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A Participatory Rural Appraisal of

Coastal Fisher folk Communities in Andhra
Pradesh


Case study of Kotha Kalingapattinam Village in Srikakulam District

































































































































Dr. S P Agarwal, Dr. A Lakshmana Rao, Mr. Hector Palacios

IRCS, established in 1920, is one of the largest and oldest indigenous humanitarian
organizations in the country. It is known for its work in disaster response
(earthquake, cyclones, drought, floods and internal conflicts) as well as healthcare,
blood services and welfare programs. India has 28 states, 6 union territories and 1
national capital territory region. The IRCS is a national federation of 700 district
branches and sub-district branches. Neither the headquarters nor the branches are
by themselves the Society. Their collectivity interwoven together comprises the
IRCS.

Copyright ©IRCS 2011

For more information, please contact:
IRCS-NHQ, #1, Red Cross Road, New Delhi - 110001, INDIA
Cover photo: Hector Palacios Pujolar
Phone: +91 11 23716441/2/3, www.indianredcross.org

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Participatory Rural Appraisal














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Table of Contents

Acronyms i


Acknowledgements ii


Introduction iii





1 SOCIAL MAPPING 8


1.1 Population 10


1.2 Education 11


1.3 Occupation 11


1.4 Others 12





2 TIMELINE AND TREND CHANGE 13





3 SEASONALITY CALENDAR 18





4 VENN DIAGRAM 21





5 LIVELIHOOD MATRIX 25


5.1 Women 25

5.2 Men 27





6 SOCIO ECONOMIC SECURITY 30





7 DAILY ROUTINE CHARTS 33


7.1 Inland Fishermen 33


7.2 Dried Fish Vendors - Men 33


7.3 Marine Fishermen 34


7.4 Fresh Fish Vendors - Women 36


7.5 Dried Fish Vendors - Women 37





8 PROBLEM MATRIX 38


8.1 Common Problems 38


8.2 Problems of Men 41


8.3 Problems of Women 45





9 NEEDS ANALYSIS OF WOMEN 48





10 WEALTH RANKING 50





Conclusion vi





6
Acronyms

APSB Andhra Pradesh State Branch

ARC American Red Cross

BRC British Red Cross

CM Chief Minister

CRC Canadian Red Cross

DMC Disaster Management Cell

DRDA District Rural Development Agency
i
FDO Fisheries Development Officer

FRP Fiber Reinforced Plastic

GoAP Government of Andhra Pradesh

GPS Global Positioning System

GRC German Red Cross

ICRC International Committee of Red Cross

IFRC International Federation of Red Cross & Red Crescent

IRCS Indian Red Cross Society

ItRC Italian Red Cross

LIC Life Insurance Corporation

MLA Member of Legislative Assembly

MP Member of Parliament
i
MRO Mandal Revenue Officer

NGO Non Government Organization

NHQ National Head Quarters

PNS Partner National Society

PRA Participatory Rural Appraisal

SHG Self Help Group

SRC Spanish Red Cross





V














7
Acknowledgements


The Indian Red Cross Society (IRCS) is grateful to the fisher folk community of Kotha
Kalingapattinam village in Srikakulam district of Andhra Pradesh for their participation and
contributions in the development of the Participatory Rural Appraisal report.

We greatly appreciate the efforts of the IRCS Andhra Pradesh State Branch for developing this
document in view of the identification and formulation of project intervention with the support of
Spanish Red Cross in coastal Andhra Pradesh.

Thanks to Hansen Thambi Prem for training the IRCS Srikakulam District Staffs and volunteers on
PRA both theoretically and practically to conduct PRA and appraise the information with the
community.

The authors thank Mr. J agan Mohan Rao, Srikakulam IRCS District Secretary and Deputy Director of
Fisheries, Srikakulam, Government of Andhra Pradesh for the logistic arrangements, local
administration and cooperation with the study team in conducting the study.

Special thanks to all the staff and volunteers involved for their tireless efforts in planning and
conducting field visits to develop this document.






ii














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iii





Introduction


IRCS, established in 1920, is one of the largest and oldest indigenous humanitarian organizations in
the country. It is known for its work in disaster response (earthquake, cyclones, drought, floods and
internal conflicts) as well as healthcare, blood services and welfare programs. India has 28 states, 6
union territories and 1 national capital territory region. The IRCS is a national federation of 700 district
branches and sub-district branches. Neither the headquarters nor the branches are by themselves
the Society. Their collectivity interwoven together comprises the IRCS.

The governance of the Society rests with its Managing Body which has powers to constitute and/or
dissolve state branches. The branches enjoy high level of autonomy as they raise their own
resources and run their core activities by themselves. They prepare their annual report and annual
account and may run programs specially suited for their respective territories. However, they broadly
adhere to the directives/guidelines issued by the NHQ and accept international donations/funding
through the NHQ.

The IRCS mobilizes people’s involvement as volunteers and members. In 2008, the society had over
12 million members and volunteers. The IRCS collaborates with other organizations in the country,
which share similar objectives and principles. Red Cross partners in the country include the IFRC,
ICRC and PNS (including ARC, BRC, CRC, GRC, ItRC and SRC). The IRCS also works closely with
various government ministries such as health, social justice, defense, home external affairs &
education. The IRCS has extensive experience in disaster relief work beginning with the 1934 Bihar
earthquake up to the Gujarat earthquake in 2001 which was of a magnitude 7.9 on the Richter scale
leaving around 20,000 people dead. Most recently IRCS has responded to Tsunami in December
2004 and floods in 2009.

SRC started its intervention in India since 1999 with response to Orissa Super Cyclone. Thereafter
assistance was extended to victims of Gujarat Earthquake 2001, Bihar and Assam Floods 2002,
Tsunami 2004, J ammu & Kashmir Earthquake 2005, Andhra Pradesh Floods 2007, etc. SRC is
working in India mainly for Development Cooperation, Humanitarian Aid and Capacity Building
focusing on livelihood, community health, disaster preparedness and response.

PRA is an approach used by NGOs and other agencies involved in international development which
aims to incorporate the knowledge and opinions of rural people for development programmes. PRA
can be described as a family of approaches, methods and behaviors that enable people to express
and analyze the realities of their lives and conditions, to plan and to monitor & evaluate the results.
PRA provides a structure and practical ideas to help stimulate local participation in the creation and
sharing of new insights. There is no single way to do PRA, although there are core principles and
several methods available to guide teamwork, do sampling, structure discussions and visualize
analysis. The combination and sequence of methods will emerge from the context. Optimal ignorance
and triangulation of findings guide the fieldwork in recognition of the need to know enough without
knowing it all and to ensure that the qualitative insights are cross-checked by different sources using
different methods.

On March 2011, IRCS and SRC jointly conducted training for IRCS district staff and volunteers on
“PRA Tools - Theory & Practice”. Mr. Mohan Krishna,
IRCS State Project Coordinator introduced about IRCS
and its activities followed by an introduction to the training
by Mr. Madhu Sagili, SRC State Programme Coordinator
of Andhra Pradesh. Later, Mr. Hector Palacios, SRC Head
of India Delegation briefed about SRC and its presence in
India. He also shared in brief the projects implemented in
Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. He also shared
the purpose of the training and the importance of
volunteer’s role in identifying projects. This was followed
by detailed training on PRA tools by Mr. Hansen Thambi
Prem, SRC Program Manager. The entire team visited
Kotha kalingapattinam village in Srikakulam district,
Andhra Pradesh and with the community participation appraised information. The consolidated
information is presented in this document, detailed information is with IRCS and the community.

9
1. Social Mapping


Date & Time : 15
th
March 2011, 15:00 -18:30 Hrs
Facilitator : Hansen Thambi Prem
Documenter : Satyanarayana
Venue : Fishermen Shelter
Participants : 12 (10 men & 2 children)

The social map tool allowed having an overall view
of the village’s socio economic composition with
their representation in a spatial distribution. This
tool provided information regarding the type of
habitation structure, the distribution of family
members per age and literacy rate classes, primary
livelihood option (occupation that more contributes
to the total household income), assets, presence of electricity and the livestock reared by the
household, etc.

The tool was executed on the floor so as to give opportunity for more number of villagers to participate
in sharing the information about the village and its households. The villagers identified and agreed to
use the following symbols for appraising information on the household cards of the social map.

The symbols given by the community for the social mapping are as follows,

Symbol s Descript ion of t he Symbols

Fishing in the lake

Fishing in sea

Opinion leaders
F Agriculture Coolie
Mestri Mason (construction)

Village Head

Vice President (Upa Sarpanch)

President of Fishermen Cooperative Society

Concrete houses
E
Houses without electricity

Persons With Disability
T
Houses owning coconut trees

Houses owning buffaloes (only male buffaloes used for agriculture purpose no female buffaloes)
A
Houses owning Auto Rickshaw

Houses having ducks (Egg and meat used for consumption and not for business)

Member of Self Help Group




H

10
Symbols given for appraising population details are as follows
Age
Gender
Male Femal e
0 - 2 Years

3 - 11 Years

12 - 19 Years

20 - 35 Years

36 - 50 Years

Above 51 Years


Symbols given for appraising education details are as follows
Educati on Stat us
Gender
Male Femal e
Illiterate X 
Up to Class 5 5 
Class 6 to 10 10 
Class 11 to 12 12

UG, PG C ©

Social map of Kotha Kalingapattinam village




12

11
The information collected through social mapping has been depicted through pictorial form under the
following categories:

1.1 Population
Total population of the village - 924(472 Male and 452 Female)
36
18
88
96
92
71
131
129
59
72
66 66
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
0 - 2 Years 3 - 11 Years 12 - 19 Years 20 - 35 Years 36 - 50 Years Above 51 Years
Age Wise Population Det ails
Male
Female

51%
49%
Male
Female


1.2 Education
159
259
166
111 111
61
19
6
10
0
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
Not Educated Up to Class 5 Class 6 to 10 Class 11 to 12 College
Education Status
Male
Female








12
Total number of people uneducated in the village - 418 (159 Male and 259 Female)

Uneducated
38%
62%
Male
Female


Total number of people educated in the village - 484 (306 Male and 178 Female)
Educated
63%
37%
Male
Female





1.3 Occupation

The majority of the people are involved in fresh fish vending (mainly fisherwomen) and sea fishing
(fishermen) which is their primary occupation. The other occupations are secondary and are done in
addition to the primary occupation during off seasons.

Vil lage Occupation
22%
5%
17%
0%
17%
23%
15%
1% 0%
Sea Fishing
Lake Fishing
Agriculture Coolie
Construction Mason
Daily Wage Labour
Fresh Fish Vending
Dried Fish Vending
Pettie business
Tailoring


Vill age Occupati on No.
Sea Fishing 151
Lake Fishing 34
Agriculture Coolie 116
Construction Mason 1
Daily Wage Labour 116
Fresh Fish Vending 164
Dried Fish Vending 102
Pettie business 4
Tailoring 1



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1.4 Others

There are 10 opinion leaders in the village who are
responsible for taking important decisions for the village.
There are two leaders (one is an elected representative of the
village and the other is the one appointed by the
government). The vice president and fish cooperative
president are also government representatives. There are a
total of 23 houses having people with disability (different
types). Two houses own auto rickshaw by which the entire
village depend for community to and from the village. Majority
of the houses in the village (64%) own few ducks which they
rear only for consumption of egg and meat. None rear them as a means of livelihood or business.



Description Houses
Opinion Leaders 10
Village Head 2
Vice President 1
Fish Cooperative President 1
People with Disability 23
Auto Rickshaw 2

151
34
116
29
126
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
Ducks Buffaloes Coconut Trees No Electricity Member of SHG
Hous es

14
2. Timeline and Trend Change

Date & Time : 16th March 2011, 10:30 -13:30 Hrs
Facilitator : Mohan Krishna
Documenter : Satyanarayana
Venue : Fishermen Shelter
Participants : 19 (15 men, 1 woman & 3 children)

Through this participatory tool we could gather
information related to the history of the village,
occupational changes, basic facilities, cultural
changes, important milestones, achievements, lifestyle
changes, area, etc. over a period of time and to
understand the factors responsible for the trend
changes.

BEFORE 1957 1957-1986 1987-2006 2007-2011
Origin of the Vil lage
Due to difficulty in fishing
20 families shifted from
Yudavanipalem
1957 - 20 families settled &
was named Kotha
Kalingapatnam

1957 - 80 thatched huts
made of mud walls and
coconut leaves
2007 - First concrete house
was constructed in the
village

2011 – A total of 235 houses
which includes Hindus &
Christians
Geography of the village
The area of the village was
only 1 acre which is a
common property

2011 – The area of the village
is seven acres common
property
Disasters in the vill age
1967 - Entire community
went to Kusumuru for
shelter during cyclone

1980 - Cyclone shelter was
constructed by DMC-GoAP
& all thatched houses were
burnt due to fire accidents

Water Source for the village
1957 - Used to dig pits and
draw water for drinking &
domestic purpose

1970 – Villagers dug wells
for drawing water
2003 – ARTIC & VISWAS
NGOs installed 2 bore wells

2003 – Hand pumps
installed to draw water

Fishi ng practice in the village
1957 - Elderly fisher women
involved in vending fish,
they travel to near by
villages like Sompet for
vending fish. Fishermen
used only country crafts
called “Theppa”

1970 – 10 fishermen
regularly migrate to
Andaman (3 days) by boat
for fishing

1980 – Fishermen used
upgraded country crafts
called “Kara Theppa”
1996 - 40 migrate to
Chennai, Goa & Mumbai by
train for fishing during lean
seasons

2003 - ARTIC NGO
provided Fiber Reinforced
Plastic boats for few
fishermen


2008 - Fishermen use
country crafts made of Fiber
Reinforced Plastics. Fish
vendors coordinate through
mobile for fish vending

2009 - Fish catch has
reduced and increased
price/ demand for fish. More
than 100 migrate to Chennai,
Goa & Mumbai by train for
fishing

2011 – Fisherwomen
transport fish by truck autos
for vending
Education facilities for the vill age

15
1957 - Few learned under
thatched huts in the village

1966 - Formal education
under thatched huts in the
village by the government
2006 – First person from the
village studied in a college

Electricity suppl y for the vil lage
1957 – Villagers used
kerosene lamps and lanterns

1986 – Villagers met the CM
and submitted application
for electric supply
1996 – Few houses in the
village got electricity
2009 - Entire village had
access to electricity supply
Livestock reari ng in the vill age
1957 – Villagers rear chicken
in their houses for eggs and
meat
2008 – Villagers rear male
buffaloes for agriculture
activities and ducks for eggs
& meat
Health facilities for the vill age
1957 - Villagers travel 6 Km
for medical treatments.
Women gave birth at home
assisted by traditional
midwives
1996 - Auxiliary Nurse
Midwives were appointed
by the government for the
village for basic health care
2008 – Villagers visited near
by village to obtain basic
health care from Rural
Medical Practitioners

2009 – Villagers travel to a
near by village (Kusumur)
for treatment from the
Government Hospital
Village Organizations
Village was part of
fishermen cooperative
society which included 3
adjacent villages
1957 - New fishermen
cooperative society formed
for the village
1996 – Government formed
9 Self Help Groups through
District Rural Development
Agency

Public I nfrastructures in the vill age
1977 – Government
constructed high school in
the village
1990 - Baptist church was
established in a thatched hut

2003 – Villagers constructed
Shivarama dikshitha hindu
temple

2004 – Villagers constructed
Radhakrishna hindu temple
and the Baptist church
2008 – Government
constructed the Fishermen
shelter through DRDA. Fish
drying platform was
contructed by MPs fund

2009 – DRDA constructed a
30 metres concrete wall as a
barrier to prevent
backwaters entering the
village during high tide and
prevent flooding
Transportation facilities for the vill age
Villagers traveled by walk
or boat to cross the
backwaters and reach the
mainland
1977 - School teacher guided
the villagers in applying for
a road to the village

1986 - Villagers met CM and
applied for a village road
2004 - Villages again met the
new CM and applied for a
village road
2009 - Village road was
sanctioned through PM road
scheme

2010 – The village road is
being laid through the PM
scheme
Lifestyle practices of the villagers
Villagers had only Ragi and
cereals as rice was very
expensive
1957 - Men wore dhothi and
lalchi, women wore only
traditional sarees without
blouse

1966 - Food habits changed
to rice as the staple diet

1977 - Men wore shirt &
pants, Ladies wore
traditional sareers with
blouse
2000 – Men started wearing
Jeans & t-shirt. Ladies
started wearing Punjabi
dress & fancy sarees.


