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Tanmay Pal Email:tanmay.mec@gmail.com Chandra Shekhar Email:chandra@ceeri.ernet.in Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute, (Council of Scientiﬁc and Industrial Research) Pilani-333031(Raj.)India Himanshu Dutt Sharma Email 1:hdsharma@gmail.com Email 2:hdsharma@ceeri.ernet.in

Abstract—A robust and high precision control system has been designed in MATLAB for a prototype DC motor system running at high rpm with uncertainty in plant parameters and in the presence of plant disturbances and measurement errors. The controllers have been designed using variety of approaches PID, LQG, and LSDP. Each of these design in MATLAB meet rise time, settling time and peak percent overshoot as [0.0765 s, 0.403s, 11%], [0.019s, 0.0877s, 13.2%,], [0.153s, 0.637s, 9.36%], [0.153s, 0.632s, 9.36%] for PID, LQG, LSDP-I & II respectively. Simulation designs have been further hand tuned to get better results to achieve the required speciﬁcations. The digital implementation have been done on MCB2300 KEIL boards on ARM7 (32-bit) microcontroller using difference equation methods and controller performances have been evaluated. Keywords-Embedded Controller; Robust Controller;

I. I NTRODUCTION The developments in power electronics and microprocessor/ microcontroller system and integrated application to process control area makes possible to implement control strategies for electrical drives which exhibit the high levels of quickness and precision, required for many applications, such as robot driving systems and Micromanufacturing. PWM signal based control is very fundamental to DC motor control system when implemented on digital. Other techniques applying hysteresis control, PI control, deadbeat control, predictive current control, and so on, have drawback of undesirable current ﬂuctuation arising due to parameter variations. Therefore, taking account of the variations of motor parameters is essential [1], [2], [3], [4], [5]. In Micromanufacturing applications requirement form a control system is of high accuracy in controlling speed and high speed of response by the control system. The speed control ability of a DC motor system is affected by variations in parameter due to deterioration over the life span of the system and disturbance in load torque and signal noise. Since control system is based on mathematical plant model, and it is known that practically accurate parameter measurement is very difﬁcult and parameters vary with operating conditions, therefore the controlling becomes a challenge under noise, disturbances and parameter variations. For these reasons

motor control methods are applied which use the disturbance observer to compensate parameter variations and disturbance torque were proposed [6], [7], [8] . High-performance control of servo motor was achieved. The achievement of overall performance of a control system not only depends on the quickness and the precision of the system response, but also on the robustness of the control strategy that is its capability to ensure the same performances if exogenous disturbances and variations of the system parameters occur. In fact, online variations of parameters, such as, temperature variation, saturation and load imbalance etc. can affect the performances to degrade the results in Micromanufacturing applications. Robust controllers, from this point of view are very important and powerful tool for designing control systems under such uncertainties and variations [9], [10], [11], [12]. In this paper, high speed, high precision DC motor control system has been designed in MATLAB and implemented on ARM microcontroller. ARM microcontroller boards provide ample opportunity to program and control variety of tasks in parallel which very much essential in high speed manufacturing and control applications. It allows running in parallel sensing, evaluation and control modules while allowing some routine background tasks. The paper considers both conventional PID and robust controllers LQG (linear Quadratic Gaussian) & LSDP (Loop Shaping Design Procedure). Digital implementation of these controllers has been done and their performances have been evaluated and compared. II. DC MOTOR M ODELING , ROBUST C ONTROLLER D ESIGN AND S PECIFICATION The behavior of a dc motor can be described by the four equations stated below. τ (t) = Km i (t) Jω ˙ (t) = −Kf ω (t) + Km i (t) vbackemf (t) = Kb ω (t) (1) (2) (3)

