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DESIGN OF STAIR CASE WITH CENTRAL STRINGER BEAM

pkn
Project name :Space available for staire case
x
5.20
Vetical distance of floor
3.60
m
1.40 mtr
width of stair case
0.16 mtr
Risers
0.25 mtr
Treads
4000 N/m2
Live load
20
Conrete
Mwt. 25000 N/mm3
Steel
fy 415
25
Nominal cover
mm
80
West slab thickness
mm
200
assume width of stringer beam
mm
Reinforcement
20
Main Bars
mm F
10
Anchor bars
mm F
10
Waist slab bars
mm F
10
Strirrups
mm F
1.50

4.40
3600
1400
160
250

m
mm

mm
mm
mm

m
scbc
sst
Effective cover

Bars Required
Bars Required
Sapcing c/c
Sapcing c/c

2.25

230

2-

1.50
stirrups 2 ldg.
10 mm F @
90 mm c/c

13.33
7
N/mm2
230 N/mm2
mm
30

4
2
250
90
1.45

10 mm anchore bars
Bottom of waist
10 mm f @
250 mm c/c
250
160

stirrups 2 ldg.
10 mm F @
180 mm c/c
mid span

10 mm f @

10 mm f @
250 mm c/c
Landing
80
8 mm F @

1.50
stirrups 2 ldg.
10 mm F @
90 mm c/c

L - section

300 mm c/c

250 mm c/c
1450
80

10 mm f @

2 - 10 mm f
Anchor bars

90 mm c/c

10 mm F @ 180 mm c/c
stirrups 2 ldg.

4

-20 mm f
main bars

200
pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in

Nos.
Nos.
mm
mm

Cross section at mid span

mm

DESIGN OF STAIR CASE WITH CENTRAL STRINGER BEAM
width of stair case
Risers
live load
Conrete
Nominal cover

1.40
0.16
4000
M- 20
25

1 Design Constants:- For HYSD Bars

sst =
scbc =
m

mtr 1400 mm
mtr
160 mmTreads
0.25 mtr
N/m2
2
Steel
fy- 415 N/mm
mm
Effective cover
30 mm
Cocrete M =

= 230 N/mm2
N/mm3
=
7
= 13.33
k=

m*c

m*c+sst
j=1-k/3 =
1
R=1/2xc x j x k
= 0.5

20

wt. of concrete

2
= 25000 N/mm

x
7

= 0.289

=

13.33
13.33 x

-

0.289

/

3

x

7

x

0.904

7
+

250 mm

230

= 0.904
x 0.289 =

0.913

2 Loading on waist slab:Assume waist slab thickness
=
80 mm
The weight of waist slab on the slope should be multi plied by the factor
2
2
 R +T
where R= 160 mm and
T
= 250 mm
T
2
2
=  160
+
250 = 1.19
to get the equivalent weight of horizontal plane .
250
Considered 1 m width of slab.
Load per metre horizontal run will be as follows.
Self weight
Weight of steps
Laoding of finishing
Live load

x 25000 x 1.19 = 2380 N
x
1
x #### = 2000 N
100 N
L.S.
=
= 4000 N
Total = 8480 N
The loading on landing will be lasser : however , for simplicity , we will take the same loading throught.
=
=
=
=

0.08
0.5

x
x

1
0.16

x

1
1

3 Design of waist slab:the waist slab is supported on central stringer beam . Hence the worst condition may be
when we considred concentrated live load of 4000 N to act to one side only.
Dead weight
= 2380 + 2000 + 100
= 4480 N
Assume width of stringer beam
= 200 mm
1.40 0.2
Projection of slab beyond the rib of beam =
= 0.60
mtr
2
wL2 = 4480 x( 0.60 )2
B.M. due to dead load
= 806
N-m
2
2
2
2
4000 x( 0.60 )
wL
B.M. due to U.D. live load
=
= 720
N-m
2
2
B.M. due to concentreted live load
= 4000 x 0.60
= 2400 N-m
Max. B.M.
M
= 806 + 2400
= 3206 N-m
3206000
But
BM
Effective depth required
=
=
=
60
mm
80 mm
available=
0.913 x 1000
Rxb
However , keep minimum total depth
=
80 - 25 = 55 mm
80 mm . Efective depth =
BM x 1000
3206000
=
Ast =
=
280
mm2
sst x j x D
230 x 0.904 x
55
2
3.14 x 10 x 10
using
10 mm F bars
A
= 3.14xdia
=
= 79 mm2
4 x100
4
x 100
spacing of Bars =
A*1000/Ast =
x 1000 / 280
79
= 280 mm
However , keep spacing
= 250 mm , one bar per step
Distribution reinforcement
=
1.2
x
80
=
96 mm2

using

8

mm F bars

A

spacing of Bars =
A*1000/Ast
Maimum permissible spacing
However , keep spacing

2
3.14 x
8
= 3.14xdia
=
4 x100
4
x
x 1000 /
=
50
96
x
8
=
45
= 360 mm say
= 300 mm, Maximum

