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SEMESTER 3 2012/2013

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF SINGAPORE

CONTENTS NOMENCLATURE INTRODUCTION THEORY APPARATUS PROCEDURE REFERENCES Table 1Experimental Data for solid and hollow shafts Table 2Strength and stiffness of hollow and solid shafts having the same outer diameter Table 3Strength and stiffness of hollow and solid shafts having the same volume (i) 1 1 2 2 3 2 .

NOMENCLATURE Dh Ds dh G Ip K L T φ τ ρ outer diameter of hollow shaft diameter of solid shaft inner diameter of hollow shaft shear modulus of the shaft material polar second moment of area about the shaft axis torsional stiffness length of the shaft applied torque total angle of twist of the shaft over L induced shear stress at any point on the shaft and radial distance of that point on the shaft at which the shear stress is measured 3 .

the shaft diameter must be so chosen that the shear stress at its outer surface is less than the allowable stress. Looking at Equation (1) again. in torsional shaft design.φ graph. its response to an applied torque may be expressed mathematically by the well known torsional formula T Gφ τ = = Ip L ρ (1) For a hollow shaft having Dh and dh as the outer and inner diameters respectively. as defined by the torque that is necessary to twist the shaft one unit angle. in terms of strength and rigidity. it is seen that for a specific value of torque.INTRODUCTION Purpose The purpose of this manual is to provide guidelines/instruction to enable students to carry out experiment with an apparatus to study the torsion of solid and hollow circular shafts. is used extensively in the study of torsion of shafts. 4 . its polar second moment of area is (I p ) h = π 4 ( D4 − dh ) 32 h (2) For a solid shaft of diameter Ds . the behaviour of torsional shafts depends on the polar second moment of area. Thus. its polar second moment of area is given by (I p ) s = π 4 D 32 s (3) Equation (1) also shows that the shear stress varies linearly from zero at the shaft centre to the maximum at the outer surface of the shaft. In this connection. It also contains a list of apparatus used and the experimental procedure to evaluate the torsional stiffness and strengths of circular shafts. THEORY Whether the shaft is solid or hollow. It is convenient to have the torsional stiffness expressed mathematically as K = T φ (4) since its magnitude is given by the slope of the T. The objective of this experiment is to study how a hollow shaft would behave compared with a solid shaft. The torsional twist of the shaft while transmitting power should also be limited to a specified value. the term torsional stiffness (K). Scope The manual deals with a brief theory of pure torsion of circular shafts. shaft material and shaft length.

Computation 5 . the theoretical % change in torsional stiffness between hollow and solid shafts is as follows: i) for shafts having the same outer diameter dh ∆K = − × 100 Ds 4 (5) ii) for shafts having the same volume Ds 1− Dh Ds Dh 2 2 ∆K = 2 × × 100 (6) APPARATUS (1) Torsion tester (2) 5 solid brass bars each with a 100 mm gauge length and the following diameters: 7.5 Nm.0 mm. 12/7 mm. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) All experimental data must be recorded directly in the sheets provided. Slowly turn hand wheel in ‘clockwise’ direction to preload specimen to 0. (3) 4 hollow brass bars each with a 100 mm gauge length and the following outer/inner diameters: 12/6 mm. Repeat steps 1 – 7 for other specimens. 12/8 mm and 12/9 mm. Fit one specimen into the hexagonal sockets. Again press and hold to ZERO on torque meter and angular displacement.0 degrees (maximum angular displacement).74 mm. 8.2 degree (load interval). Slowly load specimen in steps of 0.94 mm.93 mm. Unload each specimen completely to zero torque.From Equation (1). Press and hold to ZERO on torque meter (Nm) and angular displacement (degree). Record direct value of torque until 2. PROCEDURE Experiment NB.39 mm and 12. 9. 10.

or use regression analysis. to obtain the torsional stiffness. 1972. maximum shear stress and volume of a solid shaft would be changed if a central hole of variable size (given by d h /Dh) is bored from a solid shaft.(1) (2) Tabulate your data in Table 1. For a given amount of material. would you fabricate it to a hollow or solid shaft? REFERENCE Timoshenko.. Would a hollow shaft be stronger and more rigid than a solid shaft if Ds = Dh ? (3) (4) The results in Table 3 reveal how the stiffness and maximum shear stress of two shafts (one solid and the other hollow) would be changed if they have the same volume.73-80 6 .. Gere J.φ graphs for all the shafts. Mechanics of Materials. S. Calculate the strength and torsional stiffness of the solid and hollow shafts and compare the results for shafts having the same outer diameters (Table 2) and for shafts having the same volume (Table 3). The results in Table 2 reveal how the stiffness. Plot the variations in Table 3 against (Ds /Dh) and compare your experimental results with the theoretical curves. Plot the T.P. Plot the variables in Table 2 against (d h /Dh) and compare your experimental results with the theoretical curves.M. p.

23 627.60 0.40 1.034907 (mm4) (Nm/rad) 388.031416 0.020944 0.20 0.63 1633.63 1800.60 1.0 mm 0 12/9 mm 0 Torque (Nm) for Hollow Shafts 12/8 mm 0 12/7 mm 0 12/6 mm 0 .003491 0.017453 0.12 883.024435 0.00 1.010472 0.20 1.03 1908.94 mm 0 9.93 mm 0 Torque (Nm) for Solid Shafts 8.80 2.027925 0.80 1.75 1391.00 Ip K Radians 0 0.52 7.74 mm 0 10.013963 0.006981 0.Table 1: Experimental data for solid and hollow shafts Angular Displacements Degrees 0 0.39 mm 0 12.09 2035.40 0.56 1144.

12/7 mm dh/Dh = 3. 12/9 mm dh/Dh = Theoretical 8 . 12/6 mm dh/Dh = 2. 12/8 mm dh/Dh = 4.Table 2: Strength and stiffness of hollow and solid shafts having the same outer diameter Solid Shaft Ds = 12 mm Vs = Ks = ∆K = Kh − K s × 100% Ks % change in torsional stiffness % change in volume ∆V = Vh − Vs × 100% Vs Theoretical % change in maximum shear stress ∆τ = τh − τs × 100% τs Dh − 1 Ds3 × 100% = 4 Dh − 4 dh 1 Ds3 Experimental Hollow Shafts 1.

solid. 9. 12/7 mm 4. 12/6 mm Theoretical 9 . holow.74 mm dia. hollow.94 mm dia. 8. solid.39 mm dia. 12/8 mm 3. 10.Table 3: Strength and stiffness of hollow and solid shafts having the same volume % change in torsional stiffness Kh − K s × 100% Ks Theoretical % change in maximum shear stress ∆τ = ∆K = τh − τs × 100% τs Experimental 1. solid. solid.93 mm dia. 7. hollow. 12/9 mm 2. hollow.

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