Japanese Verbs plus Polite and Plain Styles Free Japanese Lessons: 18

Japanese can be divided into 2 types of speech - Polite and Plain styles (or forms). What you have learned so far until this lesson are all in polite style. That's to say, those sentences which ended with です (desu), でした (deshita), ではありません (dewa arimasen), ではありませんでした (dewa arimasen deshita), ます (masu), ました (mashita), ません (masen), ませんでした are all polite style. On the other hand, Plain style, which is shorter when compared to Polite style are sentences ended with だ (da), だった (datta), ない (nai), た (ta), なかった (nakatta), etc. You can use Polite style anytime, talking to anybody. When talking to someone who you have met for the first time or not close enough, or to your superiors, it's best to speak in Polite style in order to be polite. It's considered rude if you speak in Plain style to these people. Whereas for Plain style, you use it when you are talking to family members, colleagues or close friends. It will seem strange to speak in polite style to them. Besides, Plain style is commonly used in written work like Newspaper, books, etc. However most letters are written in the Polite style. How to Decide If The Sentence is Polite or Plain Style? The style of the speech is decided by the last Japanese verb (for verb sentence) that you used in a sentence. Even if you have used many plain forms within the sentence, as long as it ends with polite form, the sentence is considered to be Polite style or form. On the contrary, even if you have put in many polite forms within the sentence, as long as it ends with plain form, the sentence becomes Plain style. For example consider the 2 following sentences... わたしはあしたがっこうへ いく と おもいます。 watashi wa ashita gakkou e iku to omoimasu わたしはあしたがっこうへ いく と おもう。 watashi wa ashita gakkou e iku to omou Both sentences mean "I think I am going to school tomorrow". The underlined Japanese verb いく is the dictionary-form of いきます (ikimasu) which means "to go". Dictionary-form is considered one of the plain form (I will go into that later). As you can see, the first sentence ended with the Japanese verb おもいます (omoimasu) which means "to think". This is a polite ます-form (masu-form) verb. Therefore this sentence is considered to be a Polite style sentence.

go およぐ (oyogu) . And you will get to learn the other forms in Plain style in future lessons.say. ぶ (bu).wait しぬ (shinu) .die あそぶ (asobu) . Dictionary-form is also considered to be the Present Affirmative of Plain style. く (ku). む (mu).understand ねむる (nemuru) .sleep まもる (mamoru) .However. The dictionary-form that I mentioned just now is one of the Plain style.swim なおす (naosu) . Plain Style Present Affirmative Present Negative Past Affirmative Past Negative ます ません ました ませんでした じしょ-form or dictionary-form ない-form or nai-form た-form or ta-form なかった-form or nakatta-form The 3 Groups of Japanese Verbs in Dictionary-Form Japanese verbs can be divided into 3 groups. The basic of Japanese is in the Plain style. ぬ (nu).play のむ (nomu) .drink わかる (wakaru) . つ (tsu). Plain Style of Japanese Verbs Actually the Polite style that you have learned so far is not the basic of Japanese. and the words of あ (a) column. す (su). The reason why it is called dictionary-form is because it is the form you can find in dictionary.protect . おもう (omou). this sentence is considered to be a Plain style sentence. お (o) column in the hiragana chart plus る (ru). the second sentence ended with the dictionary-form (plain form) of "to think". tell いく (iku) . For example. う (u) column. the following are group 1 verbs:            いう (iu) . repair まつ (matsu) . See the following table for the various forms in Plain style for Japanese verbs. In this case. Group 1 verbs are verbs ended with う (u).fix. ぐ (gu).

walk In next lesson.eat おきる (okiru) .study さんぽする (sanpo suru) . Group 2 verbs are verbs ended with い (i) column.come べんきょうする (benkyou suru) .stroll. え (e) column in the hiragana chart plus る (ru).get up. . There are many other exceptions but for the meantime I will only list three of them. rise Group 3 verbs are くる (kuru) and all verbs ended with する (suru). The following are some examples of group 2 verbs:   たべる (taberu) . Or you can say that they look like group 2 verbs but are actually group 1 verbs. はしる (hashiru) and かえる (kaeru).There are some exceptions whereas the verbs don't fulfil the above rules but still considered as group 1 verbs. you will get to learn how to change the verbs from dictionary-form to masuform and nai-form for all the three groups. For example like はいる (hairu). The following are some examples of group 3 verbs:    くる (kuru) .

