £30 Bottles In Case 10 10 6 12 12 Bottle Cost Markup £12.40 £3.790 =SUMPRODUCT(C35:C39. to calculate the potential value of the stock if it is all sold.H35:H39) £2. The =SUMPRODUCT() function is used to multiply the Cases In Stock with the Bottles In Case and the Bottle Setting Price.350 =E44-E43 . and the potential value of the stock when it is sold.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .25 £60. Syntax =SUMPRODUCT(Range1.33 80% £2.00 20% £2. Example The following table was used by a drinks merchant to keep track of stock.440 =SUMPRODUCT(C35:C39. The values in the first column are multipled with the corresponding value in the second column. The total of all the values is the result of the calculation. Range3 through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.E4:E6) Total Sales Value : What Does It Do ? This function uses at least two columns of values.00 25% £33. Range. takinging into account the markup percentage.00 £16.E35:E39.00 25% £13.50 25% =D39/E39 Bottle Selling Price £15.00 £2.13 =F39+F39*G39 Total Value Of Stock : Total Selling Price Of Stock : Profit : £7.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I SUMPRODUCT Page 58 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 Item Tyres Filters Bulbs Sold 5 2 3 price 100 10 2 526 =SUMPRODUCT(D4:D6. The =SUMPRODUCT() function is used to multiply the Cases In Stock with the Case Price to calculate what the merchant spent in buying the stock.

It then totals the respective figures in E4:E12 This examines the values in E4:E12."Brakes".E18."Tyres".RangeOfValuesToTotal) =SUMIF(C4:C12.CriteriaToBeMatched.">=100") Formatting No special formatting is needed. Total cost of all Tyres bought. .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I SUMIF Page 59 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 Item Brakes Tyres Brakes Service Service Window Tyres Tyres Clutch Date 1-Jan-98 10-May-98 1-Feb-98 1-Mar-98 5-Jan-98 1-Jun-98 1-Apr-98 1-Mar-98 1-May-98 Cost 80 25 80 150 300 50 200 100 250 160 325 1000 service 450 =SUMIF(C4:C12. It then identifies the entries for Brakes."Brakes".E4:E12) =SUMIF(E4:E12. Total of item typed in following cell. =SUMIF(E4:E12.E4:E12) Total cost of all Brakes bought.E4:E12) =SUMIF(C4:C12. If the value is >=100 the value is added to the total.E4:E12) This examines the names of products in C4:C12. What Does It Do ? This function adds the value of items which match criteria set by the user. Total of items costing £100 or above.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =SUMIF(RangeOfThingsToBeExamined.">=100") =SUMIF(C4:C12.

The =OFFSET() picks out a cell a certain number of cells away from another cell.0.1):OFFSET(E45.0. such as the last 3 months in relation to the current date.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J SUM_with_OFFSET Page 60 of 223 K L 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 Sometimes it is necessary to base a calculation on a set of cells in different locations. 410 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(E29:OFFSET(E29. A better way is to indicate the start and end point of the range to be calculated by using the =OFFSET() function.0. the first offset is offset by 1 column. 910 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(E34:OFFSET(E34. A cell address to use as the fixed point from where it should base the offset. 900 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(OFFSET(E51.2)) The cell E51 has been used as the starting point of both offsets.2)) This example uses E34 as the starting point and offsets 2 cols to pick out cell G34 resulting in a the range E34:G34 being summed. 2. 1500 10 400 500 600 700 . By giving the =OFFSET() the address of the first cell in the range which needs to be totalled. How many rows it should look up or down from the starting point. the second by 2 columns. How many columns it should look left or right from the starting point. One solution would be to retype the calculation each time new data is entered. The result is that just cell F45 is used as the range F45:F45 for the sum function to calculate.1):OFFSET(E51. but this would be time consuming and open to human error. The result is the range F51:G51 which is then totalled.0. 3. Total Jan Feb Mar Apr May 400 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(OFFSET(E45.0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .1)) This example uses E29 as the starting point and offsets 1 col to pick out cell F29 resulting in a the range E29:F29 being summed. 1.0)) This example uses E24 as the starting point and offsets no rows or columns which results in the range being summed as E24:E24. The =OFFSET() needs to know three things.0. Using =OFFSET() Twice In A Formula The following examples use =OFFSET() to pick both the start and end of the range which needs to be totalled. we can then indicate how far away the end cell should be and the =OFFSET() will give us the address of cell which will be the end of the range to be totalled.1)) The cell E45 has been used as the starting point for both offsets and each has been offset by just 1 column. An example would be when a total is required from certain months of the year.0. Total Jan Feb Mar Apr May 10 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(E24:OFFSET(E24.

These values are the 'offsets' relative to cell D79.2) : OFFSET(D79.0. the second by 3 columns. Type in the Start month. Total 900 1020 Jan-98 10 15 Feb-98 Mar-98 Feb-98 400 20 Mar-98 500 1000 Apr-98 600 2000 May-98 700 3000 13 5 3 10 800 900 =SUM(OFFSET(D79. To calculate the total of a specific group of months the =OFFSET() function has been used.1):OFFSET(E57. .0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .3) ) This shows where the month numbers are used in the =OFFSET function.0.0.0.0. In this example the values of the months are 2 and 3 for Feb and Mar.0. Formula 4 =SUM( F79:G79 ) This shows how the =OFFSET eventually equates to cell addresses to be used as a range for the =SUM function. Formula 1 =SUM( OFFSET(D79.MONTH(F72))) Explanation The following formula represent a breakdown of what the =OFFSET function does.0.MONTH(3)) ) This shows how the =MONTH function calculates the month number. J SUM_with_OFFSET Page 61 of 223 K L Example The following table shows five months of data. The result is the range F57:H57 which is then totalled. Formula 2 =SUM( OFFSET(D79. The formula displayed below are only dummies.0.2000 Peter Noneley A 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 B C D E F G H I =SUM(OFFSET(E57. the first offset is offset by 1 column.0.MONTH(2)) : OFFSET(D79. Formula 3 =SUM( OFFSET(D79.MONTH(F72)) ) This is the actual formula entered by the user.3)) The cell E57 has been used as the starting point for both offsets. The Start and End dates entered in cells F71 and F72 are used as the offset to produce a range which can be totalled.MONTH(F71)) : OFFSET(D79. Type in the End month.MONTH(F71)):OFFSET(D79. but they will update as you enter dates into cells F71 and F72.

Running Total 10 60 90 110 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Sales 10 50 30 20 =SUM(IF(D7.$D$7:D8. Each occurrence of the =SUM() then adds all the numbers from the first cell down. It works because the first reference uses dollar symbols $ to keep $D$7 static as the formula is copied down.0)) =SUM(IF(D12.0)) =SUM(IF(D10.$D$7:D10.$D$7:D9. .$D$7:D7. Otherwise the value 0 zero is entered.0)) =SUM(IF(D8.0)) =SUM(IF(D9.$D$7:D12.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The function can be tidied up to show 0 zero when there is no adjacent value by using the =IF() function.0)) =SUM(IF(D11.$D$7:D11.0)) The =SUM() only takes place when there is data in column D.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I SUM_as_Running_Total Page 62 of 223 J K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Using =SUM() For A Running Total Running Total 10 60 90 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Sales 10 50 30 20 =SUM($D$7:D7) =SUM($D$7:D8) =SUM($D$7:D9) =SUM($D$7:D10) =SUM($D$7:D11) =SUM($D$7:D12) =SUM($D$7:D13) =SUM($D$7:D14) =SUM($D$7:D15) =SUM($D$7:D16) =SUM($D$7:D17) =SUM($D$7:D18) Type the formula =SUM($D$7:D7) in cell E7 and then copy down the table.

This example shows how the SUM has been combined with plus + symbols. It can be used either horizontally or vertically.E17:E19) 100 200 300 400 500 600 800 =SUM(AVERAGE(C23:C25).Range2.. Note Many people use the =SUM() function incorrectly.MAX(E23:E25)) What Does It Do ? This function creates a total from a list of numbers. ranges are from other functions..2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J SUM Page 63 of 224 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 Horizontal 100 Vertical 100 200 300 600 200 300 600 =SUM(C4:E4) =SUM(C7:C9) Single Cells 100 200 Multiple Ranges 100 200 3000 300 600 =SUM(C13. The formula is actually doing more work than needed. The numbers can be in single cells.Range3.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =SUM(Range1. It should have been entered as either =C48+C49+C50 or =SUM(C48:C50). 100 200 300 600 =SUM(C48+C49+C50) =SUM(C48:C50) Wrong! Correct .E13) 400 500 600 4800 Functions =SUM(C17:C19.D14. through to Range30). Formatting No special formatting is needed.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 53 B C D E =C48+C49+C50 F G Correct H I J SUM Page 64 of 224 K .

E10) =SUBSTITUTE(B11. Note To cope with upper or lower case in the substitution you can use other text functions such as =UPPER().E11) What Does It Do ? This function replaces a specified piece of text with a different piece of text. Syntax =SUBSTITUTE(OriginalText.C4.InstanceToUse) The InstanceToUse is optional. It can either replace all occurrences of the text.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . =LOWER() or =PROPER() to ensure that the substitution will take place.C7.D10. or a specific instance. if it is omitted all instances will be substituted.D5) =SUBSTITUTE(B6.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H SUBSTITUTE Page 65 of 224 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 Old Text New Text To Remove To Insert Original Text ABCDEF CD hello ABCDABCD CD hello Northern Region Region Area Sand and Cement and & Old Text New Text To Remove To Insert Original Text ABCABCABC ABC hello Sand and Cement and & Updated Text ABhelloEF ABhelloABhello Northern Area S& & Cement Instance To Be Replaced 3 2 =SUBSTITUTE(B4.C11.C10. Table 2 Original Text Northern Region Northern region Old Text New Text To Remove To Insert Region Area Region Area Updated Text Northern Area Northern Area .TextToRemove.C6. Table 1 Original Text Northern Region Northern region Northern Region Northern Region Northern Region Old Text New Text To Remove To Insert Updated Text Region Area Northern Area Region Area Northern region region Area Northern Region Region area Northern area region area Northern Region =SUBSTITUTE(B39.D4) =SUBSTITUTE(B5.D7) Updated Text ABCABChello Sand & Cement =SUBSTITUTE(B10.D11. The function is case sensitive.C5. Formatting No special formatting is needed.C39.TextToInsert.D39) Table 2 shows how the =PROPER() function has been used to take account of the mixed cases.D6) =SUBSTITUTE(B7. Table 1 shows how differing text cases alter the result of the substitution.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .PROPER(D50)) H SUBSTITUTE Page 66 of 224 I .PROPER(C50).2000 Peter Noneley A 48 49 50 51 B Northern Region Northern Region Northern Region C D E F G region Area Northern Area Region area Northern Area region area Northern Area =SUBSTITUTE(PROPER(B50).

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .433013 =STDEVP(C4:C7) Values 10 10 11 10 0.4 1. =(MIN(H32:H34) This finds the position of the lowest value. . ???????????????????? Soap Powder Box Filling Machine Test Results Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Variance 1. =MATCH(MIN(H32:H34).0)) find the machine name.5 1.433013 =STDEVP(E4:E7) Values 10 11 9 12 1. The result is calculated on the basis that the values represent the entire population.Range2.H32:H34. Syntax =STDEVP(Range1.H32:H34.0433 1.Range3 through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.H32:H34.0) This looks down the Machine column to =INDEX(C32:C34.1118 The smallest variance is : 0.8 0. Example The table below was used by a company interested in buying a new machine to pack washing powder. The boxes were weighed and the =STDEVP() function used as these boxes represented the entire test run.4 1.118034 =STDEVP(G4:G7) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the standard deviation of a list of values.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J STDEVP Page 67 of 223 K L 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 Values 10 10 9 10 0.5 1.MATCH(MIN(H32:H34).7 1.MATCH(MIN(H32:H34).6 1.0433 Machine 1 Machine 2 Machine 3 =STDEVP(D32:G32) =STDEVP(D33:G33) =STDEVP(D34:G34) =MIN(H32:H34) The machine with the smallest variance is : Machine 2 =INDEX(C32:C34.5 1.5 1. The machine with the smallest variance was the most consistent.5 0.6 1. A trial run of just four boxes per machine were produced.0707 1.0)) Explanation of formula: This finds the lowest value.5 0.

Range3 through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.0500 Machine 1 Machine 2 Machine 3 =STDEV(D34:G34) =STDEV(D35:G35) =STDEV(D36:G36) =MIN(H34:H36) The machine with the smallest deviation is : Machine 2 =INDEX(C34:C36.4 1. =MIN(H34:H36) This finds the position of the lowest value.6 1.5 =STDEV(C4:C7) Values 10 10 11 10 0.0816 1.H34:H36. Soap Powder Box Filling Machine Test Results Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Variance 1.6 1.H34:H36.5 0.Range2.0) This looks down the Machine column to =INDEX(C34:C36. Three machines were short listed and allow to run for a day.8 0.5 1.5 0.1291 The smallest deviation is : 0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J STDEV Page 68 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 Values 10 10 9 10 0.0500 1. Syntax =STDEV(Range1.MATCH(MIN(H34:H36). =MATCH(MIN(H34:H36).2909944 =STDEV(G4:G7) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the sample population standard deviation of a list of values. The boxes were weighed and the =STDEV() function used as these boxes only represented a sample of the complete days production.5 1.5 1.H34:H36. The machine with the smallest deviation was the most consistent.0)) find the machine name. .5 =STDEV(E4:E7) Values 10 11 9 12 1. A sample population is used when the list of values represents a sample of a population.0)) Explanation of formula: This finds the lowest value.MATCH(MIN(H34:H36).7 1. Example The table below was used by a company interested in buying a new machine to pack washing powder.4 1.5 1. At the end of the day four boxes of soap powder were picked at random from the production of each machine.

Sales North South East West Jan £5.5) What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of values and picks the value at a user specified position in the list.3) Lowest Value 2nd Lowest Value 3rd Lowest Value Note Another way to find the Highest and Lowest values would have been to use the =MAX() and =MIN() functions.000 £2.000 £6.800 £3.000 £2.000 £10.000 £2. Feb and Mar.000 £3.000 =MAX(D24:F27) =MIN(D24:F27) .000 £3.2) =SMALL(D24:F27.500 £12.000 =SMALL(D24:F27.000 £5.000 £7.1) =SMALL(C4:C8.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .1) =SMALL(D24:F27.500 £3.4) =SMALL(C4:C8.000 £4. Syntax =SMALL(ListOfNumbersToExamine.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I SMALL Page 69 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 Values 120 800 100 120 250 Lowest Value 2nd Lowest Value 3rd Lowest Value 4th Lowest Value 5th Lowest Value 100 120 120 250 800 =SMALL(C4:C8.2) =SMALL(C4:C8. Highest Lowest £12. Example The following table was used to calculate the bottom 3 sales figures between Jan.000 Feb £6.PositionToPickFrom) Formatting No special formatting is needed.500 Mar £4.3) =SMALL(C4:C8.

000.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .£8.F4. then kept it for 6 years. The Straight Line Depreciation is how much the value of an item reduced during a specific period of time.000 . be for that time.000 6 £2.F11) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the Straight Line Depreciation of an item. The difference between the original and the trade in price is £20.000 £2. days. However. the SLN which is calculated will.SellingPrice. Because you owned the car for 6 years. . the SLN is calculated as £12.000 £8. The result is a uniform depreciation value.F10. (Also known as Fixed Instalment method). specifying 2 years ownership as 24 months will give an SLN per month. An example would be if you bought a new car for £20.000. At the end of your ownership you sell the car for £8.F5) Purchase Value Of A New Car Second Hand Value Number Of Years Ownership Annual Straight Line Depreciation £20.LengthOfOwnership) The LengthOfOwnership can be any time period. Formatting No special formatting is needed.000 / 6 which is £2.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I SLN Page 70 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Cost Salvage Life Straight Line Depreciation £12.000 which is £12.000.500 =SLN(F3.000 4 £2. Syntax =SLN(OriginalCost.000 =SLN(F9. months or years.000.

. Syntax =SIGN(CellToTest) The CellToTest can be a cell or a calculation. Formatting No special formatting is needed.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J SIGN Page 71 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Value 10 20 0 -10 -20 Positive or Negative 1 1 0 -1 -1 =SIGN(C4) =SIGN(C5) =SIGN(C6) =SIGN(C7) =SIGN(C8) What Does It Do ? This function tests a value to determine whether it is positive or negative. If the value is zero 0 the result is 0. If the value is positive the result is 1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . If the value is negative the result is -1.

Example The following table was used by a telephone compnay to calculate the cost of a call. Syntax =SECOND(Number) Formatting The result will be shown as a normal number between 0 and 59. Only the fraction part of the number is used as it is this which relates to time of day. The =SECOND() function calculates the total number of seconds.01 Duration 0:01:08 0:02:03 0:01:47 Billed Duration Minutes Seconds Cost 1 10 £0. The Cost of the call is then calculated.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .51 Second 47 0 0 24 24 =SECOND(C4) =SECOND(C5) =SECOND(C6) =SECOND(C7) =SECOND(C8) What Does It Do? The function will show the second of the minute based upon a time or a number.25 1 50 £1. The seconds in a call are rounded up to the nearest multiple of 5 before the bill is calculated.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H SECOND Page 72 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 Number 20/Jun/13 23:22:47 12:00:00 PM 0.5) .50 0. The Duration of the call is entered. The =MINUTES() function calculates the total number of minutes. Cost Per Second : £0.70 2 5 £1.51 1. The telephone company only deals in seconds which are a multiple of 5.10 =CEILING(SECOND(C36). The =CEILING() function rounds the seconds up to the nearest muliple of 5.

47589 13643.48 What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number up to a specified amount of decimal places.48 13643.D5) 2 1. If 0 is used the number is rounded up to the nearest whole number. .D9) 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Number 1. Syntax =ROUNDUPNumberToRound.5 =ROUNDUP(C5. If a negative amount of rounding is used the figures to the left of the decimal point are rounded.47589 1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J ROUNDUP Page 73 of 223 K 1 2 Places To Rounded Round Up 0 2 =ROUNDUP(C4.48 13643.DecimalPlacesToUse) Formatting No special formatting is needed.47589 1.D8) -3 14000 =ROUNDUP(C9.D7) -2 13700 =ROUNDUP(C8.48 =ROUNDUP(C6.D4) 1 1.D6) -1 13650 =ROUNDUP(C7.

If 0 is used the number is rounded down to the nearest whole number.47589 1.D7) -2 13600 =ROUNDDOWN(C8. .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J ROUNDDOWN Page 74 of 223 K 1 2 Places To Rounded Round Down 0 1 =ROUNDDOWN(C4.D6) -1 13640 =ROUNDDOWN(C7.4 =ROUNDDOWN(C5.D9) 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Number 1.48 What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number down to a specified amount of decimal places.48 13643.D8) -3 13000 =ROUNDDOWN(C9.D4) 1 1.DecimalPlacesToUse) Formatting No special formatting is needed. If a negative amount of rounding is used the figures to the left of the decimal point are rounded.47 =ROUNDDOWN(C6. Syntax =ROUNDDOWN(NumberToRound.D5) 2 1.48 13643.47589 1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .47589 13643.

47589 1.47589 13643.D6) -1 13640 =ROUND(C7.48 =ROUND(C6.D4) 1 1.D9) 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Number 1. If 0 is used the number is rounded to the nearest whole number.5 =ROUND(C5. .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I ROUND Page 75 of 223 J 1 2 Places To Rounded Round Number 0 1 =ROUND(C4.D5) 2 1.DecimalPlacesToUse) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Syntax =ROUND(NumberToRound.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .47589 What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number to a specified amount od decimal places. If a negative amount of rounding is used the figures to the left of the decimal point are rounded.47589 13643.D7) -2 13600 =ROUND(C8.47589 13643.47589 1.D8) -3 14000 =ROUND(C9.

TRUE is Classic FALSE is Simplified Formatting No special formatting is needed. 0 is Classic. Note There is no function to do the opposite calculation of Roman to normal. .RomanNumberFormat) The RomanNumberFormat can be any of the following.0) =ROMAN(C11. 4 is Simplified. 2 is even more Concise.4) =ROMAN(C15.TRUE) =ROMAN(C16.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I ROMAN Page 76 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 Number 1 2 3 5 10 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 Roman I II III V X MCMXCVIII MCMXCVIII MLMVLIII MXMVIII MVMIII MVMIII MCMXCVIII MVMIII =ROMAN(C4) =ROMAN(C5) =ROMAN(C6) =ROMAN(C7) =ROMAN(C8) =ROMAN(C9) =ROMAN(C10.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .3) =ROMAN(C14. 3 is even more Concise still.2) =ROMAN(C13.FALSE) What Does It Do ? This function produces a number shown as Roman numerals in various formats. Syntax =ROMAN(NormalNumber. This is used if no format is specified. 1 is more Concise.1) =ROMAN(C12.

The =FIND() function locates the position of the space between the first and second name.LEN(C30)-FIND(" ". Syntax =RIGHT(OriginalText.C29)) Carol Williams Williams =RIGHT(C30.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Full Name Second Name Alan Jones Jones =RIGHT(C28.D6) =RIGHT(C7.LEN(C28)-FIND(" ". The length of the second name is calculated by subtracting the position of the space from the overall length of the full name. Example The following table was used to extract the second name of a person from their full name.C28)) Bob Smith Smith =RIGHT(C29.D4) =RIGHT(C5.D8) What Does It Do ? This function displays a specified number of characters from the right hand side of a piece of text.D7) =RIGHT(C8.D5) =RIGHT(C6.LEN(C29)-FIND(" ".NumberOfCharactersRequired) Formatting No special formatting is needed.C30)) . The =RIGHT() function can then extract the second name.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I RIGHT Page 77 of 223 J 1 2 Original Text Alan Jones Alan Jones Alan Jones Cardiff ABC123 Number Of Characters Required 1 2 3 6 4 Right String s es nes ardiff C123 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 =RIGHT(C4.

