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Extrusion Coating Substrates Kelly R. Frey Chevron Phillips Chemical Company LP TAPPI Extrusion Coating Course August
Extrusion Coating
Substrates
Kelly R. Frey
Chevron Phillips Chemical Company LP
TAPPI Extrusion Coating Course
August 24-26
Charleston, SC

Learning Objectives

Identify the components of a typical extrusion coated or laminated structure.

Understand the properties and requirements of each component in a structure.

Understand the various types of substrates available for use in extrusion coating and laminating.

Learn how to put various substrates together to build a structure.

Substrates

The building blocks used to produce a finished structure.

Materials are selected based on

– Function & Design Requirements of the package

» What will it hold? » How will it be converted, filled and distributed? » How will it need to look? » How will it be used? » How much protection is required? (Moisture, Gas, Chemical, Flavors, Aromas, Light, Dirt and Dust) » How much will product cost?

E/C & Lamination Lines

 

E/C & Lamination lines are designed to run three types of substrates:

– Thin films at low tension levels (5-100lbs of tension) e.g. chip bags

– Paper, film and foil combinations (20-200lbs of tension) e.g. stand-up pouch

– High tension paperboard applications (150- 1500lbs of tension) e.g. hot & cold drink cups.

.these lines combine resins or adhesives with

substrates to produce

..

Typical Structure

Outside / (Bulk, Barrier, and/or Tie) / Inside

Outside Layer (Primary Substrate)

Considerations for the outside layer:

– Printable – Print may need to be protected – Maybe sealable (e.g. lap seal) – Maybe not sealable (e.g. fin seal) – Low COF for converting – High scratch resistance for appearance

– May need to receive a coating (silicone release liners)

– Adhesion to the next layer

Tie Layers

Considerations for the tie layers:

– Composition of layers being tied together – Adhesion method (adhesive, extrusion, primers) – Amount of bond required – Failure required (cohesive or adhesive failure)

– Bond strength over time (chemical attack, bond change due to materials, etc).

Bulk Layers

Considerations for the bulk layers:

– Cost – Thickness/Modulus – Adhesion and compatibility with other layers.

– How will the bulk layer affect appearance, machineability, converting, and use of the structure.

– How will the bulk layer affect appearance, machineability, converting, and use of the structure.

– Strength properties (tear, puncture, etc)

Barrier Layers

Considerations for the barrier layer:

– Type of barrier (Moisture, Gas, Solvent, Aroma, Light, Microbial) – How much barrier is required? – Is the barrier also providing grease or chemical resistance/barrier? – Does the barrier need to be clear or can it be opaque? – Abuse resistance (cracking or pinholes). – Does the product require a scavenger in addition to a barrier? – Don’t consider only the permeation through the face of the structure but permeation through the seal of the package, as well.

Inside Layer (Aux. Substrate)

Considerations for the inside layer

Typically the sealant layer

» What will it need to seal to? (lap seal, fin seal) » Seal temperature & seal strength. » Seal through contaminants (powders, grease, etc) » Peelable sealant

– Low COF for converting – Food Contact (flavor scalping, taste and odor) – Appearance

Putting it all together

These considerations and requirements will dictate the types of materials used in the structure with the overall goal to:

Functionality & Cost Performance
Functionality &
Cost
Performance
Extrusion Lamination / Coating Process
Extrusion Lamination / Coating Process
 