16

Origin of the Village: The village was established in the 1957 with not more than 20 families. It is
during the same year that they have named it as Kotha Kalingapatnam. These 20 families have come
from Miliruputtaka. The following are the reasons for these families to come to this village:
 Due to increased population size which led to difficulties in fishing
 Due to less place in the village as sea water came forward
 In search of better opportunities for sea fishing
As mentioned earlier, before the establishment of the village there were only 20 houses and in 1957
the number of houses increased to 80. All these houses were thatched in nature (roof covered with
coconut leaves). In 2000, for the first time a concrete house was constructed in the village. At present
(2011) there are 235 houses in the village.

Geography of the village: Before 1957, the size of the village was only 1 acre. In 1977 when the
population size increased in the village (there were more than 80 houses) the size of the village
enlarged to 3 acres. It is during this year that the villagers started to have common coconut trees. In
1980, the villagers have planted coconuts plants for individual families, at present (2011) the size of
the village is 7 acres.

Disasters in the village: After the formation of the village for the first time the villagers have
experienced cyclone and the entire village has fled to a nearby village (Kusumpuram) for shelter.
Considering the vulnerability of the village for natural calamities the Disaster Management Cell of
Government of Andhra Pradesh constructed a cycle shelter in the village in 1980. The cyclone shelter
is situated at the entrance of the village. During the same year (1980) all houses in the village were
burnt.

Water source for the village: In the initial stage of the establishment of the village (1957), the
villagers used to dig pits to draw water used for drinking. It is only in 1970 that the village had open
wells used for drinking water. For the first time in 2003, 2 bore wells were made available for the
villagers by two organization (joint venture) ARTIC & VISWAS. In 2009, hand pumps were installed in
the village. At present the hand pumps are not working and the open well used for drinking water are
only 2. The water is most often dirty and during the summer the water level in the wells is goes down
drastically leading to insufficient water for all the households in the village.

Fishing practice in the village: It is learned from the villagers that in 1957 only elderly women
(above 50 years age) used to be involved in vending fish. The villagers are not comfortable to send
young women for vending fish for the following reason - they have lot of responsibilities at home
(taking care of children, cooking and other household activities). Even at present only elderly women
are actively involved in vending fish. The villagers have expressed that they had good fish catch till
2009, but later the quantity of fish caught in sea is reduced due to natural calamities. Due to less
supply of fish the price of fish is increased. Since the year of village establishment, the villagers have
been using the country crafts for fishing (Theppa). In 1980, the same country crafts were further
modified by the villagers themselves, which they named it as Karra Theppa. The villagers feel that it is
their master work and later other villagers too started adopting similar crafts for fishing. In 2003, few of
the villagers were provided FRP boats by two organizations – ARTIC & VISWAS. From 1957 till 2008,
women used to travel to neighbouring villages to vend dry fish but it is since 2008 that they began to
coordinate with agents in marketing their fish by contacting them over mobile phones. At present, the
agents come to the village, after they are informed by the villagers, to buy fish (mostly dry fish). For
the first time in 1970 a group of 10 fishermen have migrated to Andaman by boat for fishing activities.
From 1996 more than 40 fishermen began to migrate to Chennai, Goa and Mumbai by train and work
for other agents in the above mentioned city (fishing). Since 2009 more than 100 fishermen migrate to
the above mentioned cities for a period of 4 months to 12 months. Majority of the fishermen with
Recreation activities of the villagers
1957 - Traditional puppet
shows were conducted
about Ramayanam &
Mahabaratham in the village

1970 – Villagers paid
external troops for record
dance and skits in the
village


17
whom the team interacted shared that they have lot of difficulties when they migrate to these cities as
they are not familiar with the language and more over the agents deceive the villagers particularly
when it comes to making their payment. They are paid on monthly salary basis. At present they are
paid Rs. 5000/ per month as their salary.

Education facilities for the village: The villagers have shown a significant interest for education
since the establishment of the village in 1957. Though they did not have any official school
established and supported by the government the village had the education facilities in a thatched
house (kamala pakala) and very few used to learn to read and write. It is only in 1966 formal
education was started in the village under the same thatched house (kamala pakala). It was in 1977
the foundation for construction of school building was laid and it completed in five years time. The
school building was constructed by the government of Andhra Pradesh. It is after this that a good
number of children (who are not in later 30s) attending formal schooling. The villagers knew the
importance of education. The school teachers have played a major role in sensitizing the community
on education. In 2006, for the first time one individual started to go to college in the nearby town
Kaviti.

Electricity supply for the village: In 1957 the villagers used kerosene lamps and lanterns for light.
As the villagers were finding it difficult due to lack of electricity in the village, in 1986 the villagers have
met the then Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh (NTR) to submit an application for supply of electricity.
In 1996 the electricity supply came for few houses for the first time. It is only in 2009, all the houses in
the village were supplied with electricity. However, there are more than 30 houses which do not have
electricity at present as they are not able to pay the electricity bill.

Livestock rearing in the village: Many households in the village rare chicken since the year 1957 till
date. It is only in the year 2008 only five families started to rare buffaloes (male for ploughing and
other activities) and ducks (for consumption by the family and not for selling).

Health facilities for the village: The villagers have shared that in 1957 they had to travel 6 Kms for
medical treatment in case of any serious illness. On the other hand, since the establishment of the
village till date majority of the deliveries take place at home in the village. If only the delivery is found
to be complicated they rush the pregnant women to the hospital. In such cases they used to carry the
patient on cot or rap them in a mat due to lack of transportation facilities to access medical treatment.

Village organization: Even before the formation of the village there existed fishermen cooperative
society for three neighbouring villages (Idduvanipalem, Ikkalapalem and Karrivanipalem). After
establishment of the village the villagers have started a new fishermen cooperative society for the
village. In 1996, the government of Andhra Pradesh through Velugu project (DRDA) has formed 9 Self
Help Groups. At present there are 10 SHGs in the village.

Public infrastructures in the village: In 1957 the village had an informal school in a thatched house
and this was set up by the villagers themselves and in 1966 the formal education started in the village
but under the same roof (thatched house). In 1977 the government of Andhra Pradesh began the
construction of school in the village. The school has the facility to educate the village children up to
class 7. In 1980 the Disaster Management Cell – Government of Andhra Pradesh has constructed a
cyclone shelter in the village. In 1990 a Baptist Church was established in the village in a thatched
hut. In 2003, Shivaram Dikshith temple was constructed by the villagers. In 2004, Radhakrishan
temple was constructed by the villagers. It is during the same year that the Baptist Church constructed
a new building as the church in the village. In 2008 the fishermen bhavan was constructed by DRDA
and in the same year a fish drying platform was constructed by the then Member of Parliament (MP)
near on the sea shore. In 2009, a 30 meter concrete wall was constructed behind the school building
to prevent the inflow of water from the lake behind the village.

Transportation facilities for the village: The village had no transportation facility till September
2011. It is only in the month of October 2011, the government started laying road leading to the village
from Kusumpuram. In order to achieve this, the villagers have taken lot of efforts. In 1977 with the
support of the school teacher the villagers have submitted an application to the government of Andhra
Pradesh for laying of the road. In 1986 the villagers have met the then Chief Minister (NTR) and
submitted an application for road. Again in 2004 the villagers have met the late Chief Minster (YSR)
and submitted an application for road. It is in 2009 the government of Andhra Pradesh has approved

18
to lay road to the village under Prime Mister Scheme. The work for laying the road commenced in the
month of October 2010 and at present the road has almost reached the village. It is likely that the
work will be over in 6 months time.

Life style practice of the villagers: In 1957 men wore dhoti and lalchi, whereas the women wore
only sarees. In 1966 the food habits of people changed to rice from using raagi. In few houses raagi is
consumed even now. In 1977 men started to wear shirts and pants, whereas the women wore blouse
and saree. In 2000 the men started to wear T-shirts and J eans pants, the women wore Punjabi dress
and fancy sarees.

Recreation activities of the villagers: During the initial years of the establishment of the village, the
villagers used puppet show as one of the main recreations, particularly on the feast days. In 1970 the
villagers hired troops (dancers) to dance during the village festivals. These dancers were paid for the
villagers. They also started to hire people for small skits.



19
3. Seasonality Calendar

Date & Time : 16th March 2011, 10:30 -13:30 Hrs
Facilitator : Hansen Thambi Prem
Documenter : Satyanarayana
Venue : Fishermen Shelter
Participants : 19 (15 men, 1 woman & 3 children)

The Seasonal Calendar was applied to have a
general picture of important environmental,
cultural and socioeconomic periods throughout
the year, which allowed expansion of the team’s
understanding of local conditions beyond the
time spent in the area (diversity and fluctuations
in terms of weather conditions, types of seasonal
occupation undertaken during the year, income and expenditure patterns, patterns of
migration, periods susceptible to disease, village festival s and marriage periods).

Using this tool with the villagers the team has observed that they are very familiar in addressing the
months by number rather than by their names.
Months
Events
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Sea fishing
~ ~ ~ ~

~ ~ ~ ~ ~
Fibre boat




Ordinary boats
   

    
Nearby trawlers








Discovala



Siragavala







J ogavala



Katlavala





Wind - N to S
» » » »
Wind - S to N
« « « «
Wind - W to E
¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ ¬
Wind - E to W
· · · · ·
Prawns catch



Lake fishing
~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
Coolie work



Drying fish



Fish vending







Expenditure ` ` ` `

Income

( ( ( ( (
Marriages





Sickness

+ + + +

Borrowing money

( ( (

Migration
m m m m m

m m m m m
Mogili flowers




Festivals

¬

Use of Buffaloes




Availability of Villagers

m m




20
Sea fishing: It is learned from the villagers that they are engaged in sea fishing activities for 9 months
in a year (from August to April). During the months of May, J une and J uly the fishermen do not go for
fishing as this is the breeding period. It is also learned that the government would announce in their
village about period for fish breeding and avoid fishermen going into the sea for fishing.

Use of fibre teppa (Fibre boats): The villagers have shared the information that they use the fiber
boats with motor for 8 months in a year (from September to April). At present there are only 5 motor
boats in the village and each boat is used by 20 fishermen.

Karra teppa (Ordinary boats): These boats are used for fishing in the sea from August to April. They
are not used for 3 months during the fish breeding period. These boats are used by 3 to 4 fishermen.
Most of these boats are run rowing them.

Trawlers from neighboring cities: In a year for 11 months the trawlers come into the area of the
fishermen for fishing. It is only in the month of April that these trawlers do not enter their area for
fishing. It is also learned from the villagers that the frequent coming of the trawlers to the area of the
fishermen using ordinary and motor boats makes it difficult for them to catch good fish as the fish is
disturbed by bigger boats. The villagers feel that they can question them as the opponents are might
(bigger size of boat and they are rich) and the villagers feel that the government will not support the
fishermen if they complain on the issue.

Use of discovala (Nets): The Disco Nets are used for catching prawns during the months of August,
September, October and November. The remaining months it is not used. At present there are only 3
disco nets in the village. In order to catch prawns the fishermen leave for fishing at 5:00 am and come
back to the village by 12:00 pm during the above mentioned months.

Use of siragavala (Nets): The Siraga Net is used during the months of October, November and
December. This is used to catch small size fish called ‘Kalavalu’. In order to catch this fish, the
fishermen go to sea at 4:00 am and come back to the village by 10:00 am during the above
mentioned months.

Use of jogavala (Nets): This net is used during the months of March, April and May to catch bigger
size fish called ‘Kanagari and Vajram’. This net is used only by three people in rowing boats.

Use of katlavala (Nets): The use of Katla nets takes place during the months of March, April, May,
J une, J uly and August. This is used to catch medium size fish. Each of this costs from Rs. 1.50 to Rs.
3.00.

Wind from North (Uttar gali): Usually during the months of September, October, November and
December this wind falls. This wind is good for fishing.

Wind from South (Toorpu gali): This wind is supposed to start in the month of February and last till
May. It is informed by the villagers that this wind can be very bad for fishing.

Wind from West: The wind from the west lasts for 7 months (February to August). If such wind
comes the fishermen identify it for caution for cyclone.

Wind from East: This occurs during the months of J une, J uly, August, September and October.
During this season the currents will be very strong and it makes the fishermen very difficult to go for
fishing.

Prawns catch: Fishermen catch prawns during the month of J une, J uly, August and September.

Fishing in lake (backwaters): Fishing in the nearby lake takes place throughout the year. But it is
intensified during the months of May, J une and J uly as the fishermen do not go into the sea for fishing
due to fish breeding period. It is learned that every family during months go for fishing in the lake and
use them for consuming only and not for selling.