"00") =REPT("|".Repetitions) The maximum number of repetitions is 200. The time functions of =HOUR(). Formatting No special formatting is needed.SECOND(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(SECOND(NOW()).D29/100) Example 2 The =REPT() function has been used to make a digital display for the current time. Syntax =REPT(TextToRepeat.000 |||||||||||||||||||| |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| =REPT("||". Clock Hour ||||||||||||||||||||||| 23 Minute |||||||||||||||||||||| 22 Second ||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 47 =REPT("|".000 £2.000 £5."00") .HOUR(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(HOUR(NOW()). =MINUTE() and =SECOND() have been used in conjunction with the =NOW() as the basis for the number of repeats. To update the clock press the function key F9.D4) =REPT(C5.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . You need to specify the text to be repeated and how many times to repeat it.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I REPT Page 78 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Text To Number Of Repeat Repeats A 3 AB 3 10 | 10 Repeated Text AAA ABABAB ---------|||||||||| =REPT(C4.000 £3.D5) =REPT(C6."00") =REPT("|". Example 1 The following table was used to display a simple histogram of sales figures.D6) =REPT(C7. The =REPT() function uses the value of Sales. but this is divided by 100 to scale down the number of repetitions to below the maximum of 200.D7) What Does It Do ? This function repeats a piece of text a specified number of times.MINUTE(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(MINUTE(NOW()). Month Jan Feb Mar Apr Sales £1.

2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I REPLACE Page 79 of 223 J 1 2 Start Characters New Modified Text Original Text Position To Replace Character ABCDEFGH 2 1 x AxCDEFGH =REPLACE(C4.F7) What Does It Do ? This function replaces a portion of text with a new piece of text. Syntax =REPLACE(OriginalText.E5.E4.F6) ABCDEFGH 2 5 hello AhelloGH =REPLACE(C7.NumberOfCharactersToReplace.NewText) Formatting No special formatting is needed.E7. how many characters to remove and what the new replacement text should be.E6.D7.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D6. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 .F5) ABCDEFGH 2 1 hello AhelloCDEFGH =REPLACE(C6.D4.F4) ABCDEFGH 2 5 x AxGH =REPLACE(C5.StartPosition. You need to specify where the replacement should start.D5.

C18:C22) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the position of a value in a list relative to the other values in the list. and the 10 would be ranked as 4.1) =RANK(C13.C11:C15.C18:C22) =RANK(C20.1) =RANK(C15. 20 and 10 were ranked.1) 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 Values 10 30 20 30 40 Ranking Position High to Low 5 2 4 2 1 =RANK(C18. .C11:C15. but would take into account the fact that there were duplicates.B34:B37) =RANK(B36. 20.C4:C8) =RANK(C8.1) =RANK(C12.RankOrder) The RankOrder can be 0 zero or 1.C4:C8) =RANK(C7.C4:C8) =RANK(C5. Formatting No special formatting is needed.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .C18:C22) =RANK(C22. Subsequent ranks would not follow on sequentially. If there are duplicate values in the list.C11:C15. they will be assigned the same rank.ListOfNumbers. If the numbers 30.1) =RANK(C14. Using 1 will rank small numbers at the top.C18:C22) =RANK(C21.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I RANK Page 80 of 223 J 1 2 Ranking Position High to Low 4 5 1 3 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Values 7 4 25 8 16 =RANK(C4. leaving it out has the same effect). The ranking can be done on an ascending (low to high) or descending (high to low) basis.B34:B37) =RANK(B37.C18:C22) =RANK(C19.B34:B37) =RANK(B35. Value 30 20 20 10 Rank 1 2 2 4 =RANK(B34.C4:C8) =RANK(C6. Using 0 will rank larger numbers at the top. 30 is ranked as 1.B34:B37) Syntax =RANK(NumberToRank.C11:C15.C11:C15. (This is optional.C4:C8) 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Values 7 4 25 8 16 Ranking Position Low to High 2 1 5 3 4 =RANK(C11. A typical usage would be to rank the times of athletes in a race to find the winner. both 20's are ranked as 2.

2000 Peter Noneley A 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 B C D E F G H I RANK Page 81 of 223 J Example The following table was used to record the times for athletes competing in a race.C53:C58.C53:C58. Athlete John Alan David Brian Sue Alex Time 1:30 1:45 1:02 1:36 1:27 1:03 Race Position 4 6 1 5 3 2 =RANK(C53.1) =RANK(C54.1) =RANK(C58.C53:C58.1) .1) =RANK(C56.1) =RANK(C57.C53:C58.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .C53:C58. The =RANK() function was then used to find their race positions based upon the finishing times.1) =RANK(C55.C53:C58.

=RANDBETWEEN($C$24.$D$24) =RANDBETWEEN($C$24.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I RANDBETWEEN Page 82 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 Low 5 1 High 10 49 Random 8 10 =RANDBETWEEN(C4.D5) What Does It Do ? This function produces a random whole number between two specified numbers."All OK")} This formula is used to determine whether all the numbers are different.$D$24) =RANDBETWEEN($C$24. The random number will change each time the spreadsheet is recalculated or F9 is pressed. Example The following table shows how the =RANDBETWEEN() has been used to generate six numbers to use for the National Lottery.D4) =RANDBETWEEN(C5. Note that the function does not check to ensure all numbers are unique.HighLimit) Formatting No special formatting is needed.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .$D$24) =RANDBETWEEN($C$24.$D$24) =RANDBETWEEN($C$24. .$D$24) =RANDBETWEEN($C$24. Syntax =RANDOMBETWEEN(LowLimit. The Winning Ticket! 12 37 25 27 5 31 5 Lottery Numbers 1 49 Press function Key F9 to recalculate.$D$24) =RANDBETWEEN($C$24.$D$24) Number 1 Number 2 Number 3 Number 4 Number 5 Number 6 Bonus ball Duplicates! Spin again {=IF(SUM(1/COUNTIF(E24:E30.E24:E30))<>7."Duplicates! Spin again". It is entered as an array using Ctrl+Shift+Enter. the same number could be generated twice or more.

0.453223261 =RAND() Random greater than or equal to 0 but less than 10 3.880733 0. The same technique has been used to generate a list of six winning lottery numbers.519056556 0.473038 0.069001197 0.224355105 0.630261457 0.388486235 0.873142917 .363691 0.638835567 0.712493 0.439062 0.947528 0.443951 0.373203 0.690419267 0.8935441 0.671998701 =RAND()*10 Random between 5 and 10. A list of cards has been entered in column C.644591 0. Sort or the Sort button the cards will be shuffled.467514511 0.145769 0.551706 0.916326 0. and =RAND() in column D.035501697 0.806220876 0.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I RAND Page 83 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 Random greater than or equal to 0 but less than 1.267704699 0.249575 0.597515797 =RAND()*(10-5)+5 What Does It Do ? This function creates a random number >=0 but <1.841377367 0.673395 Lottery 29 34 30 41 40 37 26 32 21 19 7 10 16 8 48 43 44 4 3 Random 0. or when F9 is pressed.941529 0.964919879 0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .934455763 0. 8.528029 0.198322178 0. Card Clubs 8 Clubs 6 Diamond 9 Spades 13 Clubs 9 Diamond 7 Diamond 4 Clubs 10 Spades 3 Hearts 6 Hearts 4 Diamond 8 Hearts 11 Clubs 3 Clubs 13 Spades 5 Diamond 3 Spades 2 Diamond 6 Random 0.445635 0.388484466 0.119692079 0.353366 0. By clicking inside the random numbers and then using Data. Syntax =RAND() Formatting No special formatting is needed. Examples The following examples show how the =RAND() function has been used to randomly sort list of information. The number will change each time the worksheet recalculates.615848 0.

899833353 0.173591822 0.436716121 0.76643572 0.073058 0.203983 0.693631948 0.486206 0.944999 0.493828608 0.023762 0.725933811 0.33341 0.145331042 0.934502 0.44169797 H I RAND Page 84 of 223 J .840473505 0.57746457 0.70385 0.803046437 0.734453878 0.833324 0.427921 0.316829 0.250206279 0.811291 0.242337 0.497593 0.482096 0.608786237 0.994264 0.93614077 0.260576744 0.569156 0.760078 0.887322418 0.048268848 0.176925 0.680551649 0.008624 0.857925 0.341591 0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .187773 0.416901326 0.901073279 0.595928961 0.981564 0.613898931 0.761369 0.943475922 0.864248 0.04004862 0.847947 0.2000 Peter Noneley A 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 B C Clubs 5 Spades 1 Clubs 12 Hearts 10 Hearts 13 Spades 7 Spades 6 Diamond 12 Hearts 3 Hearts 5 Hearts 8 Hearts 1 Diamond 13 Hearts 9 Clubs 4 Diamond 5 Spades 4 Clubs 1 Spades 8 Hearts 7 Diamond 1 Clubs 2 Hearts 2 Diamond 11 Clubs 7 Spades 12 Spades 10 Clubs 11 Diamond 2 Diamond 10 Spades 9 Spades 11 Hearts 12 D 0.816085 0.764172 E F 45 47 49 35 27 1 13 31 5 18 39 23 12 11 20 33 42 24 2 14 25 9 38 15 28 17 6 22 46 36 G 0.926912 0.416259 0.380512656 0.474732733 0.589579151 0.39646455 0.532669 0.50776 0.

2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G QUOTIENT Page 85 of 223 H 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 Number 12 20 46 Divisor 5 3 15 Result 2 6 3 =QUOTIENT(C4.75 12. It ignores any remainder.Divisor) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Syntax =QUOTIENT(NumberToBeDivided. Table 1 calculates the crates by simple division. Example The following example was used by a drinks merchant to calculate the number of crates which could be packed using bottles in stock.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .5 =D28/E28 Table 2 uses the =QUOTIENT() function to remove the decimal fraction to give the correct result.D6) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the number of times a number can be divided by another number.5 25 3.D5) =QUOTIENT(C6. This however shows decimal fractions which are not needed. The merchant can only sell full crates. only showing the whole number.D4) =QUOTIENT(C5. Table 1 Bottles To Pack Item Wine 126 Champagne 200 Rum 15 Beer 250 Bottles Per Crate 12 8 4 20 Crates Needed 10.E39) . Table 2 Bottles To Pack Item Wine 126 Champagne 200 Rum 15 Beer 250 Bottles Per Crate 12 8 6 20 Crates Needed 10 25 2 12 =QUOTIENT(D39.

Quartile 0 1 =QUARTILE(C4:C8. 3rd and 4th quarters of the data. Quartile 0 104 =QUARTILE(C12:F16.2.1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J K QUARTILE Page 86 of 223 L 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Values 1 25 50 75 100 Quarter No.H13) 2 489 =QUARTILE(C12:F16. Formatting No special formatting is needed.E8) Values 817 748 372 487 140 104 756 993 384 607 640 369 294 185 894 767 703 261 491 182 Quarter No.H12) 1 285.QuartileValue) The QuartileValue can only be 0.E6) 3 75 =QUARTILE(C4:C8. .75 =QUARTILE(C12:F16. The Quartile of 0 (zero) is actually lowest value.H14) 3 750 =QUARTILE(C12:F16. The Quartile of 4 is actually highest value.H16) What Does It Do ? This function examines a group of values and then shows the values which are of the upper limits of the 1st.E7) 4 100 =QUARTILE(C4:C8.E4) 1 25 =QUARTILE(C4:C8.E5) 2 50 =QUARTILE(C4:C8. which can be obtained using the =MAX() function.H15) 4 993 =QUARTILE(C12:F16. Syntax =QUARTILE(RangeToBeExamined.3 or 4. 2nd. which can be obtained using the =MIN() function.

Syntax =PROPER(TextToConvert) Formatting No special formatting is needed.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I PROPER Page 87 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Original Text alan jones bob smith caRol wILLIAMS cardiff ABC123 Proper Alan Jones Bob Smith Carol Williams Cardiff Abc123 =PROPER(C4) =PROPER(C5) =PROPER(C6) =PROPER(C7) =PROPER(C8) What Does It Do ? This function converts the first letter of each word to uppercase. . and all subsequent letters are converted to lower case.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

.Number2.Number2..10) =PRODUCT(C4:D6) What Does It Do ? This function multiples a group of numbers together. It is the same as using 2*3*5*10*3*7..) Formatting No special formatting is needed.D4) =PRODUCT(C5:D5) =PRODUCT(C6:D6.Range. Syntax =PRODUCT(Number1.Number3..2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I PRODUCT Page 88 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Numbers 2 5 3 3 10 7 Product 6 50 210 6300 =PRODUCT(C4..Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . through to Number30) or =PRODUCT(RangeOfNumbers) or =PRODUCT(Number1. which results in 6300.

50 =PI()*POWER(C22. Radius 5 25 Area 78.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I POWER Page 89 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Number 3 3 5 5 Power 2 4 2 4 Result 9 81 25 625 =POWER(C4. such as 3^4.Power) Formatting No special formatting is needed.2) .D7) What Does It Do ? This function raises a number to a user specified power. Both the POWER() function and the ^ operator are the same as using 3*3*3*3.D5) =POWER(C6. It is the same as using the ^ operator. Syntax =POWER(NumberToBeRaised.54 1963.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . which result is 81. Example To calculate the area of a circle.D6) =POWER(C7.D4) =POWER(C5.

14159265358979 =PI() What Does It Do ? This function is equal to the value of Pi. it is a self contained function.54 1963.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I PI Page 90 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 p 3. Example To calculate the area of a circle. Syntax =PI() Formatting No special formatting is needed.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . It is correct to 15 decimal places.50 =PI()*(C21^2) . Radius 5 25 Area 78. It does not need any input.

000 In the case of a two letter password made from the letter A. the following twelve permutations would be possible. C and D. ABCD Password 1 Password 2 Password 3 Password 4 Password 5 Password 6 AB AC AD BC BD CD Password 7 Password 8 Password 9 Password 10 Password 11 Password 12 BA CA DA CB DB DC .990. It could be used to calculate the possible number of 4 digit passwords from the digits 0 to 9. The internal order is significant.928. B. Syntax =PERMUT(PoolToPickFrom.ItemsInAGroup) Formatting No special formatting is needed.D7) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the maximum number of permutations given a fixed number of items.765.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H PERMUT Page 91 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 Pool Of Items 4 4 10 26 Items In A Group 2 3 4 6 Permutations 12 24 5040 165.D5) =PERMUT(C6.D4) =PERMUT(C5. Example The following table was used to calculate the total number of 8 letter passwords which can be created by using all 26 letters of the alphabet.D6) =PERMUT(C7. so AB and BA will be considered as two possible permutations. Letter In Alphabet 26 Password Size 8 Permutations 62.600 =PERMUT(C4.

350 £ 1.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I Ordering Stock Page 92 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 This is an example of a spreadsheet to calculate the best time interval to order stock.500 24.800 The Best Ordering Interval Best £75 12% 10 £25 0.450 1.500 9. The supplier of the Exhausts gives a discount on large orders.665 2.080 £ 1.000 4.675 1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .500 15.000 22.710 £ 1. Scenario A garage fits exhaust systems. (Expressed in Days) : Suppliers first Price Break and Discount% offered : Suppliers second Price Break and Discount% offered : Output Ordering Interval In Days 1 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 Annual Orders Admin Per Year Cost 365 £ 9.350 1. there is a fixed administrative cost.150 37 £ 925 31 £ 775 27 £ 675 23 £ 575 21 £ 525 19 £ 475 17 £ 425 16 £ 400 15 £ 375 14 £ 350 13 £ 325 12 £ 300 11 £ 275 11 £ 275 10 £ 250 10 £ 250 Annual Ware house Costs £ 45 £ 90 £ 180 £ 270 £ 360 £ 450 £ 540 £ 630 £ 720 £ 810 £ 900 £ 990 £ 1.500 21.315 1. Objective Find the time interval to order stock which will result in the lowest Admin and Warehouse costs.530 £ 1.300 61 £ 1.620 £ 1.480 1.525 46 £ 1.125 183 £ 4.375 1.000 Order Discount £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ 150 £ 165 £ 180 £ 195 £ 210 £ 225 £ 240 £ 255 £ 270 £ 285 £ 300 £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ Annual Total 9.575 92 £ 2.225 1. Keeping the exhausts in stock incurs a cost due to capital tied up and warehouse costs.300 1.000 7.000 13.295 1.5 2 200 750 1% 5% 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 Quantity Per Order 10 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ Order Value 750 1. Each time an order is made for new stock.000 19. The exhausts are kept in stock until needed.170 4.400 1.750 .000 16.500 30.335 1.000 28.550 1.625 1.305 1. Input Data Cost of a single Exhaust system : Cost of keeping Exhaust in stock.000 10. (As a % of the stock value) : Quantity of Exhausts used per day : Admin cost each time new Exhausts are ordered : Average quantity of Exhausts in stock (As % of ordered quantity) : Ordering Intervals to evaluate.000 25.440 £ 1.260 £ 1.500 1.500 3.250 1.170 £ 1.500 18.500 27.795 1. The manager orders the exhausts on a regular basis.500 6.510 1.500 12.

IF(B29>=$G$25.$H$24.520 2.000 40.$H$24. Calculation : QuantityOrdered * CostOfExhaust Column D Order Discount The discount which can be subtracted from the order value.925 2. zero discount is used.0)) If the OrderQuantity is equal to or above the second Price Break.$H$25.000 2.500 45.275 2.875 1.160 2. The discount is only given on orders which are equal to or greater than the Price Break values set by the supplier. The second cell picks the ordering interval from the Input Data table.500 39.890 1. Change the Quantity used per day to a larger or smaller number.000 37.2000 Peter Noneley A 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 B 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 580 600 C 31. =C29*IF(AND(B29>=$G$24. Change the Ordering Interval to 1 or 30. the second Price Break discount is used.250 2. If the OrderQuantity is equal to or above the first Price Break.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .$H$25.150 2.$H$24. then the first Price Break discount is used.800 1. Calculation : OrderValue * SupplierDiscount The supplier discount is calculated using the =IF() and the =AND() functions.0)) If the OrderQuantity does not qualify for a discount.$H$25.980 2.425 I - Ordering Stock Page 93 of 223 J 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ Things To Try Change the Discount % to 0% and 0%.IF(B29>=$G$25.500 33. Explanation Column A Ordering Interval In Days The first of these cells has the value 1 entered in it.000 43. This is the smallest ordering period.700 H 1.610 2. The third and subsequent cells add the ordering interval to the previous cell to create a list of values of the same interval. 0)) .B29<$G$25). =C29*IF(AND(B29>=$G$24. Change the Cost of the Exhaust making it cheaper or more expensive.IF(B29>=$G$25. but below the second Price Break.070 2. Column B Quantity Per Order This is the number of Exhausts which will need to be ordered.500 36.200 2.000 34.430 2. which would require stock to be ordered every day.340 2. =C29*IF(AND(B29>=$G$24.B29<$G$25).B29<$G$25).350 2. Calculation : OrderingInterval * QuantityUsedPerDay Column C Order Value This is the value of the Order before any discount.000 D 315 330 345 360 375 390 405 420 435 450 E 9 9 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 F £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ 225 225 200 200 200 200 175 175 175 175 £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ G 1.500 42.075 2.

It is based on the managers knowledge that on average the stock level is 50% of the quantity ordered. If the two values match the word Best is shown. as the manager only wants to know what the lowest values for the overheads associated with ordering and storing the exhaust systems. Calculation : AnnualAdminCosts + AnnualWarehouseCosts . However. It does not take in to account the actual costs of the Exhausts. such as 2. based upon how frequently the orders are made. giving the lowest annual overheads. Calculation : OrdersPerYear * AdminCost =E29*$G$20 Column G Annual Warehouse Costs This is the cost of keeping the stock in the warehouse.1) Column F Annual Admin Costs This is the administration costs involved in making the orders. Calculation : 365/OrderingInterval This calculation may give results which are decimal. With an interval of 1. The =CEILING() function has been used to 'round up' any decimals to the next highest whole number."-") I Ordering Stock Page 94 of 223 J 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 . due to the fact that the number of orders must always be a whole number. there will have to be 365 orders.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H Column E Orders Per Year This is how many orders will need to be made based upon the ordering interval."Best". =CEILING(365/A29.OrderDiscount =F29+G29-D29 Column I The Best Ordering Interval This shows the Best ordering interval. Calculation : QuantityOrdered * AverageStockLevel) * ExhaustCost * WarehousingCost =(B29*$G$21)*$G$17*$G$18 Column H Annual Total This is the full yearly cost of ordering the Exhausts. =IF(H29=MIN($H$29:$H$59). otherwise a dash is shown. the Discount figure is taken into account as this can be used to offset some of the overheads.3 This decimal will cause problems. It compares the value in column H against the minimum value for all of column H.

5.Test2) Note that there can be up to 30 possible tests.E27="Delta").E7="Delta").E4="Delta"). AB001 AB002 AB003 AB004 Cost 1000 1000 2000 5000 Payment Type Cash Visa Cheque Delta Handling Charge £ £ 5 £ £ 5 =IF(OR(E4="Visa".2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J OR Page 95 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Order No.0) =IF(OR(E5="Visa". Formatting When used by itself it will show TRUE or FALSE.0) What Does It Do? This function tests two or more conditions to see if any of them are true.5.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Payment Type Cash Visa Cheque Delta Handling Charge £ =IF(OR(E27="Visa".5.5.0) =IF(OR(E7="Visa".0) =IF(OR(E6="Visa". It can be used to test that at least one of a series of numbers meets certain conditions.E5="Delta"). Normally the OR() function would be used in conjunction with a function such as =IF(). Syntax =OR(Test1. The =OR() function has been used to determine whether the charge needs to be applied.0) £ 5 £ £ 5 Order No. A handling charge of £5 is made on all orders paid by Visa or Delta cards.E6="Delta").5. AB001 AB002 AB003 AB004 Cost 1000 1000 2000 5000 . Example The following table shows a list of orders taken by a company.