4 Design of stringer beam :The stringer beam will act as T- beam. Flight CD is longest,
Hence we will design the stringer beam CD
0.2
1.45
Effective span
=
1.50 + 2.25 +
=
2
2

x 8
100
300

50

mm2

= 523
mm

mm

=

4.38 m

The loading on stringer beam will be as follows,

asssuming the web to be
(a) Weight of rib /m run
=
0.20 x
(b) Load from waist slab
= 8480 x

200 mm wide and 200 mm deep
0.20 x #### x 1.19
= 1190
N
1
x 1.50
= 12720
N
Total = 13910 N say 14000 N/m

Assuming partial fixidity at ends,
2
14000 x 4.38 2 x 1000
M
= wL
=
=
26796875
26.8 x 10 6 N-mm
10
10
Taking lever arm = 0.9 x d , balance depth is given by Eq.
2kcd - D where bf = flange width of isolated T-Beam given byEq.
0.45 bf. scbc. Df
M
=
kc
l0
where lo = L= 4.38 m ;b = actual width = 1.50 m
bf
bw,
=
+
and bw = 0.20 m
l0
+
4
b
4.38
bf
=
+ 0.20 =
0.833
m
=
833
mm
4.38
+
4
1.50
2x 0.289 d- 80
Hence,
= 0.45
x
833 x
7
x
80
=
26796875
0.289
2
x 0.289 d- 80
209916
=
26796875
\
0.289
80
2d
=
127.66
\
0.289
127.66 + 277.2
d
=
=
202.00
mm
2
Ve
where tc max =1.8 N/mm2 for m-20 concrete
Also, d
=
bw . Tc max
T
wL
14000 x 4.38
Ve
= V+ 1.6
Where V =
=
= 30625
N
bw
2
2
T = torsional moment, which will be induced due to live load acting only to one side of step.
4000
x
0.60 2 x 4.38
T
=
x 1000 = 1575000 N-mm
2
2
4.4
or T
=( 4000
x
0.60 )x
x 1000 = 5250000 N-mm
2
5250000 which ever is more
=
\
T
5250000
Ve
= 30625 +
1.6
x
= 72625
N
200
72625
Hence, d
=
= 227 mm
However, keep total depth = 230 mm
200
x
1.6
using
20 mm main bars,
10 mm F ring and cover
25 mm
10
10
25
= 185 mm
Net available d = 230
BM x 1000
26796875
Ast =
=
=
697
mm2
sst x j x D
230 x 0.904 x 185
2
3.14 x 20 x 20
using
20 mm F bars
A
= 3.14xdia
=
= 314 mm2
4 x100
4
x 100
Ast/A
spacing of Bars =
/ 314 =
4
= 697
3 Nos. Say
Actual Ast provided
=
4
x 314 = 1256 mm2
Note:- the above reinforcement is for bending requirements only. there will be additional longitudinal
reinforcement for torsion, as computed later.

Location of N.A. Assuming the N.A. falls within the flange, we have
833
x
n2
=
= 13.33 x 1256 x( 185 n
)
2
2
33485 n
x
= 6194718
\ 833
n
7437
40.20
=
n
\
n2
-7437
+
40.2 n
=
0
\
n2
29747 )0.5
40.2 + ( 1616 +
n
=
\
2*1
68.4 mm Hence the resultant falls inside the flanges y = 22.8 mm
n
=
\
162.2
d - y = 185
- 22.8 =
mm
\ L.A. a =
26796875
M
Stress in steel
=
=
=
132
N/mm2 < 230 Hence safe
Ast . A
1256 x 162
Corresponding stress in concrete is given by
68.4
txn
132
c =
=
x
=
5.80 N/mm2 <
7
Hence safe
m d-n
13.33
185
- 68.4
5 Design for torsion :As computed earlier, T= 5250000 N-mm
30625 N
72625 N
v =
and ve =
72625
Ve
\ tve
=
=
=
1.96 N/mm2
bw.d
200 x 185
100 x Ast
100
x
1256
=
= 3.395 % hence from table 3.2 tc = 0.51 N/mm2
bxd
200
x
185
tve
Since
> tc
shear reinforcemnt required
(a) Longitudinal reinforcement:M e1 = M + MT
Where M=
26796875
MT = T
\