Agriculture coolie (women): It is learned from the villagers that during the month of August and
December the women in the village go to neighboring village in the districts and at times to the

21
villages in Orissa in search of work as agriculture coolies. They mainly work in paddy fields. The
women are paid between Rs. 100 to Rs. 150 a day.

Drying fish: Majority of the villagers/household are engaged in fish drying activities. The peak months
for drying fish are September, October, November and December.

Fish vending: Fish vending happens throughout the year (fresh and dry fish).

Expenditures: It is learned from the community that they have more expenditures during the month
of J anuary, February, March and April as this is the time when they have several festival (buying
clothes, painting house and variety food). In addition this is also a peak time for marriages.

Income: The income that the villagers get from vending fish is higher from August to December
months. It is during this season that there is a good catch of fish compared to other seasons in a year.

Marriages: The marriage season begins in the month of February and last up to J une. It is learned
from the villagers that the bride and bridegroom will be of very young age and mostly the marriages
happen within the village and very few of them marry outsiders. And most of them who marry an
outsider (village) are love marriages.

Sickness/Illness: The villagers are prone to diarrhea and fever during the summer season (April to
J uly). The reason for such illness is that they eat lot of mangoes, which are not very hygienic and it is
during this season that plenty of fruits are available. Due to poor hygienic practices they are prone to
be to ill.

Borrowing of money: The villagers borrow money from the money lenders during the months of
April, May and J une. This is the period for fish breeding and they do not go for fishing into the sea.
They borrow money to run the family and to repay the loans they have taken from the money lenders.
They borrow money from the following villages: Isukayapalem, Karrivanipalem and Kothapalem.

Migration: A good number of the villagers go on migration to other cities in search of job as
fishermen. They migrate for 10 months (from August to May). Majority migrate to Chennai, Goa and
Mumbai.

Selling of Mogali dong flowers: The villagers are engaged in vending the mogali flowers from April
to August. The flowers are exported and essence to make perfume is drawn from these flowers. Each
flower is sold for more than Rs. 5.

Festivals: The village feast is called ‘Chinthamani Grama Devatha Utsthavalu’. This takes place in
the month of August for a period of nine days once in five years. All the expenditure is met by the
villages and they contribute towards this celebration for a period of five years. The funds are managed
by the village committee.

Use of Buffaloes: The buffaloes are used for ploughing only two months a year (J anuary and
August).

Availability of villagers: All the villagers will be available in the village only during the months of
J une and J uly. During this period, even the fishermen who have gone on migration return to the
village.



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4. Venn Diagram

Date & Time : 18th March 2011, 12:00 -15:00 Hrs
Facilitator : Hansen Thambi Prem
Documenter : Satyanarayana
Venue : Fishermen Shelter
Participants : 11 (8 men, 2 women & 1 boy)

The Venn diagram exercise was applied to explore and
understand how the services and functions of the local
institutions, organizations and policies are relevant to
the community, based on the perception given by
villagers (Government organizations, NGOs, bank,
police station, post office, court, local elites, health
nurse, fisheries department, fish market, ration shop, hospital, school, etc.)


1. Local Government School Teacher (Head Master): The community has identified the school
head master as VERY IMPORTANT for the village, it has very good rapport and places it very close to
the village. The community feels that the education is very important for them and there are 130
getting educated. Prior to laying of the road, the school teachers were not regular but for the last one
year, they are very regular to the school. The RELATIONSHIP between the teachers and the
community is highlighted to be at ITS BEST when compared to other institutions or persons. The
teachers show more interest in the development of the children studying in their school. The teachers
also share with the parents about the progress and behaviour of the children in the school. The village
has appointed a volunteer teacher, who is paid by the village (from the savings of the village)

2. Mandal Education Officer: Situated in Kaviti about 7 Kms from the village. The community has
identified the institution and the officer as VERY IMPORTANT but they have SATISFACTORY
RAPPORT with the office and officer and therefore, they have placed it a bit away from the village
(middle circle). Most often the villagers go to the office for any signatures on documents and if work is
not completed the villagers would approach the local Member of Legislative Assembly (MLA)


23
3. Member of Legislative Assembly (MLA): The community feels that the MLA is VERY
IMPORTANT. The MLA was very supportive to the village and has supported in educational needs,
road and creating employment opportunities for the educated youth of the village at toll gates
(temporary). In spite of this the community has expressed that the RELATIONSHIP WITH THE MLA
IS SATISFACTORY as not all the requests and support sought by the villagers are sanctioned and
attended to, therefore, they have placed the MLA at a distance (middle circle)

4. Fishermen Union: This is a union of the fishermen hailing from 23 villages in the mandal situated
in Kaviti. This union was started a year ago (2009) and the community feels the union as VERY
IMPORTANT as any support related to their livelihood is done by the union and the union
members/officers are supportive to the fishermen in providing more information on their livelihoods
and attend to their needs regularly. The community expressed that they have a VERY GOOD
RAPPORT but not as good as they have with local school teacher (HM)

5. Electricity Officer: It is situated in Kavati, talking about the importance of the Assistant Electricity
Officer the village expressed that the department and the officer are of VERY IMPORTANT as they
can help them lead a better life by providing electricity in the village and attend to the problems
reported by the village. The village has expressed that they have VERY POOR RAPPORT with the
department/officer as they do not attend to the electricity problems in the village and do not respect
them when they approach the officer. Recently (in 2009), the village caught fire due to electricity wires
and people were afraid that the entire village would be burnt. The villagers have informed the
electricity officer but did not bother of the complaint and therefore, the villagers informed one of the
villagers, who happened to be in Kaviti informed the police station and later the police requested to
attend to the problem. Immediately the electricity department attended to it. Due to this the community
places it very far away from the village.

6. Mandal Revenue Officer (MRO): It is situated in Kaviti, the villagers approach MRO for
submission of various requests for the development of the village, request to support them in
purchasing boats if they are destroyed. The community expressed that they have lot of work with the
revenue inspector. The community identifies its importance as MEDIUM as they do not attend to their
needs and the relationship with MRO is VERY POOR.

7. Fishermen Society: The villagers have expressed that it is VERY IMPORTANT for them but not
much good has been done through the society. Through the society the fishermen are to get rice and
other provisions from the government during the fish breeding period but so far, only 2 families
received such support. Therefore, the villagers feel that they have AVERAGE RAPPORT with the
society and places it in the middle circle.

8. Fisheries Development Officer: The villagers were very hesitant to speak anything about the
fisheries department or fisheries development officer. Their reluctance was to an extent that they have
exhibited their poor knowledge about the department. Later when more clarity was given to the
villagers about the fisheries department they have expressed that they feel it is VERY IMPORTANT
for their development. The FDO comes to the village twice a year and does not related well with the
community. As they have not received any assistance till date from the fisheries department they have
expressed that their rapport with the department is VERY POOR and placed it very far away from the
village.

9. Health/Hospital/ANM: The villagers expressed that the ANM comes regularly to the village based
on the health camps, which are conducted either on monthly or weekly basis. The health camps are
conducted at Anganwadi school, most often she comes for giving polio drops to children. The villagers
feel that the ANM is VERY IMPORTANT for them. They have expressed that there is a GOOD
RAPPORT with ANM and placed her very close to the village but not as close as school head master.

10. Self Help Groups: There are 10 SHGs in the village, the women feel that SHGs are of
MODERATE IMPORTANCE and therefore, they still continue to work in SHGs. Currently the SHGs
are not very actives due to lack of resources for development and lack of loan facility from banks and
other money lending institutions. In the past the SHGs have availed huge loans and have a good track
of clearing loans in time. The women have placed it in the middle circle and expressed they DO NOT
HAVE A GOOD RAPPORT due to lack of money.


24
11. Banks/Vishaka Grameena Bank: Bank is situated in Kaviti, the SHGs have joint accounts in this
bank. The SHGs have availed loans from this bank in the past, there are also individual savings
accounts in this bank from this village but none of the SHG group members have individual savings
account. A good number of the villagers have savings account in State Bank of India in Kaviti. A good
number of fishermen who work in Chennai/Goa/Mumbai on migration prefer to deposit their earnings
and come home and therefore, reduce the risks. In spite of this, the villagers have expressed that it is
of MODERATE IMPORTANCE to them and majority of the villagers DO NOT HAVE A GOOD
RAPPORT with the bank as all of them do not use the banking facilities/services.

12. Post Office: The post office is situated in Kusumbur, a near by village, the villagers feel post
office is NOT IMPORTANT. Few of the villagers go to post office for money order purpose. The
relationship that exists between the villagers and post office is expressed to be MODERATE and
placed it in the middle circle. It is expressed by the college going students that the post office could be
a very important component for their education in future as they can get their exam hall ticket and any
other information related to their studies and jobs. Therefore, they expressed the need for bringing it
very close to the village in term of its relationship.

13. Police Station: It is situated in Kaviti, most of the disputes in the village are solved by the village
committee and if something is beyond their reach will be addressed at the police station. For the last
two years the villagers have not taken any single issue to Police Station and therefore, the villagers
have MODERATE IMPORTANCE for Police Station and have expressed to have MODERATE
RAPPORT.

14. Ration Shop: This is situated I Kusumur village, the villagers feel it VERY IMPORTANT but the
RAPPORT IS AVERAGE. However, the villagers avail provisions through the ration shop on a regular
basis

15. ARTIC - NGO: The organization intervened 10 years ago in the villages (supported in providing
hand pumps). The villagers feel it VERY IMPORTANT as the organization has undertaken lot of
developmental works but the community did not positively utilize them due to lack of awareness for
the time being RAPPORT IS AVERAGE.

16. Indian Red Cross Society: The village was not aware of IRCS till the team reached them to
conduct PRA after having known the activities of IRCS the village feels is VERY IMPORTANT. But
since IRCS has not intervened in the village so far, they have placed it very far away from the village
expressing it relationship. Therefore, the RAPPORT IS VERY POOR however, the community wishes
to have close relationship with IRCS.

17. Fish Market: There is no fish market as such close to the village, the villagers sell to few shop
owners (eg. Mr. Satyam a shop owner) and the shops do not have any name. The villagers carry dry
fish in baskets or sacks and sell them in Sompet and Umasanth in Orissa. Fresh fish would be sold in
the neighbouring village and if they have good catch they would transport to Chennai. The villagers
gave very POOR IMPORTANCE to it as the RAPPORT TOO IS AVERAGE.

18. Gram Panchayath: The villagers feel it very IMPORTANT as they know that development of the
village is possible through it but they have VERY POOR RAPPORT with the panchayath (placed far
away). They did not attend to requests of villagers to lay roads and have street lights, etc

19. Veterinary Hospital: It is situated in Kaviti, for the last time the Veterinary doctor visited the
village was 5 years ago as many people do not have cattle, they feel it is of POOR IMPORTANCE.
The villagers have placed it far away from the village expressing their POOR RELATIONSHIP.

20. Government Hospital: 108 services provided by the Government is very useful for the villagers,
they feel it is VERY IMPORTANT and also have VERY GOOD RAPPORT as they respond
immediately.

21. Money Lenders: There are no money lenders in the village, most often if the villagers wish to
borrow money they get it from neighbouring villagers and repay them on monthly basis. Few of them
go to Sompet to borrow money. The villagers’ maximum capacity to avail money is approximately Rs.

25
20000/-. However, the villagers consider having MEDIUM IMPORTANCE and placed it very close to
the village expressing VERY GOOD RELATIONSHIP.

22. College: There is a Government Degree college situated in Kaviti, the villagers consider it to be
VERY IMPORTANT as more than 20 attend regularly but presently the RAPPORT IS VERY POOR
and placed it far from the village.

23. Anganwadi Teacher: Anganwadi teach is VERY IMPORTANT as she supports the children and
pregnant women and provides basic health care. The villagers have a VERY GOOD RAPPORT.

24. Agriculture Department: As many do not have lands for cultivation the villagers have
MODERATE IMPORTANCE for it and placed it very far away from the village expressing its POOR
RELATIONSHIP.

25. Village Elders: The villagers feel they are the MOST IMPORTANT people of the village. They
expressed them to be the backbone of the village. They have high respect for the leaders but their
RAPPORT IS MODERATE at present as the elders do not show much keen in village development
activities.

26. Member of Parliament: The fish drying platform in the village is constructed by the previous MP
under MP’s funds, at present MP does not have good rapport with the village and feel it is of
MODERATE IMPORTANCE.




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5. Livelihood Matrix

5.1 Women

Date & Time : 18th March 2011, 15:00 -17:15 Hrs
Facilitator : Mohan Krishna
Documenter : Satyanarayana
Venue : Central Village Street
Participants : 22 (2 men, 15 women & 5 children)

The livelihood matrix tool was conducted with a
focused group of women to understand the livelihood
options exi sting in the village and their perspectives
in prioritizing the livelihood options. This tool is about
listing livelihood options, analyzing against each
livelihood factors (travel, work load, skills required, duration of work, investment, expenditures
and occupational hazards), scoring and ranking the livelihood options in the community.

Liveli hoods
Factors Essenti al f or Liveli hood
Score Rank
S
k
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T
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H
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S
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Fresh Fish Vending
••••• •• •• ••••• •• •• •• •••
23 II
Dry Fish Vending
• •• • • • • • •••
11 V
Coolie (Agriculture)
•• • • ••••• •• • • •
14 IV
Coolie (Daily Wage)
••• ••• • ••• ••• •••• •• •
20 III
Pettie Business
••••• •••• • •••• •••• •• ••• •••••
28 I
Legend:
Skills required - If more skills required the scoring is less, if less skills the scoring is more.
Travel - If more travel involved the scoring is less, if less travel the scoring is more.
Work duration - If work duration is more the scoring is less, if less work duration the scoring is more.
Investment - If more investment required the scoring is less, if less investment the scoring is more.
Expenditures - If more expenditure involved the scoring is less, if less expenditure the scoring is more.
Income - If more income is obtained the scoring is more, if less income the scoring is less.
Hazards - If more hazards involved the scoring is less, if fewer hazards the scoring is more.
Sustainable - If the livelihood is sustainable (throughout the year) scoring is more, if it is seasonal the scoring is less.