2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I ODD Page 96 of 223 J 1 2 Rounded To Next Odd 3 3 3 3 5 5 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Number 2 2. .9 3 3.4 3. Syntax =ODD(NumberToBeRounded) Formatting No special formatting is needed.4 2.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .9 =ODD(C4) =ODD(C5) =ODD(C6) =ODD(C7) =ODD(C8) =ODD(C9) What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number up to the next highest whole odd number.

97416 =NOW() What Does It Do? This function shows the current date and time. . Syntax =NOW() Formatting The result will be shown as a date and time.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H NOW Page 97 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 The current Date and Time 6/20/2013 23:22 =NOW() 41445. The result will be updated each time the worksheet is opened and every time an entry is made anywhere on the worksheet. If it is formatted to show as a number the integer part is used for the date and the decimal portion represent the time.

by adding the Loan value to the Taken date."Overdue". Example The following table was used by a library to track books borrowed. The period of the Loan is entered. If the book was not returned on time the result Overdue is shown. Formatting No special formatting is needed. the result is TRUE. Taken 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 Loan 14 14 14 Returned Status 5-Jan-98 OK 15-Jan-98 OK 20-Jan-98 Overdue =IF(NOT(D33<=B33+C33). The =NOT() function has been used to calculate whether the book was returned within the correct time."OK") =IF(NOT(D34<=B34+C34). Syntax =NOT(TestToPerform) The TestToPerform can be reference to cells or another calculation. If the test is met.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J NOT Page 98 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 Cells To Test 10 20 10 20 10 20 1-Jan-98 1-Feb-98 Hello Goodbye Hello Hello Result TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE =NOT(C4>D4) =NOT(C5=D5) =NOT(C6<D6) =NOT(C7>D7) =NOT(C8=D8) =NOT(C9=D9) What Does It Do ? This function performs a test to see if the test fails. otherwise OK is shown. (A type of reverse logic). The date the book was Taken out is entered."OK") =IF(NOT(D35<=B35+C35). The date the book was returned is entered."OK") . If the test fails.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 ."Overdue". then the result is FALSE."Overdue".

2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F NETWORKDAYS Page 99 of 223 G 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 Start Date 1-Mar-98 25-Apr-98 24-Dec-98 End Date 7-Mar-98 30-Jul-98 5-Jan-99 Work Days 5 69 9 =NETWORKDAYS(C4.C33:C37) =NETWORKDAYS(B29. The result of using 1-Jan-98 and 5-Jan-98 will give a result of 4. Formatting The result will be shown as a number.C30.C28.End. It will exclude weekends and any holidays. Syntax =NETWORKDAYS(StartDate. such as Xmas and Bank holidays. To correct this add 1 to the result. Start Date Mon 02-Mar-98 Mon 02-Mar-98 Mon 27-Apr-98 End Date Fri 06-Mar-98 Fri 13-Mar-98 Fri 01-May-98 Holidays 1-May-98 25-Dec-98 1-Jan-97 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-99 Work Days 5 10 4 =NETWORKDAYS(B28.D5) =NETWORKDAYS(C6.Holidays)+1 Example The following example shows how a list of Holidays can be created.C29.C33:C37) Bank Holiday Xmas New Year New Year New Year .D6) What Does It Do? This function will calculate the number of working days between two dates.D4) =NETWORKDAYS(C5.C33:C37) =NETWORKDAYS(B30. =NETWORKDAYS(Start. Note The calculation does not include the last day.Holidays) Holidays : This is a list of dates which will be excluded from the calculation.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .EndDate.

When the =NA() is used.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J NA Page 100 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 #N/A Value 10 30 Test 11 #N/A 31 Sales 100 #N/A #N/A 200 #N/A =NA() =IF(ISBLANK(C6). It can be type directly in to a cell as =NA() or it can be used as part of a calculation. On a large spreadsheet this may go unnoticed and the wrong Wage paid. Example The following table was used by a company to calculate the monthly Wage of an employee.NA().Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Table 1 Alan Bob Carol Salary 1000 1000 1000 Tax % 25% 20% Pay 750 1000 800 =C39-C39*D39 =C40-C40*D40 =C41-C41*D41 Table 2 shows how the =NA() has been inserted in the unknown Tax to act as a reminder that the Tax still needs to be entered. The Salary and Tax percentage are entered.C8+1) North South East West Total =NA() =NA() =SUM(D11:D14) What Does It Do ? This function is a place marker used to indicate that required information is Not Available. any calculations which depend upon the cell will also show #NA.C6+1) =IF(ISBLANK(C7). Syntax =NA() Formatting No special formatting is required.C7+1) =IF(ISBLANK(C8). the Wage is still calculated. Table 2 Alan Bob Carol Salary 1000 1000 1000 Tax % 25% #N/A 20% Pay 750 #N/A 800 =C49-C49*D49 =C50-C50*D50 =C51-C51*D51 .NA(). The Tax is then deducted from the Salary to calculate the Wage.NA(). Table 1 shows that when the Tax is not entered. It is used to indicate that all the data has not yet been entered in to the spreadsheet.

. Syntax =N(NumericEntry) Formatting No special formatting is needed.5 =N(C5) 3. Anything which will not convert is shown as 0 zero.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .50% 0.035 =N(C7) 25-Dec-98 36154 =N(C8) TRUE 1 =N(C9) FALSE 0 =N(C10) Hello 0 =N(C11) 0 =N(C12) What Does It Do ? This function converts a numeric entry to its mathematical value.5 3.5 =N(C6) 3. due to the fact that Excel calculates in this way naturally.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I N Page 101 of 223 J K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Original Converted 1 1 =N(C4) 3 1/2 3. The function is included for compatibility with other spreadsheet programs. Excel does not really need this function.

D4) =MROUND(C5.D5) =MROUND(C6.D6) =MROUND(C7.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J MROUND Page 102 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Number 110 120 150 160 170 Multiple 50 50 50 50 50 Rounded Value 100 100 150 150 150 =MROUND(C4.D8) What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number up or down to the nearest multiple specified by the user. Syntax =MROUND(NumberToRound.D7) =MROUND(C8.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .MultipleToUse) Formatting No special formatting is needed. .

Cells.Custom and using the code mmm or mmmm.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . but this can be formatted to show the actual month by using Format. Syntax =MONTH(Date) Formatting Normally the result will be a number.Number.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G MONTH Page 103 of 223 H 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Original Date 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 Month 1 January =MONTH(C4) =MONTH(C5) What Does It Do? This function extracts the month from a complete date. Please enter your date of birth in the format dd/mm/yy You were born in 3/25/1962 January =MONTH(F20) . Example The =MONTH function has been used to calculate the name of the month for your birthday.

.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J MODE Page 104 of 224 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 Value1 20 40 10 20 10 10 Value2 50 20 10 20 20 20 Value3 10 40 99 99 20 30 Value4 10 10 20 10 99 40 Value5 40 40 20 10 10 50 Mode 10 40 10 20 10 #N/A =MODE(C4:G4) =MODE(C6:G6) =MODE(C8:G8) =MODE(C9:G9) =MODE(C10:G10) =MODE(C12:G12) What Does It Do ? This function displays the most frequently occurring number in a group of numbers. The =MODE() function has been used to calulate this. the number closest to the beginning of the group will be used."12") Count of size 10 : Count of size 12 : . For it to work correctly there must be at least two numbers which are the same.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .Range2. Example The following table shows garments sold in a clothes shop. (Which is not really an accurate answer!) Syntax =MODE(Range1. When there is more than one set of duplicates.Range3. If all the values in the group are unique the function shows the error #N/A."10") 3 =COUNTIF(D33:D52. The shopkeeper wants to keep track of the most commonly sold size. through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Order 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 016 017 018 019 020 Garmet Blouse Skirt Shirt Blouse Skirt Dress Shirt Blouse Dress Shirt Dress Skirt Skirt Shirt Dress Shirt Blouse Blouse Dress Skirt Size 10 10 8 10 12 8 10 10 8 10 12 12 10 10 8 10 10 8 10 8 Most frequently ordered size : 10 =MODE(D33:D52) Count of size 8 : 6 =COUNTIF(D33:D52."8") 11 =COUNTIF(D33:D52..

7 .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 53 54 55 56 B C D E F G H I J MODE Page 105 of 224 K Note If the =AVERAGE() function had been used the answer would have been : This figure is of no benefit to the shopkeeper as there are no garmets of this size! 9.

2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I MOD Page 106 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Number 12 20 18 9 24 Divisor 5 7 3 2 7 Remainder 2 6 0 1 3 =MOD(C4. .Divisor) Formatting No special formatting is needed.D4) =MOD(C5.D8) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the remainder after a number has been divided by another number.D5) =MOD(C6.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D6) =MOD(C7.D7) =MOD(C8. Syntax =MOD(Number.

Dark and White. Chocolates in the box Milk Dark White 50 50 50 30 20 10 20 5 5 Customers Orders Giant Standard Economy 300 400 500 Quantity To Produce Milk Dark White 37. The number of rows in the Result should be equal to the rows in Range1.Range2) Formatting No special formatting is needed.500 21. The chocolate company now needed to know what quantity of each type of chocolate to produce. The formula then showed the correct result.500 {=MMULT(C32:E32. The number of columns in the Result should be equal to the columns in Range2. Syntax =MMULT(Range1. (but not yet entered).000 25.C26:E28)} In all three cells How It Was Done Cells C36 to E36 were selected. The keys Ctrl+Shift+Enter were pressed to confirm the entry as an array.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The dimensions of the result range is in direct proportion to dimensions of the two input ranges. Example The following tables were used by a company producing boxes of chocolates. Dark and White. Example 2 Size Giant Standard Economy . The company boxed the chocolates in three differing mixtures of Milk.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I MMULT Page 107 of 223 J K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 What Does It Do ? This function multiplies one range of values with another range of values. It is an Array function and must be entered using the Ctrl+Shift+Enter combination. The ranges do not have to be of equal size. Getting The Dimensions Correct The dimensions of the Result range are directly related to the two input ranges. The types of chocolate produced were Milk. In the run up to Christmas customers ordered various quantities of each box. The =MMULT() function was used to multiply the contents of boxes by the customer orders.C26:E28) was typed. The result of the =MMULT() is the total number of each type of chocolate to produce. The formula =MMULT(C32:E32.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . I MMULT Page 108 of 223 J K The company has four factories. Range 1 Milk Dark 20 0 20 1 10 5 20 10 Result Eggs 60 62 40 80 Range 2 Eggs 3 2 Production Factory 1 Factory 2 Factory 3 Factory 4 Ingredients Milk Dark Butter 1 2 Sugar 10 5 Ingredients To Order Factory 1 Factory 2 Factory 3 Factory 4 Butter 20 22 20 40 Sugar 200 205 125 250 {=MMULT(C69:D72. Note the depth of the Result is the same as the depth of Range 1. . and the width of the Result is the same as the width of Range 2. The Result range shows the quantities of each ingredient that will have to be ordered to meet the production target.2000 Peter Noneley A 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 B C D E F G H The following tables were used by the chocolate company to calculate the amount of ingredients needed to produce batches of chocolate. Eggs and Sugar needed to make 1 unit of Milk or Plain. Range 2 contains the amount Butter. each of which has to order enough Butter. then change a single value in each.G69:I70)} In all cells Hint To get a feel for how the =MMULT() function operates. Eggs and Sugar to ensure they can meet production targets. Range 1 contains the planned production of Milk and Dark chocolate for each factory. set all values in Range1 and Range2 to zero 0.

The time functions of =HOUR().SECOND(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(SECOND(NOW()).75 =F38*24 =INT(F38*24) =MOD(F38*24. Enter a time in decimal format : The same time converted to hh:mm format is : To extract the hours in hh:mm format : 3. Syntax =MINUTE(Number) Formatting The result will be shown as a normal number between 0 and 59.75 2 0.1) To convert a time in decimal format to hh:mm format. Example The =REPT() function has been used to make a digital display for the current time. Only the fraction part of the number is used as it is this which relates to time of day.HOUR(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(HOUR(NOW())."00") =REPT("|".2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H MINUTE Page 109 of 224 I J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 Number 6/20/2013 23:22 9:15:00 PM 0.52 1. Clock Hour ||||||||||||||||||||||| 23 Minute |||||||||||||||||||||| 22 Second ||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 47 =REPT("|". To update the clock press the function key F9.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .02 0. Enter a time in hh:mm format : The same time converted to a decimal : To extract the hours as a decimal : To extract the minutes as a decimal : 2:45 2.52 Minute 22 15 28 28 28 =MINUTE(D4) =MINUTE(D5) =MINUTE(D6) =MINUTE(D7) =MINUTE(D8) What Does It Do? The function will show the minute of the hour based upon a time or a number."00") Related Information To convert a time in hh:mm format to decimal format."00") =REPT("|". =MINUTE() and =SECOND() have been used in conjunction with the =NOW() as the basis for the number of repeats.MINUTE(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(MINUTE(NOW()).75 3:45 3:00 =F49/24 =INT(F49)/24 .

Cells.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . .1)/24 MINUTE Page 110 of 224 I J The three formula above have also been formatted as hh:mm using the Format. Number.2000 Peter Noneley A 55 56 57 58 B C D E To extract the minutes in hh:mm format : F 0:45 G H =MOD(F49. Time command.

000 £5.000 Overall MIN £2. 4-Jul-98 =MIN(C7:G7) Example In the following example the =MIN() function has been used to find the lowest value for each region.500 £3.000 £7.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 ..500 £12.000 £10.000 =MIN(C23:E26) .000 £3.. through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.000 Mar £4.000 £2.Range2.000 £6. Sales North South East West Month MIN Jan £5. Syntax =MIN(Range1.000 £4.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I MIN Page 111 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Values 120 800 100 120 250 Minimum 100 Maximum 1-Jan-98 =MIN(C4:G4) Dates 1-Jan-98 25-Dec-98 31-Mar-98 27-Dec-98 What Does It Do ? This function picks the lowest value from a list of data.000 £3.000 £2.000 £2.Range3.000 =MIN(E23:E26) Region Min £4.500 =MIN(C23:E23) £3.800 £3.500 Feb £6.000 £4. month and overall.

E5) 2 ED =MID(C6.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H MID Page 112 of 224 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 Text ABCDEDF ABCDEDF ABCDEDF ABC-100-DEF ABC-200-DEF ABC-300-DEF Item Size: Large Item Size: Medium Item Size: Small Start Position 1 2 5 100 200 300 Large Medium Small How Many Characters Mid String 3 ABC =MID(C4. Syntax =MID(OriginalText.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .C50.C50)-1) . The function needs to know at what point it should start.NumberOfCharactersToPick) Formatting No special formatting is needed.PositionToStartPicking.12.FIND("/". other than the required text is always between two slash / symbols.3) =MID(C9.5.5. If the number of characters to pick exceeds what is available.FIND("/".99) =MID(C14.5.FIND("/". and how many characters to pick.E6) =MID(C8.C50)+1)-FIND("/". only the available characters will be picked. Example 1 The following table uses the =MID() function to extract a post code from a branch ID used by a company.5.12.C50)+1.5. Branch ID DRS-CF-476 DRS-WA-842 HLT-NP-190 Postal Region CF =MID(C35.D6. It is assumed that all branch ID's follow the same format with the letters identifying the postal region being in the 5th and 6th positions. Full Branch Code Postal Region DRS/STC/872 STC HDRS/FC/111 FC S/NORTH/874 NORTH HQ/K/875 K SPECIAL/UK & FR/876 UK & FR =MID(C50.3) =MID(C10. which is inside a piece of text which has no standard format.5.2) Example 2 This example shows how to extract an item which is of variable length.2) WA =MID(C36.D4.12.99) =MID(C13.99) What Does It Do ? This function picks out a piece of text from the middle of a text entry.D5.E4) 3 BCD =MID(C5.3) =MID(C12.2) NP =MID(C37.

2000 Peter Noneley A 52 53 54 55 56 B C D E F G H MID Page 113 of 224 I Find the first /. Find the second /. occurring after the first / Calculate the length of the text to extract. plus 1 for the Start of the code.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . by subtracting the position of the first / from the position of the second / .

through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.Range2.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . .. Syntax =MEDIAN(Range1. it is the half way point where half the numbers in the group are larger than it and half the numbers are less than it.Range3. the two nearest the half way point are added and their average is used as the median. The median is not the average. If there is no exact median number in the group.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J MEDIAN Page 114 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Value1 20 2000 10 Value1 20 20 Value2 50 1000 20 Value2 40 20 Value3 10 10 40 Value3 30 40 Value4 30 20 40 Value4 10 20 Value5 40 8000 40 Median 30 1000 40 Median 25 20 =MEDIAN(C4:G4) =MEDIAN(C6:G6) =MEDIAN(C8:G8) =MEDIAN(C11:F11) =MEDIAN(C13:F13) What Does It Do ? This function finds the median value of a group of values..

Range2.000 Month Max £12.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I MAX Page 115 of 223 J K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Values 120 800 100 120 250 Maximum 800 =MAX(C4:G4) Dates 1-Jan-98 25-Dec-98 31-Mar-98 27-Dec-98 What Does It Do ? This function picks the highest value from a list of data.000 £4.000 £10.500 £3.000 £7..000 =MAX(C23:E23) £7.000 Feb £6..000 £12.000 £10. Sales North South East West Jan £5. through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.000 =MAX(E23:E26) Region Max £6.000 £10.000 Mar £4. Syntax =MAX(Range1. month and overall.500 £12.Range3.000 £5.000 £2.800 £3.000 £7.000 =MAX(C23:E26) .000 £6.000 Overall Max £12. 4-Jul-98 Maximum 27-Dec-98 =MAX(C7:G7) Example In the following example the =MAX() function has been used to find the highest value for each region.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I

MATCH Page 116 of 224 J K

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52

Names Bob Alan David Carol Type a name to look for : Alan Type a value :

Values 250 600 1000 4000 1000

The position of Alan is : 2 =MATCH(E9,E4:E7,0) What Does It Do ? This function looks for an item in a list and shows its position. It can be used with text and numbers. It can look for an exact match or an approximate match. Syntax =MATCH(WhatToLookFor,WhereToLook,TypeOfMatch) The TypeOfMatch either 0, 1 or -1.

Value position : 3 =MATCH(I9,I4:I7,1)

Using 0 will look for an exact match. If no match is found the #NA error will be shown. Using 1 will look for an exact match, or the next lowest number if no exact match exists. If there is no match or next lowest number the error #NA is shown. The list of values being examined must be sorted for this to work correctly. Using -1 will look for an exact match, or the next highest number if no exact match exists. If there is no exact match or next highest number the error #NA is shown. The list must be sorted for this to work properly. Examples 1 Using the 0 option suitable for an exact match. The Ascending list gives the exact match. The Descending list gives the exact match. The Wrong Value list cannot find an exact match, so the #NA is shown. Ascending 10 20 30 40 20 2 Descending 40 30 20 10 20 3 =MATCH(G45,G40:G43,0) Wrong Value 10 20 30 40 25 #N/A

Example 2 Using the 1 option suitable for a ascending list to find an exact or next lowest match. The Ascending list gives the exact match.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F The Descending list gives the #NA error. The Wrong Value list finds the next lowest number.. Ascending 10 20 30 40 20 2 Descending 40 30 20 10 20 #N/A G H I

MATCH Page 117 of 224 J K

53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106

Wrong Value 10 20 30 40 25 2 =MATCH(G62,G57:G60,1)

Example 3 Using the -1 option suitable for a descending list to find an exact or next highest match. The Ascending list gives the #NA error. The Descending list gives the exact match. The Wrong Value list finds the next highest number. Ascending 10 20 30 40 20 #N/A Descending 40 30 20 10 20 3 Wrong Value 40 30 20 10 25 2 =MATCH(G79,G74:G77,-1)

Example 4 The tables below were used to by a bus company taking booking for bus tours. They need to allocate a bus with enough seats for the all the passengers. The list of bus sizes has been entered in a list. The number of passengers on the tour is then entered. The =MATCH() function looks down the list to find the bus with enough seats. If the number of passengers is not an exact match, the next biggest bus will be picked. After the =MATCH() function has found the bus, the =INDEX() function has been used to look down the list again and pick out the actual bus size required. Bus Size 54 50 22 15 6 Passengers on the tour : 23 Bus size needed : 50 =INDEX(D95:D99,MATCH(H94,D95:D99,-1),0)

Bus 1 Bus 2 Bus 3 Bus 4 Bus 5

Example 5 The tables below were used by a school to calculate the exam grades for pupils. The list of grade breakpoints was entered in a list. The pupils scores were entered in another list. The pupils scores are compared against the breakpoints.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G If an exact match is not found, the next lowest breakpoint is used. The =INDEX() function then looks down the Grade list to find the grade. Exam Score Grade 0 Fail 50 Pass 90 Merit 95 Distinction H I

MATCH Page 118 of 224 J K

107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115

Pupil Score Grade Alan 60 Pass Bob 6 Fail Carol 97 Distinction David 89 Pass =INDEX(D111:D114,MATCH(G114,C111:C114,1),0)

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H

LOWER Page 119 of 223 I

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Upper Case Text ALAN JONES BOB SMITH CAROL WILLIAMS CARDIFF ABC123

Lower Case alan jones bob smith carol williams cardiff abc123

=LOWER(C4) =LOWER(C5) =LOWER(C6) =LOWER(C7) =LOWER(C8)

What Does It Do ? This function converts all characters in a piece of text to lower case. Syntax =LOWER(TextToConvert) Formatting No special formatting is needed.