uk = uk−1 + 6. 4. The difference equation becomes.403s and Peak Percent Overshoot: 11%.9 × 10−4 uk−2 + 2. resistance. Torque constant and Back-EMF Constant respectively [13].94 × s + 48. with a disturbance signal D(s). shows the angular rate of the load. LQG. Therefore when a plant is running with uncertainties.16×10-3 V·s for inertia.72547 × (1 + 0.019s.01ek−2 (9) . D ESIGN OF C ONTROLLER IN MATLAB di (t) vapp (t) = L + Ri (t) + vbackemf (t) dt (4) There are various algorithms to design a controller. In this form.3 × 10−7 uk−3 +1. inductance. C (s) = 0. A. 7. The controller obtained is. ω (t). settling time: under 1.019s) × (1 + 0. Settling Time: 0. friction coefﬁcient.42419433×10−6 N·m·s. Speciﬁcations The speciﬁcations for the Controller are: Speed control range: 2000 to 8000 rpm. LSDP are chosen for our purpose.002ek−2 B.76ek−1 + 0.5 second.99s) (8) s × {1 + 0.0 second.3ek + 0. The controller obtained is.16×10−3 N·m/A and 6.0765 s. PID controller is the most classical way to design a controller and its algorithm is simple also but it is unable to track parameter variation. as the output and applied voltage. LQG Synthesis The LQG controller has been designed using the parameters as Robustness = 50%. DC Motor Model The plant transfer function obtained after parameter substitution as 6150 ω (s) = v 1. Figure 4 depicts Output Response versus time and Controller Effort versus time.508 × s2 + 24. Its parameters of interest have been measured and monitored online during its course of operation.74s) (6) s Its recorded Rise Time: 0.00048s)2 } (7) Figure 1. Lab Prototype of a DC motor has been characterized with high computational precision on an embedded ARM (32-bit) system. These methods design controller in such a way that it will able to track parameter variation up to certain limit but its time responses becomes somewhat sluggish than PID. vapp (t). III. PID Controller The PID controller was designed using Ziegler-Nichols open loop algorithm and preference has been given for set point tracking.2%.47ek + 0.612 B. 6. Settling Time: 0. Measurement Noise = 25% and desired Controller Order = 3.6 ohm.00069s + (0. Overshoot: less than 10%. robustness in control can be included by adopting LQG and LSDP approaches. Rise time: under 0.D(s) R(s) + K(s) U(s) G(s) + + M(s) + Y(s) L R + vapp(t) + vbackemf(t) + + - Vf Jeff Kfω(t) Viscous Friction τ(t) Torque Figure 2. Feedback control system with uncertainty The majority of feedback control problems can be cast into the Figure (Figure 2).1ek−1 + 0. A parameter based representation of DC motor A parameter based representation of a DC motor(Figure 1) driving an inertial load.0877s and Peak Percent Overshoot :13. ω (s) = v s2 + A. and measurement noise. C (s) = 0. The Plant has an input U(s) or the control effort. Second Order Transfer Function obtained from modeling equations as. and an output Y(s).6 mH.275026417×10−4 kg·m2 .021s) × (1 + 0. The plant is assumed ﬁxed and known by the transfer function G(s). out of these PID. plant disturbances. (5) Km /J × L R L + Kf J ×s+ Kf ×R+Km ×Kb J ×L Its recorded Rise Time :0. The output is subjected to measurement noise M(s). The controller is known and ﬁxed with a transfer function K(s). as the input. The values obtained for the systems are 3. 1. The difference equation becomes.15689 × uk = uk−1 + 0. the problem can include consideration of reference input. Its response is given in Figure 3. (1 + 0. ω(t) Angular rate Standard feedback Conﬁguration C. and the system has a reference signal R(s) which is to be followed by the plant output.