Fresh fish vending: A countable number of women in the village are engaged in vending fresh fish in
the nearby villages. Due to lack of preservation and transportation facilities they do not vend more
than 10-15 kgs of fresh fish a day.
Skills
No specific skills required, anybody could carry out the work. In the village there are 20 women
involved in this activity.
Travel
Traveling is very difficult because they do not have transportation facility and have to walk till
Kusumuru and board a bus from Sompet to other villages.
Work duration They start the activity in the morning at 7:00 and work till 4:00 pm
Investment They investment for buying baskets, utensils and tools for vending fish.
Expenditure
They borrow money (approximately Rs.600) from others in the village to buy fish and travel which
is returned on daily basis.
Income They get less income as they can vend only few quantity of fish
Hazards
Due to lack of road and transportation facilities, the fisherwomen at times walk in the water (lake)
and travel by boat to reach other villages, which is at time very risky. In addition due to poor
transportation facilities it takes long time to reach villages and fish loses its freshness as a result
it does not have good value in the market.

27
Sustainability
They get fish for 9 months a year and they vend fish during this 9 months only

Dried fish vending: Majority of the women in the village are dry fish vendors. Most of the dry fish is
sold for livestock due to poor infrastructure to dry fish for human consumption. It is learned that most
of the villagers travel to neighbouring state (Orissa) to vend fish. They usually transport the dry fish by
a truck/lorry to the market place, stay for more than two to three days until fish is sold.
Skills Anyone can do this business and but requires few skills in mixing salt to cure, time to cure, etc.
Travel
They travel long distances to sell the fish and at times if the fish is unsold they would need to
stay back and move to other areas until sold
Work duration
If fish remains unsold the villagers would move from place to place. Therefore, they would take
from 1 to 4 days to do this business.
Investment
The investment to carry out dry fish vending is very high compared to fresh fish vending. The
spend for purchase of curing tubs
Expenditure
Spend for buying salt, when they travel long distances they spend on travel, buying rice and
vegetables.
Income
There is a very poor income from vending dry fish as it does not have good demand such as
fresh fish in the market.
Hazards
There is fear during the rainy season as the fish can be spoilt due to poor storage and involves
mush risk.
Sustainability During the rainy seasons its difficult to cure and dry fish

Agriculture coolie: During the months of August and December most of the women in the village
migrate to other villages (in Andhra Pradesh as well as Orissa) in search of work as agriculture
coolies. Most of them work in the paddy field (planting and harvesting). During these two months they
will have 30-40 days of work and earn Rs. 100 to Rs. 130 a day.
Skills Skills are learnt from parents and feel it is inherited to practice gardening and farming activities
Travel
In search of this work, the villagers migrate to Orissa for 2 months in a year and face difficulties
in traveling
Work duration They start the work at 6:00 am and come back homes after 6:00 pm.
Investment No investment is required for this occupation
Expenditure Involves expenditure such as travel, food and other provisions.
Income Income compared to vending of fresh and dried fish is very poor and preferred to score it (0)
Hazards The work is usually during rainy seasons, flooding and its difficult to work
Sustainability This is practiced only for 2 months (August & December) in a year.

Daily wage labour: Some of the villagers work as daily labourers at construction sites, road works,
etc. The villagers will have to own required tools to work as coolies in the above mentioned work
places.
Skills Anyone can carry out this occupation and do not require skills
Travel Travel to neighboring villages for work
Work duration They work for the entire day from morning till evening (6 am to 6 pm)
Investment Need to invest in buying crowbars, spades, etc
Expenditure Involves travel expenditures but not much

28
Income
Income compared to vending of fresh and dried fish is much better because they can get Rs.100-
150 per day
Hazards Less hazardous job and not much risk is involved
Sustainability This is practiced only for 4 to 5 weeks in a year depending on the need.

Pettie business: The information on petty business was appraised from one of the villagers (woman)
who is engaged in petty business.
Skills Anyone can carry out this occupation and do not require skills
Travel Travel to neighboring towns to purchase provisions
Work duration
As the shop is in the house or very close to the house, they work for the entire day from morning
till evening (6 am to 7 pm).
Investment They invest money in buying provisions, vegetables, setting up a shop, etc
Expenditure Involves expenditures in traveling, purchasing provision and vegetables but not much
Income
The income is not very attractive but sufficient enough for a day. They earn about Rs. 50 to 75
profit a day.
Hazards Pettie business has hazards but not very risky
Sustainability Sustainability for petty business is more.


5.2 Men

Date & Time : 19th March 2011, 15:00 -16:15 Hrs
Facilitator : Mohan Krishna
Documenter : Satyanarayana
Venue : Fishermen Shelter
Participants : 15 men

A livelihood matrix tool was conducted with a focused
group of men to understand the livelihood options
existing in the village and their perspectives in
prioritizing the livelihood options similar to the exercise
done with a group of women.

Liveli hoods
Factors Essenti al f or Liveli hood
Score Rank
S
k
i
l
l
s

T
r
a
v
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D
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a
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E
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H
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S
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Sea Fishing
• • • • ••• ••• • ••••
15 V
Lake Fishing
• • ••• •• •••• •• ••• ••••
20 IV
Mogali Plants*
••••• ••••• ••••• ••••• ••••• ••• •••• •••
34 I
Agriculture
•••• •••• •• • •••• ••• ••••• ••••
27 III
Tailoring
• ••••• •• •• ••••• •••• ••••• ••••
28 II
* It is a kind of plant found in the village; the flowers from these plants are very expensive as it is used for cosmetics.

Sea Fishing: Majority of the men in the village are engaged in fishing, mostly sea fishing. There are
only 5 motorized boats in the village and each of this is used by nearly 15 fisherwomen, who share

29
the expenditure and profit. Others use ordinary boats (rowing). They work 6 days a week and rest on
every Saturday.
Skills
Lot of skills required to sail the boat into the sea and to estimate the fish availability.
Travel It will take nearly 2-3 hours to reach the spot and they have to sail on their own to reach there.
Work duration
Normally they will spend 7-8 hours on fishing; if more fish is available they will spend even 18
hours in the sea in a single stretch.
Investment
They have to invest a lot for the making of Boat and purchase of different nets. Sometimes the
nets will damage frequently.
Expenditure Expenditures are limited.
Income they are getting average income compared to their difficulties etc.
Hazards Very high. They might drown in the sea, vulnerable for cyclones, life threat.
Sustainability 10 Months (2 months ban period)

Lake Fishing: The men who fish in the lake are of countable number in the village. However, during
the fish breeding period, all the men go for fishing in the lake, but they do not sell the fish rather use
them for cooking.
Skills
Required to prepare the bamboo traps, place the traps in right place, repairing of the traps
everyday
Travel Distance wise may be near but has to walk in the mud to reach the location
Work duration
Normally they will spend around 7 hours a day for the occupation i.e. early morning 1 hour for
collecting fish from bamboo traps, 3 hours for repairing the damaged bamboo traps, 2 hours for
making new bamboo traps and 1 hour for insertion of repaired traps.
Investment
Though few bamboo traps prepared by them, some bamboo traps has to purchase and needs to
be replace every 4 months. Sometimes they even damage very early.
Expenditure operation cost is low
Income they are getting only Rs. 50/- to Rs.70/- per day
Hazards
vulnerable for shell wounds while walking in the mud, they mentioned that there is no day for
them without getting a wound on their occupation
Sustainability 9 months (3 months water won’t be there in the lake)

Mogali Plants: During the months of March, April, May and J une a good number of the villagers are
engaged in vending Mogalidonga flowers. Few of the villagers own these plants. It is learned from the
villagers that they sell the flowers to agents and later they export the flowers to other countries.
Skills Not required, it is only to pluck the flowers from the tree and to squeeze to get the perfume
Travel Very less 0.5 to 1 Km. Mogali flowers are available surrounding of the village
Work duration Less 2- 3 Hrs. entire activities will take only limited time,
Investment Very less. No need of fertilizers or any other investment. Trees will grow on their own.
Expenditure No expenditure involved in this activity
Income they get income on average basis
Hazards vulnerable for snake bites and cut wounds by the sharp leaves)
Sustainability 9 months (3 months water won’t be there in the lake)

Agriculture: During the months of August and December the villagers work in the paddy fields.
Skills required to know farming process, when to fertilize etc. but easy to learn the process
Travel less 0.5 to 2 Km. need to go by walk on mud roads

30
Work duration
it will take entire day during work and will take 5 months per crop
Investment need to put investment for buying Seeds, fertilizers etc
Expenditure need to pay to the labor whenever they work in the process of farming
Income
Average compare to their investment and the period for the income. Sometimes they even lost
their crop due to cyclones, floods etc.
Hazards Very less
Sustainability 9 months (5 months one crop and 4 months another crop)

Tailoring: There are only 4 men who are engaged in tailoring. They stitch pants, shirts and dress for
the women.
Skills Need training on stitching, cutting etc
Travel no need of transportation can be sit in one place and can do the work
Work duration
entire day time they will be involved in the work, even work in nights when they is lot of demand
(festivals)
Investment Less. Only to buy threads etc
Expenditure no expenditure involved in carryout the activity
Income Income is high. They will get around Rs.150/- per pair
Hazards Very less, may get health problems in longer period
Sustainability work will be available in the entire year



31
6. Socio Economic Security

Date & Time : 19
th
March 2011, 11:45 -14:10 Hrs
Facilitator : Hansen Thambi Prem
Documenter : Krishna
Venue : Nukadasu’s House
Participants : Nukadasu’s wife and 3 children (2 boys & 1 girl)

Based on the details furnished in the social mapping household card one
family was identified randomly by the PRA team which represented the
same socio economic conditions of most families. The socio economic
security tool was conducted with the identified family, the family details are
as follows,

Nukadasu, a fisherman aged 39 is head of the family his wife
Bharathamma aged 33) is a home maker, they have 2 boys (Samuel aged 17 stopped studying after
10th standard and Raju aged 10 studying in 5th standard) and 1 girl (Sara aged 13 studying 6th
standard. Nukadasu’s wife shared the information as Nukadasu had migrated to Mumbai for fishing.

The discussion was to understand the expenditures, income, savings and social security of the family
on daily, monthly and annual basis through a self analysis done by the family.

Expenditure in INR Daily Monthly Annually
Rice X 3500 X
Vegetables 15 X X
Edible Oil 10 X X
Breakfast/Tea 10 X X
Alcohol 77 X X
School Uniform for children X X 1200
Purchase of books/pens X X 500
Electricity X 60 X
Purchase of provision X 500 X
Travel for agriculture coolie X X 1200
Loan repayment X 30 X
Medical expenditure X X >15000
House Tax X X 40
Payment to Village Committee X X 500
Make up Items - girl child X X 1000
Purchase of close on festivals X X 6000
Festival expenditure X X 1000
Boat repair and net mending X X 10000
Salt for curing fish X X 2250
Drying of fish X X 600
Fish curing (plastic sheets) X X 2400
Painting of house X X 100
Household articles X X 500
Lake fishing X X 400
Total 112 4090 42000

The economic security tool was used with a single family in the village. The following are the details of
the family. The husband’s name is Nukadasu and his wife is housewife. The family has 2 male
children and 1 girl child. The eldest son studies up to class 10 and now stopped studying. The girl who
is in the second in the family is studying class 6 and the last boy is studying class 5. The information
was shared by the mother of the family as the father was away in Mumbai on migration.

The woman has shared that daily her family spends Rs.112 (Rupees one hundred and twelve only).
The details of the expenditure are as given below.


32
It is learned that the family purchase vegetables and edible oil on daily basis. As milk is not easily
available in the village the family prefers to buy tea/coffee from the shop. It is also learned that her
husband consumes alcohol every day after coming back from fishing in the sea. The team was
informed that the head of the family consumes minimum of 160 ml of alcohol every day. The preferred
alcohol is brandy and not toddy or local alcohol (not available in the village).

The family purchase rice on monthly basis for an amount of Rs. 3500 to Rs. 4000. It is learned that
when the head of the family goes to sea for fishing he would have meals at least four times a day.
This would increase the consumption of rice compared to the days when he does not go for fishing. In
addition to rice, the family purchase salt, turmeric, tamarind, chilly power and chilies, onion, and other
provisions for a total of Rs. 500 every month. As the family has electricity supply in the house it pays
Rs. 60 every month towards usage. In addition to this, the family pays an amount of Rs. 30 towards
clearance of the loan availed from SHG (the woman is member of SHG in the village).

As the family has two children who are studying in class 5 and 6, the family spends approximately Rs.
1200/ towards purchase of school uniform. It is learned that from the coming academic year the
government would provide school uniforms to the students. Similarly the family spends Rs. 500 every
years towards purchase of note books, pens and pencil for their children.

In the past one year the family has spent more than Rs. 15000 towards health care. One of the family
members was not feeling well and they have spent that much amount in the hospital. When the
mother of the family goes for coolie work (agriculture) she spends approximately Rs. 1200 towards
travel, food and other expenditures. The family pays house tax (Rs. 40) on yearly basis. The family
also makes payment to the village committee every year. A total of Rs. 500 is paid. The amount is
paid based on the number of male elders living in the house. As the family has a grown up boy and
the father of the boy they have paid Rs. 250 each. The girl children and woman need not pay to the
village. The money paid will be utilized by the village committee for its development works.

In addition to this, the family spends about Rs. 1000 towards make up items and other items related to
women/children in the family. The family also spends lot of money on festivals mainly for purchasing
clothes. As this family embraces Christianity, they purchase clothes on the Christmas day. It was also
shared that on this day, the family also purchase clothes for the close relatives and gifts them. Other
expenditures that occur on Christmas are to paint the house, cook tasty food, etc.

The expenditure related to the livelihood is as given below: They spend approximately Rs. 10000
towards repair of the boat annually. As the family is involved in drying fish, they spend Rs. 2250. They
buy 15 bags of salt; each bag weighs 100 kgs of salt. In order to cure fish they dig earth and cure it in
a plastic sheet and cover it again with plastic sheet.

Though the family has not spent any money on the marriages of their child so far, the team has in
general gathered information on how much money is spent on marriage. The following was the
information shared by the villagers. The girl’s family spends approximately from Rs. 150000 to Rs.
250000. The minimum dowry given to the boy’s family is Rs. 100000. Apart from this the girl’s family
has to purchase gold, clothes for the girl. On the other hand the boy’s family will spend approximately
Rs. 50000.

It is also learned from the community that majority of the deliveries take place in the village and there
are four midwives in the village who attend to this. The following are the names of the midwives in the
village: Karri Kanthamma – Wife of J agannaik, Karri Papamma – No husband, Landa Vallamma –
Wife of Landa Ramayya and Yeddu Korlamma – Wife of Yeddu Ramayya.