The RangeToLook in can be either horizontal or vertical. and then the function picks the third cell from the list of values. Example The following example shows how the =LOOKUP() function was used to match a name typed in cell G41 against the list of names in C38:C43. If the name Carol is used. . RangeToLookIn Alan Bob Carol David Eric Fred RangeToPickFrom 15 20 5 10 25 30 Type a name : Value : Carol 15 =LOOKUP(G41. Syntax =LOOKUP(WhatToLookFor.D4:G10. The RangeToPickFrom must have the same number of cells in it as the RangeToLookin.RangeToLookIn. either as #N/A or incorrect results.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I LOOKUP (Vector) Page 120 of 223 J K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Francis Gail Jan 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Feb 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 Eric 120 Mar 97 69 45 51 77 28 73 Type a Name in this cell : The Feb value for this person is : =LOOKUP(F12. When a match is found the =LOOKUP() then picks from the second range E38:J38.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . and then picks an item from a second range of cells. Be careful not to include unnecessary heading in the ranges as these will cause errors. the match is made in the third cell of the list of names.E38:J38) Problems The list of information to be looked through must be sorted in ascending order.RangeToPickFrom) The WhatToLookFor should be a single item. otherwise errors will occur.C38:C43. Formatting No special formatting is needed.F4:F10) What Does It Do ? This function looks for a piece of information in a list.

the function will then look down to the bottom cell of the column to pick the last entry of the column.D4:G10) What Does It Do ? This function looks for a piece of information in a list. If the table has more columns than rows : the function will look across the top row trying to find a match for the piece of information you have asked it to look for. so it is no good if you need to pick data from part way across a list. and then picks an item from the last cell in the adjacent row or column. The RangeToLook in can be either horizontal or vertical. (use VLOOKUP or HLOOKUP).2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J LOOKUP (Array) Page 121 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Francis Gail Jan 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Feb 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 Eric 77 Mar 97 69 45 51 77 28 73 Type a Name in this cell : The March value for this person is : =LOOKUP(F12. When a match is found. It always picks the data from the end of the row or column. If the table has more rows than columns : the function will look down the left most column trying to find a match for the piece of information you asked it to look for. If the table has the same amount of rows and columns : the function will look down the left most column and work in just the same way as if the table had more rows than columns. Syntax =LOOKUP(WhatToLookFor. When a match is found. The way in which the function decides whether to pick from the row or column is based on the size of the table. the function will look across to the right most column to pick the last entry on the row. as in the description above.RangeToLookIn) The WhatToLookFor should be a single item. Example 1 Example 2 .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Be careful not to include unnecessary heading in the range as these will cause errors.

so the row heading of Jan is not included in the lookup range.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . otherwise errors will occur. but not sorted. Sometimes the results will be correct. Table 1 shows the Name column sorted alphabetically. so the column heading of Jan is not included in the lookup range. Problems The list of information to be looked through must be sorted in ascending order.2000 Peter Noneley A 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 B C D In this table there are more rows than columns. Jan Alan 100 Bob 100 Carol 100 David 100 Eric 100 Fred 100 Formatting No special formatting is needed. but other times the result will be an #N/A error or incorrect figure.G80:J86) . Table 1 Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Francis Gail Name : Value : Table 2 Name David Eric Alan Bob Carol Francis Gail Name : Value : E F G H I J In this table there are more columns than rows. Alan 100 Bob 100 Carol 100 LOOKUP (Array) Page 122 of 223 K Jan David 100 Jan 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Eric Feb 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 Mar 97 69 45 51 77 28 73 Jan 40 50 10 20 30 60 70 Eric Feb 110 120 80 90 100 130 140 Mar 51 77 97 69 45 28 73 77 =LOOKUP(C88. the results of using =LOOKUP() will be correct. either as #N/A or incorrect results. Table 2 shows the same data.B80:E86) 45 =LOOKUP(H88.

Original Text Carol Williams 6 =FIND(" ". Calculated by using the =RIGHT() function to extract the rightmost characters up to the length of the second name.LEN(C24)-FIND(" ".C24)) This is just the second name. Calculated by taking the overall length of the complete name and subtracting the position of the space. =RIGHT(C24.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I LEN Page 123 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 Text Alan Jones Bob Smith Carol Williams Cardiff ABC123 Length 10 9 14 7 6 =LEN(C4) =LEN(C5) =LEN(C6) =LEN(C7) =LEN(C8) What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of characters. including spaces and numbers.C24) This is the length of the second name. Carol Williams 8 .C24) This is the position of the space. in a piece of text.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =LEN(Text) Formatting No Special formatting is needed. =LEN(C24)-FIND(" ". Example This example shows how the =LEN() function is used in a formula which extracts the second name from a text entry containing both first and second names.

2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I LEFT Page 124 of 223 J 1 2 Number Of Characters Required Left String 1 A 2 Al 3 Ala 6 Cardif 4 ABC1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Text Alan Jones Alan Jones Alan Jones Cardiff ABC123 =LEFT(C4.D4) =LEFT(C5.FIND(" ".C29)-1) . The =LEFT() function can now extract the first name based on the position of the space.FIND(" ". The =FIND() function was used to locate position of the space between the first and second name.D5) =LEFT(C6.NumberOfCharactersRequired) Formatting No special formatting is needed.D7) =LEFT(C8.D8) What Does It Do ? This function displays a specified number of characters from the left hand side of a piece of text.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D6) =LEFT(C7. Syntax =LEFT(OriginalText. Example The following table was used to extract the first name of a person from their full name. Full Name First Name Alan Jones Alan Bob Smith Bob Carol Williams Carol =LEFT(C27.C28)-1) =LEFT(C29. The length of the first name is therefore the position of the space minus one character.FIND(" ".C27)-1) =LEFT(C28.

D5) =LCM(C6. through to Number29) Formatting No special formatting is needed. which is the smallest number that can be divided by each of the given numbers..D6) What Does It Do ? This function calculate the Least Common Multiple.Number3..2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I LCM Page 125 of 223 J 1 2 Least Common Multiple 60 36 1632 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Numbers 6 20 12 18 34 96 =LCM(C4.D4) =LCM(C5. . Syntax =LCM(Number1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .Number2.

000 £2.2) =LARGE(C4:C8.PositionToPickFrom) Formatting No special formatting is needed.000 =MAX(D24:F27) =MIN(D24:F27) .000 £10.500 £3.000 Feb £6.000 £7.1) =LARGE(C4:C8.3) =LARGE(C4:C8.000 £2.000 £5.000 =LARGE(D24:F27.1) =LARGE(D24:F27.3) Highest Value 2nd Highest Value 3rd Highest Value Note Another way to find the Highest and Lowest values would have been to use the =MAX() and =MIN() functions.000 £6. Highest Lowest £12. Example The following table was used to calculate the top 3 sales figures between Jan.000 £7.500 £12.4) =LARGE(C4:C8.800 £3. Syntax =LARGE(ListOfNumbersToExamine. Sales North South East West Jan £5.000 £10.000 Mar £4. Feb and Mar.5) What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of values and picks the value at a user specified position in the list.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I LARGE Page 126 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 Values 120 800 100 120 250 Highest Value 2nd Highest Value 3rd Highest Value 4th Highest Value 5th Highest Value 800 250 120 120 100 =LARGE(C4:C8.000 £12.000 £4.2) =LARGE(D24:F27.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

FALSE).2.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I ISTEXT Page 127 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 Cell To Test Hello 1 25-Dec-98 Result TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE =ISTEXT(D4) =ISTEXT(D5) =ISTEXT(D6) =ISTEXT(D7) What Does It Do ? This functions tests an entry to determine whether it is text. and then the =IF() decides which VLOOKUP to perform.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .VLOOKUP(E33.000 £15.000 Type Employee Name or ID : 3 The Salary is : £ 8. ID No.3. The =ISTEXT() function has been used to identify the type of entry made.FALSE)) .C27:E31. If the entry is any other type it shows FALSE.VLOOKUP(E33. 1 2 3 4 5 Name Alan Eric Carol Bob David Salary £10.000 =IF(ISTEXT(E33). Syntax =ISTEXT(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Example The following table was used by a personnel department to lookup the salary of an employee.000 £12.D27:E31.000 £12. The employee can be entered as a Name or as a Numeric value.000 £8. If the entry is text is shows TRUE.

. it cannot be a reference to the contents of another cell. as the reference will itself be evaluated by the function. Its a bit of an odd one. and is normally used in macros rather than on the worksheet. Syntax =ISREF(ValueToTest) The ValueToTest can be any type of data. but when used on the worksheet.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H ISREF Page 128 of 223 I J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE =ISREF(A1) =ISREF(B99) =ISREF(Hello) =ISREF(10) =ISREF(NOW()) =ISREF("A1") =ISREF(XX99) What Does It Do ? This function shows TRUE if given a cell address. or FALSE for any other type of value.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Formatting No special formatting is needed.

5 2.5 3. Note that text entries result in the #VALUE! error.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H ISODD Page 129 of 223 I J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Number 1 2 2.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . . Note that dates can be odd or even.6 Hello 1-Feb-98 1-Feb-96 Is it Odd TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE #VALUE! TRUE FALSE =ISODD(C4) =ISODD(C5) =ISODD(C6) =ISODD(C7) =ISODD(C8) =ISODD(C9) =ISODD(C10) =ISODD(C11) =ISODD(C12) What Does It Do ? This function tests a number to determine whether it is odd. Note that decimal fractions are ignored. Syntax =ISODD(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is required. An odd number is shown as TRUE an even number is shown as FALSE.6 3.

ID No. and then the =IF() decides which VLOOKUP to perform.2. Formatting No special formatting is needed.000 =IF(ISNUMBER(E35).000 Type Employee Name or ID : eric The Salary is : £ 12.D29:E33. or is blank.000 £12.VLOOKUP(E35.000 £15. Example The following table was used by a personnel department to lookup the salary of an employee.000 £12.3. The =ISNUMBER() function has been used to identify the type of entry made.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I ISNUMBER Page 130 of 223 J K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 Cell Entry 1 1-Jan-98 #DIV/0! Hello Result TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE =ISNUMBER(D4) =ISNUMBER(D5) =ISNUMBER(D6) =ISNUMBER(D7) =ISNUMBER(D8) What Does It Do ? This function examines a cell or calculation to determine whether it is a numeric value. 1 2 3 4 5 Name Alan Eric Carol Bob David Salary £10. the result FALSE is shown.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .000 £8.VLOOKUP(E35. Syntax =ISNUMBER(CellToTest) The cell to test can be a cell reference or a calculation. If the cell or calculation is a numeric value the result TRUE is shown.FALSE).C29:E33.FALSE)) . The employee can be entered as a Name or as a Numeric value. If the cell or calculation is not numeric.

is entered using the letter O instead of the zero 0. Table 1 Item Radio TV Video Buying Price 400 800 3OO Mark-up 150% 200% 150% Profit 600 1600 #VALUE! =D32*E32 Table 2 shows how the error is trapped using the =ISNONTEXT function and the =IF() function in the calculation.D40*E40. It would be used to ensure that only numeric entries are used in calculations. 300. rather than text. The function is normally used with other function such as the =IF() function.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Table 1 shows the #VALUE! error generated when a number.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G ISNONTEXT Page 131 of 223 H 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 Item To Test 10 Hello 1-Jan-98 1OO Is It A Number? TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE =ISNONTEXT(C4) =ISNONTEXT(C5) =ISNONTEXT(C6) =ISNONTEXT(C7) =ISNONTEXT(C8) What Does It Do? This functions tests an entry to determine whether it is a number."Retype the Price") . such as typing the letter O instead of zero 0. Syntax =ISNONTEXT(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting. Table 2 Item Radio TV Video Buying Price Mark-up Profit 400 150% 600 800 200% 1600 3OO 150% Retype the Price =IF(ISNONTEXT(D40). Examples The following table is used by an electrical retailer to calculate the selling price of an item based on the buying price and the shop mark-up. rather than text which looks like a number.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . but will be used for data entry in the future. The #N/A can also be typed in to a cell by the user to indicate the cell is currently empty. The #N/A is generated when a function cannot work properly because of missing data. Syntax =ISNA(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is needed. . The function is normally used with other functions such as the =IF() function.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J ISNA Page 132 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Number 1 Hello 1-Jan-98 #N/A Result FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE =ISNA(C4) =ISNA(C5) =ISNA(C6) =ISNA(C7) =ISNA(C8) What Does It Do? This function tests a cell to determine whether it contains the Not Available error #N/A.

2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I ISLOGICAL Page 133 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Cell To Test FALSE TRUE 20 1-Jan-98 Hello #DIV/0! Result TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE =ISLOGICAL(D4) =ISLOGICAL(D5) =ISLOGICAL(D6) =ISLOGICAL(D7) =ISLOGICAL(D8) =ISLOGICAL(D9) =ISLOGICAL(D10) What Does It Do ? This function tests a cell to determine whether the cell contents are logical. Syntax =ISLOGICAL(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is needed. If the cell does not contain a logical value. If the cell does contain a logical value. . the result FALSE is shown.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The logical values can only be TRUE or FALSE. the result TRUE is shown.

Note that text entries result in the #VALUE! error.5 2.6 3. Note that dates can be even or odd.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . An even number is shown as TRUE an odd number is shown as FALSE. Note that decimal fractions are ignored. .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H ISEVEN Page 134 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Number 1 2 2.5 3. Syntax =ISEVEN(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is required.6 Hello 1-Feb-98 1-Feb-96 Is it Even FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE #VALUE! FALSE TRUE =ISEVEN(C4) =ISEVEN(C5) =ISEVEN(C6) =ISEVEN(C7) =ISEVEN(C8) =ISEVEN(C9) =ISEVEN(C10) =ISEVEN(C11) =ISEVEN(C12) What Does It Do ? This function tests a number to determine whether it is even.

It will show TRUE for any type of error and FALSE if no error is found. Formatting No special formatting is needed. Example The following tables was used to calculate the difference between two dates. Table 2 Start date : Jan 01 98 End date : 5-Jan-98 Difference : Error in data entry =IF(ISERROR(D40-D39).Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D40-D39) ."Error in data entry".2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H ISERROR Page 135 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 Cell to test 3 #DIV/0! #NAME? #REF! #VALUE! #N/A #N/A Result FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE =ISERROR(D4) =ISERROR(D5) =ISERROR(D6) =ISERROR(D7) =ISERROR(D8) =ISERROR(D9) =ISERROR(D10) What Does It Do ? This function tests a cell or calculation to determine whether an error has been generated. Syntax =ISERROR(CellToTest) The CellToTest can be a cell reference or a formula. Table 1 Start date : Jan 01 98 End date : 5-Jan-98 Difference : #VALUE! =D31-D30 Table 2 shows how the =ISERROR() function has been used to trap the error and inform the user that there has been an error in the data entry. Table 1 shows an error due to the fact that the first entry was entered using an inappropriate date format.

Table 2 Cost Of Crate : Bottles In Crate : Cost of single bottle : £24 0 Try again! =IF(ISERR(E40/E41). which Excel does not do. Formatting No special formatting is needed. The #DIV/0 indicates that an attempt was made to divide by zero 0.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I ISERR Page 136 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 Cell to test 3 #DIV/0! #NAME? #REF! #VALUE! #N/A #N/A Result FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE =ISERR(D4) =ISERR(D5) =ISERR(D6) =ISERR(D7) =ISERR(D8) =ISERR(D9) =ISERR(D10) What Does It Do ? This function tests a cell and shows TRUE if there is an error value in the cell. Example The following tables were used by a publican to calculate the cost of a single bottle of champagne. by dividing the cost of the crate by the quantity of bottles in the crate."Try again!". Table 1 shows what happens when the value zero 0 is entered as the number of bottles. or if the error is the #NA message.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .E40/E41) . Syntax =ISERR(CellToTest) The CellToTest can be a cell reference or a calculation. Table 1 Cost Of Crate : Bottles In Crate : Cost of single bottle : £24 0 #DIV/0! =E32/E33 Table 2 shows how this error can be trapped by using the =ISERR() function. It will show FALSE if the contents of the cell calculate without an error.

Example The following example shows a list of cheques received by a company.0) Totals 550 1050 . but which will be filled later as the data is received by the user.0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Usually the function is used in conjunction with the =IF() function which can test the result of the =ISBLANK() Syntax =ISBLANK(CellToTest) Formatting Used by itself the result will be shown as TRUE or FALSE. Until the Cleared date is entered the Cleared column is blank. When the Cleared date is entered the cheque will be shown as Banked.E36. chq5 J Smith Date Received 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 2-Jan-98 3-Jan-98 4-Jan-98 Date Cleared 2-Jan-98 7-Jan-98 Amount £100 £200 £50 £1. When the cheque is cleared the date is entered.E36) =IF(ISBLANK(F36).000 £250 Banked Outstanding 100 0 200 0 0 50 0 1000 6-Jan-98 250 0 =IF(ISBLANK(F36).2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H ISBLANK Page 137 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Is The Cell Blank FALSE FALSE TRUE 25-Dec-98 FALSE Data 1 Hello =ISBLANK(C4) =ISBLANK(C5) =ISBLANK(C6) =ISBLANK(C7) What Does It Do? This function will determine if there is an entry in a particular cell. While the Cleared column is blank the cheque will still be Outstanding. It can be used when a spreadsheet has blank cells which may cause errors. Cheques Received Num From chq1 ABC Ltd chq2 CJ Design chq3 J Smith chq4 Travel Co. The =ISBLANK() function is used to determine whether the Cleared column is empty or not.

Syntax =INT(Number) Formatting No special formatting is needed. A child can only be admitted to school if they are over 8 years old. Example The following table was used by a school to calculate the age a child when the school year started.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Table 2 Birth Date 1-Jan-80 5-Feb-81 20-Oct-79 1-Mar-81 Term Start 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 Age 9 8 9 8 =(D38-C38)/365.504449008 Table 2 shows the age of the child with the Age formatted with no decimal places. Table 1 shows the age of the child with decimal places Table 1 Birth Date 1-Jan-80 5-Feb-81 20-Oct-79 1-Mar-81 Term Start 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 Age 8.25 Table 3 shows the age of the child with the Age calculated using the =INT() function to remove the decimal part of the number to give the correct age.570157426 8.25) .47589 Integer 1 2 10 -2 =INT(C4) =INT(C5) =INT(C6) =INT(C7) What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number down to the nearest whole number. This has the effect of increasing the child age.25 7.8678987 7. Table 3 Birth Date 1-Jan-80 5-Feb-81 20-Oct-79 Term Start 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 Age 8 7 8 =INT((D49-C49)/365. The Birth Date and the Term Start date are entered and the age calculated.668035592 =(D27-C27)/365.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I INT Page 138 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 Number 1.5 2.75 -1.3 10.

25 The reason for using 365. .25 is to take account of the leap years. The number of days is then divided by 365.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 B C 1-Mar-81 D 1-Sep-88 E 7 F G H I INT Page 139 of 223 J Note The age is calculated by subtracting the Birth Date from the Term Start to find the age of the child in days.

. Formatting The results will be shown as text or a number depending upon what was requested.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . (PC or Mac) System Information C:\Users\user\Documents\ #N/A #N/A #N/A 156 $A:$A$1 Windows (32-bit) NT 6.01 Automatic 14.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E INFO Page 140 of 223 F 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Current directory Available bytes of memory Memory in use Total bytes of memory Number of active worksheets Cell currently in the top left of the window Operating system Recalculation mode Excel version Name of system.0 pcdos =INFO("directory") =INFO("memavail") =INFO("memused") =INFO("totmem") =INFO("numfile") =INFO("origin") =INFO("osversion") =INFO("recalc") =INFO("release") =INFO("system") What Does It Do? This function provides information about the operating environment of the computer. Syntax =INFO(text) text : This is the name of the item you require information about.

Type the name of the sheet. such as C7 : C7 The sum of the range C5:C7 on South is : #REF! =SUM(INDIRECT(G44&"!"&G45&":"&G46)) The =INDIRECT() created a reference to =SUM(SOUTH!C5:C7) . such as South : South Type the start cell of the range. SOUTH and EAST. such as G6 : The value in the cell you typed is : What Does It Do ? This function converts a plain piece of text which looks like a cell address into a usable cell reference. Syntax =INDIRECT(Text) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Type the name of the sheet. such as C8 : The contents of the cell C8 on North is : The =INDIRECT() created a reference to =NORTH!C8 North C8 #REF! =INDIRECT(G33&"!"&G34) Example 2 This example uses the same data as above. When a reference to a sheet is made the exclamation symbol ! needs to be placed between the sheet name and cell address acting as punctuation. The address can be either on the same worksheet or on a different worksheet. The data on these three sheets is laid out in the same cells on each sheet. Example 1 This example shows how data can be picked form other worksheets by using the worksheet name and a cell address. but this time the =SUM() function is used to calculate a total from a range of cells. The example uses three other worksheets named NORTH.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J INDIRECT Page 141 of 223 K L 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 North South East West Jan 10 40 70 100 Feb 20 50 80 110 Mar 30 60 90 120 G6 80 =INDIRECT(H9) Type address of any of the cells in the above table. such as C5 : C5 Type the end cell of the range.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . such as North : Type the cell to pick data from.

D36) Size Large Medium Small Type either 1.RowCoordinate.H36) Syntax 2 =INDEX(RangeToLookIn. Syntax 1 =INDEX(RangeToLookIn. but the Co-ordinate refers to a row when the range is vertical and a column when the range is horizontal.2. 2 or 3 : 2 The size is : Medium =INDEX(G34:I34. Syntax There are various forms of syntax for this function. Colours Red Green Blue Type either 1. Both of the examples below use the same syntax. People Weeks 1 2 3 1 £500 £600 £700 2 £300 £400 £500 3 £250 £300 £350 4 £200 £250 £300 2 4 250 =INDEX(D7:G9.G11.G12) How many weeks required : How many people in the party : Cost per person is : What Does It Do ? This function picks a value from a range of data by looking down a specified number of rows and then across a specified number of columns.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .ColumnColumnCordinate) This syntax is used when the range is made up of rows and columns. The Co-ordinate indicates how far down or across to look when picking the data from the range.3 or 4 for the country : Type 1. or non-continuos blocks. 2 or 3 : 2 The colour is : Green =INDEX(D32:D34.Coordinate) This is used when the RangeToLookIn is either a single column or row.2 or 3 for statistics : . It can be used with a single block of data. Country England France Germany Spain Currency Population Capitol Sterling 50 M London Franc 40 M Paris DM 60 M Bonn Peseta 30 M Barcelona 2 3 Type 1.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I INDEX Page 142 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 Holiday booking price list.