(1+ D/bw)
1.7
26796875

=

5250000

6639706 =
33436581
=
230 x
162.18
Hence the provision of
4 bars of 20 mm f,
Near the column D, take the bars straight up. Provide 2Me1

=

Me1
Ast =
sst x j x D

+

1

+

230 / 200
1.7
33436581
N-mm
=

=

6639705.9

N-mm

896 mm2

giving 1256 mm2
is O.K.
20 mm f bars at the lower face under the landing.

(b) Transverse reinforcement:Transverse reinforcement will be provided in the form of vertical stirrups.
Let provide 25 mm clear cover all round
b1
= center to center distence between corner bars in the direction of width
=
200
2
x
25
10
= 140 mm
d1
= center to center distence between corner bars in the direction of depth
=
230
2
x
25
10
= 170 mm
2
mm F
3.14 x 10 x 10
3.14xdia
using
10
A= 2x
= 2x
= 157 mm2
stirrups bars
4 x100
4
x 100
Vsv
T.
+
now, Asv =
= sv
or
b1d1ssv
2.5d1 ssv
5250000
30625
157
=
+
Sv
140
x
170 x 230
2.5 x
170 x
230
157 =( 0.959
+ 0.313 )Sv
or Sv = 157 / 1.27
or Sv = 123 mm
However, the spacing should not exceed the least of x1, (x1+y1)/4 and 300 mm
20
where x1= short diamension of stirrups
=
140 +
+
10 = 170 mm
y1
=
170 +
20
+
10 = 200 mm
(x1+y1)/4
=( 170
+
200 )/
4
= 92.5 mm
Hence Sv = 123.4 mm is not permissible. Keep Sv
=
90 mm c/c . Incase the spacing to
200 mm c/c in the mid span where both transverse shear as well as torsional shear are minimum.
provide 2 - 10 mm f holding bars. Keep the same setion for other flight.

pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in

1.50

2.25

230

2-

1.50
stirrups 2 ldg.
10 mm F @
90 mm c/c

1.45

10 mm anchore bars
Bottom of waist
10 mm f @
250 mm c/c
250
160

stirrups 2 ldg.
10 mm F @
180 mm c/c
mid span

8 mm F @

1.50
stirrups 2 ldg.
10 mm F @
90 mm c/c

L - section
10 mm f @

10 mm f @
250 mm c/c
Landing
0
300 mm c/c

250 mm c/c
1450
80

10 mm f @

2 - 10 mm f
Anchor bars

90 mm c/c

10 mm F @ 180 mm c/c
stirrups 2 ldg.

4

-20 mm f
main bars

200
Cross section at mid span
pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in

mm

VALUES OF DESIGN CONSTANTS
Grade of concrete
Modular Ratio

M-15
18.67

M-20
13.33

M-25
10.98

M-30
9.33

M-35
8.11

M-40
7.18

scbc N/mm2
m scbc

5

7

8.5

10

11.5

13

93.33

93.33

93.33

93.33

93.33

93.33

kc

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.4

(a) sst =
140
N/mm2
(Fe 250)

jc

0.867

0.867

0.867

0.867

0.867

0.867

Rc

0.867

1.214

1.474

1.734

1.994

2.254

Pc (%)

0.714

1

1.214

1.429

1.643

1.857

kc

0.329

0.329

0.329

0.329

0.329

0.329

jc

0.89

0.89

0.89

0.89

0.89

Rc

0.89
0.732

1.025

1.244

1.464

1.684

1.903

Pc (%)

0.433

0.606

0.736

0.866

0.997

1.127

kc

0.289

0.289

0.289

0.289

0.289

0.289

jc

0.904

0.904

0.904

0.904

0.904

0.904

Rc

0.653

0.914

1.11

1.306

1.502

1.698

Pc (%)

0.314

0.44

0.534

0.628

0.722

0.816

kc

0.253

0.253

0.253

0.253

0.253

0.253

jc

0.916

0.916

0.916

0.914

0.916

0.916

Rc

0.579

0.811

0.985

1.159

1.332

1.506

Pc (%)

