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Automotive Safety Handbook

Second Edition

List of Chapters:

1. Introduction

1.1 Reference

2. Definitions

2.1 References

3. Driving Forces for Increased Vehicle Safety

3.1 References

4. Safety Legislation

4.1 Reference

5. Accident Data

5.1 References

6. Accident Avoidance

6.1 Human Factors

6.2 Comfort and Ergonomics

6.3 Acceleration and Braking

6.3.1 Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC)

6.3.2 Brakes

6.3.3 Brake-by-Wire

6.3.4 Vehicle Dynamics

6.4 Information Systems

6.5 References

7. Biomechanics and Occupant Simulation

7.1

7.2 Injury Tolerance Limits

7.3 External Injuries

7.4 Internal Injuries

De nition

7.4.1 Concussion

7.4.2 Spinal Injuries

7.4.3 Chest Injuries

7.4.1 Concussion 7.4.2 Spinal Injuries 7.4.3 Chest Injuries 7.5 Criteria in the Rule-Making Rule-Making Process

7.5 Criteria in the Rule-Making Rule-Making Process Process

7.5.1 Head Protection

7.5.2 Chest Protection

7.5.3 Neck Injury

7.5.4 Performance Criteria for the Rule- Making Process

7.5.4.1 Chest

7.5.4.2 Pelvic

7.5.4.3 Leg and Knee

7.5.4.4 Pedestrian Protection

7.6 Test Devices

7.6.1 Body Part Test Devices

7.6.1.1 Head Impact

7.6.1.2 Torso Impact

7.6.1.3 Pedestrian Accident Simulation Tests

7.6.2 Three-Dimensional Dummies

7.6.2.1 Frontal/Rear Collision and Rollover

7.6.2.2 Lateral Impact

7.6.2.3 Child Dummies

7.6.2.4 Rear Impact Dummy (Bio-RID)

7.6.2.5 Bio delity Dummy

7.6.3 Human and Dummy Modeling

7.7 References

8. Vehicle Body

General

8.1

8.2 Low-Speed Impact

8.3 Vehicle Body Test Without the Simulation of Car Occupants

8.3.1 Quasi-Static Test Requirement

8.3.1.1 Seat and Seat-Belt Anchorage Point Tests

8.3.1.2 Roof Strength

8.3.1.3 Vehicle Side Structure

8.4 References

Automotive Safety Handbook, Second Edition

9. Dynamic Vehicle Simulation Tests

9.1 Frontal Collisions

9.1.1 Pole Test

9.1.2 Frontal Car-to-Car Crash

9.1.3 Design Requirements of Frontal Collisions

9.2 Lateral Collisions

9.3 Rear-End Collisions

9.4 Rollover

9.5 References

10. Occupant Protection

10.1 Vehicle Compartment

10.2 Restraint Systems

10.2.1 Seat Belts

10.2.2

Airbags

10.2.2.1 Airbags for Frontal Impacts

10.2.2.2 Side Protection by Airbags

10.2.2.3 Additional Airbag Applications

10.2.2.4 Sensors for Restraint Systems

10.3 Child Restraints

10.4 References

11. Interrelationships Among Occupant, Restraint System, and Vehicle in Accidents

11.1 Frontal Impacts

11.1.1 The Unrestrained Occupant

11.1.2 The Three-Point Belt

11.1.2.1 The Seat-Belt Clamping Device Above the Retractor

11.1.2.2 The Mechanical Pretensioner

11.1.2.3 The Pyrotechnic Pretensioner

11.1.2.4 The Seat-Belt Load

Limiter

11.1.3 Passive Restraints

11.1.4 The Airbag System

11.1.5 Comparison of Test Results for Different Restraint Systems

11.2 Lateral Collisions

11.2.1 Theoretical Analysis for Lateral Collisions

11.2.2 Side Airbag Systems

11.2.2.1 Thorax Side Airbags

11.2.2.2 Side Head Protection

Airbags

11.3 Rear-End Collisions

11.4 Rollover Protection

11.5 Special Requirements and Opportunities for Sensor Applications

11.6 General Literature

11.7 References

12. Pedestrian Protection

General

12.1

12.2 European NCAP-Test

12.3 Legislation Activities

12.4 Technical Solutions for Vehicles in Accidents

12.5 References

13. Compatibility

13.1 Theoretical Analysis

13.2 Research Analysis Proposals, Consumer

Information, and Legal Requirements

13.3 Conclusions

13.4 References

14. Computer Support for the Development of Safety Components

14.1 The Basics

14.2 Description of the Numeric Tools

14.3 Calculation of Components

14.4 Total Vehicle Crash Computation

14.5 Occupant and Restraint System Simulation

14.6 Pedestrian Simulation Tests

14.7 Summary

14.8 References

and Restraint System Simulation 14.6 Pedestrian Simulation Tests 14.7 Summary 14.8 References Index About the Authors

Index

About the Authors

and Restraint System Simulation 14.6 Pedestrian Simulation Tests 14.7 Summary 14.8 References Index About the Authors