C91:C93. It allows the names of products and the quarters to be entered.000 £5.500 £6.000 Qtr2 £2.500 £7.000 £8.500 £10.000 £12.000 £7.1.IF(F102=C90.000 £5. 2 or 3 for the product : Type 1.MATCH(F101. The =MATCH() function is used to find the row and column positions of the names entered.MATCH(F100.IF(F102=C95. EAST Bricks Wood Glass WEST Bricks Wood Glass Qtr1 £1.000 £9.500 £5.000 £12. The easiest way to refer to these areas is to select them and give them a single name.F77.500 £8. 2.500 £5. In the following example the figures for North and South have been named as one range called NorthAndSouth.500 1 3 2 3500 =INDEX(NorthAndSouth.500 £12.500 Qtr3 £3.500 £9.000 Qtr4 £4.000 £8.000 Qtr1 £1.500 £8.500 £12.AreaToPickFrom) Using this syntax the range to look in can be made up of multiple areas. 3 or 4 for the Qtr : Type 1 for North or 2 for South : The result is : Example This is an extended version of the previous example.000 Qtr3 £3.000 £6.500 wood qtr2 west 6500 Qtr4 £4.2))) .500 £7.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .500 Qtr3 £3. 2.000 Qtr2 £2.F50. The AreaToPickFrom indicates which of the multiple areas should be used.000 £9.500 £11.D90:G90.000 Qtr3 £3.0).500 Qtr2 £2.500 £10.F76.000 £10.500 Type 1. These positions are then used by the =INDEX() function to look for the data.000 £10. 2 or 3 for the product : Type 1.2000 Peter Noneley A 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 B C D E The result is : F Paris G H =INDEX(D45:F48. 3 or 4 for the Qtr : Type 1 for North or 2 for South : The result is : =INDEX(EastAndWest.ColumnColumnCordinate.000 £6.500 £9.000 Qtr1 £1.F78) Qtr4 £4.500 £11.RowCoordinate.500 Type 1.500 £6.000 £11.500 Qtr2 £2.000 £11.000 £7. NORTH Bricks Wood Glass SOUTH Bricks Wood Glass Qtr1 £1.0).000 Qtr4 £4.F51) I INDEX Page 143 of 223 J Syntax 3 =INDEX(NamedRangeToLookIn.

ActionIfTrue. Formatting No special formatting is required. Name Alan Bob Carol Sales 1000 6000 2000 Target 5000 5000 4000 Result Not Achieved =IF(C31>=D31.C43*10%. If the condition is not met it is considered as FALSE."Not Achieved") Example 2 The following table is similar to that in Example 1.C43*5%) 600 =IF(C44>=D44. The ActionIfTrue and ActionIfFalse can be numbers. If the Sales do not reach the target the result of Not Achieved is shown."Achieved". Each has their own target which they must reach. Name Alan Bob Carol Sales 1000 6000 2000 Target 5000 5000 4000 Commission 50 =IF(C43>=D43.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I IF Page 144 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 Name Alan Bob Carol Sales 1000 6000 2000 Target 5000 5000 4000 Result Not Achieved =IF(C4>=D4. such as A1=A2."Not Achieved") Achieved =IF(C32>=D32. text or calculations. the Commission is only 5% of Sales. If the Sales are greater than or equal to the Target the result of Achieved is shown.C44*5%) 100 =IF(C45>=D45.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . one of two actions will be carried out. If the condition is met it is considered to be TRUE."Not Achieved") Not Achieved =IF(C33>=D33."Achieved"."Not Achieved") Not Achieved =IF(C6>=D6.C45*10%.C44*10%."Achieved". The =IF() function is used to compare the Sales with the Target. the Commission is 10% of Sales.C45*5%) Example 3 This example uses the =AND() within the =IF() function."Achieved"."Achieved". If the Sales do not reach Target."Not Achieved") Achieved =IF(C5>=D5."Not Achieved") What Does It Do? This function tests a condition. A builders merchant gives 10% discount on certain product lines. If the Sales are greater than or equal to the Target. .ActionIfFalse) The Condition is usually a test of two cells. This time the Commission to be paid to the sales rep is calculated."Achieved". Syntax =IF(Condition. Depending upon the result. Example 1 The following table shows the Sales figures and Targets for sales reps. Note that the text used in the =IF() function needs to be placed in double quotes "Achieved".

D61>=1000). Special Offer Yes No Yes Yes Order Value £ 2.800 £ £ 2.000 £ £ 500 £ 300 £ 2.D61*10%.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .000 I IF Page 145 of 223 J Product Wood Glass Cement Turf Discount Total £ 200 £ 1. when the Order Value is £1000 or above.2000 Peter Noneley A 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 B C D E F G H The discount is only given on products which are on Special Offer.000 £ 2.000 £ 500 £ 3.0) .700 =IF(AND(C61="Yes". The =AND() function is used with the =IF() to check that the product is on offer and that the value of the order is above £1000.

2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I HOUR Page 146 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Number 21:15 0. Syntax =HOUR(Number) Formatting The result will be shown as a normal number between 0 and 23. .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .25 Hour 21 6 =HOUR(C4) =HOUR(C5) What Does It Do? The function will show the hour of the day based upon a time or a number.

Jan. The RowToPickFrom is how far down the column the function should look to pick from. The =HLOOKUP() uses FALSE at the end of the function to indicate to Excel that the column headings are not sorted. it then scans down the column to pick a cell entry. When the item is found.Feb. Syntax =HLOOKUP(ItemToFind.RangeToLookIn. Example 1 This table is used to find a value based on a specified month and name. The =HLOOKUP() now uses this =MATCH() number to look down the month column and picks out the correct cell entry. even though to us the order of Jan. because the list of names is not as deep as the lookup range. If they were sorted alphabetically they would have read as Feb. TRUE for yes. they are part of the illustration.RowToPickFrom.Mar.D3:F10. Type a month to look for : Which row needs to be picked out : The result is : =HLOOKUP(F10. FALSE for no. the =MATCH() number is 1 less than we require.F11.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J HLOOKUP Page 147 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 Jan 10 20 30 40 50 Feb 80 90 100 110 120 Mar 97 69 45 51 77 Feb 4 100 row 1 row 2 row 3 row 4 row 5 row 6 The row numbers are not needed. The =MATCH() looks through the list of names to find the name we require. The Sorted/Unsorted is whether the column headings are sorted. It then calculates the position of the name in the list. The =HLOOKUP() is used to scan across to find the month. so and extra 1 is added to compensate. The problem arises when we need to scan down to find the row adjacent to the name. The RangeToLookIn is the range of data with the column headings at the top.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Formatting No special formatting is needed.FALSE) What Does It Do ? This function scans across the column headings at the top of a table to find a specified item. Jan 10 20 30 40 50 Feb 80 90 100 110 120 Mar 97 69 45 51 77 Bob Eric Alan Carol David .Mar is correct.SortedOrUnsorted) The ItemToFind is a single item specified by the user. To solve the problem the =MATCH() function is used. Unfortunately.

E111:G112.2000 Peter Noneley A 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 B C D E F feb alan G H I J HLOOKUP Page 148 of 223 K Type a month to look for : Type a name to look for : The result is : 100 =HLOOKUP(F54. the next lowest value is used. The function uses the absolute ranges indicated by the dollar symbol $. the =HLOOKUP() then looks down the column to the row specified by the =MATCH() function. and the discount from . Using TRUE will allow the function to make an approximate match. Maker Vauxhall VW Ford VW Ford Ford Vauxhall Ford Spare Ignition GearBox Engine Steering Ignition CYHead GearBox Engine Cost £50 Vauxhall Ford VW £600 GearBox 500 450 600 £1.MATCH(F55. The Discount Table holds the various discounts for different quantities of each product. If the Quantity Ordered does not match a value at the top of the Discount Table. the ranges for =HLOOKUP() and =MATCH() do not change. All the calculations take place in the Orders Table.MATCH(C79. =HLOOKUP(C127. The Unit Cost of the item is then looked up in the Unit Cost Table. Wood and Glass.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Using the FALSE option forces the function to search for an exact match. the function will produce an error. The Orders Table is used to enter the orders and calculate the Total.0)+1. Trying to match an order of 125 will drop down to 100. The Unit Cost Table holds the cost of 1 unit of Brick.FALSE) Example 2 This example shows how the =HLOOKUP() is used to pick the cost of a spare part for different makes of cars. The TRUE option has been used at the end of the function to indicate that the values across the top of the Discount Table are sorted.D47:F54. which scans the list of spares for the item specified in column C. If a match is not found.200 Engine 1000 1200 800 £275 Steering 250 350 275 £70 Ignition 50 70 45 £290 CYHead 300 290 310 £500 £1.FALSE) The discount is then looked up in the Discount Table If the Quantity Ordered matches a value at the top of the Discount Table the =HLOOKUP will look down the column to find the correct discount.2.200 =HLOOKUP(B79.0)+1.G72:I77. The name of the Item is typed in column C. When the make is found. The FALSE option has been used at the end of the function to indicate that the product names across the top of the Unit Cost Table are not sorted. This ensures that when the formula is copied to more cells.FALSE) Example 3 In the following example a builders merchant is offering discount on large orders.C48:C52. The =HLOOKUP() scans the column headings for the make of car specified in column B.F73:F77.

E111:G112.E115:G118.D116:D118.2.MATCH(C127. =HLOOKUP(D127.2000 Peter Noneley A 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 B C D E F G H the 100 column is used.0)+1.MATCH(C127.TRUE) Unit Cost Table Wood Glass £1 £3 I J HLOOKUP Page 149 of 223 K Brick £2 Brick Wood Glass Discount Table 1 100 0% 6% 0% 3% 0% 12% Orders Table Unit Cost Discount £2 6% £1 3% £3 12% £2 6% £1 0% £3 15% 300 8% 5% 15% Item Brick Wood Glass Brick Wood Glass Unit Cost Discount Units 100 200 150 225 50 500 Total £188 £194 £396 £423 £50 £1.TRUE) .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .275 =HLOOKUP(C127.0)+1.D116:D118.FALSE) =HLOOKUP(D127.E115:G118.

Hexadecimal F 1A 29 Value 1 Value 2 Result =DEC2HEX(HEX2DEC(C29)+HEX2DEC(C30)) .755.755.888 -1 -2 -3 =HEX2DEC(C4) =HEX2DEC(C5) =HEX2DEC(C6) =HEX2DEC(C7) =HEX2DEC(C8) =HEX2DEC(C9) =HEX2DEC(C10) =HEX2DEC(C11) =HEX2DEC(C12) =HEX2DEC(C13) =HEX2DEC(C14) What Does It Do ? This function converts a hexadecimal number to its decimal equivalent.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .813. Syntax =HEX2DEC(HexaDecimalNumber) Formatting No special formatting is needed.813.887 -549.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G HEX2DEC Page 150 of 223 H 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Hexadecimal 0 1 2 3 1A 1B 7FFFFFFFFF 8000000000 FFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFE FFFFFFFFFD Decimal Number 0 1 2 3 26 27 549. Example The following table was used to add two hexadecimal values together.

D8) 2 1 =GESTEP(C9.E29) =GESTEP(D30.000 £2. If the number is greater than or equal.000 £4.000 GESTEP 0 1 0 1 1 3 =GESTEP(D27. Example The following table was used to calculate how many sales staff achieved their targets. the result of 1 will be shown. otherwise 0 is shown.D7) 101 100 1 =GESTEP(C8.000 £1.E31) =SUM(F27:F31) Targets Achieved .000 £2.D9) 2 0 =GESTEP(C10.E27) =GESTEP(D28.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J GESTEP Page 151 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Number1 Number2 GESTEP 10 20 0 =GESTEP(C4.D5) 99 100 0 =GESTEP(C6.000 £8.000 £2.NumberToTestAgainst) Formatting No special formatting is needed.E30) =GESTEP(D31. The =GESTEP() function compares the Sales with Target. Syntax =GESTEP(NumberToTest. Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Sales £3.D6) 100 100 1 =GESTEP(C7.D10) What Does It Do ? This function test a number to see if it is greater than or equal to another number.000 Target £4. and the results are totalled.000 £5.000 £7.E28) =GESTEP(D29.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D4) 50 20 1 =GESTEP(C5.

D11.Number3.D6) Greatest Divisor 6 100 2 18 300 2.Number2.E11) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the largest number which can be used to divided all the values specified. . Syntax =GCD(Number1.D5) =GCD(C6.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J GCD Page 152 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Numbers 6 15 28 49 5 99 Greatest Divisor 3 7 1 =GCD(C4.D4) =GCD(C5. Where there is no common divisor the value of 1 is used.E10) =GCD(C11.D9. through to Number29) Formatting No special formatting is needed.E9) =GCD(C10.D10.5 Numbers 72 500 4 96 200 6 =GCD(C9.. The result is always a whole number..Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Decimal fractions are ignored.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .999 What Does It Do ? This function compares a range of data against a list of intervals. Example 1 The following tables were used to record the weight of a group of children. V.000 £4.000 £5. E. Weight Kg 20.28 20. the =FREQUENCY() function ignores text entries. The manager now wants to calculate how many responses fell into each category.000 and below. The ratings were entered into a table as a single letter.66 17.80 8.E9:E11)} {=FREQUENCY(D4:F7. P or D. The result shows how many items in the range of data fall between the intervals.000 Mar £4.000 4 5 3 {=FREQUENCY(D4:F7.ListOfIntervals) Formatting No special formatting is needed.C41:C43)} Child 1 Child 2 Child 3 Child 4 Child 5 Child 6 Child 7 Child 8 Child 9 Kg Weight Intervals 15 20 100 Example 2 This example uses characters instead of values.500 £12.000 up to £6.E9:E11)} Sales £4.000 Sales above £6.01 Number Of Children: Between 0 . The =FREQUENCY() function was then used to calculate the number of children whose weights fell between specified intervals.000 £6.000 Feb £6.74 10.000 £999.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I FREQUENCY Page 153 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 North South East West Jan £5. £4. The function is entered in the cells as an array.C41:C43)} {=FREQUENCY(C30:C38.47 22. Unfortunately. so how can the frequency of text be calculated? . A restaurant has asked 40 customers for their rating of the food in the restaurant.000 £7.C41:C43)} {=FREQUENCY(C30:C38.67 18.15 Kg 2 Above 15 but less than or equal to 20 Kg 4 Above 20 Kg 3 {=FREQUENCY(C30:C38.000 £2.500 £3.000 Sales above £4.000 £6.000 £10.36 16. Syntax =FREQUENCY(RangeOfData. that is why it is enclosed in { } braces. A.83 15.800 £3.E9:E11)} {=FREQUENCY(D4:F7.

The =CODE() function calculates the unique ANSI code for each character. The =UPPER() forces all the text entries to be considered as capital letters.CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))} {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)).Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))} {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)).CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))} {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)). As this code is a numeric value.CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))} {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)).2000 Peter Noneley A 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 B C D E F G H I FREQUENCY Page 154 of 223 J The answer is to use the =CODE() and =UPPER() functions.CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))} Customer Ratings V V A A V D P V E e V a E d P A D P V P p A p D A A P E P V D V D a E D d A E D . the =FREQUENCY() function can then be used! Rating E V A P D Frequency 6 8 9 8 9 Excellent Very Good Average Poor Disgusting {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)).

(or past).000 20 £8.667 =FORECAST(E43. If the values are sales figures for months 1 to 6.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .000 £2. The =FORECAST() function is used to calculate the predicted performance for the new sales team based upon a linear trend.000 £2. Syntax =FORECAST(ItemToForeCast.500 £3.000 =FORECAST(E11. for which you need the forecast. such as Month number.RangeY. The Size and Performance of the previous teams over a period of three years were entered. RangeY is the list of values which contain the historical data to be used as the basis of the forecast.D39:D41) Size Of The New Sales Team : Estimated Forecast Of Performance : . The way in which the prediction is calculated is based upon the assumption of a Linear Trend. such as Sales figures.997 Sales £1.F4:F9.500 40 £10.E39:E41. The size of the New Sales team is entered.RangeX) ItemToForecast is the point in the future. Formatting No special formatting is needed.500 £3.800 £4.000 30 £8. you can use the function to predict what the sales figure will be in any other month. Example The following table was used by a company considering expansion of their sales team. The predicted value is based on the relationship between the two original sets of values. 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 Year 1996 1997 1998 Size Of Known Sales Team Performance 10 £5. (Jan to Jun). RangeX is the intervals used when recording the historical data.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I FORECAST Page 155 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 Month 1 2 3 4 5 6 Type the month number to predict : The Forecast sales figure is : 12 £7.E4:E9) What Does It Do ? This function uses two sets of values to predict a single value.

5 2.SignificantValue) Formatting No special formatting is needed.3 2.000 £180 =FLOOR(D29.1) =FLOOR(C6.125 Relevant Sales Commission £23. which is then used as the basis for Commission.000 £230 £56. Commission is only paid for every £1000 of sales. The =FLOOR() function has been used to round down the Actual Sales to the nearest 1000. Syntax =FLOOR(NumberToRound. Name Alan Bob Carol Actual Sales £23. Example The following table was used to calculate commission for members of a sales team.50) =FLOOR(C9.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .50) What Does It Do ? This function rounds a value down to the nearest multiple specified by the user.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H FLOOR Page 156 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Number 1.000 £560 £18.890 £18.50) =FLOOR(C8.500 £56.1000) .1) =FLOOR(C7.9 123 145 175 Rounded Down 1 2 2 100 100 150 =FLOOR(C4.1) =FLOOR(C5.

000.0.0 =FIXED(C6. If the Commas is not specified the function will assume TRUE.DecimalPlaces.TRUE) What Does It Do ? This function converts a numeric value to text.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .25 10.1) 10 10. Cells. Number command will not have any effect.25 =FIXED(C11.1) 10.25 10 =FIXED(C9. During the conversion the value can be rounded to a specific number of decimal places.0) 1000.23 1.0) 10. and commas can be inserted at the 1.00 =FIXED(C12) 1000.00 =FIXED(C4) 10 10 =FIXED(C5. Formatting No special formatting is needed.3 =FIXED(C10.000 =FIXED(C13. Note that any further formatting with the Format.2) 10.0) 10 10.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J FIXED Page 157 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Original Converted Number To Text 10 10.25 =FIXED(C8) 10.25 10.000's.00 =FIXED(C7.Commas) If DecimalPlaces places is not specified the function will assume 2.23 1000 =FIXED(C14. Syntax =FIXED(NumberToConvert. The Commas option can be TRUE for commas or FALSE for no commas.25 10. .2) 1000 1.

it specifies at which point in the text the search should begin. the first occurrence is used.StartPosition) LetterToLookFor : This needs to be a single character. the result #VALUE is shown. If the text contains more than one reference to the letter. .C9) What Does It Do? This function looks for a specified letter inside another piece of text.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G FIND Page 158 of 223 H I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Text Hello Hello Hello Alan Williams Alan Williams Alan Williams Letter To Find e H o a a T Position Of Letter 2 1 5 3 11 #VALUE! =FIND(D4. Syntax =FIND(LetterToLookFor. thus enabling the search to find duplicate occurrences of the letter. StartPosition : This is optional.TextToLookInside.6) =FIND(D9.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Formatting No special formatting is needed.C8. the result will be shown as a number. An additional option can be used to start the search at a specific point in the text.C5) =FIND(D6.C4) =FIND(D5.C6) =FIND(D7. If the letter is not found in the text. TextToLookInside : This is the piece of text to be searched through.C7) =FIND(D8. When the letter is found the position is shown as a number.

008.000 =FACT(C4) =FACT(C5) =FACT(C6) =FACT(C7) =FACT(C8) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the factorial of a number.628. The factorial is calculated as 1*2*3*4.902.etc.432.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G FACT Page 159 of 223 H I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Number 3 3. No special formatting is needed.800 2. Syntax =FACT(Number) Formatting.176.5 5 10 20 Factorial 6 6 120 3. The factorial of 5 is calculated as 1*2*3*4*5. which results in 120.640. Decimal fractions of the number are ignored. .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 ..

only words which are spelt the same and which have upper and lower case characters in the same position will be considered as equal. The case of the password is important. Guess the password : Is it correct : red No (To stop you from cheating. You need to guess the correct password.D4) =EXACT(C5. The password is the name of a colour. either red blue or green.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J K EXACT Page 160 of 223 L 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Text1 Hello Hello Hello Text2 Hello hello Goodbye Result TRUE FALSE FALSE =EXACT(C4. Formatting If the two items of text are exactly the same the result of TRUE will be shown. Syntax =EXACT(Text1. The =EXACT() function is used to check your guess.D5) =EXACT(C6.Text2) Only two items of text can be compared. If there is any difference in the two items of text the result of FALSE will be shown.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . . The case of the characters is taken into account.D6) What Does It Do? This function compares two items of text and determine whether they are exactly the same. the correct password has been entered as a series of =CHAR() functions. which use the ANSI number of the characters rather than the character itself!) Its still very easy though. Example Here is a simple password checking formula.