Income i n INR Daily Monthly Annually
Fresh fish catch 500 X X
Dry fish vending X X 10000
Agriculture coolie X X 3000
Mogalidonga Flowers Vending X X 15000
Total 500 X 28000


33
The above table illustrates the sources of income of the family. There are four major sources of
income, such as, vending of fresh fish, selling of dry fish, agriculture coolie and selling of Mogalidonga
flowers. The income from vending of fresh fish is Rs. 500 daily at an average. The family has a boat
(rowing type) and the head of the family hires two more to support him in fishing. At the end of the day
based on the quantity of fish caught the head of the family pays them half of what is earned that day
(50% of the total amount earned). In case the boat requires repair or the net needs mending, it is the
responsibility of the head of the family to meet these expenditure and not of the two persons who join
him in fishing. The family dries fish but is not directly involved in vending fish. The family sells the fish
to the parents of head of family (Mr. Nukadasu), who pay them Rs. 10000 (Rupees Ten Thousand a
year) and they vend the dry fish. Apart from the income from the fish business the family also earns
by going for coolie job (agriculture – woman only) and also by vending Mogalidonga flower which is
available in the village.

Savings in INR Cash Assets
Savings in Self Help Groups Rs. 30 (Daily) X
J ewels X 10000
LIC Policy 300000 X
Bajaj Life Insurance Policy 60000 X
Kattela Boat X 7000
Nets (4 types) X 90000
House X 30000
Compensation from fishermen society X 10000
Total 360000 147000

The family has savings in the form of cash as well as assets. As the woman in the family is member of
Self Help Group, she saves Rs. 30 (Rupees Thirty Only) on daily basis (365 days * Rs. 30 =Rs.
10950 a year). On the other hand the family has two life insurances: LIC and Bajaj Life Insurance.
Under LIC annually the family saves Rs. 24000 (Rupees Twenty Four Thousand Only). However this
amount is paid on monthly basis Rs. 2000 (Rupees Two Thousand Only). This is paid for a period of
fifteen years and the total insured amount is Rs. 300000 (Rupees Three Lakhs only). Similarly the
family has just started savings with Bajaj Life Insurance for a period of five years and annual payment
of Rs. 6000 (Rupees Six Thousand Only). The total sum assured is Rs. 60000 (Rupees Sixty
Thousand Only). In addition to the above the family has assets as given below: the woman has gold
worth Rs. 10000 (Rupees Ten Thousand). It consists of ear rings gifted by her parents at the time of
marriage. The family owns a boat and net which are worth Rs. 97000 (Boat – Rs. 7000 and Net Rs.
90000). The house they live in is worth Rs. 30000. This amount is specified only for the material and
the cost involved in constructing the house. The amount for the land is not calculated as it is given by
the village. Finally, the head of the family is the member of the fishermen cooperative society and the
family is eligible for compensation of Rs. 10000, if anything happens to him while in the sea for
fishing.



34
7. Daily Routine Charts

7.1 Inland Fishermen
Name of the Respondent : A. Devaraju
House No : 1
Family Members : 4
Date : 19
th
March 2011
Time : 14:30 to 15:00 Hrs
Facilitator : Mohana Krishna G
Documenter : Satyanarayana
Devaraju is an inland fisherman in the village who does
fishing in backwaters. The purpose of this tool was to
understand the daily routine activity of the inland fishermen
of the village using the daily routine chart to discuss with
Devaraju.
06:00 to 07:00
07:00 to 08:00
08:00 to 11:00
11:00 to 13:00
13:00 to 15:00
15:00 to 18:00
18:00 to 21:00
21:00 to 06:00

06:00 to 07:00 Wakeup, colleting fish from the bamboo traps
07:00 to 08:00 Toilets / bath / breakfast
08:00 to 11:00 Repairing of Bamboo Traps
11:00 to 13:00 Lunch & Rest
13:00 to 15:00 Prepare new bamboo traps
15:00 to 18:00 Chatting / rest / TV
18:00 to 21:00 Dinner
20:00 to 06:00 Sleep

7.2 Dried Fish Vendors – Men
Name of the Respondent : Lakshman Behra
House No : 24
Family Members : 4
Date : 19
th
March 2011
Time : 10:45 to 11:45 Hrs
Facilitator : Madhu Sagili
Documenter : Mohana Krishna G
Lakshman Behra is a fish vendor who is fully involved in the dried fish vending. He has a regular
routine from Monday to Thursday and a weekend routine on Saturdays and Sundays. One daily
routine chart was applied to understand the Lakshman’s regular routine and one chart was applied to
understand his weekend routine.

Monday to Friday
05:30 to 06:00
06:00 to 07:00
07:00 to 10:00
10:00 to 12:00
12:00 to 13:00
13:00 to 15:00
15:00 to 19:00
19:00 to 20:00
20:00 t0 20:30
20:30 to 21:00
21:00 to 05:30


35
05:30 to 06:00 Wakeup
06:00 to 07:00 Toilets / bath / Breakfast
07:00 to 10:00 Drying of Previous day fish
10:00 to 12:00 Buying Fresh Fish
12:00 to 13:00 Lunch, Rest
13:00 to 15:00 Curing of Fish
15:00 to 19:00 Buying of Dry Fish from the villagers
19:00 to 20:00 Inventory
20:00 to 20:30 Dinner
20:30 to 21:00 Watching TV
21:00 to 05:00 Sleep

Saturday & Sunday
04:30 to 05:00
05:00 to 05:30
05:30 to 12:00
12:00 to 12:30
12:30 to 17:00
17:00 to 03:00
03:00 to 04:00
04:00 to 12:00
12:00 to 19:00

04:30 to 05:00 Wakeup
05:00 to 05:30 Bath / toilet / Breakfast
05:30 to 12:00 Packing the Dry fish in bags
12:00 to 12:30 Lunch
12:30 to 17:00 Purchase of Dry Fish
17:00 to 03:00 Travel to market for vending dry fish
03:00 to 04:00 Unloading of Fish Bags
04:00 to 12:00 Vending Dry Fish
12:00 to 19:00 Return J ourney


7.3 Marine Fishermen
Fishermen in the village fish using mainly two types of boats, they are Fibre Reinforced Plastic (FRP)
boats and Theppa (Country crafts). The FRP boats are having better features compared to the
country crafts. There are only 5 FRP boats in the village and a total of 75 fishermen depend on this for
their livelihood. There are 40 country crafts in the village and a total of 120 fishermen depend on this
for their livelihood. Daily routine chart was applied for both in order to understand the daily routine of
both type of fishermen.

Fishermen with FRP Boats
Name of the Respondent : Karri Kotesh
House No : 4
Family Members : 5
Date : 19th March 2011
Time : 13:00 to 13:30 Hrs
Facilitator : Mohana Krishna G
Documenter : Satyanarayana
Mr. Kotesh along with 14 fishermen in the village owns a fiber boat. The information related to daily
routine was appraised from him, who said that though he along with other fishermen has less difficulty
in catching fish, availability of the ice, fuel is the main constrains for the fishermen fishing with FRP
boats.

36
Fishing with Fiber Boat - Daily Routine Chart
04:00 to 04:30
04:30 to 05:00
05:00 to 05:30
05:30 to 06:00
06:00 to 11:00
11:00 to 12:00
12:00 to 13:00
13:00 to 15:00
15:00 to 17:00
17:00 to 18:00
18:00 to 19:00
19:00 to 20:00
20:00 to 21:00
21:00 to 04:00
04:00 to 04:30 Wakeup, toilet, bath
04:30 to 05:00 Preparing Net & Boat for fishing
05:30 to 05:30 Breakfast
05:30 to 06:00 Boat Travel for fishing
06:00 to 11:00 Fishing in the Sea
11:00 to 12:00 Return J ourney
12:00 to 13:00 Lunch
13:00 to 15:00 Rest
15:00 to 17:00 Prepare Nets / Boats for next day fishing
17:00 to 18:00 Watching TV / Chatting with people
18:00 to 19:00 Other issues / Family issues
19:00 to 20:00 Dinner
20:00 to 21:00 Watching TV
21:00 to 04:00 Sleep


Fishermen with Country Craft
Name of the Respondent : R. Purushottam
House No : 79
Family Members : 5
Date : 19th March 2011
Time : 13:30 to 14:00 Hrs
Facilitator : Mohana Krishna G
Documenter : Satyanarayana
Purushotham catches the fish in a traditional boat with two other people. The traditional fishermen are
facing lot of difficulties in their daily livelihood activities such as, the sea waves in Kothakalingapatnam
are very high, compare to other villages, the fishermen has to sail the traditional crafts on their own.
Therefore the fishermen left with little energy after crossing the waves to carry out their livelihood
activity. A part from this, trawlers equipped with technology and equipments are sweeping the fish in
their area before the traditional fishermen could reach the fishing spot. They have to start their activity
very early in the morning till the late afternoon; sometimes they even spend more time for fishing.
02:00 to 03:00
03:00 to 03:30
03:30 to 05:30
05:30 to 17:00
17:00 to 18:00
18:00 to 19:00
19:00 to 20:00
20:00 to 21:00
21:00 to 02:00

02:00 to 03:00 Wakeup, toilet, bath
03:00 to 03:30 Breakfast / preparing Net & Boat for fishing
03:30 to 05:30 Boat Travel for fishing

37
05:30 to 17:00 Fishing / Lunch
17:00 to 18:00 Separate fish from the Net
18:00 to 19:00 Fresh / Rest
19:00 to 20:00 Dinner
20:00 to 21:00 Watching TV
21:00 to 02:00 Sleep


7.4 Fresh Fish Vendors – Women
Name of the Respondent : Nanda Polamma
House No : 92
Family Members : 5
Date : 19
th
March 2011
Time : 11:50 to 12:10 Hrs
Facilitator : Mohana Krishna G
Documenter : Satyanarayana

The women fresh fish vendors work regularly from Sundays to Fridays and depend on the availability
of fresh fish on that particular day. The fisherwomen of Kothakalingapatnam village purchases fish
from the sea going fishermen and will travel to Kaviti (or) Sompeta to sell their fish, now the
government is laying a road to their village, earlier days they have to cross the back waters by boat or
walk through the water to reach the road. They travel 15 – 20 kms to sell their fish. If the fish is unsold
they either dry fish or throw them depending on its condition. Saturday is time for the entire villagers to
refrain from work and relax at home.

Sunday to Friday
03:00 to 04:00
04:00 to 07:00
07:00 to 08:00
08:00 to 13:00
13:00 to 14:00
14:00 to 16:00
16:00 to 19:00
19:00 to 22:00
22:00 to 22:30
22:30 to 03:00

03:00 to 04:00 Wakeup, toilet, bath
04:00 to 07:00 Wash vessels, clean the house and prepare breakfast / prepare children for school
07:00 to 08:00 Breakfast, sending children to school
08:00 to 13:00 Buying of Fresh Fish
13:00 to 14:00 Lunch
12:00 to 16:00 Travel to Vend Fish
16:00 to 19:00 Fish Vending
19:00 to 22:00 Return J ourney
22:00 to 22:30 Dinner
22:30 to 03:00 Sleep

Saturdays
03:00 to 04:00
04:00 to 07:00
07:00 to 08:00
08:00 to 12:00
12:00 to 13:00
13:00 to 15:00
15:00 to 16:00
16:00 to 21:00
21:00 to 21:30
21:30 to 03:00


38
03:00 to 04:00 Wakeup, toilet, bath
04:00 to 07:00 Wash vessels, clean the house and prepare breakfast / prepare children for school
07:00 to 08:00 Breakfast, sending children to school
08:00 to 12:00 Gathering of Fire Wood
12:00 to 13:00 Lunch
13:00 to 15:00 Rest / watching TV
15:00 to 16:00 Bath / cleaning of vessels / house keeping
16:00 to 21:00 Spending time in Temple
21:00 to 21:30 Dinner
21:30 to 03:00 Sleep


7.5 Dried Fish Vendors – Women

Name of the Respondent : Nanda Polamma
House No : 92
Family Members : 5
Date : 19
th
March 2011
Time : 11:50 to 12:10 Hrs
Facilitator : Mohana Krishna G
Documenter : Satyanarayana

The fisherwomen of Kothakalingapatnam village purchases fresh fish from the sea going fishermen
and dry them on the sand or at platform constructed by the department. Most of the fish dried is used
for livestock. They will travel to Kaviti (or) Sompeta to sell their fish, now the government is laying a
road to their village, earlier days they have to cross the back waters by boat or by walk through the
water and mud to reach the road. From there they will travel 15 – 20 kms to sell their fish. If it delayed
in selling the fish they have the stay in that town over night as there won’t be any transportation facility
to the village at that time.
03:00 to 04:00
04:00 to 07:00
07:00 to 08:00
08:00 to 13:00
13:00 to 14:00
14:00 to 17:00
17:00 to 18:00
18:00 to 21:00
21:00 to 21:30
21:30 to 03:00

03:00 to 04:00 Wakeup, toilet, bath
04:00 to 07:00 Wash vessels, clean the house and prepare breakfast / prepare children for school
07:00 to 08:00 Breakfast, sending children to school
08:00 to 13:00 Purchase of Fresh Fish
13:00 to 14:00 Lunch
14:00 to 17:00 Drying of Cured Fish
17:00 to 18:00 Bath / cleaning of vessels / house keeping
18:00 to 21:00 Spending time in Temple
21:00 to 21:30 Dinner
21:30 to 03:00 Sleep



39
8. Problem Matrix

8.1 Common Problems

Date & Time : 19
th
March 2011, 15:00 -16:30 Hrs
Facilitator : Madhu Sagili
Documenter : Satyanarayana
Venue : High School Veranda
Participants : 18 (10 women & 8 men)

The problem matrix is a tool to understand the felt
problems in the village and to understand their
causes. The identified problems are listed and
analyzed against each of the other problems
highlighted to prioritize them. This will help to
understand the problems causing greater impact to the communities in the village. In this
regard, pair wise problem matrix tool was adopted and applied. At the end of the exercise the
team as well as the community had a general understanding about the problems in the village.

Probl ems
8

-

L
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7

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2

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Score Rank
1 - Insufficient drinking water for
the village
1/8 1 1 1 1 1 1 X 7 (1) I (A)
2 - Poor access to basic health
facilities
8 2 2 2 2 3 X X 4 (2) III
3 - Difficulty in availing health
treatments
8 3 3 3 3 X X X 5 (3) II
4 - Poor access to basic
education above 7
th
standard
8 4 4 4 X X X X 3 (4) IV
5 - Frequent power cuts
affecting activities after dark
8 7 5 X X X X X 1 (5) VI
6 - Village vulnerable to flooding
by backwaters during high tide
8 7 X X X X X X 0 (6) VII
7 - Difficulties in commuting to
and from the village
8 X X X X X X X 2 (7) V
8 - Lack of privacy for bathing &
defecation
X X X X X X X X 7 (8) I (B)

Villagers identified the key problems, defined their problems and listed them which were analyzed
against each of the other problems and prioritized.