Adding ます (masu) at the end. For example. you will get to learn how to change Japanese verbs from dictionary-form to ます-form (masu-form) and ない-form (nai-form). If you change the u-sound to i-sound. For example. There are some rules that you need to follow in order to change verbs from dictionary-form to other forms. After that append ます (masu) to the changed words and you will get the masu-form of the verb. simply replace る (ru) with ます (masu) and you will get the masu-form of the verb. Group 1 Verbs Group 1 verbs always end up with words containing u-sound. Adding ます (masu) at the end. I will use another example to show the change. る (ru) becomes り (ri). All group 2 verbs end up with る (ru). this group 1 verb かわる (kawaru) ends up with る (ru). This group 2 verb ねる (neru) means go to bed. To change to masu-form. To change group 1 verbs to masu-form. Let's look at one more example. If you change the u-sound to i-sound. To change to masu-form. you will get かわります (kawarimasu). this group 1 verb のむ (nomu) ends up with む (mu). replace る (ru) with ます (masu) and you will get たべます (tabamasu). Group 2 Verbs Changing group 2 verbs from dictionary-form to masu-form is much simpler. change the u-sound to i-sound in the last word. . Change る (ru) to ます (masu) and you will get ねます (nemasu).Japanese Verbs Part 2 Dictionary-form and Nai-form Free Japanese Lessons: 19 In this lesson. this Japanese verb たべる (taberu) is a group 2 verb. む (mu) becomes み (mi). Rules for Changing dictionary-form to masu-form The following are the rules for the 3 groups of Japanese verbs. you will get のみます (nomimasu).

After that append ない (nai) to the changed words and you will get the nai-form of the verb. If you change the u-sound to a-sound. the following diagram shows the rules when changing dictionary-form to masu-form for Japanese verbs. Adding ない (nai) at the end. Rules for Changing dictionary-form to nai-form For this section you will learn how to change dictionary-from (Plain Present Affirmation) to nai-form (Plain Present Negative). The following are the rules for the 3 groups of Japanese verbs. For example. You just need to memorize them. In summary. く (ku) becomes か (ka). . you will get かかない (kakanai). this group 1 Japanese verb かく (kaku) ends up with く (ku). change the u-sound to asound in the last word. The masu-form of くる (kuru) is きます (kimasu) and the masu-form of する (suru) is します (shimasu).Group 3 Verbs Group 3 verbs are irregular verbs. Group 1 Verbs To change group 1 verbs from dictionary-form to masu-form.

Examples of Changing Japanese Verbs to masu-form and nai-form Let's see some examples of changing Japanese verbs from dictionary-form to masu-form and nai-form. this group 1 verb かう (kau) ends up with う (u). the following diagram shows the rules when changing dictionary-form to naiform for Japanese verbs. you will get かわない (kawanai). The nai-form of くる (kuru) is こない (konai) and the nai-form of する (suru) is しない (shinai). In summary. You just need to change る (ru) to ない (nai) and you will get the nai-form Japanese verbs. Group 2 Verbs Group 2 verbs are much simpler. For example. For group 1 verbs end up with the word う (u). Therefore you need to change う (u) to わ (wa). Group 3 Verbs Group 3 verbs are irregular verbs. Adding ない (nai) at the end. instead of changing it to あ (a). . you need to change it to わ (wa).However there is one exception. You just need to memorize them.

かく 19. not Grp 2) はしらない (Exception. かえる 11. 6. 4. わかる 15. 9. のる 14. およぐ 17. 2. はしる 13. 7. not Grp 2) はいらない (Exception. おくる 16. 5.Group 1 Verbs dict-form 1. はいる 12. not Grp 2) のらない わからない おくらない およがない あそばない かかない ださない 10. 8. 3. ある かかる よむ のむ きく みがく あらう かう いく Meaning Exist (Thing) Hang/Take Read Drink Listen/Ask Brush Wash Buy Go Go Back Enter Run Get On/Ride Understand Send Swim Play Write Take Out/Submit masu-form あります かかります よみます のみます ききます みがきます あらいます かいます いきます かえります はいります はしります のります わかります おくります およぎます あそびます かきます だします nai-form あらない ない (Exception) かからない よまない のまない きかない みがかない あらわない かわない いかない かえらない (Exception. あそぶ 18. だす .

おろす 23. 5. 3. いる たべる みる あびる でる おりる みえる きこえる むかえる ねる Meaning Exist (Human/Animal) Eat See Bathe/Shower Appear/Leave Alight/Get Off Be Seen/Seem/Appear Be Heard/Said to be Welcome/Greet Go to Bed masu-form います たべます みます あびます でます おります みえます きこえます むかえます ねます nai-form いない たべない みない あびない でない おりない みえない きこえない むかえない ねない . 8. とる 21. 4. まつ 25. 10. はじまる 26. もらう Take/Pick Up Pull/Play (Piano) Lower/Get Down Speak/Talk Wait Begin/Start End/Finish Think/Feel Receive/Get とります ひきます おろします はなします まちます はじまります おわります おもいます もらいます とらない ひかない おろさない はなさない またない はじまらない おわらない おもわない もらわない Group 2 Verbs dict-form 1. 2. 9. 7. 6. おもう 28. おわる 27. ひく 22. はなす 24.20.