0.23

0.322

0.391

0.46

0.53

0.599

(b) sst =
190
N/mm2
(c ) sst =
230
N/mm2
(Fe 415)
(d) sst =
275
N/mm2
(Fe 500)

Permissible shear stress Table tv in concrete (IS : 456-2000)
100As
bd
< 0.15
0.25
0.50
0.75
1.00
1.25
1.50
1.75
2.00
2.25
2.50
2.75
3.00 and above

Permissible shear stress in concrete
M-15
M-20
M-25
M-30
0.18
0.18
0.19
0.2
0.22
0.22
0.23
0.23
0.29
0.30
0.31
0.31
0.34
0.35
0.36
0.37
0.37
0.39
0.40
0.41
0.40
0.42
0.44
0.45
0.42
0.45
0.46
0.48
0.44
0.47
0.49
0.50
0.44
0.49
0.51
0.53
0.44
0.51
0.53
0.55
0.44
0.51
0.55
0.57
0.44
0.51
0.56
0.58
0.44
0.51
0.57
0.6

tv N/mm2
M-35
M-40
0.2
0.2
0.23
0.23
0.31
0.32
0.37
0.38
0.42
0.42
0.45
0.46
0.49
0.49
0.52
0.52
0.54
0.55
0.56
0.57
0.58
0.60
0.60
0.62
0.62
0.63

Maximum shear stress tc.max in concrete (IS : 456-2000)
Grade of concrete

tc.max

M-15
1.6

M-20
1.8

M-25
1.9

M-30
2.2

M-35
2.3

M-40
2.5

Grade of concrete
tbd (N / mm2)

table-3.2
Shear stress tc
100As
M-20
bd
0.15
0.18
0.16
0.18
0.17
0.18
0.18
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.2
0.19
0.21
0.2
0.22
0.2
0.23
0.2
0.24
0.21
0.25
0.21
0.26
0.21
0.27
0.22
0.28
0.22
0.29
0.22
0.3
0.23
0.31
0.23
0.32
0.24
0.33
0.24
0.34
0.24
0.35
0.25
0.36
0.25
0.37
0.25
0.38
0.26
0.39
0.26
0.4
0.26
0.41
0.27
0.42
0.27
0.43
0.27
0.44
0.28
0.45
0.28
0.46
0.28
0.47
0.29
0.48
0.29
0.49
0.29
0.5
0.30
0.51
0.30
0.52
0.30
0.53
0.30
0.54
0.30
0.55
0.31
0.56
0.31
0.57
0.31
0.58
0.31
0.59
0.31
0.6
0.32
0.61
0.32
0.62
0.32

Reiforcement %
100As
M-20
bd
0.18
0.15
0.19
0.18
0.2
0.21
0.21
0.24
0.22
0.27
0.23
0.3
0.24
0.32
0.25
0.35
0.26
0.38
0.27
0.41
0.28
0.44
0.29
0.47
0.30
0.5
0.31
0.55
0.32
0.6
0.33
0.65
0.34
0.7
0.35
0.75
0.36
0.82
0.37
0.88
0.38
0.94
0.39
1.00
0.4
1.08
0.41
1.16
0.42
1.25
0.43
1.33
0.44
1.41
0.45
1.50
0.46
1.63
0.46
1.64
0.47
1.75
0.48
1.88
0.49
2.00
0.50
2.13
0.51
2.25

0.63
0.64
0.65
0.66
0.67
0.68
0.69
0.7
0.71
0.72
0.73
0.74
0.75
0.76
0.77
0.78
0.79
0.8
0.81
0.82
0.83
0.84
0.85
0.86
0.87
0.88
0.89
0.9
0.91
0.92
0.93
0.94
0.95
0.96
0.97
0.98
0.99
1.00
1.01
1.02
1.03
1.04
1.05
1.06
1.07
1.08
1.09
1.10
1.11
1.12
1.13
1.14

0.32
0.32
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.34
0.34
0.34
0.34
0.34
0.35
0.35
0.35
0.35
0.35
0.35
0.35
0.36
0.36
0.36
0.36
0.36
0.36
0.37
0.37
0.37
0.37
0.37
0.37
0.38
0.38
0.38
0.38
0.38
0.38
0.39
0.39
0.39
0.39
0.39
0.39
0.39
0.39
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4