Substrates

Paper Advantages Disadvantages Paper - Low Cost - Poor Barrier & Chemical Resistance (Less than -
Paper
Advantages
Disadvantages
Paper
-
Low Cost
-
Poor Barrier & Chemical Resistance
(Less than
-
Some bulk and deadfold
-
Non-Sealable
7mils in
-
Strength (X,Y & Z Direction)
-
Properties change depending upon moisture
thickness)
content
-
Opaque
Measured in
-
Rough surface can produce pinholes.
-
Natural and Bleached and Clay
lbs/ream
Coated
-Easy to obtain adhesion
(mechanical and chemical)
-Easy and forgiving to run and hide
g
au e bands
g
.
8
8
Paperboard Advantages Disadvantages Paperboard - Strength (X,Y & Z Direction) - Poor Barrier & Chemical Resistance
Paperboard
Advantages Disadvantages
Paperboard
-
Strength (X,Y & Z Direction)
-
Poor Barrier & Chemical Resistance
(greater than
-
Opaque
-
Non-Sealable
7mils)
-
Natural and Bleached and Clay
-
Properties change depending upon moisture
Measured by
Coated
content
thickness
-Easy to obtain adhesion
-
Rough surface can produce pinholes.
points.
(mechanical and chemical)
-Can be easy to run and hide
gauge bands.
-Easy and forgiving to run and hide
gauge bands.
Cellophane
Advantages
Disadvantages
Cellophane
- Excellent Optics
-
Poor Barrier
-
Good Stiffness
-
Poor Tear Strength
-
Good Printability
-
Non-Sealable
-
Excellent twist retention
-
Can turn color over time.
-
Good Machineability
OPP Advantages Disadvantages OPP - Excellent Optics - Cost - Good Stiffness - Tear Strength -
OPP
Advantages Disadvantages
OPP
- Excellent Optics
-
Cost
-
Good Stiffness
-
Tear Strength
-
Greaseproof
-
Treatment or primer required for adhesion
-
Heat Sealable Grades
-
Metallized surface can scratch easily
-
Opaque (Cavitated OPP)
-Metallized or PVdC OPP Good
Barrier
-Good Machineability
-Flex resistance vs Cellophane
.
(2700+ on Gelbo)
OPET
Advantages
Disadvantages
OPET
- Excellent Optics
-
Cost
-
Excellent Stiffness (> Than OPP)
-
Poor Tear Strength, once tear is initiated.
Harder to initiate tear than OPP.
-
Good Strength
-
Poor Moisture Barrier Compared to OPP.
-
Good Oxygen Barrier
-
Treatment or primer required for adhesion.
-
High Heat Resistance
Can be harder to adhere to than OPP.
-
Metallized or PVdC PET Good
-Metallized surface can scratch easily
Moisture and Gas Barrier
-Good Machineability
-
High Abrasion Resistance
Foil Advantages Disadvantages Foil - Ultimate Barrier (if pinhole free) - Cost - Optics for Decorative
Foil
Advantages
Disadvantages
Foil
- Ultimate Barrier (if pinhole free)
-
Cost
-
Optics for Decorative Structures
-
Very Weak
-
Non-Sealable
-
Hard to Print
-
Can be hard to get adhesion.
-
At gauges of less than 1mil pinholes can be
present.
Metallized Film
Advantages
Disadvantages
Metallized Film
-
Barrier
-
Cost
(Cellophane,
-
Many grades available,
-
If scratched then barrier is significantly
OPP, Nylon &
Cellophane, OPP, Nylon, PET, etc)
reduce.
PET)
-
Heat sealable grades available.
-
Does not offer the stiffness and deadfold of
foil.
Nylon Film Advantages Disadvantages Nylon Film - Optics - Cost - Very high toughness, tensile, and
Nylon Film
Advantages
Disadvantages
Nylon Film
-
Optics
-
Cost
-
Very high toughness, tensile, and
-
High water absorption which change
abrasion resistance.
mechanical properties (only temporarily).
-
Good oxygen barrier.
-
Does not offer the stiffness and deadfold of
foil.
-
High heat resistance (withstand
steam steralization 140C and even
hotter with dry heat).
-
Good odor barrier.
-
Biax improves strength, stiffness,
and optics as well as barrier
-
Excellent grease resistance.
PE Films
Advantages
Disadvantages
PE Films
- Cost (Depending Upon Type)
-
Cost (Depending Upon Type)
-
Good Optics (Depending upon
-
Low Stiffness Compared to OPP and PET
type)
-
Poor oxygen barrier.
-
Good Sealability
-Low Temperature Resistance.
-
Moisture Barrier
-
Subject to environmental stress cracking.
-
Low Temperature Abuse
Resistance
-
Good Toughness and Tear
-
Orientation in both directions for
blown film.
-
Good optics for cast film.
Cast PP Films Advantages Disadvantages Cast PP Films - Cost - Poor Tear Strength - High
Cast PP Films
Advantages
Disadvantages
Cast PP Films
-
Cost
-
Poor Tear Strength
-
High Elongation at Break
-
Poor Impact Strength at Low Temp (below
0C)
-
MVTR better than LDPE but not
quite as good as HDPE.
-Low Temperature Resistance.
-
Chemical Resistance
-
Subject to environmental stress cracking.
-
Oil & Grease Resistance
-
Good Twist Retention