Table 1 was used to enter the number of wipers required for each type of car and then show how many pairs need to be ordered.2 2.3 25 Evenly Rounded 2 2 4 26 =EVEN(C4) =EVEN(C5) =EVEN(C6) =EVEN(C7) What Does It Do ? This function round a number up the nearest even whole number.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G EVEN Page 161 of 223 H I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Original Value 1 1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Table 1 Car Vauxhall Ford Peugeot Wipers To Order 5 9 7 Pairs to Order 3 =EVEN(D28)/2 5 =EVEN(D29)/2 4 =EVEN(D30)/2 . Each manufacturer uses a different type of windscreen wiper which are only supplied in pairs. Syntax =EVEN(Number) Formatting No special formatting is needed. The garage is repairing a fleet of cars from three manufactures. Example The following table is used by a garage which repairs cars.

TYPE(E6) =ERROR.TYPE(E7) What Does It Do? This function will show a number which corresponds to an error produced by a formula.TYPE(E4) =ERROR.TYPE(Error) Error is the cell reference where the error occurred.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G ERROR. .TYPE(E5) =ERROR. Formatting The result will be formatted as a normal number. Example See Example 4 in the =DGET() function.TYPE Page 162 of 223 H 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Data 10 10 10 10:00 0 3 3 13:00 The Error #DIV/0! #NAME? #REF! ################ Error Type 2 5 4 #N/A =ERROR. Syntax =ERROR.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

Cells. .Months) Formatting The result will normally be expressed as a number.D6) What Does It Do? This function will show the last day of the month which is a specified number of months before or after a given date.Number. this can be formatted to represent a date by using the Format.D5) =EOMONTH(C6. Syntax =EOMONTH(StartDate.D4) =EOMONTH(C5.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G EOMONTH Page 163 of 223 H 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 StartDate 5-Jan-98 5-Jan-98 5-Jan-98 Plus Months 2 2 -2 End Of Month 35885 31-Mar-98 30-Nov-97 =EOMONTH(C4.Date command.

Example This example was used by a company hiring contract staff. this can be formatted to represent a date by using the Format. The =WEEKDAY() function has been used to identify the actaul weekday number of the end date. The company needed to know the end date of the employment.D5) =EDATE(C6.2)>5.Cells.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G EDATE Page 164 of 223 H 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 Start Date 1-Jan-98 2-Jan-98 2-Jan-98 Plus Months 3 3 -3 End Date 1-Apr-98 2-Apr-98 2-Oct-97 =EDATE(C4.Months) Formatting The result will normally be expressed as a number.D33) The company decide not to end contracts on Saturday or Sunday.WEEKDAY(EDATE(C48.2)-5. If the week day number is 6 or 7.Date command. Syntax =EDATE(StartDate. The contract Duration is entered as months.D6) What Does It Do? This function is used to calculate a date which is a specific number of months in the past or in the future. Start Tue 06-Jan-98 Mon 12-Jan-98 Fri 09-Jan-98 Fri 09-Jan-98 Mon 19-Jan-98 Mon 26-Jan-98 Mon 12-Jan-98 Duration 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 End Mon 06-Apr-98 Sun 12-Apr-98 Sat 09-May-98 Thu 09-Apr-98 Sun 19-Apr-98 Sun 26-Apr-98 Sun 12-Apr-98 =EDATE(C27.D28) =EDATE(C29.D31) =EDATE(C32. Start Tue 06-Jan-98 Mon 12-Jan-98 Fri 09-Jan-98 Fri 09-Jan-98 Mon 19-Jan-98 Mon 26-Jan-98 Mon 12-Jan-98 Duration 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 End Mon 06-Apr-98 Fri 10-Apr-98 Fri 08-May-98 Thu 09-Apr-98 Fri 17-Apr-98 Fri 24-Apr-98 Fri 10-Apr-98 =EDATE(C48.D4) =EDATE(C5.D29) =EDATE(C30.D30) =EDATE(C31.D27) =EDATE(C28.D48)-IF(WEEKDAY(EDATE(C48.D48).D48). The Start date is entered. (Sat or Sun).0) .D32) =EDATE(C33. The =EDATE() function has been used to calculate the end of the contract.Number.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . then 5 is subtracted from the =EDATE() to ensure the end of contract falls on a Friday.

80 25 6 £120. or records. of the values to be totalled. Brand These two cells are the Criteria range.00 £0. The first set of information is the name.00 £0. or names.I3.00 £0.80 20 5 £180.15 25 0 £0. such as Horizon as a brand name.00 £0.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine. or 100 as the wattage.00 £2.00 £0.E23:E24) Type the brand name : The stock value of Horizon is : What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and produces the total.00 To calculate the total Value Of Stock of a particular Brand of bulb. Horizon £248.00 £0. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4.00 3 2 £30. The second set of information is the actual record. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records. which are to be selected.00 £5. Examples The total Value Of Stock of a particular Product of a particular Brand.00 £0.00 =DSUM(B3:I19. or cell. including the field names at the top of the columns.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .10 20 5 £10.20 30 2 £12. The FieldName is the name. such as the category Brand or Wattage.50 15 0 £0. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information. Syntax =DSUM(DatabaseRange.00 £1. such as "Value Of Stock" or I3.FieldName.00 £1.50 4 3 £54. Product Brand .20 25 2 £10.00 £0.00 £2.25 10 4 £50.50 10 3 £15.00 15 2 £60.80 10 5 £40.00 £0.25 10 5 £12. Formatting No special formatting is needed.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J DSUM Page 165 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon This is the Database range.20 40 3 £24.50 £0.

E49:F50) The total Value Of Stock of a Bulb equal to a particular Wattage.00 Wattage <100 =DSUM(B3:I19."Value Of Stock".50 =DSUM(B3:I19.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 ."Value Of Stock".E67:F68) .I3.50 F sunbeam G H I J DSUM Page 166 of 223 K Total stock value is : =DSUM(B3:I19. Product Bulb Total Value Of Stock is : £52. £54. Product Bulb Total Value Of Stock is : £56."Value Of Stock".50 Wattage 100 =DSUM(B3:I19.E60:F61) The total Value Of Stock of a Bulb less than a particular Wattage.2000 Peter Noneley A 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 B C D E Bulb £54.E49:F50) This is the same calculation but using the name "Value Of Stock" instead of the cell address.

2) What Does It Do? This function converts a number into a piece of text formatted as currency.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I DOLLAR Page 167 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Original Number 10 10 10 10 10.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . DecimalPlaces : This is the amount of decimal places needed in the converted number. Syntax =DOLLAR(Number.00 $10 $10.00 $10.1) =DOLLAR(C7. .25 10.25 Converted To Text $10.0) =DOLLAR(C6.0) =DOLLAR(C10.25 =DOLLAR(C4) =DOLLAR(C5.DecimalPlaces) Number : This is the number which needs to be converted.2) =DOLLAR(C8) =DOLLAR(C9. Formatting No special formatting is needed.1) =DOLLAR(C11.0 $10.25 10.25 10.3 $10. The result will be shown as a text entry.25 $10 $10.

00 £0.15 25 1 £3.00 £0.20 25 2 £10.00 =DMIN(B3:I19. Syntax =DMIN(DatabaseRange.50 £0. such as Horizon as a brand name.25 10 5 £12. Product Brand .FieldName.00 To calculate lowest Value Of Stock of a particular Brand of bulb. Formatting No special formatting is needed. or records. such as the category Brand or Wattage.50 4 3 £54.25 10 4 £50.00 £0.00 £1.00 £5.50 £0.00 £2. The first set of information is the name.50 15 1 £37. such as "Value Of Stock" or I3.00 £0. Examples The lowest Value Of Stock of a particular Product of a particular Brand. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.E23:E24) Type the brand name : The MIN value of Horizon is : What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and produces smallest value from a specified column.00 £0.20 40 3 £24.00 3 2 £30. or 100 as the wattage.50 10 3 £15.20 30 2 £12. which are to be selected. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine. The second set of information is the actual record.10 20 5 £10.00 £0.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J DMIN Page 168 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon This is the Database range. Horizon £10. or cell.80 10 5 £40. The FieldName is the name.80 20 5 £180.80 25 6 £120.I3.00 £2. or names. of the values to pick the Min from. including the field names at the top of the columns.00 £1. Brand These two cells are the Criteria range.75 £0.00 15 2 £60.00 £0.

"Value Of Stock".Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . £3. Product Bulb The lowest Value Of Stock is : £12."Value Of Stock".E49:F50) This is the same calculation but using the name "Value Of Stock" instead of the cell address.I3.50 Wattage 100 =DMIN(B3:I19.75 =DMIN(B3:I19.E67:G68) .75 F sunbeam G H I J DMIN Page 169 of 223 K The lowest value is : =DMIN(B3:I19."Value Of Stock".2000 Peter Noneley A 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 B C D E Bulb £3.E49:F50) The lowest Value Of Stock of a Bulb equal to a particular Wattage.E60:F61) The lowest Value Of Stock of a Bulb between two Wattage values. Product Bulb The lowest Value Of Stock is : £12.00 Wattage >=80 Wattage <=100 =DMIN(B3:I19.

which are to be selected. such as the category Brand or Wattage.80 10 5 £40. Horizon £60.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine.20 25 2 £10.50 £0.00 =DMAX(B3:I19.00 £1.00 £0. The FieldName is the name or cell. The second set of information is the actual record.00 £0.E49:F50) This is the same calculation but using the name "Value Of Stock" instead of the cell address. or 100 as the wattage.00 To calculate largest Value Of Stock of a particular Brand of bulb.FieldName.50 4 3 £54.00 £5. Product Bulb The largest value is : £30.80 25 6 £120.I3. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.50 15 0 £0. Examples The largest Value Of Stock of a particular Product of a particular Brand.00 £0.20 40 3 £24.15 25 0 £0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . .20 30 2 £12.25 10 5 £12.00 £0. such as Horizon as a brand name.50 10 3 £15.25 10 4 £50.00 £2.00 15 2 £60. or records.00 £1. of the values to pick the Max from.I3.00 £0.E23:E24) Type the brand name : The MAX value of Horizon is : What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and produces the largest value from a specified column.00 £2.00 £0.00 Brand sunbeam =DMAX(B3:I19. including the field names at the top of the columns. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4. or names. Formatting No special formatting is needed.00 £0. such as "Value Of Stock" or I3.00 £0.10 20 5 £10.00 £0. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records. Syntax =DMAX(DatabaseRange. Brand These two cells are the Criteria range.80 20 5 £180. The first set of information is the name.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J K DMAX Page 170 of 223 L 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon This is the Database range.00 3 2 £30.

"Value Of Stock". Product Bulb The largest Value Of Stock is : £24.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .00 Wattage <100 =DMAX(B3:I19.E60:F61) The largest Value Of Stock of a Bulb less than a particular Wattage.E67:F68) . Product Bulb The largest Value Of Stock is : £40.E49:F50) The largest Value Of Stock of a Bulb equal to a particular Wattage."Value Of Stock".00 Wattage 100 =DMAX(B3:I19."Value Of Stock".2000 Peter Noneley A 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 B C D E £30.00 F G H I J K DMAX Page 171 of 223 L =DMAX(B3:I19.

If no records match the criteria the error #VALUE is shown.50 15 1 £37. such as Horizon as a brand name.00 £2.00 15 2 £60. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records.00 £5. The FieldName is the name.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J DGET Page 172 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon This is the Database range.00 £2.50 10 3 £15. or names.00 £0.00 £1.00 £0.00 £0.50 £0.FieldName.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .15 25 1 £3.50 4 3 £54.80 25 6 £120.00 £0. . or 100 as the wattage. Example 1 This example extracts information from just one record.H3.00 £0.25 10 5 £12. The second set of information is the actual record which needs to be selected. Syntax =DGET(DatabaseRange.00 £0.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine. including the field names at the top of the columns.20 40 3 £24.00 How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock? Life Hours Product Bulb Wattage 100 Brand Horizon 5 =DGET(B3:I19.10 20 5 £10.80 10 5 £40.20 25 2 £10.00 £0.00 3 2 £30. such as the category Brand or Wattage.75 £0.C23:F24) The number in stock is : What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and produces one result. The first set of information is the name.80 20 5 £180. or cell. such as "Value Of Stock" or I3.25 10 4 £50. Formatting No special formatting is needed. If more than one record matches the criteria the error #NUM is shown. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information. of the values to Get.20 30 2 £12.50 £0.00 £1.

C64:F65) Example 4 This example uses the =IF() function to display a message when an error occurs.H3.2000 Peter Noneley A 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 B C D E F G H I J DGET Page 173 of 223 K How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock? Life Hours Product Bulb Wattage 100 Brand Horizon 5 =DGET(B3:I19. =IF(ISERR(F88).CHOOSE(ERROR.C51:F52) The number in stock is : Example 2 This example extracts information from multiple records and therefore shows the #NUM error."One product found.H3."). How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock? Life Hours Product Bulb Wattage 100 Brand The number in stock is : #NUM! =DGET(B3:I19.".C63:F64) Example 3 This example extracts information from no records and therefore shows the #VALUE error.") . How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock? Life Hours Product Bulb Wattage 9999 Brand The number in stock is : #VALUE! =DGET(B3:I19.H3.TYPE(F88)/3.H3."Duplicates products found. How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock? Life Hours Product Bulb Wattage 9999 Brand The number in stock is : #VALUE! =DGET(B3:I19.C85:F86) No such product.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 ."No such product.

175 Hello Delta 0 1 1 1 1 #VALUE! 1 =DELTA(C4.D6) =DELTA(C7. otherwise the result is 0.5 17.D34) =DELTA(C35. so numbers which appear rounded due to the removal of decimal places will still match correctly with non rounded values.D31) =DELTA(C32. Syntax =DELTA(FirstNumber.D35) =DELTA(C36.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J K DELTA Page 174 of 223 L 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 Number1 10 50 17.D33) =DELTA(C34. Number1 10 50 30 17.5 12 100 150 Number2 20 50 30 18 8 100 125 Total Pairs Delta 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 4 =DELTA(C30.D4) =DELTA(C5.D32) =DELTA(C33.D10) What Does It Do ? This function compares two values and tests whether they are exactly the same. If the numbers are the same the result will be 1. The =DELTA() function tests each pair and then the =SUM() function totals them.D8) =DELTA(C9.D7) =DELTA(C8. Example The following table is used to determine how may pairs of similar numbers are in a list. text values produce a result of #VALUE.5 18 0.50% Hello Number2 20 50 17.5 17. It only works with numbers.D30) =DELTA(C31.D5) =DELTA(C6.D36) =SUM(E30:E36) .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D9) =DELTA(C10.SecondNumber) Formatting No special formatting is needed. The formatting of the number is not significant.

D23) =DEC2HEX(C24.D27) What Does It Do ? This function converts a decimal number to its hexadecimal equivalent.D26) =DEC2HEX(C27.755.813.755. Formatting No special formatting is needed.755.889 Decimal Number 1 1 26 26 -26 Hexadecimal 0 1 2 3 19 1A 1B 1C FFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFE FFFFFFFFFD FFFFFFFFFE FFFFFFFFFF 7FFFFFFFFF 8000000000 #NUM! #NUM! Places To Pad 1 2 3 9 1 =DEC2HEX(C4) =DEC2HEX(C5) =DEC2HEX(C6) =DEC2HEX(C7) =DEC2HEX(C8) =DEC2HEX(C9) =DEC2HEX(C10) =DEC2HEX(C11) =DEC2HEX(C12) =DEC2HEX(C13) =DEC2HEX(C14) =DEC2HEX(C15) =DEC2HEX(C16) =DEC2HEX(C17) =DEC2HEX(C18) =DEC2HEX(C19) =DEC2HEX(C20) Hexadecimal 1 01 01A 00000001A FFFFFFFFE6 =DEC2HEX(C23.887.D24) =DEC2HEX(C25.755.813.755. It can only cope with decimals ranging from -549. Syntax =DEC2HEX(DecimalNumber.888 -549.813.755.813.887 -549. .888 to 549.813.888 549. The result can be padded with leading 0 zeros.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I DEC2HEX Page 175 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 Decimal Number 0 1 2 3 25 26 27 28 -1 -2 -3 -2 -1 549.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .813.D25) =DEC2HEX(C26. although this is ignored for negatives.PlacesToPad) The PlacesToPad is optional.

D19) =DEC2BIN(C20. The result can be padded with leading 0 zeros.D17) =DEC2BIN(C18. . although this is ignored for negatives.D18) =DEC2BIN(C19.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .PlacesToPad) The PlacesToPad is optional. Formatting No special formatting is needed.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H DEC2BIN Page 176 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Decimal Number Binary Equivalent 0 0 =DEC2BIN(C4) 1 1 =DEC2BIN(C5) 2 10 =DEC2BIN(C6) 3 11 =DEC2BIN(C7) 511 111111111 =DEC2BIN(C8) 512 #NUM! =DEC2BIN(C9) -1 1111111111 =DEC2BIN(C10) -2 1111111110 =DEC2BIN(C11) -3 1111111101 =DEC2BIN(C12) -511 1000000001 =DEC2BIN(C13) -512 1000000000 =DEC2BIN(C14) Decimal Number 1 1 1 1 -1 Places To Pad 1 2 3 9 1 Binary Equivalent 1 01 001 000000001 1111111111 =DEC2BIN(C17. Syntax =DEC2BIN(DecimalNumber.D21) What Does It Do ? This function converts a decimal number to its binary equivalent. It can only cope with decimals ranging from -512 to 511.D20) =DEC2BIN(C21.

or records. of the values to Count. such as the category Brand or Wattage.00 £0.50 10 3 £15. or 100 as the wattage.00 £1. such as "Value Of Stock" or I3.25 10 4 £50. Formatting No special formatting is needed.80 25 6 £120.80 10 5 £40. It counts values and text items.E3. or cell. such as Horizon as a brand name.E23:E24) Type the brand name : The COUNT value of Horizon is : What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and counts the non blank cells in a specified column.00 £1. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.00 15 2 £60.20 30 2 £12.50 £0.FieldName.10 20 5 £10. The FieldName is the name. which are to be selected.00 £5. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4. The second set of information is the actual record. The first set of information is the name. Horizon 8 =DCOUNTA(B3:I19.00 £2.20 25 2 £10. Examples The count of a product with an unknown Life Hours value. including the field names at the top of the columns.00 £2. . Brand These two cells are the Criteria range.80 20 5 £180.50 15 1 £37.00 3 2 £30.00 £0.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J DCOUNTA Page 177 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon This is the Database range.00 £0.75 £0.00 £0.15 25 1 £3.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .50 4 3 £54.00 £0.00 £0. Syntax =DCOUNTA(DatabaseRange.20 40 3 £24. but blank cells are ignored.50 £0. or names. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records.25 10 5 £12.00 Count the number of products of a particular Brand.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine.00 £0.

"Life Hours".D3.2000 Peter Noneley A 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 B C D E Product Bulb The number of products is : 1 F Life Hours unknown =DCOUNTA(B3:I19.E61:F62) The count of particular products from specific brands."Product". Product Bulb The count is : 5 Brand Horizon =DCOUNTA(B3:I19.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .E50:F51) The count of the number of particular product of a specific brand. 1 =DCOUNTA(B3:I19."Product". Product Spot Neon The count is : 3 Brand Horizon Sunbeam =DCOUNTA(B3:I19.E68:F70) .E50:F51) G H I J DCOUNTA Page 178 of 223 K This is the same calculation but using the name "Life Hours" instead of the cell address.

00 15 2 £60.50 10 3 £15. Syntax =DCOUNT(DatabaseRange.00 £2. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4.00 £0.D3.80 10 5 £40. The FieldName is the name.50 4 3 £54. which are to be selected. such as Horizon as a brand name. of the values to Count. The second set of information is the actual record.20 25 2 £10.00 £0. with a specific number of boxes in stock. or names.50 £0.FieldName.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . the text items and blank cells are ignored. Brand These two cells are the Criteria range.00 £0. such as "Value Of Stock" or I3.15 25 1 £3.00 3 2 £30.50 £0. or 100 as the wattage.00 £2. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.25 10 5 £12. Formatting No special formatting is needed.20 40 3 £24.00 £0.20 30 2 £12.00 £0.80 25 6 £120.25 10 4 £50.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J DCOUNT Page 179 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon This is the Database range. such as the category Brand or Wattage.E23:E24) Type the brand name : The COUNT value of Horizon is : What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and counts the values in a specified column.00 £1. or cell. The first set of information is the name.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine.00 £1. Examples The count of a particular product.10 20 5 £10. Horizon 7 =DCOUNT(B3:I19.00 £0.50 15 1 £37. or records.80 20 5 £180.75 £0. It can only count values.00 £0. .00 Count the number of products of a particular Brand which have a Life Hours rating. including the field names at the top of the columns.00 £5.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 B C D E Product Bulb The number of products is : 3 F Boxes In Stock 5 G H I J

DCOUNT Page 180 of 223 K

=DCOUNT(B3:I19,H3,E50:F51)

This is the same calculation but using the name "Boxes In Stock" instead of the cell address. 3 =DCOUNT(B3:I19,"Boxes In Stock",E50:F51)

The count of the number of Bulb products equal to a particular Wattage. Product Bulb The count is : 2 Wattage 100 =DCOUNT(B3:I19,"Boxes In Stock",E61:F62)

The count of Bulb products between two Wattage values. Product Bulb The count is : 4 Wattage >=80 Wattage <=100

=DCOUNT(B3:I19,"Boxes In Stock",E68:G69)

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G

DB Page 181 of 223 H I

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48

Purchase Price : Life in Years : Salvage value : Year 1 2 3 4 5 Total Depreciation :

£5,000 5 £200 Deprecation £2,375.00 £1,246.88 £654.61 £343.67 £180.43

=DB(E3,E5,E4,D8) =DB(E3,E5,E4,D9) =DB(E3,E5,E4,D10) =DB(E3,E5,E4,D11) =DB(E3,E5,E4,D12)

£4,800.58 * See example 4 below.