1.15
1.16
1.17
1.18
1.19
1.20
1.21
1.22
1.23
1.24
1.25
1.26
1.27
1.28
1.29
1.30
1.31
1.32
1.33
1.34
1.35
1.36
1.37
1.38
1.39
1.40
1.41
1.42
1.43
1.44
1.45
1.46
1.47
1.48
1.49
1.50
1.51
1.52
1.53
1.54
1.55
1.56
1.57
1.58
1.59
1.60
1.61
1.62
1.63
1.64
1.65
1.66

0.4
0.41
0.41
0.41
0.41
0.41
0.41
0.41
0.41
0.41
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.44
0.44
0.44
0.44
0.44
0.44
0.44
0.44
0.44
0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45
0.46
0.46
0.46
0.46

1.67
1.68
1.69
1.70
1.71
1.72
1.73
1.74
1.75
1.76
1.77
1.78
1.79
1.80
1.81
1.82
1.83
1.84
1.85
1.86
1.87
1.88
1.89
1.90
1.91
1.92
1.93
1.94
1.95
1.96
1.97
1.98
1.99
2.00
2.01
2.02
2.03
2.04
2.05
2.06
2.07
2.08
2.09
2.10
2.11
2.12
2.13
2.14
2.15
2.16
2.17
2.18

0.46
0.46
0.46
0.46
0.46
0.46
0.46
0.46
0.47
0.47
0.47
0.47
0.47
0.47
0.47
0.47
0.47
0.47
0.47
0.47
0.47
0.48
0.48
0.48
0.48
0.48
0.48
0.48
0.48
0.48
0.48
0.48
0.48
0.49
0.49
0.49
0.49
0.49
0.49
0.49
0.49
0.49
0.49
0.49
0.49
0.49
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50

2.19
2.20
2.21
2.22
2.23
2.24
2.25
2.26
2.27
2.28
2.29
2.30
2.31
2.32
2.33
2.34
2.35
2.36
2.37
2.38
2.39
2.40
2.41
2.42
2.43
2.44
2.45
2.46
2.47
2.48
2.49
2.50
2.51
2.52
2.53
2.54
2.55
2.56
2.57
2.58
2.59
2.60
2.61
2.62
2.63
2.64
2.65
2.66
2.67
2.68
2.69
2.70

0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51

2.71
2.72
2.73
2.74
2.75
2.76
2.77
2.78
2.79
2.80
2.81
2.82
2.83
2.84
2.85
2.86
2.87
2.88
2.89
2.90
2.91
2.92
2.93
2.94
2.95
2.96
2.97
2.98
2.99
3.00
3.01
3.02
3.03
3.04
3.05
3.06
3.07
3.08
3.09
3.10
3.11
3.12
3.13
3.14
3.15

0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51

Permissible Bond stress Table tbd in concrete (IS : 456-2000)
Grade of concreteM-10
-tbd (N / mm2)

M-15
0.6

M-20
0.8

M-25
0.9

M-30
1

M-35
1.1

M-40
1.2

M-45
1.3

Development Length in tension
Plain M.S. Bars

H.Y.S.D. Bars

Grade of
concrete

tbd (N / mm2)

kd = Ld F

tbd (N / mm2)

kd = Ld F

M 15

0.6

58

0.96

60

M 20

0.8

44

1.28

45

M 25

0.9

39

1.44

40

M 30

1

35

1.6

36

M 35

1.1

32

1.76

33

M 40

1.2

29

1.92

30

M 45

1.3

27

2.08

28

M 50

1.4

25

2.24

26

Permissible stress in concrete (IS : 456-2000)
Grade of
concrete
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M

10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50

Permission stress in compression (N/mm 2) Permissible stress in bond (Average) for
Bending acbc
Direct (acc)
plain bars in tention (N/mm2)
(N/mm2)
3.0
5.0
7.0
8.5
10.0
11.5
13.0
14.5
16.0

Kg/m2
300
500
700
850
1000
1150
1300
1450
1600

(N/mm2)
2.5
4.0
5.0
6.0
8.0
9.0
10.0
11.0
12.0

Kg/m2
250
400
500
600
800
900
1000
1100
1200

(N/mm2)
-0.6
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4

in kg/m2
-60
80
90
100
110
120
130
140

00)
M-50
1.4

Modification factore

2.0
1.4
1.2
0.8
0.4

0.0

0.4
0.8
Percentage of tension reinforcement

1.2

1.6

2

2.4

2.8