Film Process Comparison

 
 

CAST FILM

BLOWN FILM

Capital Cost Output

Cap ital Cost Output
Cap ital Cost Output
Cap ital Cost Output

Gauge Control

Gauge Control

Optical

Optical

Properties Retrofit to Coex

 

Additive Loading

Additive Loading

Film Strength

Film Strength

Biax Orientation

Biax Orientation
Non-Wovens Advantages Disadvantages Non-Wovens - Cloth like appearance and feel - Low Barrier (PET, PP, &
Non-Wovens
Advantages
Disadvantages
Non-Wovens
-
Cloth like appearance and feel
-
Low Barrier
(PET, PP, &
-
Breathable
-
Low Grease and Chemical Resistance
Cellulose)
-
High Bulk
-
Pinholes
-
High Strength
-
Easy to get adhesion (mechanical
adhesion).
-
Specialty applications:
-Filters, Wipes, Automotive,
Building Materials, Hygiene, etc.
MVTR 100 10 1 0.1 G-mil/100sq.in./day/atm
MVTR
100
10
1
0.1
G-mil/100sq.in./day/atm
OTR 1000 100 10 1 0.1 Cc-mil/100sq.in./day/atm
OTR
1000
100
10
1
0.1
Cc-mil/100sq.in./day/atm

Barrier Coatings

Aluminum and Silicon Oxide Coatings

– Al 2 O 3 & SiO x are now being applied to PET and OPP to improve oxygen and moisture barrier similar to foil.

– Produces metal-free, retortable, microwavable, transparent, environmentally friendly, high barrier films. – Barrier layer is only angstroms thick, making OPP and PET recyclable. – SiO x can have an amber tint and Al 2 O 3 a grey tint. – Care must be taken when flexing, not to crack coating. – Development work on depositing these coatings at atmospheric conditions.

Polyvinylidine Chloride (PVdC)

– Barrier Coating with good oxygen and moisture barrier.

– Barrier levels is dependent upon thickness, often multiple applications on one substrate.

Barrier Coatings Continued

Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVOH)

PVOH can be a film or a coating. – As a coating it provides excellent oxygen barrier. – Dependent upon thickness.

– Moisture sensitive and will dissolve when exposed to moisture.

Tying It All Together

Tying It All Together EAA EVOH LDPE EVA Foil Nylon Ionomer ZN Ionomer OPP EAA Fair
EAA EVOH LDPE EVA Foil Nylon Ionomer ZN Ionomer OPP EAA Fair Adhesion Good Adhesion Poor
EAA
EVOH
LDPE
EVA
Foil
Nylon
Ionomer
ZN
Ionomer
OPP
EAA
Fair Adhesion
Good Adhesion
Poor Adhesion
NA
OPET
Ionomer
NA
Ionomer
ZN
Foil
EVA
HDPE
LDPE
HDPE
OPP
Nylon
EVOH
OPET
EMAC
 

Thank-you!