1. Insufficient drinking water for the village: There are only two open wells from where the
villagers draw drinking water. However, the villagers have expressed that the drinking water is not
sufficient for the entire village, particularly during summer, where the water level of these seas will be
at the minimum level. On the other hand, the villagers have also shared that the water drawn from the
well (drinking) is not very hygienic, particularly during rainy season. Though an organization (the
villagers don’t remember the name of the organization) has sensitized them on boiling the well water
before drinking, the villagers do not have such practice. Due to this, often people are affected with
various illnesses.

2. Poor access to basic health facilities: The villagers have shared that the villagers have very
poor access to health facilities, particularly for availing treatment during the emergency period. In the
past, it is learned from the villagers, that one girl child was dead of fit, which she was on her way to

40
hospital from the village. Similarly one pregnant woman also passed away while shifting her to the
hospital. One of the main reasons for such incidents in the village was due to lack of poor
transportation facilities. In the past, the villagers used to carry the sick either on a cot or cover them in
mat. Often they used to walk up to Musunuru and from there either go by bus or any other
transportation to Government hospital either in Sompet or Kaviti. Taking into consideration all these
concerns the villagers feel that they have very poor access to treatment facilities.

3. Difficulty in availing health treatments: The villagers have also shared that they have poor
access to medicines for common sickness, such as, headache, fever, stomachache, diarrhea, cold,
etc. It is learned that ANM visits the village quite frequently but she will not be available always for the
village particularly if they need any basic or first aid treatment.

4. Poor access to basic education above 7th standard: The village has a government school upto
class 7. In the recent times, majority of the children are going to the school and there is a good
relationship between the school teachers and the villagers. However, a good number of the children
drop out from schooling when they have to go out of the villager for further studies. It is learned that
due to lack of facilities for transportation and long distances a good number of the student drop out of
school.

5. Frequent power cuts affecting activities after dark: The frequency of power cut is very high.
The villagers have power from 6:00 am to 12:00 pm and they get power again in the evening at 6:00
pm to 10:00 pm. Due to power cuts in the night, a good number of the villagers prefer to sleep on the
seashore along with small kids. The problem they have expressed related to this is that sleeping out
with new born children (3 to 12 months) is affecting their health. Apart from this they have no major
problem in line with frequent power cuts.

6. Village vulnerable to flooding by backwaters during high tide: During the months of J une to
September, the lake situated behind the village is flooded with water (rain water as well from the sea).
When the lake is full, the water flows into the village, particularly near the school area and its
surroundings. Due to this, the movement of the villagers in the village is restricted and the school will
not be functional during this season.

7. Difficulties in commuting to and from the village: The villagers have expressed that they have
very poor facilities to commute to and fro the village. Earlier they used to travel by boat for 2 Kms as
they did not have road. From this point they walk to Kusumur and go by bus or other transportation
means to Sompet and Kaviti. For the last 6 months road is being laid and now the villagers use auto
rickshaw as means of transportation. However, they cannot depend on it when required by the villager
as it would not be available.

8. Lack of privacy for bathing and defecation: Both the men and women present at the discussion
have expressed that lack of public toilets, particularly for the women, is one of the main concerns of
the villagers. It is learned that people are used to defecation in open areas. On the other hand, they
have expressed the lack of privacy for the women.

Prioritization of the problems: After identifying the problems the villagers have prioritized them by
comparing a problem with the rest. The following are the reasons for the villagers to prioritize the
problems.
Compari son of Problems Reasons f or Pri oritization
Insuffi cient drinking
water f or the vil lage
Lack of privacy for bathi ng
& def ecati on
When prioritizing the problem the community (men & women)
had lot of confusion. The women have prioritized lack of
privacy for defecation whereas the men prioritized insufficient
drinking water. Consensus could not be drawn on this due to
differences of opinion and both were given equal importance.
Insuffi cient drinking
water f or the vil lage
Difficulties for movement
from and to the village
Insufficient drinking water is the key problem as the entire
villagers struggle without drinking water during summer. Now
the village has a road and assumes that sooner they will have
vehicles to commute to nearby villages.
Insuffi cient drinking
water f or the vil lage
Village vulnerable to flooding
by backwaters during high
tide
Insufficient drinking water is the key problem compared to the
other as the villagers have already acted to prevent the
flooding of backwaters by constructing a 39 mtrs wall behind
the school building.
Insuffi cient drinking Frequent power cuts Insufficient drinking water is the key problem compared to the

41
water f or the vil lage affecting activities after dark other as the frequency of power cuts disturbs the after dark
activities but still could manage but not without drinking
water.
Insuffi cient drinking
water f or the vil lage
Poor access to basic
education above 7
th

standard
Insufficient drinking water is the key problem compared to the
other as nearly 20 children are going outside the village for
further studies. The community assumes that improved
access to transportation facilities after completion of the road
would reduce the number of drop outs in schools or colleges.
Insuffi cient drinking
water f or the vil lage
Poor access to medicines
for common illness in the
village
Insufficient drinking water is the key problem compared to the
other as the ANM visits the village very often and provides
them with required medication. The village also has a stock of
basic medicine to certain extent.
Insuffi cient drinking
water f or the vil lage
Poor access to health
facilities
Insufficient drinking water is the key problem compared to the
other as due to the upcoming road the villagers assume that
they will have better access to health facilities through
transportation.
Poor access to basic health
facilities
Lack of privacy for bathi ng
& def ecati on
Lack of privacy is the priority compared to the other
especially for women, the men also agreed to it. The women
have no privacy either for defecation or taking bath as they
have to wait and bath or defecate in the dark when no one is
available.
Poor access to basi c
health facilit ies
Difficulties in commuting to
and from the village
Poor access to basic health facilities is the priority as the road
which is under construction will solve the problem of
commuting to and from the village.
Poor access to basi c
health facilit ies
Village vulnerable to flooding
by backwaters during high
tide
Poor access to basic health facilities is the priority as the
inflow of backwaters has been arrested to some extent by
construction of a 30 mtr wall.
Poor access to basi c
health facilit ies
Frequent power cuts
affecting activities after dark
Poor access to basic health facilities is the priority as they
could manage some activities after dark even if there are
frequent power cuts.
Poor access to basi c
health facilit ies
Poor access to basic
education above 7
th

standard
Poor access to basic health facilities is prioritized as the
community assumes that the children village will soon have
improved access to basic education after completion of the
road.
Poor access to basic health
facilities
Dif ficulty in availing health
treat ments
Difficulty in availing health treatments is prioritized as they
can manage in accessing basic health facilities but difficult to
avail treatments.
Difficulty in availing health
treatments
Lack of privacy for bathi ng
& def ecati on
Lack of privacy is prioritized as the health treatments are
occasional issues for the villagers but lack of privacy is a day
to day issue.
Dif ficulty in availing
health treatment s
Difficulties in commuting to
and from the village
Difficulty in availing health treatments is prioritized as the
community assumes that they will have improved
transportation facilities after completion of the road.
Dif ficulty in availing
health treatment s
Village vulnerable to flooding
by backwaters during high
tide
Difficulty in availing health treatments is prioritized as the
community has attempted to prevent the flooding of
backwaters by constructing a 30 mtr wall behind the school.
Dif ficulty in availing
health treatment s
Frequent power cuts
affecting activities after dark
Difficulty in availing health treatments is prioritized as they
can manage their activities after dark even if there are
frequent power cuts.
Dif ficulty in availing
health treatment s
Poor access to basic
education above 7
th

standard
Difficulty in availing health treatments is prioritized as the
community assumes that it would have improved
transportation facilities and thereby increase the access to
further studies.
Poor access to basic
education above 7
th

standard
Lack of privacy for bathi ng
& def ecati on
Lack of privacy is prioritized as the community assumes that
it would have improved transportation facilities and thereby
increase the access to further studies.
Poor access to basi c
educat ion above 7
th

standard
Difficulties in commuting to
and from the village
Poor access to basic education is prioritized as education is
important for the development. The community feels both has
equal importance and the problem of commutation will soon
be solved once the road is completed.
Poor access to basi c
educat ion above 7
th

standard
Village vulnerable to flooding
by backwaters during high
tide
Poor access to basic education is prioritized as the
community has been addressed by the community to certain
extent by constructing a 30 mtr wall.
Poor access to basi c
educat ion above 7
th

standard
Frequent power cuts
affecting activities after dark
Poor access to basic education is prioritized as frequent
power cuts do not affect much the activities of the villagers.
Frequent power cuts
affecting activities after
dark
Lack of privacy for bathi ng
& def ecati on
Lack of privacy is prioritized as frequent power cuts do not
affect much the activities of the villagers.
Frequent power cuts
affecting activities after
dark
Dif ficulti es in commuti ng
to and from the vill age
Difficulties in commuting are prioritized as frequent power
cuts do not affect much the activities of the villagers.

42
Frequent power cut s
affecti ng act ivities after
dark
Village vulnerable to flooding
by backwaters during high
tide
Frequent power cuts is prioritized as the flooding of
backwaters has been addressed to some extent by
constructing a 30 mtr wall behind the school.
Village vulnerable to
flooding by backwaters
during high tide
Lack of privacy for bathi ng
& def ecati on
Lack of privacy is prioritized as the flooding of backwaters
has been addressed to some extent by constructing a 30 mtr
wall behind the school.
Village vulnerable to
flooding by backwaters
during high tide
Dif ficulti es in commuti ng
to and from the vill age
Difficulties in commuting are prioritized as the flooding of
backwaters has been addressed to some extent by
constructing a 30 mtr wall behind the school.
Difficulties in commuting to
and from the village
Lack of privacy for bathi ng
& def ecati on
Lack of privacy is prioritized as the village will have road
completed soon but the problem related to privacy is still
unaddressed.

Ranking of the Problems: At the end of prioritization of the problem ranking was done based on the
priorities. Two of the problems (Insufficient drinking water and Lack of privacy) were prioritized as the
most concerning problems of the entire community with equal scores and ranked in the first place. In
order to prioritize between these problems, the community discussed among themselves and
prioritized ‘Insufficient drinking water’ as the most priority problem than ‘lack of privacy’ as it is the
problem of the entire community and accordingly these problems were sub-ranked as A & B.


8.2 Problems of Men

Date & Time : 19
th
March 2011, 15:00 -16:30 Hrs
Facilitator : Madhu Sagili
Documenter : Satyanarayana
Venue : High School Veranda
Participants : 10 men

Similar pair wise problem matrix was applied to a focus group
of men to understand their problems in the village.

Probl ems
1
0

-

I
n
c
r
e
a
s
e
d

u
n
e
m
p
l
o
y
m
e
n
t

9

-

O
c
c
u
p
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

m
i
g
r
a
t
i
o
n

8

-

A
v
a
i
l
i
n
g

&

r
e
p
a
y
i
n
g

l
o
a
n
s

7

-

U
n
s
t
a
b
l
e

l
i
v
e
l
i
h
o
o
d

6

-

R
o
u
g
h

s
e
a

a
f
f
e
c
t
i
n
g

f
i
s
h
i
n
g

5

-

P
o
o
r

m
a
r
k
e
t
i
n
g

s
k
i
l
l
s

4

-

L
o
w

p
r
i
c
e

f
o
r

f
i
s
h

3

-

P
o
o
r

f
i
s
h
i
n
g

g
e
a
r
s

2

-

D
i
f
f
i
c
u
l
t
y

i
n

p
r
e
s
e
r
v
i
n
g

f
r
e
s
h

f
i
s
h

1

-

P
o
o
r

f
i
s
h
i
n
g

c
r
a
f
t
s


Score Rank
1 - Poor fishing crafts 1 1 8 7 1 1 1 3 1 X 6 II
2 - Difficulty in preserving
fresh fish
2 9 2 2 6 2 2 3 X X 5 III (B)
3 - Poor fishing gears 3 3 3 3 6 3 3 X X X 8 I (B)
4 - Low price for fish 4 4 4 4 6 4 X X X X 5 III (C)
5 - Poor marketing skills 10 5 8 7 6 X X X X X 1 VI
6 - Rough sea affecting
fishing
6 6 6 6 X X X X X X 8 I (A)
7 - Unstable livelihood 7 7 7 X X X X X X X 5 III (A)
8 - Availing & repaying loans 10 8 X X X X X X X X 3 IV
9 - Occupational migration 9 X X X X X X X X X 2 V (A)
10 - Increased
unemployment
X X X X X X X X X X 2 V (B)


43
Poor fishing crafts: They have to wait for a longer time to catch the fish. Sometimes they expect and
go for fishing but couldn’t get the fish. In traditional boat will take time to reach the fish available place,
by the time engine boats / trawlers are sweeping the available fish so will be returning with bare
hands. Non availability of ice in the boat is also forcing them to come to the coast early even there is a
possibility to catch more fish.

Difficulty in preservation of fresh fish: Due to lack of preservation facilities in the boat, the
fishermen are unable to carryout for longer hours as if they continue the fishing for a longer time, the
fish caught earlier will be spoiled. Due to lack of preservation facilities, they are forced to sell the
product immediately after arriving to the beach.

Poor fishing gears: Normally the trawlers will have the GPS facility to track the fish availability, so
that they can catch the fish easily. There is a rule that the trawlers and the engine boats should not
catch the fish within 8 km from the coast. They also use tires at the bottoms of the nets to avoid
damage to the nets by the hills under the sea. Due to this they are sweeping all the fish that are
available in the particular area. This is creating a great difficulty to the traditional craft using fishermen
in catching the fish. The fishermen use the sun, moon, stars and the wind direction to reach the coast
in the right direction.

Low price for fish: Due to lack of transportation facilities from the village, the traditional fishermen
are unable to get the good price and forced to take the price whichever fixed by the intermediaries.
Due to unavailability of ice and lack of preservation facilities they are unable to wait to get a good
price for their fish. The village doesn’t have the road facility so the fisherwomen have to walk in the
backwaters with head load to reach the nearest village to sell the fish. This is creating a great difficulty
for the women.

Poor marketing skills: Most of the villagers ate illiterates and doesn’t have the experience in
marketing the fish. The villagers expressing that the villagers don’t have the capacity to learn and
practice the marketing and negotiation skills. So the villagers are selling the fish to the intermediaries
for the lesser price.