Loop Shaping Experiment II As a second trial the controller was designed using the parameters as Target Open-Loop Bandwidth = 5 and Desired Controller Order = 1.01 0.2 × 10−7 ek−2 D. Settling Time as 0.01 0 0 0.02 0.1071 × 1012 × and it is approximated as. The controller obtained is.5 Time (sec) 0.Step Response 1. Time of PID 0.9uk−1 − 1.51s 1 + 9 × 1013 s (12) 1. The difference equation becomes.6 C. Loop Shaping Experiment I The controller was designed using the parameters as Target Open-Loop Bandwidth = 10 and Desired Controller Order = 2.5 0.9 × 10 −9 1.2 0. Output Response versus time and Controller Effort versus time of LSDP II +0.4 1.153s. Response of the compensated plant is shown in Figure 5.03 0. C (S ) = 7.035 0.6 0.05 Amplitude 5 0 Figure 3.8 0.02 0.4 0.36%. uk = 0.51s C (S ) = 7.1 0.03 0.04 0.5 0.04 Amplitude Step Response Its Rise Time was noted as 0.5 1.5 Step Response 1 0.05 0.2 1. Output Response versus time and Controller Effort versus time of LSDP I +0.025 Time (sec) 0.5 0 0 0. The controller obtained was.2 0.632s and Peak Percent Overshoot as 9.4 × 10−7 s) × (1 + 0.637s.36%. Response of the compensated plant is shown in Figure 6. The difference equation becomes.04 0. -5 0 Output Amplitude vs.5ek 0.5 0 0 0.078567× (10) s × (1 + 2 × 10−9 s) Its recorded Rise Time was : 0. Output Response versus time and Controller Effort versus time of LQG Amplitude (1 − 2.7 0.1 0.8 1 1.5 0 0 0.6 Time (sec) 0.6 1.5 Step Response Amplitude 1 0.5 Step Response Amplitude Amplitude 1 1 0.2 × 10−7 ek−2 (14) .2 0.3 0.51s) C (s) = 0. Settling Time : 0.015 0.2 0. 1 + 0.2 1.6 0.3 Time (sec) 0.5ek−1 − 1.9uk−1 − 1. Figure 4.2 1.5ek−1 − 1.045 0.4 0.5ek (11) Figure 5.005 0.4 0.12 0 0 0.8 1 1.2 0.06 Time (sec) 0.6 Time (sec) 0.4 0. Peak Percent Overshoot : 9.4 0.4 0. uk = 0.107 × 90s (13) 1 + 0.08 0.4 2 0 Amplitude Step Response -2 -4 -6 0 1 2 3 4 Time (sec) 5 6 7 x 10 8 -4 uk−2 + 1.9 × 10−9 uk−2 + 1.9 1 Figure 6.1 0.02 0.153s.8 20 15 Step Response Time (sec) Amplitude Impulse Response 15 10 10 5 0 -5 0 0.8 1 1.

our next research task aims at modifying the controller for supplying bi-directional control-effort. Control Strategy Figure 10. C ONCLUSION Speed control with precision and high speed of operations is important in Micromanufacturing applications. VI. Schematic of the whole arrangement is shown in Figure 7. It is observed that rise time is somewhat greater than the estimated one. The programmed software has inbuilt capability to observe and store various important transient and steady state parameters. High precision control implementation requirements have been met on ARM board because Figure 11. Flow chart of the control strategy is shown in ﬁgure 8. one is for sensing set-point. Several experiments have been performed but due to space constraints only important three results are summarized in Table I to IV. Underlying uncertainties in system parameters have been dealt by using a robust controller design. because it is taking more than 5 seconds and the settling band is also high. three threads are running in parallel. V. This problem persists because at present the system lacks mechanism to supply negative control effort. Overshoot and steadystate error are also more than estimation. PCB of interfacing Circuit Figure 8. Whenever the controller produces negative control effort. For software part. Complete Hardware Module Figure 9. the motor is connected to ARM based microcontroller (NXP LPC2378) through an interfacing circuit. another for calculating speed and third one for generating control effort. estimated from simulation has been less than 100ms but practical result shows it above 1s. Photograph of actual hardware setup is shown in ﬁgure 9 to 12. Settling time has not been measured here.Initialization Sense Set Point Calculate and Store Error Sense Speed No Calculate Control Effort New Set Point Yes Set PWM duty cycle Figure 7. E MBEDDED C ONTROLLER I MPLEMENTATION ON ARM For controlling dc motor. This would have improved the performance to desired level. Programming has been done using C. Motor and accessories for Measuring Speed . There is mismatch between the result of simulation and the practical implementation. R ESULTS AND D ISCUSSION A variety of experiments have been performed on each type controller with the varying set point to evaluate the performance. Schematic of the control circuit IV. zero voltage is given to the motor. Rise time.