What Does It Do ? This function calculates deprecation based upon a fixed percentage. The first year is depreciated by the fixed percentage. The second year uses the same percentage, but uses the original value of the item less the first years depreciation. Any subsequent years use the same percentage, using the original value of the item less the depreciation of the previous years. The percentage used in the depreciation is not set by the user, the function calculates the necessary percentage, which will be vary based upon the values inputted by the user. An additional feature of this function is the ability to take into account when the item was originally purchased. If the item was purchased part way through the financial year, the first years depreciation will be based on the remaining part of the year. Syntax =DB(PurchasePrice,SalvageValue,Life,PeriodToCalculate,FirstYearMonth) The FirstYearMonth is the month in which the item was purchased during the first financial year. This is an optional value, if it not used the function will assume 12 as the value. Formatting No special formatting is needed. Example 1 This example shows the percentage used in the depreciation. Year 1 depreciation is based upon the original Purchase Price alone. Year 2 depreciation is based upon the original Purchase Price minus Year 1 deprecation. Year 3 deprecation is based upon original Purchase Price minus Year 1 + Year 2 deprecation. The % Deprc has been calculated purely to demonstrate what % is being used. Purchase Price : Salvage value : £5,000 £1,000

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 B C D Life in Years : Year 1 2 3 4 5 E 5 Deprecation £1,375.00 £996.88 £722.73 £523.98 £379.89 =DB(E47,E48,E49,D56) £3,998.48 % Deprc 27.50% 27.50% 27.50% 27.50% 27.50% F G

DB Page 182 of 223 H I

Total Depreciation :

Example 2 This example is similar to the previous, with the exception of the deprecation being calculated on a monthly basis. This has been done by multiplying the years by 12. Purchase Price : Life in Years : Salvage value : Month 56 57 58 59 60 £5,000 £5 100 Deprecation £8.79 £8.24 £7.72 £7.23 £6.78 =DB(E66,E68,E67*12,D75)

Example 3 This example shows how the length of the first years ownership has been taken into account. Purchase Price : Life in Years : Salvage value : First Year Ownership In Months : Year 1 2 3 4 5 £5,000 5 £1,000 6 Deprecation £687.50 £1,185.94 £859.80 £623.36 £451.93 =DB(E74,E76,E75,D84,E77) £3,808.54 % Deprc 13.75% 27.50% 27.50% 27.50% 27.50%

Total Depreciation :

Why Is The Answer Wrong ? In all of the examples above the total depreceation may not be exactly the expected value.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129

DB Page 183 of 223 I

B C D E F G H This is due to the way in which the percentage value for the depreceation has been calculated by the =DB() fumction. The percentage rate is calculated by Execl using the formula = 1 - ((salvage / cost) ^ (1 / life)). The result of this calculation is then rounded to three decimal places. Although this rounding may only make a minor change to the percentage rate, when applied to large values, the differnce is compounded resulting in what could be considered as approximate values for the the depreceation. Example 4 This example has been created with both the Excel calculated percentage and the 'real' percentage calculated manually. The Excel Deprecation uses the =DB() function. The Real Deprecation uses a manual calculation. This is the 'real' deprecation percentage, calculated manually : 27.522034% =1-((E117/E116)^(1/E118)) Purchase Price : £5,000 = 1 - ((salvage / cost) ^ (1 / life)). Salvage value : £1,000 Life in Years : 5 Excel Deprecation £1,375.0000 £996.8750 £722.7344 £523.9824 £379.8873 £3,998.48 Real Depreciation £1,376.1017 £997.3705 £722.8739 £523.9243 £379.7297 £4,000.00 £1.52 Excel % Deprc 27.500% 27.500% 27.500% 27.500% 27.500%

Year 1 2 3 4 5 Total Depreciation :

Error difference :

TRUE) =DAYS360(C7. Use this function if your accounting system is based on twelve 30-day months.D4. =DAYS360(Start.EndDate. Note The calculation does not include the last day.End. =DAYS360(C4.TRUE) =DAYS360(C6.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .TRUE) =DAYS360(C5. The result of using 1-Jan-98 and 5-Jan-98 will give a result of 4.TRUE)+1 .TRUE of FALSE) TRUE : Use this for European accounting systems.TRUE) What Does It Do? Shows the number of days between two dates based on a 360-day year (twelve 30-day months). To correct this add 1 to the result. Syntax =DAYS360(StartDate.D7.D6. Formatting The result will be shown as a number. FALSE : Use this for USA accounting systems.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F DAYS360 Page 184 of 223 G 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 StartDate 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 EndDate 5-Jan-98 1-Feb-98 31-Mar-98 31-Dec-98 Days Between 4 30 89 359 * See the Note below.D5.

Example The =DAY function has been used to calculate the name of the day for your birthday.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G DAY Page 185 of 223 H 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Full Date 25-Dec-98 20-Jun-13 20-Jun-13 The Day 25 Fri 20 20 =DAY(C4) =DAY(C5) =DAY(C6) What Does It Do? This function extracts the day of the month from a complete date.Custom and using the code ddd or dddd. Please enter your date of birth in the format dd/mm/yy : You were born on : 3/25/1962 Wednesday 25 =DAY(F21) . Syntax =DAY(value) Formatting Normally the result will be a number.Number. but this can be formatted to show the actual day of the week by using Format.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .Cells.

FieldName. The second set of information is the actual record. of the values to be averaged.00 £2.00 To calculate the Average cost of a particular Brand of bulb.10 20 5 £10. Examples The average Unit Cost of a particular Product of a particular Brand. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4.00 £0. or cell.80 25 6 £120.F3.00 15 2 £60. Brand These two cells are the Criteria range.00 3 2 £30.00 £0.00 £5. such as Horizon as a brand name.00 £0.20 30 2 £12. or records.E23:E24) What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and produces and average.00 £1. including the field names at the top of the columns. Syntax =DAVERAGE(DatabaseRange.20 40 3 £24. which are to be selected.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .00 £1.00 £0. or 100 as the wattage.00 £0. Type the brand name : sunbeam The Average cost of sunbeam is : £1. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information. The first set of information is the name. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records. or names.00 £0.50 15 0 £0.24 =DAVERAGE(B3:I19.25 10 5 £12.15 25 0 £0. Formatting No special formatting is needed.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J DAVERAGE Page 186 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon This is the Database range. The FieldName is the name.80 10 5 £40.20 25 2 £10. such as the category Brand or Wattage.50 £0. such as "Unit Cost" or F3.50 4 3 £54.00 £2.80 20 5 £180.00 £0.50 10 3 £15. Product Brand .00 £0.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine.25 10 4 £50.00 £0.

"Unit Cost"."Unit Cost". £1.17 Wattage <100 =DAVERAGE(B3:I19.E60:F61) The average Unit Cost of a Bulb less then a particular Wattage."Unit Cost".F3.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .E49:F50) The average Unit Cost of a Bulb equal to a particular Wattage.53 Wattage 100 =DAVERAGE(B3:I19. Product Bulb Average of Bulb <100 is : £0.16 F Horizon G H I J DAVERAGE Page 187 of 223 K The average of Horizon Bulb is : =DAVERAGE(B3:I19.2000 Peter Noneley A 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 B C D E Bulb £1.E49:F50) This is the same calculation but using the actual name "Unit Cost" instead of the cell address.E67:F68) .16 =DAVERAGE(B3:I19. Product Bulb Average of Bulb 100 is : £0.

Example The example uses the =DATEVALUE and the =TODAY functions to calculate the number of days remaining on a property lease. BC100 FG700 TD200 HJ900 .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F DATEVALUE Page 188 of 223 G H 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Date 25-dec-99 25/12/99 25-dec-99 25/12/99 Date Value 36519 #VALUE! 36519 #VALUE! =DATEVALUE(C4) =DATEVALUE(C5) =DATEVALUE(C6) =DATEVALUE(C7) What Does It Do? The function is used to convert a piece of text into a date which can be used in calculations.Date. Days Until Expiry Date Expiry 25-dec-99 -4926 10-july/99 -5094 13-sep-98 -5394 30/5/2000 #VALUE! =DATEVALUE(E32)-TODAY() Property Ref.Cells. probably after being imported from an external program. This number can be formatted to any of the normal date formats by using Format.Number. Syntax =DATEVALUE(text) Formatting The result will normally be shown as a number which represents the date. such as exports from mainframe computers. Dates expressed as text are often created when data is imported from other programs. The =DATEVALUE function was used because the date has been entered in the cell as a piece of text.

"md") You can put this all together in one calculation.TODAY(). It can show the result in weeks. as if the dates were in the same year.TODAY()."md") What Does It Do? This function calculates the difference between two dates.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H DATEDIF Page 189 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 FirstDate 1-Jan-60 1-Jan-60 1-Jan-60 1-Jan-60 1-Jan-60 1-Jan-60 SecondDate 10-May-70 10-May-70 10-May-70 10-May-70 10-May-70 10-May-70 Interval days months years yeardays yearmonths monthdays Difference 3782 124 10 130 4 9 =DATEDIF(C4. as if the dates were in the same month and year. These are the available intervals. Syntax =DATEDIF(FirstDate. which creates a text version. "y" Years between the two dates. "Interval" : This indicates what you want to calculate. SecondDate : This is the most recent of the two dates.TODAY().D6."ym")&" Months and "&DATEDIF(C8. as if the dates were in the same year. "ym" Months between the dates."y") =DATEDIF(C7.D7.D9. months or years. Birth date : Years lived : and the months : and the days : 1-Jan-60 53 =DATEDIF(C8.TODAY().TODAY(). "d" Days between the two dates. 5 Months and 19 Days ="Age is "&DATEDIF(C8. "&DATEDIF(C8.TODAY()."y")&" Years. "m" Months between the two dates."Interval") FirstDate : This is the earliest of the two dates. Age is 53 Years."md")&" Days" .SecondDate.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D4. Formatting No special formatting is needed."y") 5 =DATEDIF(C8."ym") 19 =DATEDIF(C8."yd") =DATEDIF(C8. "yd" Days between the dates.D5."d") =DATEDIF(C5."ym") =DATEDIF(C9. "md" Days between the two dates."m") =DATEDIF(C6.D8.

Syntax =DATE(year. By using the Format.C5) January 2.C6) What Does It Do? This function creates a real date by using three normal numbers typed into separate cells.day) Formatting The result will normally be displayed in the dd/mm/yy format.Date command the format can be changed.month.C4) 25-Dec-99 =DATE(E5. .D6.Cells.D4.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .Number. 2000 =DATE(E6.D5.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J DATE Page 190 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Day Month 25 12 25 12 33 12 Year 99 99 99 Date 12/25/99 =DATE(E4.

How many items cost £100 or above. service What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of items which match criteria set by the user. such as =COUNTIF(A1:A5.CriteriaToBeMatched) The criteria can be typed in any of the following ways.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 ."Tyres") =COUNTIF(E4:E12. "Hello") To match using operators surround the expression with quotes. .">=100") =COUNTIF(C4:C12.E18) How many Brake Shoes Have been bought. ">100") Formatting No special formatting is needed. To match a specific number type the number. How many Tyres have been bought. such as =COUNTIF(A1:A5. 100) To match a piece of text type the text in quotes. such as =COUNTIF(A1:A5."Brakes") =COUNTIF(C4:C12. Syntax =COUNTIF(RangeOfThingsToBeCounted.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G COUNTIF Page 191 of 223 H 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Item Brakes Tyres Brakes Service Service Window Tyres Tyres Clutch Date 1-Jan-98 10-May-98 1-Feb-98 1-Mar-98 5-Jan-98 1-Jun-98 1-Apr-98 1-Mar-98 1-May-98 Cost 80 25 80 150 300 50 200 100 250 2 3 5 2 =COUNTIF(C4:C12. Type the name of the item to count.

Syntax =COUNTBLANK(RangeToTest) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Each of the departments in the various factories were questioned."Y") =COUNTIF(C32:F41. The response to the question could be Y or N.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I COUNTBLANK Page 192 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 Range To Test 1 Hello 3 0 1-Jan-98 5 Blanks 2 =COUNTBLANK(C4:C11) What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of blank cells in a range."N") Factory 1 Factory 2 Factory 3 Factory 4 Factory 5 Factory 6 Factory 7 Factory 8 Factory 9 Factory 10 N Y Y N Y Y N N N Votes not vet registered : Votes for Yes : Votes for No : . Example The following table was used by a company which was balloting its workers on whether the company should have a no smoking policy. As the results of the vote were collated they were entered in to the table. The =COUNTBLANK() function has been used to calculate the number of departments which have no yet registered a vote. Admin Y Accounts N Y Production Y N Y Y Y Y Y Personnel N N N Y Y 16 14 10 =COUNTBLANK(C32:F41) =COUNTIF(C32:F41.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J COUNTA Page 193 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 Entries To Be Counted 10 20 30 10 0 30 10 -20 30 10 1-Jan-88 30 10 21:30 30 10 0. Maths Alan Bob Carol David Elaine Fail 2 Fail 1 English 1 1 3 Art 1 3 1 Fail 2 History Exams Taken By Each Pupil 2 3 3 2 4 =COUNTA(D39:G39) 1 Fail How many pupils sat each Exam.Range3.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . 2 or 3. It will ignore blanks.Range2.. Syntax =COUNTA(Range1. A failure was entered as Fail. The school also needed to know how many exams were taken by each pupil. Maths English Art History 4 3 5 2 =COUNTA(D35:D39) . Each exam passed was graded as 1.. The school needed to known how many pupils sat each exam. through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Example The following table was used by a school to keep track of the examinations taken by each pupil. The =COUNTA() function has been used because of its ability to count text and numeric entries.966104 30 10 30 10 Hello 30 10 #DIV/0! 30 Count 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 =COUNTA(C4:E4) =COUNTA(C5:E5) =COUNTA(C6:E6) =COUNTA(C7:E7) =COUNTA(C8:E8) =COUNTA(C9:E9) =COUNTA(C10:E10) =COUNTA(C11:E11) =COUNTA(C12:E12) What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of numeric or text entries in a list.

000 Count 3 2 =COUNT(D29:D32) Mar 0 . Syntax =COUNT(Range1.Range3. text and errors. Item Jan Feb Bricks £1.000 £1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . It will ignore blanks..557107 30 10 30 10 Hello 30 10 #DIV/0! 30 Count 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 =COUNT(C4:E4) =COUNT(C5:E5) =COUNT(C6:E6) =COUNT(C7:E7) =COUNT(C8:E8) =COUNT(C9:E9) =COUNT(C10:E10) =COUNT(C11:E11) =COUNT(C12:E12) What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of numeric entries in a list.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J COUNT Page 194 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 Entries To Be Counted 10 20 30 10 0 30 10 -20 30 10 1-Jan-88 30 10 21:30 30 10 0. Example The following table was used by a builders merchant to calculate the number of sales for various products in each month.000 Glass £2.Range2.000 Wood £5..000 Metal £1. through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J

CORREL Page 195 of 223 K

1 2 3

Table 1 Air Cond Sales 100 200 300 200 400 400

Table 2 Advertising Costs £2,000 £1,000 £5,000 £1,000 £8,000 £1,000

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun

Avg Temp 20 30 30 40 50 50

Sales £20,000 £30,000 £20,000 £40,000 £40,000 £20,000

Correlation 0.864 =CORREL(D5:D10,E5:E10)

Correlation 28% =CORREL(G5:G10,H5:H10)

What Does It Do ? This function examines two sets of data to determine the degree of relationship between the two sets. The result will be a decimal between 0 and 1. The larger the result, the greater the correlation. In Table 1 the Monthly temperature is compared against the Sales of air conditioning units. The correlation shows that there is an 0.864 realtionship between the data. In Table 2 the Cost of advertising has been compared to Sales. It can be formatted as percentage % to show a more meaning full result. The correlation shows that there is an 28% realtionship between the data. Syntax =CORREL(Range1,Range2) Formatting The result will normally be shown in decimal format.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H

CONVERT Page 196 of 223 I

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 Amount Converting To Convert From 1 in 1 ft 1 yd 1 1 1.5 0.5 yr day hr mn Converting To cm m m day hr mn sec Converted Amount 2.54 =CONVERT(C4,D4,E4) 0.3048 =CONVERT(C5,D5,E5) 0.9144 =CONVERT(C6,D6,E6) 365.25 24 90 30 =CONVERT(C8,D8,E8) =CONVERT(C9,D9,E9) =CONVERT(C10,D10,E10) =CONVERT(C11,D11,E11)

What Does It Do ? This function converts a value measure in one type of unit, to the same value expressed in a different type of unit, such as Inches to Centimetres. Syntax =CONVERT(AmountToConvert,UnitToConvertFrom,UnitToConvertTo) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Example The following table was used by an Import / Exporting company to convert the weight and size of packages from old style UK measuring system to European system. Pounds Ounces Kilograms 5 3 2.35301 =CONVERT(D28,"lbm","kg")+CONVERT(E28,"ozm","kg") Feet 12 8 5 Inches Metres 6 3.81 3 2.5146 2 1.5748 =CONVERT(D34,"ft","m")+CONVERT(E34,"in","m")

Weight

Height Length Width

Abbreviations This is a list of all the possible abbreviations which can be used to denote measuring systems. Weight & Mass Gram Kilogram Slug Pound mass U (atomic mass) Ounce mass Time Year Day Hour Distance Meter Statute mile Nautical mile Inch Foot Yard Angstrom Pica (1/72 in.) Pressure Pascal

g kg sg lbm u ozm

m mi Nmi in ft yd ang Pica

yr day hr

Pa

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 Minute Second Temperature Degree Celsius Degree Fahrenheit Degree Kelvin Force Newton Dyne Pound force Energy Joule Erg Thermodynamic calorie IT calorie Electron volt Horsepower-hour Watt-hour Foot-pound BTU B C mn sec D E Atmosphere mm of Mercury Liquid Teaspoon Tablespoon Fluid ounce Cup Pint Quart Gallon Liter Power Horsepower Watt F atm mmHg G H

CONVERT Page 197 of 223 I

C F K

N dyn lbf

tsp tbs oz cup pt qt gal l

J e c cal eV HPh Wh flb BTU

HP W

Magnetism Tesla Gauss

T ga

These characters can be used as a prefix to access further units of measure. Using "c" as a prefix to meters "m" will allow centimetres "cm" to be calculated. Prefix exa peta tera giga mega kilo hecto dekao Multiplier Abbreviation 1.00E+18 E 1.00E+15 P 1.00E+12 T 1.00E+09 G 1.00E+06 M 1.00E+03 k 1.00E+02 h 1.00E+01 e Prefix deci centi milli micro nano pico femto atto Multiplier 1.00E-01 1.00E-02 1.00E-03 1.00E-06 1.00E-09 1.00E-12 1.00E-15 1.00E-18 Abbreviation d c m u n p f a

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H

CONCATENATE Page 198 of 223 I

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

Name 1 Alan Bob Carol Alan Bob Carol

Name 2 Concatenated Text Jones AlanJones =CONCATENATE(C4,D4) Williams BobWilliams =CONCATENATE(C5,D5) Davies CarolDavies =CONCATENATE(C6,D6) Jones Alan Jones =CONCATENATE(C7," ",D7) Williams Williams, Bob =CONCATENATE(D8,", ",C8) Davies Davies, Carol =CONCATENATE(D9,", ",C9)

What Does It Do? This function joins separate pieces of text into one item. Syntax =CONCATENATE(Text1,Text2,Text3...Text30) Up to thirty pieces of text can be joined. Formatting No special formatting is needed, the result will be shown as normal text. Note You can achieve the same result by using the & operator. Name 1 Alan Bob Carol Alan Bob Carol Name 2 Concatenated Text Jones AlanJones =C25&D25 Williams BobWilliams =C26&D26 Davies CarolDavies =C27&D27 Jones Alan Jones =C28&" "&D28 Williams Williams, Bob =D29&", "&C29 Davies Davies, Carol =D30&", "&C30

Syntax =COMBIN(HowManyItems.D5) =COMBIN(C6.D4) =COMBIN(C5. Example 1 This example calculates the possible number of pairs of letters available from the four characters ABCD. so AB is the same as BA.D41) The colours Red Green Blue Yellow Black .D6) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the highest number of combinations available based upon a fixed number of items. The decorator is given five colours to work with.D25) Example 2 A decorator is asked to design a colour scheme for a new office. How many colours schemes can be created ? Available Colours Colours Per Scheme Totals Schemes 5 3 10 =COMBIN(C41. The internal order of the combination does not matter.GroupSize) Formatting No special formatting is required.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F COMBIN Page 199 of 223 G 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 Pool Of Items 4 4 26 Items In A Group 2 3 2 Possible Groups 6 4 325 =COMBIN(C4.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . but can only use three in any scheme. Total Characters 4 The proof ! Group Size 2 The four letters : Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 Pair 4 Pair 5 Pair 6 Combinations 6 ABCD AB AC AD BC BD CD =COMBIN(C25.

2000 Peter Noneley A 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 B C Scheme 1 Red Green Blue Scheme 6 Green Blue Yellow D Scheme 2 Red Green Yellow Scheme 7 Green Blue Black E Scheme 3 Red Green Black Scheme 8 Green Yellow Black F Scheme 4 Red Blue Yellow Scheme 9 Blue Yellow Black COMBIN Page 200 of 223 G Scheme 5 Red Blue Black Scheme 10 ?????? .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

Example See the example for FREQUENCY. There are 255 characters in the ANSI set.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J CODE Page 201 of 224 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 Letter A B C a b c Alan Bob Carol ANSI Code 65 66 67 97 98 99 65 66 67 =CODE(C4) =CODE(C5) =CODE(C6) =CODE(C7) =CODE(C8) =CODE(C9) =CODE(C10) =CODE(C11) =CODE(C12) What Does It Do? This function shows the ANSI value of a single character.70 . 69 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 ! 58 " 59 # 60 $ 61 % 62 & 63 ' 64 ( 65 ) 66 * 67 + 68 . The ANSI character set is used by Windows to identify each keyboard character by using a unique number. Syntax =CODE(Text) Formatting No special formatting is needed. < = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ` a b c d 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z { | } 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 ~ • € • ‚ ƒ „ … † ‡ ˆ ‰ Š ‹ Œ • Ţ • • Ř ř Ŗ ŗ • Ŕ 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 ŕ ˜ ™ š › œ • ţ Ÿ ¡ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¦ § ¨ © ª « ¬ ® ¯ 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 ° ± ² ³ ´ µ ¶ · ¸ ¹ º » ¼ ½ ¾ ¿ À Á Â Ã Ä Å Æ Ç È 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 É Ê Ë Ì Í Î Ï Ð Ñ Ò Ó Ô Õ Ö × Ø Ù Ú Û Ü Ý Þ ß à á 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 â ã ä å æ ç è é ê ë ì í î ï ð ñ ò ó ô õ ö ÷ ø ù ú 251 252 253 254 255 û ü ý þ ÿ .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . or the first character in a piece of text. the result will be shown as a number between 1 and 255. 71 / 72 0 73 1 74 2 75 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : .

18 43 + 68 D 19 44 .2000 23 Peter 48Noneley 0 73 I 24 49 1 74 J A 25 B 50 2 C75 K 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 D 100 ] ^ _ ` a b c d 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 v w x y z { | }E 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 • • Ř ř Ŗ ŗ • Ŕ 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 F 175 ¨ © ª « ¬ ® ¯ 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 G 200 Á Â Ã Ä Å Æ Ç È 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 Ú Û Ü Ý Þ ß à H á 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 ó ô õ ö ÷ ø ù ú I CODE Page 202 of 224 J K 55 . 71 G Excel Function 22 Dictionary 47 / 72 H © 1998 .70 F 21 46 . 69 E 20 45 .

These nonprinting characters are often found in data which has been imported from other systems such as database imports from mainframes.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =CLEAN(TextToBeCleaned) Formatting No special formatting is needed. . The result will show as normal text.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I CLEAN Page 203 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Dirty Text Hello He llo Hello Clean Text Hello =CLEAN(C4) Hello =CLEAN(C5) Hello =CLEAN(C6) What Does It Do? This function removes any nonprintable characters from text.

"Gold".15%."Carol") =CHOOSE(C6. The =IF() has been used to filter out any positions above 3."unplaced") =RANK(C34. Item2."Bronze").10%."Bob". Syntax =CHOOSE(UserValue.CHOOSE(D34."Gold". The Time for each athlete is entered. The =RANK() function calculates the finishing position of each athlete.CHOOSE(D30.CHOOSE(D32.15%."Bronze")."unplaced") 5 unplaced =IF(D33<=3."Carol") =CHOOSE(C7."unplaced") 3 Bronze =IF(D34<=3."Bronze")."Alan".18%) =CHOOSE(C9.C30:C34) . Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Time 1:30 1:15 2:45 1:05 1:20 Position Medal 2 Silver =IF(D30<=3.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I CHOOSE Page 204 of 223 J K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 Index Value 1 3 2 3 1 2 Result Alan Carol Bob 18% 10% 15% =CHOOSE(C4."Bronze").18%) =CHOOSE(C8. The =CHOOSE() then allocates the correct medal."Carol") =CHOOSE(C5."Gold"."Silver"."Bob".CHOOSE(D33."Bob"."Gold".15%. Item1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .18%) What Does It Do? This function picks from a list of options based upon an Index value given to by the user.10%. due to the fact the =CHOOSE() has only three items in it."unplaced") 4 unplaced =IF(D31<=3.10%."Alan"."Silver"."Silver"."Gold". Item3 through to Item29) Formatting No special formatting is required. as this would cause the error of #VALUE to appear. Example The following table was used to calculate the medals for athletes taking part in a race."unplaced") 1 Gold =IF(D32<=3."Bronze")."Alan".CHOOSE(D31."Silver"."Silver".

71 / 72 0 73 1 74 2 75 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 ! 58 " 59 # 60 $ 61 % 62 & 63 ' 64 ( 65 ) 66 * 67 + 68 . < = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ` a b c d 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z { | } 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 ~ • € 151 152 153 154 ‚ 155 ƒ 156 „ 157 … 158 † 159 ‡ 160 ˆ 161 ‰ 162 Š 163 ‹ 164 Œ 165 166 Ţ 167 168 169 Ř 170 ř 171 Ŗ 172 ŗ 173 • 174 Ŕ 175 ŕ ˜ ™ š › œ ţ Ÿ ¡ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¦ § ¨ © ª « ¬ ® ¯ 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 ° ± ² ³ ´ µ ¶ · ¸ ¹ º » ¼ ½ ¾ ¿ À Á Â Ã Ä Å Æ Ç È 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 É Ê Ë Ì Í Î Ï Ð Ñ Ò Ó Ô Õ Ö × Ø Ù Ú Û Ü Ý Þ ß à á 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 â ã ä å æ ç è é ê ë ì í î ï ð ñ ò ó ô õ ö ÷ ø ù ú 251 252 253 254 255 û ü ý þ ÿ .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . these will be displayed as a small box. Formatting The result will be a character with no special formatting. Syntax =CHAR(Number) The Number must be between 1 and 255.70 .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U CHAR Page 205 of 224 V W X 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 ANSI Number Character 65 A 66 B 169 © =CHAR(G4) =CHAR(G5) =CHAR(G6) What Does It Do? This function converts a normal number to the character it represent in the ANSI character set used by Windows. Example The following is a list of all 255 numbers and the characters they represent. 69 . Note that most Windows based program may not display some of the special characters.

2000 Peter Noneley A 50 51 B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Note Number 32 does not show as it is the SPACEBAR character.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Q R S T U CHAR Page 206 of 224 V W X .

00) 0% 0.CellToTest) The TypeOfInfoRequired is a text entry which must be surrounded with quotes " ". 0 for unlocked.##0_). Numeric Format General 0 #.D3) =CELL("prefix".D3) What Does It Do ? This function examines a cell and displays information about the contents. Shown as ' for left.xls]CELL =CELL("filename". 0 =CELL("parentheses". Syntax =CELL("TypeOfInfoRequired".D3) 12 P2 =CELL("width". v for value. Nothing is shown for numeric entries.D3) 1 for yes. Shown as b for blank.($#. 1 =CELL("protect".D3) =CELL("type". 0 for no.50% $D$3 4 3 0.D3) =CELL("col".##0. The column number.00E+00 # ?/? or # ??/?? m/d/yy or m/d/yy h:mm or mm/dd/yy. (See the table shown below) 17. d-mmm-yy or dd-mmm-yy d-mmm or dd-mmm mmm-yy mm/dd h:mm AM/PM h:mm:ss AM/PM h:mm h:mm:ss Code G F0 . The cell address. l for text. 0 for no. The actual contents of the cell. The row number.00 $#. \\vboxsrv\conversion_tmp\scratch_1\[153159994.175 v =CELL("address".D3) Formatted for braces ( ) on positive values. Formatted for coloured negatives. The type of entry in the cell.00_).00_). position and formatting.##0. The alignment of the cell.This is the cell and contents to test. Formatting No special formatting is needed. Codes used to show the formatting of the cell.##0 0.00) $#.D3) =CELL("row".00% 0.##0) $#.##0. The width of the cell.xls.ms_office.[Red]($#.00 #. 0 =CELL("color". The type of cell protection.##0) $#.($#.D3) =CELL("contents".0 F2 . The filename containing the cell.D3) =CELL("format".2 C0 C0C2 C2P0 P2 S2 G D4 D1 D2 D3 D5 D7 D6 D9 D8 .##0.D3) 1 for a locked.##0.[Red]($#.D3) 1 for yes. The number format fo the cell. " for right.##0_). ^ for centre.

CELL("filename"))-1) .xls. The name of the current file is : 153159994.xls =MID(CELL("filename").ms_office.Example The following example uses the =CELL() function as part of a formula which extracts the filename.CELL("filename"))-FIND("[".CELL("filename"))+1.FIND("]".FIND("[".

ms_office.xls]CELL .4.xls.

MultipleToRoundUpTo) The ValueToRound can be a cell address or a calculation.5 1. This results of the division are not whole numbers.33 8. Table 1 Item Bricks Wood Cement Units To Be Moved 1000 5000 2000 Truck Capacity 300 600 350 Trucks Needed 3.7) =CEILING(D29. Formatting No special formatting is needed.1) =CEILING(D56/E56. Table 1 calculates the number of trucks required by dividing the Units To Be Moved by the Capacity of the truck.30) =CEILING(C9.7) =CEILING(D30.Number 2.7) Example 2 The following table was used by a builders merchant delivering products to a construction site.1) =CEILING(C6. Days To Be Billed 7 7 14 Days Required Customer 1 3 Customer 2 4 Customer 3 10 =CEILING(D28.30) =CEILING(C8.9 20 25 40 Raised Up 3 2 2 30 30 60 =CEILING(C4.33 5. Syntax =CEILING(ValueToRound. The properties being rented are only available on a weekly basis. When the customer supplies the number of days required in the property the =CEILING() function rounds it up by a multiple of 7 to calculate the number of full weeks to be billed.1 1. and thus given the exact amount of trucks needed.1) =CEILING(C5. Example 1 The following table was used by a estate agent renting holiday apartments.1) .30) What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number up to the nearest multiple specified by the user.71 =D45/E45 =D46/E46 =D47/E47 Table 2 shows how the =CEILING() function has been used to round up the result of the division to a whole number.1) =CEILING(D55/E55. Each product needs a particular type of truck of a fixed capacity. The merchant needs to hire trucks to move each product.1) =CEILING(C7. and the builder cannot hire just part of a truck. Table 2 Item Bricks Wood Cement Units To Be Moved 1000 5000 2000 Truck Capacity 300 600 350 Trucks Needed 4 9 6 =CEILING(D54/E54.

75000 1.99 =INT(E83)+CEILING(MOD(E83.62000 5.25 £28.99) Calculates the integer part of the price.60714 5.62000 1.99 2.81818 1. Calculates the decimal part of the price. Raises the decimal to 0.99 1.99) Explanation =INT(E83) =MOD(E83. The shopkeeper buys products by the box.81818 2. The cost of the item is calculated by dividing the Box Cost by the Box Quantity.1).99 5.60714 2.10 £28 Cost Per Item 1.75000 =D69/C69 =D70/C70 =D71/C71 =D72/C72 Table 2 shows how the =CEILING() function has been used to raise the Item Cost to always end in 99 pence. The shopkeeper always wants the price to end in 99 pence.0. Table 1 Item Plugs Sockets Junctions Adapters Box Qnty 11 7 5 16 Box Cost £20 £18.10 £28 Cost Per Item Raised Cost 1.25 £28.1) =CEILING(MOD(E83). Table 1 shows how just a normal division results in varying Item Costs.99 .Example 3 The following tables were used by a shopkeeper to calculate the selling price of an item. Table 2 Item Plugs Sockets Junctions Adapters In Box 11 7 5 16 Box Cost £20 £18.0.

Formatting No special formatting is needed. Syntax =BIN2DEC(BinaryNumber) The binary number has a limit of ten characters.Binary Number Decimal Equivalent 0 #REF! 1 1 10 2 11 3 111111111 511 1111111111 -1 1111111110 -2 1111111101 -3 1000000000 -512 11111111111 #NUM! =BIN2DEC(C4) =BIN2DEC(C5) =BIN2DEC(C6) =BIN2DEC(C7) =BIN2DEC(C8) =BIN2DEC(C9) =BIN2DEC(C10) =BIN2DEC(C11) =BIN2DEC(C12) =BIN2DEC(C13) What Does It Do ? This function converts a binary number to decimal. Negative numbers are represented using two's-complement notation. .

Syntax =AVERAGE(Range1. through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed. the cell will not be used in the average calculation..3333 =AVERAGE(D13:J13) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the average from a list of numbers. the cell will be included in the average calculation.667 =SUM(D35:J35)/COUNTA(D35:J35) 0 4 6 3 1 2.571 =SUM(D31:J31)/COUNTA(D31:J31) 0 Reading 0 4 6 3 1 2 =SUM(D32:J32)/COUNTA(D32:J32) Mon 30 0 Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average 32 29 26 28 27 28. If the cell contains zero 0. Note To calculate the average of cells which contain text or blanks use =SUM() to get the total and then divide by the count of the entries using =COUNTA().667 =AVERAGE(D8:J8) 0 4 6 3 1 2.3333 =SUM(D36:J36)/COUNTA(D36:J36) Temp Rain Temp Rain Further Usage . Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average 30 No 32 29 26 28 27 24.. If the cell is blank or contains text.3333 =AVERAGE(D9:J9) Temp Rain Temp Rain Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average 30 No 32 29 26 28 27 28.Temp Rain Mon 30 0 Mon 30 0 Tue 31 0 Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average 32 29 26 28 27 29 =AVERAGE(D4:J4) 0 4 6 3 1 2 =AVERAGE(D5:J5) Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average 32 29 26 28 27 28.667 =AVERAGE(D12:J12) 0 Reading 0 4 6 3 1 2.Range2.Range3.

In the above example the pink range was selected as normal. Example The example at the top of this page shows two ranges coloured pink and green. then the Ctrl key was held down before selecting the green range. If it is a multiple block the result will be the number of ranges selected. or whether it is a multiple selection. . If it is a single block the result will be 1. Syntax =AREAS(RangeToTest) Formatting The result will be shown as a number.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H AREAS Page 214 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 Pink Name Alan Bob Carol Name David Eric Fred Age 18 17 20 Age 20 16 19 2 =AREAS(PeopleLists) Green What Does It Do? This function tests a range to determine whether it is a single block of data.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The =AREAS(PeopleLists) gives a result of 2 indicating that there are two separate selections which form the PeopleLists range. The function is designed to be used in macros. When a Range Name is created it will consider both Pink and Green as being one range. These ranges have been given the name PeopleLists. Note To name multiple ranges the CTRL key must be used.

D6>=100) =AND(D7>=1.D5>=100) =AND(C6>=100.Items To Test 500 800 500 25 25 500 12 Result TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE =AND(C4>=100. Normally the AND() function would be used in conjunction with a function such as =IF(). The =AND() function has been used to test that each score is above the average. Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Fred Gail Harry Ian Janice Maths 80 50 60 90 20 40 10 80 30 10 English 75 30 70 85 30 60 90 70 10 20 Physics 85 40 50 95 Absent 80 80 60 20 30 Passed TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE =AND(C38>=AVERAGE($C$29:$C$38).D7<=52) What Does It Do? This function tests two or more conditions to see if they are all true. It can be used to test that a number or a date falls between an upper and lower limit. Formatting When used by itself it will show TRUE or FALSE. Example 1 The following example shows a list of examination results.D38>=AVERAGE($D$29:$D$38).Test2) Note that there can be up to 30 possible tests.D4>=100) =AND(C5>=100.E38>=AVERAGE($E$29:$E$38)) Averages 47 54 60 . The result of TRUE is shown for pupils who have scored above average in all three exams. Syntax =AND(Test1. The teacher wants to find the pupils who scored above average in all three exams. It can be used to test that a series of numbers meet certain conditions.

The A1orR1C1 is either TRUE of FALSE.4.F3. Syntax =ADDRESS(RowNumber. neither col or row absolute.3. When 1 the reference will be in the form $A$1. When 2 the reference will be in the form A$1.FALSE) =ADDRESS(F4.1.F5) =ADDRESS(F4. When FALSE the reference will be in the form R1C1.TRUE) =ADDRESS(F4. the normal style for cell addresses. When TRUE the reference will be in the form A1. The SheetName does not actually have to exist.TRUE) =ADDRESS(F4. The Absolute can be 1. .ColNumber. the alternative style of cell address.2. When 4 the reference will be in the form A1.Absolute.FALSE) =ADDRESS(F4.TRUE.TRUE) =ADDRESS(F4.3.F3.2.1.2.TRUE.F3.4.TRUE.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2.3 or 4.F3.F3.F5) What Does It Do ? This function creates a cell reference as a piece of text.F3. only the row absolute.4. The ColNumber is from 1 to 256.FALSE) =ADDRESS(F4. only the column absolute.F5) =ADDRESS(F4.TRUE.A1orR1C1.3.1.F3. When 3 the reference will be in the form $A1.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I ADDRESS Page 216 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Type a column number : Type a row number : Type a sheet name : $B$3 B$3 $B3 B3 R3C2 R3C[2] R[3]C2 R[3]C[2] Hello!$B$3 Hello!B$3 Hello!$B3 Hello!B3 2 3 Hello =ADDRESS(F4.SheetName) The RowNumber is the normal row number from 1 to 16384. based on a row and column numbers given by the user. column and row absolute.F3.F3.F3.F3.FALSE) =ADDRESS(F4.TRUE) =ADDRESS(F4. This type of function is used in macros rather than on the actual worksheet.F3. cols A to IV.F5) =ADDRESS(F4. The SheetName is a piece of text to be used as the worksheet name in the reference.

25 1. which has a knock on effect when the Error Percentage is calculated.25 -1. In calculating the difference between the Required Length and the Actual Length it does not matter if the wood was cut too long or short. the measurement needs to be expressed as an absolute value. The Difference for Test 3 is shown as negative. Table 2 Test Cut Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Required Length 120 120 120 Actual Length 120 90 150 Error Percentage 0 0% 30 25% 30 25% =ABS(D45-E45) Difference . Table 1 Test Cut Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Required Length 120 120 120 Actual Length 120 90 150 Difference 0 30 -30 =D36-E36 Error Percentage 0% 25% -25% Table 2 shows the same data but using the =ABS() function to correct the calculations. The machine needs to cut timber to an exact length. no special formatting is needed. Whether the wood was too long or short. Three pieces of timber were cut and then measured. the percentage should still be expressed as an absolute value. Example The following table was used by a company testing a machine which cuts timber.25 Absolute Value 10 10 1. irrespective of whether it is positive or negative. Table 1 shows the original calculations.25 =ABS(C4) =ABS(C5) =ABS(C6) =ABS(C7) What Does it Do ? This function calculates the value of a number. Syntax =ABS(CellAddress or Number) Formatting The result will be shown as a number.Number 10 -10 1.

column or all cells and then press Alt and =. then press Alt and =. Jan 10 20 30 40 100 Feb 50 60 70 80 260 Mar 90 100 200 300 690 Total 150 180 330 420 1050 North South East West Total . you can press Alt and = to achieve the same result. or Select a row.Instead of using the AutoSum button from the toolbar. Try it here : Move to a blank cell in the Total row or column.

Age is 40 Years."ym")&" Months and "&DATEDIF(C8.TODAY()."ym") =DATEDIF(C8. (Makes you wonder what else Microsoft forgot to tell us!) Birth date : Years lived : and the months : and the days : 29-Apr-73 40 1 22 =DATEDIF(C8. Birth date : Age is : 1-Jan-60 53. but it is in 2000."y") =DATEDIF(C8. If the age is 20. 7 or 97."md")&" Days" Another way to calculate age This method gives you an age which may potentially have decimal places representing the months.TODAY(). which creates a text version.5.TODAY(). The calculation uses the DATEDIF() function. 1 Months and 22 Days ="Age is "&DATEDIF(C8. "&DATEDIF(C8.5 represents 6 months.25 .You can calculate a persons age based on their birthday and todays date.TODAY(). The DATEDIF() is not documented in Excel 5.47 =(TODAY()-C23)/365. the .TODAY().TODAY()."y")&" Years."md") You can put this all together in one calculation.

Mathematically speaking the * and / are more important than + and .. The need for brackets occurs when you mix plus or minus with divide or multiply. in formula. (also known as 'braces'). This is to ensure that the calculations are performed in the order that you need. Example 1 : The wrong answer ! 10 20 2 50 =C12+C13*C14 You may expect that 10 + 20 would equal 30 And then 30 * 2 would equal 60 But because the * is calculated first Excel sees the calculation as 20 * 2 resulting in 40 And then 10 + 40 resulting in 50 Example 2 : The correct answer.. The * and / operations will be calculated before + and . resulting in 30 Then the 30 is multipled by 2 resulting in 60 .Sometimes you will need to use brackets. 10 20 2 60 =(C27+C28)*C29 By placing brackets around (10+20) Excel performs this part of the calulation first.

255) .xls]Home1 =CELL("filename") The problem with this is that it gives the complete path including drive letter and folders. \\vboxsrv\conversion_tmp\scratch_1\ =MID(CELL("filename"). Home1 =MID(CELL("filename"). This can be done by using the CELL() function.ms_office.ms_office.CELL("filename"))-1) To pick the Worksheet name. To pick the Path. shown below.FIND("[".FIND("]". To just pick out the workbook or worksheet name you need to use text functions.CELL("filename"))-FIND("[".1. 153159994. \\vboxsrv\conversion_tmp\scratch_1\[153159994.CELL("filename"))-1) To pick the Workbook name.xls.CELL("filename"))+1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .CELL("filename"))+1.FIND("[".2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G Filename formula Page 221 of 223 H I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 There may be times when you need to insert the name of the current workbook or worksheet in to a cell.xls.FIND("]".xls =MID(CELL("filename").

Then press F11.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H Instant Charts Page 222 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 You can create a chart quickly without having to use the chart button on the toolbar by pressing the function key F11 whilst inside a range of data. Jan 45 30 35 20 Feb 50 25 10 50 Mar 50 35 50 5 North South East West Click anywhere inside the table above. .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G SUM_using_names Page 223 of 223 H I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 You can use the names typed at the top of columns or side of rows in calculations simply by typing the name into the formula. Try this example: Go to cell C16 and then enter the formula =SUM(jan) The result will show. and the names change to Feb and Mar. Options.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Jan 45 30 35 20 Feb 50 25 10 50 Mar 50 35 50 5 North South East West Total If it does not work ! The feature may have been switched off on your computer. Accept Labels in Formula. You can switch it on by using Tools. . This formula can be copied to D16 and E16. Calculation.

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Its is a tutor to learn the basic Excel tips and tricks

Its is a tutor to learn the basic Excel tips and tricks

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