Rough sea affecting fishing: Compare to other villages in Srikakulam, the wave’s size in Kotha
Kalingapatnam is very big. It will take around 1 to 2 hours only to cross the waves, so the fishermen
left with little energy to carry out the fishing activity. Due to this only the people who are strong enough
to cross the waves are able to continue the fishing activity. The waves will even dangerous when they
the wind direction if from north or south.

Unstable livelihood: Sea fishing can be done only for the period of 8 months in the year. Though the
official ban period is only 45 days, they are unable to continue fishing for a period of 4 months due to
the high waves and unnatural winds. Even in normal days, if the net damages then they have to repair
their nets without going for fishing. The fishermen are very much vulnerable for the cyclones etc.

Availing & repaying loans: Due to unstable livelihood options the fishermen are forced to obtain
loans form the money lenders. Due to lack of medical facilities the villagers frequently get illness so
they have to spend lot of money for their medication. Therefore they are unable to repay the loans
and the money lenders are increasing the fine amount.

Occupational migration: Due to the foresaid reasons many villagers are migrating to other places
like Mumbai, Goa, Chennai, Gujarat etc in search of livelihood options. Sometimes the recruiters don’t
pay the fishermen if they want to come back to the village in the middle of the contract. Sometimes
the migrants’ relatives will get sick in the village and nobody will be there to look after them and the
recruiter there will not pay them if they want to comeback. In that cases they have to lose the money
even for the time they work.

Increased unemployment: Nearly 20 - 30 villagers are studied up to intermediate. The educated
people are not willing to go for fishing and even not able to get the sufficient job opportunities for their
education qualification. This is creating difficulties for their families to survive with the lower income
getting from other family members.


44
Prioritization of the problems: After identifying the problems the villagers have prioritized them by
comparing a problem with the rest. The following are the reasons for the villagers to prioritize the
problems.

Compari son of Problems Reasons f or Pri oritization
Poor f ishing crafts Increased unemployment
Poor fishing craft is prioritized as many men in the village face this
problem and only 15 to 20 youths are unemployed. Through these
crafts they are not able to fish big quantity.
Poor f ishing crafts Occupational migration
Poor fishing craft is prioritized as this is a problem throughout the
year but migration is only seasonal.
Poor fishing crafts
Avai ling & repaying
loans
Availing & repaying loan is prioritized as most of them depend on
money lenders to carry out their fishing activities.
Poor fishing crafts Unst abl e l ivelihood
Unstable livelihood is prioritized as all the livelihoods are seasonal
and they have no alternate options.
Poor f ishing crafts
Rough sea affecting
fishing
Poor fishing craft is prioritized as due to rough sea they are not able
to go for fishing and return on time affecting their daily income.
Poor f ishing crafts Poor marketing skills
Poor fishing craft is prioritized as there few people only involved in
marketing of the fish in the village.
Poor f ishing crafts Low price for fish
Poor fishing craft is prioritized. If there is a low price the fish is
processed by curing and drying to be sold the next day but there is
no alternative for fishing with traditional crafts.
Poor fishing crafts Poor f ishing gears
Poor fishing gear is prioritized as the fishermen from neighboring
coasts have better fishing gears (better nets and fishing techniques)
the native fishermen get a less catch.
Poor f ishing crafts
Lack of Preservation
facilities
Poor fishing craft is prioritized as the problem of preservation is only
when large quantities are caught which is not always. Due to
difficulties with traditional crafts they are not able to catch the fish.
Dif ficulty in
preserving fresh fish
Increased unemployment
Difficulty in preservation is prioritized as it affects majority of the
men in the village compared to unemployment. The fresh fish has
less shelf life and should be sold immediately to get optimum value.
Difficulty in preserving
fresh fish
Occupat ional mi grati on
Occupational migration is prioritized as they face lot of difficulties by
the employer like harassment and abuse but preservation of fish is
not a big issue.
Dif ficulty in
preserving fresh fish
Availing & repaying loans
Difficulty in preservation is prioritized as they are not able to
preserve for long and sell for better price. If able to sell for a better
price there is no point in availing loans.
Dif ficulty in
preserving fresh fish
Unstable livelihood
Difficulty in preservation is prioritized as if they can preserve well,
they can sell during off season when the demand increases and
there would be regular income. There livelihood will not be unstable.
Difficulty in preserving
fresh fish
Rough sea aff ecting
fishing
Rough sea is prioritized as they are not able to go far for fishing by
their crafts on a regular basis but preservation is required only when
there is a good catch.
Dif ficulty in
preserving fresh fish
Poor marketing skills
Difficulty in preservation is prioritized as there are very few involved
in marketing and preservation is an issue for many men in the
village.
Dif ficulty in
preserving fresh fish
Low price for fish
Difficulty in preservation is prioritized as the low price is caused due
to poor capacities in preservation. If the fish can be preserved well
then the price will certainly increase and they will not less for less.
Difficulty in preserving
fresh fish
Poor f ishing gears
Poor fishing gear is prioritized as it is the main problem for many
fishermen. Unless they fish well they cannot concentrate on
preservation of fish.
Poor f ishing gears Increased unemployment
Poor fishing gear is prioritized as it is the main problem for many
fishermen. The unemployment is increasing but the priority is for
poor fishing gear as it affects many men.
Poor f ishing gears Occupational migration
Poor fishing gear is prioritized as it is the main problem for many
fishermen. The occupational migration is seasonal but the fishing
gear is required for the entire year and comparatively there are not
many migrating.

Poor f ishing gears
Availing & repaying loans
Poor fishing gear is prioritized as it is the main problem for many
fishermen. They are not able to repay loans due to poor fishing
gear, if they had better gears there is no need for loans.

45

Poor f ishing gears
Unstable livelihood
Poor fishing gear is prioritized as it is the main problem for many
fishermen. If they had different types of fishing gears they can fish
all round the year and it would be sustainable.
Poor fishing gears
Rough sea aff ecting
fishing
Rough sea is prioritized as they need better crafts in fishing or they
will have to spend most of their energy only to cross the waves. The
fishermen hardly will be left with energy to carry out the fishing
activity.
Poor f ishing gears Poor marketing skills
Poor fishing gear is prioritized as it is the main problem for many
fishermen and there are few fishermen involved in marketing of fish.
Poor f ishing gears Low price for fish
Poor fishing gear is prioritized as it is the main problem for many
fishermen. If they had different types of fishing gears they can fish
better and have good price.
Low pri ce for fish Increased unemployment
Low price for fish is prioritized as many fishermen face this problem
and the increasing unemployment is not a major concern.
Low pri ce for fish Occupational migration
Low price for fish is prioritized as many fishermen face this problem
and they are forced to migrate for having better income.
Low pri ce for fish Availing & repaying loans
Low price for fish is prioritized. If they have better price for fish they
will not avail loans and it cannot be an issue.
Low pri ce for fish Unstable livelihood
Low price for fish is prioritized. If they have better income they can
save better and manage even during off seasons and unstable
livelihoods will not an issue.
Low price for fish
Rough sea aff ecting
fishing
Rough sea is prioritized as they cannot fish using the poor crafts
and gears in the rough sea ultimately resulting in low price.
Low pri ce for fish Poor marketing skills
Low price for fish is prioritized as many fishermen face this problem
and there are few involved in marketing of fish.
Poor marketing skills
Increased
unemployment
Increased unemployment is prioritized as there are very few
involved in marketing compared to the number of people
unemployed in the village. These youths are neither having jobs nor
involved in fishing.
Poor market ing skil ls Occupational migration
Poor marketing skill is prioritized as the number of people migrate
will reduce and start concentrating on marketing of fish products.
Poor marketing skills
Avai ling & repaying
loans
Availing loan is prioritized as due to poor livelihood capacity many
fishermen avail and repay large quantity of loans.

Poor marketing skills
Unst abl e l ivelihood
Unstable livelihood is prioritized as it is a concern for most of the
fishermen. Only few are involved in marketing of fish.
Poor marketing skills
Rough sea aff ecting
fishing
Rough sea is prioritized as they cannot fish using the poor crafts
and gears in the rough sea ultimately resulting in low price. Only
few are involved in marketing of fish.
Rough sea aff ecting
fishing
Increased unemployment
Rough sea is prioritized as they cannot fish using the poor crafts
and gears as many faces this problem and unemployment is an
issue for few.
Rough sea aff ecting
fishing
Occupational migration
Rough sea is prioritized as they cannot fish using the poor crafts
and gears in the rough sea. The ratio of the people suffering with
high waves is high compared to the migrated people.
Rough sea aff ecting
fishing
Availing & repaying loans
Rough sea is prioritized as they cannot fish using the poor crafts
and gears in the rough sea. If they have better capacities in
managing this they will not avail loans.

46
Rough sea aff ecting
fishing
Unstable livelihood
Rough sea is prioritized as they cannot fish using the poor crafts
and gears in the rough sea. If they have better crafts and gears to
mane fishing in rough sea they will have a stable livelihood.
Unst abl e l ivelihood Increased unemployment
Unstable livelihood is prioritized as it is an issue for most of the
fishermen but unemployment is a concern only for few.
Unst abl e l ivelihood Occupational migration
Unstable livelihood is prioritized as it is an issue for most of the
fishermen. If they have a stable livelihood the migration will be
reduced.
Unst abl e l ivelihood Availing & repaying loans
Unstable livelihood is prioritized as it is an issue for most of the
fishermen. If they had stable livelihood they will not avail loans from
money lenders.
Availing & repaying
loans
Increased
unemployment
Increased unemployment is prioritized as they are causing extra
burden to families in availing loans and repaying them.
Avai ling & repaying
loans
Occupational migration
Availing loan is prioritized as there are many facing this issue
compared to the men migrating for occupation.
Occupat ional
migration
Increased unemployment
Occupational migration is prioritized as the unemployed are
dependent on some source of income but migration is striving for a
livelihood.

8.3 Problems of Women

Date & Time : 19
th
March 2011, 16:30 -17:40 Hrs
Facilitator : Madhu Sagili
Documenter : Satyanarayana
Venue : High School Veranda
Participants : 8 women

Similar pair wise problem matrix was applied to a
focus group of women to understand their problems in
the village.

Probl ems
7

-

P
o
o
r

l
o
a
n

r
e
p
a
y
m
e
n
t

c
a
p
a
c
i
t
i
e
s

6

-

D
i
f
f
i
c
u
l
t
i
e
s

i
n

d
r
y
i
n
g

f
i
s
h

5

-

U
n

s
t
a
b
l
e

l
i
v
e
l
i
h
o
o
d

p
r
a
c
t
i
c
e

4

-

D
i
f
f
i
c
u
l
t
i
e
s

i
n

c
u
r
i
n
g

f
i
s
h

3

-

D
i
f
f
i
c
u
l
t
i
e
s

i
n

s
t
o
r
i
n
g

d
r
i
e
d

f
i
s
h

2

-

D
i
f
f
i
c
u
l
t
i
e
s

i
n

p
r
e
s
e
r
v
i
n
g

f
r
e
s
h

f
i
s
h

1

-

D
i
f
f
i
c
u
l
t
i
e
s

i
n

t
r
a
n
s
p
o
r
t
i
n
g

f
i
s
h

Score Rank
1 - Difficulties in transporting fish 7 6 5 4 3 2 X 0 (1) V
2 - Difficulties in preserving fresh
fish
7 2 5 4 3 X X 2 (2) IV (A)
3 - Difficulties in storing dried fish 7 3 5 4 X X X 3 (3) III (B)
4 - Difficulties in curing fish 7 6 5 X X X X 3 (4) III (A)
5 - Unstable livelihood practice 7 5 X X X X X 5 (5) II
6 - Difficulties in drying fish 7 X X X X X X 2 (6) IV (B)
7 - Poor loan repayment
capacities
X X X X X X X 6 (7) I

1. Difficulties in transporting fish (fresh and dried): The village has faced difficulties in the past in
transporting fish (fresh and dry). This was due to lack of road. Now the road is being laid but vehicles
do not come to the village. Many were of the opinion that though the road is being laid, it would take
few more years for the public to know that Kotha Kalingapatnam exists as most of the people are

47
aware of only Kalingapatnam situated near Srikakulam. Due to lack of poor transportation facilities,
the villagers have been selling the fish to agents at a convenient price for them than the community
members.

2. Difficulties in preserving fresh fish: The villagers lack the facilities for preservation of fish (non-
availability of ice and ice boxes to preserve). It was informed that they do not have any ice plant
nearby and therefore, they are not able to avail ice. Since ice is not available they do not show any
interest in preservation equipment or vessel. However, there was no mention of ice box by the women
present.

3. Difficulties in storing dried fish: Due to lack of storage facility for dry fish most of the villagers
store the fish in their houses or in an open place. When stored in the house it becomes inconvenient
for the family members to stay in the house as they get foul smell from the dry fish. They also have
expressed that it is unhygienic for the children. Whenever the dry fish is stored in the house most
often the family spends their time outside the house (in veranda). When the dry fish is stored in an
open place, the fish get spoiled due to rains. As a result they have poor value for the fish or they have
to throw it.

4. Difficulties in curing fish: Majority of the community is engaged in dry fish activities in the village
but with very poor facilities for curing the fish. At present the community follows the following methods
in curing the fish before drying. They dig a pit on the sea shore, place a plastic sheet in the pit
ensuring that sand does not flow into the plastic sheet and later mix fish with salt for curing. Once
mixing is complete they cover the pit with another plastic sheet. It takes about 3 to 4 days to cure the
fish and it is followed by drying the fish. It is informed by the fisherwomen that this process is very
expensive as the plastic sheets used for curing fish do not last long and they have to buy the sheets
every two months. At times the plastic sheets get torn paving way for the sand to get mixed with the
fish being cured.

5. Unstable livelihood practice: Fishing as the main source of their livelihood/income has been
expressed as seasonal livelihood. For four months in a year their livelihood becomes standstill due to
the fish breeding period. It is during this period that community looks for alternative livelihood outside
the village as coolies (agriculture and daily wage labour). Considering the above situation the women
were of the opinion that they are dependent on vending fish than any other livelihood activities.

6. Difficulties in drying fish: The fisherwomen have expressed that majority of the fish they dry is
used for livestock than human consumption due to lack of hygienic fish drying facilities. At present
there is only one fish drying platform in the village constructed through MP’s funds. However, this can
be used by two to three individuals. Therefore, many prefer to dry fish on the seashore and sell it for
livestock. Very few families have the practice of drying fish on a bed of sticks. But these sticks cost
them a lot. If the village has hygienic facilities to dry fish, it is informed that majority would sell dry fish
for human consumption, which has higher market value.