364. Kawaji...C. [8] Iwai. Sharma H. Moran. “A Novel Hysteresis Control Method for Current-Controlled Voltage-Source PWM Inverters with Constant Modulation Frequency”.. vol. . 21. Corona sha. D.. Ind. 2. Matsui. additionally it has all necessary facility for concurrent programming and real-time control for fast handling of events in Micromanufacturing applications. in Proceedings of Japan Industry Applications Society Conference. Figure 12..: ’Analysis and design of H∞ preview tracking control systems’. A. T. AMC’96.. J. Ind. A. (In-Press). 562. no. 11. H. 1990. 3-7 April. IEEE Trans. Vol. 7. IEEJ Trans. ACKNOWLEDGMENT Authors wish to thank CEERI. 1126. Pilani and CSIR for providing necessary resources. [10] Stoorvogel. vol. .: ’Design and Development ∞ System on ARM for On-line Characterization of DC motor’ International Conference on Advances in Computing. Yamauchi. April 1992... 88. IEEE Trans... 7. A.: ’The H∞ control problem. David M. [9] Doyle. January/February 1990. and Hayase.vol. 1992) [11] Mikami. [6] M. August 1989. pp s. N.237. no. 3. “Pulsewidth Modulation-A Survey”. A.. Khargonekar. December 1992. no.vol. [3] Ben-Brahim. Electro. and Telecommunication Technologies. Myong Joong Youn ..2009. Authors are also grateful to Mr. no. Yokohama. no. vol. Y.“Sliding Mode Control with Disturbance Observer’. [7] Kawamura. Japan.. vol.. IEEE Trans. “Digital Control of Induction Motor Current with Deadbeat Response Using Predictive State 0bserver” IEEE Trans. “A Discretized Current Control Technique with Delayed Input Voltage Feedback for a Voltage-Fed PWM Inverter”IEEE Trans.Appl. K.A. 2. M. and Francis. [2] Luigi.A... Iwasaki. 1991. 26.) C ONTROLLER AT S ET P OINT = 100 H Z Rise Time (ms) 1500 1200 1400 Peak Time (ms) 2000 1900 1900 Peak Percent Overshoot (%) 20 5 2 Max Error (+/-) at steady state(%) 17 12 13 it is 32-bit microcontroller. 110. IEEETrans. IPEC ’95. “Current Control of VSI-PWM Inverters”. pp. M. 551. and Hayase. and Paolo. A. 01.. 1988... no.831.R EFERENCES [1] Joachim. ACT Trivandrum. Mie University. 34. Kawamura A. 482-487 [13] Pal T. 5. July 1992. Power Electro. Glover. [5] Brod. . Power Electro. Donald W. Kerala. May/June 1985. Appl. Japan. 4. P. [12] Moran. Y. March 1996. M.P. India Dec. 410. L. A. [4] Dong Seong Oh. 1.. Proceedings of the 3rd international conferenceon Power electronics. Automatic Control.:’Design of positioning H∞ control system considering mechanical resonanceand coulomb friction’.39. B. no. Mikami. Chandra Shekhar.A State Space Approach ’ (Prentice Hall. Narveer Yadav for preparing the circuit. Control. Proceedings of the Advanced motion control conference. 8. Observer (book). “High Performance Speed Control System of Vector Controlled Induction Motor with Load Torque Observer”.232-s. Hardware and Software Environment Table I R ESULT FOR PID C ONTROLLER AT S ET P OINT = 100 H Z Rise Time (ms) 900 900 900 Peak Time (ms) 1400 1500 1200 Peak Percent Overshoot (%) 8 25 15 Max Error (+/-) at steady state(%) 15 20 10 Table II R ESULT FOR LQG C ONTROLLER AT S ET P OINT = 100 H Z Rise Time (ms) 300 200 600 Peak Time (ms) 1100 1000 900 Peak Percent Overshoot (%) 55 50 50 Max Error (+/-) at steady state(%) 13 20 12 Table III R ESULT FOR LSDP I C ONTROLLER AT S ET P OINT = 100 H Z Rise Time (ms) 200 300 300 Peak Time (ms) 600 500 700 Peak Percent Overshoot (%) 52 15 45 Max Error (+/-) at steady state(%) 12 10 15 Table IV R ESULT FOR LSDP II(A PPROX . Ind...: ’State-space solutions to standard H2 and H∞ control problems’..Kwan Yuhl Cho. Novotny. Inoue and S.

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