7. Poor loan repayment capacities: Majority of the women have expressed that one of the major
difficulties they face is to repay the loans taken from the money lenders. The problem is more during
the three months when they have no fish vending business.

Prioritization of the problems: After identifying the problems the fisherwomen have prioritized them
by comparing a problem with the rest. The following are the reasons for the fisherwomen to prioritize
the problems.

Compari son of Problems Reasons f or Pri oritization
Difficulties in
transporting fish
Poor l oan repayment
capaciti es
Poor loan repayment is prioritized due to poor income, particularly
during the off season. The women assume that the transportation
facilities will be improved after completion of the road work. It is
during this season that the money lenders force them to repay or
else the penalty charges are quite high. In order to repay the loan to
avoid penalty charges, they borrow money from others.
Difficulties in
transporting fish
Dif ficulti es in drying
fish
Difficulties in drying fish are prioritized compared to transporting
fish. The villagers have enough fish, which they dry but most of it is
processed and dried for livestock rather than human consumption
as they do not have hygienic facilities to dry fish for human

48
consumption.
Difficulties in
transporting fish
Unst abl e l ivelihood
pract ice
Unstable livelihood practice is prioritized as the women feel that
they have no further skills to take up alternative livelihood during the
off seasons except to work as coolies (agriculture and daily wage
laborers).
Difficulties in
transporting fish
Dif ficulti es in curing
fish
Difficulty in curing fish is prioritized as they have very poor facilities
for curing fish. The present methods adopted by them are very
expensive and difficult. On the other hand, at present the marketing
agents come to their village to purchase fish and so the difficulties
they face in transporting fish is smaller compared to the poor
facilities for curing fish.
Difficulties in
transporting fish
Dif ficulti es in storing
dried fi sh
Difficulty in storing dried fish at home is prioritized than the
difficulties in transporting fish. It is because the family finds it difficult
to reside in the house due to the foul smell due to dried fish and feel
its hazardous for their health.
Difficulties in
transporting fish
Dif ficulti es in
preserving fresh fish
Difficulty in preservation of fresh fish is as most often they sell the
fish for cheaper price to the market agents. They have no capacity
to bargain for better price as they are afraid that the market agents
would not purchase if the fish is costly. In such case, the villagers do
not have capacity for preserving fish for the next day or until the fish
is sold for better price.
Difficulties in preserving
fresh fish
Poor l oan repayment
capaciti es
Poor loan repayment is prioritized as they are frequently
approached by money lenders to repay the money. Especially
during the off season they have poor income and have to repay with
lot of interest rates.
Dif ficulti es in
preserving fresh fish
Difficulties in drying fish
Difficulty in preservation of fresh fish is prioritized as the fresh fish
have better market value than the dry fish in which lot of time,
human resources and money is spent.
Difficulties in preserving
fresh fish
Unst abl e l ivelihood
pract ice
Unstable livelihood practice is prioritized as the women are forced to
depend on seasonal livelihood and they don’t have any source of
income for three months during the fish breeding period or other
livelihoods.
Difficulties in preserving
fresh fish
Dif ficulti es in curing
fish
Difficulty in curing fish is prioritized as the cured fish can be stored
for long and the process followed is quite expensive.
Difficulties in preserving
fresh fish
Dif ficulti es in storing
dried fi sh
Difficulty in storing dried fish at home is prioritized as it is very
hazardous for health and also it makes the life of family member
difficult in the house due to the foul smell.
Difficulties in storing
dried fish
Poor l oan repayment
capaciti es
Poor loan repayment is prioritized as storing of dried fish can be
managed but the repayment of loan cannot wait.
Dif ficulti es in storing
dried fi sh
Difficulties in drying fish
Difficulty in storing dried fish at home is prioritized as drying can be
done anywhere outside but storing should be safe and it is difficult.
Difficulties in storing
dried fish
Unst abl e l ivelihood
pract ice
Unstable livelihood is prioritized as they lack skills for alternative
livelihoods that could be adopted during the off season for fishing
and ensure the sustenance of their livelihood which is a bigger
problem.
Difficulties in storing
dried fish at home
Dif ficulti es in curing
fish
Difficulty in curing fish is prioritized than storing for curing is
expensive and difficult compared to storing fish.
Difficulties in curing fish
Poor l oan repayment
capaciti es
Poor loan repayment is prioritized as the curing of fish can be done
when they wish but repayment of loan must be done on time and it
is difficult.
Difficulties in curing fish
Dif ficulti es in drying
fish
Difficulty in drying fish is prioritized as they have poor facilities to dry
fish for human consumption which has better market value
compared to the dried fish sold for poultry farm.
Difficulties in curing fish
Unst abl e l ivelihood
pract ice
Unstable livelihood is prioritized as the women feel that if alternative
livelihoods could be adopted during the off season for fishing their
livelihood will be sustainable.
Unstable livelihood
practice
Poor l oan repayment
capaciti es
Poor loan repayment is prioritized as possibility of stable livelihood
can be though but for repayment we have to pay and cannot wait
which is more difficult.
Unst abl e l ivelihood
pract ice
Difficulties in drying fish
Unstable livelihood is prioritized as the women feel that if alternative
livelihoods could be adopted during the off season for fishing their
livelihood will be sustainable.
Difficulties in drying fish
Poor l oan repayment
capaciti es
Poor loan repayment is prioritized as the drying of fish can be
managed but for repayment we have to pay and cannot wait which
is more difficult.


49
Ranking of the problems: Based on the scoring of the problem, the poor loan repayment capacity
was ranked in the first place followed by the unstable livelihood practice. Difficulty to cure fish and
difficulty in storing dried fish at home were ranked as III place. However, the community further
analyzed and sub ranked as A for difficulty to cure fish and B for difficulty in storing dried fish.
Similarly the difficulty for preservation of fresh fish and the difficulty for drying fish for human
consumption were ranked equally as IV place. However, the community further analyzed and sub
rank difficulty for preservation of fresh fish as A and difficulty to dry fish as B. The difficulties in
transporting fish was ranked as V.


9. Needs Analysis of Women


Date & Time : 20
th
March 2011, 12:00 -14:15 Hrs
Facilitator : Madhu Sagili
Documenter : Ravi
Venue : High School Veranda
Participants : 8 women

The needs analysis is a tool intended to discuss
analyse and understand the needs and proposed
solutions. Similar to the process followed for pair wise
problem matrix it was applied to a focus group of
women.

Identifi ed Needs Proposed Solut ions
Safe drinking water for all the houses in the village
Construct overhead water tank and draw pipeline from the
nearby village’s (Kusumpuram) big overhead tank.
Privacy for bathing and defecation
Construct individual toilets with bathing facilities for houses
willing to contribute through labour or cash.
Facilities to store dried fish for long period
Construct a big room to store dried fish a little away from the
residence. Community will contribute by providing land and
labour for contruction.
Facilities to hygienically cure fish
Provide concrete cement curing tubs or made of some other
lighter materials for hygienically curing fish.
Access to basic health care and treatment
Train unemployed youth in the village on basic health care
and provide health kit. Community will benefit through paying
for medicines and for their service.
Prevent flooding during high tides caused by backwaters Construct streets with good drainage facilities.
Facilities to preserve fresh fish
Provision for procuring ice locally and ice boxes to fresh fish
vendors to preserve fish.
Facilities to commute and transport fish
Provision of share autos or vans and community will
contribute in procuring and maintaining.

1. Safe drinking water for all the houses in the village: The women have expressed that one of
the major concerns or the needs of the entire village is to have access to safe drinking water. As
mentioned in the problem matrix (village) the village does not have safe dirking water during the
summer season during which the only two wells in the village become dry.
Solution: The women have proposed to construct a water tank in the village and the villagers would
approach the local authorities to lay water pipes from Kusumpuram to their village so that they will
have regular drinking water. Digging of bore wells is considered to be a poor option as they would
only get muddy water and the water level would go down during summer season.

2. Privacy for bathing and defecation: The women have expressed that they lack privacy in the
village for bathing and defecation. There are no public toilets in the village at present.

50
Solution: The women were of the opinion not to have public toilets as it would be very difficult for
maintenance. This is mainly because no one would take responsibility in maintaining it even if a team
is formed to ensure its cleanliness. On the other hand, they proposed to have separate toilet with
bathing facility for each house. The members of the household will contribute to achieving this by
working as labourers. Having private toilets will ensure that each family takes care of its own toilet.

3. Facilities to store dried fish for long period: The community stores the dry fish in their houses
until it is sold. Storing the dry fish at home causes lot of health hazards, particularly for the children. At
time the dry fish is stored out in the open place and often due to rain the fish get spoiled. Considering
this the women have identified the need for having a storing facility.
Solution: The women have proposed to construct a room for storing the dry fish. This room will be
used by all the households and would assist in reducing the health hazards and also preserve the fish
for long duration and until it is sold for better price.

4. Facilities to hygienically cure fish: Majority of the families in the village are engaged in vending
dry fish cured in salt. But these families have very poor and unhygienic practices in curing the fish.
Considering the difficulties in this, the women have identified the need to have hygienic facilities to
cure fish.
Solution: The women have proposed to have access to cement tubs or tubs made of Fiber Reinforced
Plastic (FRP), which are provided to few families in the village by IRCS under livelihood project
supported by Spanish Red Cross.

5. Access to basic health care and treatment: Although the village is visited frequently by the ANM,
who treats them for minor illnesses, the villagers feel that she is not available to them all the times,
particularly when they require her assistance. Therefore, they have expressed the need for having
access to basic medicine and first aid within the village.
Solution: The women have proposed that in order to achieve the above, the youth who are educated
and unemployed in the village could be trained on basic health care and assisted with a health kit and
basic medicines for headache, stomachache, diarrhea, etc. This trained youth could have this kit in
his house instead of having it a separate building. Every time someone uses the services of this
individual they would pay him a nominal fee and that would become his livelihood.

6. Prevent flooding during high tides caused by backwaters: It is learned that during the rainy
season the walls of the houses in the village would be damaged since they are made of mud. On the
other hand, the sand which is in front of the houses would be washed off along with the rain water and
the villagers will carry the sand back to the houses. The sand is used for drying fish in front of the
house. Therefore, the women have felt the need to protect their houses from the natural calamities.
Solution: In order to address the above need the women have proposed to lay cement roads in all the
streets and on either sides of it drainage canals so that the water passes through the canal. This will
reduce the chances water touching the walls and damaging them. On the other hand, the community
also could use this cement road for drying fish.

7. Facilities to preserve fresh fish: The women have expressed that there is high need for having
access to better facilities for preservation of fresh fish. At present since they do not have the facilities,
they sell their fish at a cheaper price to the market agents.
Solution: In order to address this need the following was proposed by the women. If the women are
provided with ice boxes they would get the ice from Sompet. This would help them preserve fish for
longer duration.

8. Facilities to commute and transport fish: The women have felt the need for having improved
access to transportation facilities in order to carry out their livelihood.
Solution: This will be addressed by having more number of vehicle (government and private), such as
buses, auto rickshaws, vans and other vehicles.





51
10. Wealth Ranking

Date & Time : 21st March 2011, 13:00 -14:15 Hrs
Facilitator : Mohan Krishna
Documenter : Ravi
Venue : Fishermen shelter
Participants : 4 men

The wealth ranking tool was applied to understand the
local perceptions of the economic situation of the
households present in the community, and consequently
of the community as a whole. The households were
classified as poor, medium or rich based on the criteria
given by the community.

During the initial discussion the four participants proposed to categorize the entire village into three
and they assess them on a set of criteria for each of these categories and placed each household
card under the most suitable category. Accordingly the participants have designed the following
criteria and have given a symbol for each of these categories.

Rich Medium Poor
  
Criteri a:
Family owning land
Family owning boat (Fiber with motor)
Family owning concrete house
Family having buffaloes
Criteri a:
Family owning boat (without motor)
Family owning a concrete house
Family owning house with asbestos

Criteri a:
Family not having boat
Family not owning house
Family having mud house
House Numbers:
4, 13, 21, 44, 73, 78, 81, 83, 113, 128,
133, 135, 139, 142, 143, 146, 147, 159,
160, 161, 162, 166, 176, 185, 186, 195,
196, 221, 226
House Numbers:
3, 5, 6, 15, 20, 24, 29, 32, 36, 37, 41,
42, 48, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 60, 64, 65,
67, 75, 76, 77, 82, 84, 88, 92, 95, 98,
101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 110,
112, 116, 120, 121, 122, 123, 126, 129,
130, 131, 134, 140, 145, 151, 152, 153,
154, 156, 158, 164, 169, 172, 174, 179,
180, 184, 187, 188, 193, 194, 199, 200,
201, 202, 203, 210, 211, 217, 218, 230,
231, 232, 233, 234, 235
House Numbers:
1, 2, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 16, 17,
18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 25, 27, 28, 30, 31,
33, 34, 35, 38, 39, 40, 43, 45, 46, 47,
49, 50, 53, 54, 55, 57, 61, 62, 63, 66,
68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 74, 79, 80, 85, 86,
87, 89, 90, 91, 93, 94, 96, 97, 99,
100, 108, 109, 111, 114, 115, 117,
118, 119, 124, 125, 127, 132, 136,
137, 138, 141, 144, 148, 149, 150,
155, 157, 163, 165, 167, 168, 170,
171, 173, 175, 177, 178, 181, 182,
183, 189, 190, 191, 192, 197, 198,
204, 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 212,
213, 214, 215, 216, 219, 220, 222,
223, 224, 225, 227, 228, 229
Total Houses: 29 Total Houses: 84 Total Houses: 122

As per the villagers criteria more than 50% are considered poor in the village.

Wealth
12%
36%
52%
Rich
Medium
Poor



52
Conclusion

Some of the village specific observations are,

The village has a good local management system which is a traditional practice in sharing
responsibilities and working together. Religion is a very sensitive issue as the majority of people are
Hindus and few are Christians in the village. The school in the village is considered as an important
institution in uniting the villagers and a means for coordinating in initiating development activities. The
primary occupation is fishing (fishermen in sea and backwaters) and fish vending (mainly
fisherwomen in vending fresh and dried fish). The village is situated in a remote area with poor access
to basic services such as transport, health, water, sanitation and education. The priorities of women
are different from that of men but the important and final decisions are taken by men.

The information appraised by the community of Kotha Kalingapattinam village through the PRA tools
highlighted their socio economic conditions which were illustrated using different tools. The felt
problems and needs of the community were disclosed and analyzed. This is the general situation
prevailing in most of the fisher folk communities all along the coast of Andhra Pradesh.












iv