12. べんきょうする 4. さんぽする Meaning Come/Arrive Do/Execute/Play Study Walk/Stroll masu-form きます します べんきょうします さんぽします nai-form こない しない べんきょうしない さんぽしない . 13.11. くる 2. する 3. おきる あげる くれる Wake Up/Rise/Happen Give/Offer/Raise Be Given/Let One Have おきます あげます くれます おきない あげない くれない Group 3 Verbs dict-form 1.

How to Ask Question in あげます and もらいます Sentences? You can change the Japanese verb sentence into question by changing some of the words. Assuming that yesterday was Mr Yamada's birthday and he has received a present from his friend Mr Tanaka. For the second expression. Whereas in the second expression. In the first 2 verbs.. the emphasis is put on theReceiver.Giving and Receiving in Japanese Verbs Free Japanese Lessons: 20 In this lesson you will get to learn the Japanese verbs on giving and receiving. Let's make some examples using the above 2 expressions to explain the two Japanese verbs more clearly.  たなかさん は やまださん に ほんを あげました。 tanaka san wa yamada san ni hon wo agemashita  Meaning: Mr Tanaka gave a book to Mr Yamada. The sentence means the Receiver is receiving Object from the Giver. It means the Giver is giving Object to the Receiver.. There are 3 special verbs that you will come across very often on giving and receiving. change やまださん to だれ (dare).. Let's use the previous example as a model. やまださん は たなかさん に ほんを もらいました。 yamada san wa tanaka san ni hon wo moraimashita Meaning: Mr Yamada received a book from Mr Tanaka. . Let's look at the following expressions using this 2 Japanese verbs. the focus is put on the Giver as it is the topic.. you can either use に (ni) or から (kara) before the Object. もらいます (moraimasu) and くれます (kuremasu)..  たなかさん は やまださん に ほんを あげました。 If you want to ask who is the person that たなかさん has given the book to.. Giver は Receiver に Object を あげます Giver wa Receiver ni Object wo agemasu Receiver は Giver に/から Object を もらいます Receiver wa Giver ni/kara Object wo moraimasu In the first expression. They are あげます (agemasu). あげます (agemasu) means "to give" and もらいます (moraimasu) means "to receive".

it is important and is always the first priority to show respect to other people (third person). you cannot have question word with は (wa) such as だれは (darewa). Secondly. In this case you need to replace は (wa) with が (ga). Therefore when comparing to third person.    やまださんは だれ にほんをもらいましたか。 yamada san wa dare ni hon wo moraimashitaka やまださんはたなかさんに なに をもらいましたか。 yamada san wa tanaka san ni nani wo moraimashitaka だれが たなかさんにほんをもらいましたか。 dare ga tanaka san ni hon wo moraimashitaka あげます (agemasu) and くれます (kuremasu) Sentences The third Japanese verb くれます (kuremasu) has the same meaning of "to give" as あげます (agemasu). However. you need to take note of some rules to decide which one to use in your sentence... your family members are considered part of yourself.  たなかさんはやまださんに なに をあげましたか。 tanaka san wa yamada san ni nani wo agemashitaka If you want to ask who has given やまださん a book. putting yourself in the lowest priority. if third person is absent. たなかさんは だれ にほんをあげましたか。 tanaka san wa dare ni hon wo agemashitaka If you want to ask what is the thing that たなかさん has given to やまださん... change ほん to なに (nani). you can create the questions for the もらいます sentences. change たなかさん to だれ (dare). . your family members have to be in lower priority.  だれが やまださんにほんをあげましたか。 dare ga yamada san ni hon wo agemashitaka Using the same logic. Giver は Receiver に Object を あげます Giver wa Receiver ni Object wo agemasu Giver は Receiver に Object を くれます Giver wa Receiver ni Object wo kuremasu In Japanese custom. This is even true to family members younger than you. However. you have to show respect to your family members. In that perspective.

Third Person 3. when you have to show respect to ONLY the Giver. .. たなかさんはやまださんにはなを あげました。 tanaka san wa yamada san ni hana wo agemashita Meaning: Mr Tanaka gave flower to Mr Yamada. I Receiver Third Person Me/Family Members Third Person Me Family Members Use あげます くれます あげます くれます あげます It will be easier to understand the above with some examples.wo agemashita Meaning: My father gave coffee to Mr Tanaka. I/Family Members 4. look at the following table to decide which Japanese verb to use. 1. In summary.. Other than that you have to use the Japanese verb あげます (agemasu). Giver 1. 2. 5. わたしはははにおかねを あげました。 watashi wa haha ni okane wo agemashita Meaning: I gave money to my mother. おとうとはわたしにプレゼントを くれました。 otouto wa watashi ni purezento wo kuremashita Meaning: My younger brother gave present to me. ちちはたなかさんにコーヒーを あげました。 chichi wa tanaka san ni ko-hi. Family Members 5. 3.Based on the above two conditions. たなかさんはいもうとにはなを くれました。 tanaka san wa imouto ni hana wo kuremashita Meaning: Mr Tanaka gave flower to my younger sister. 4. It will be good if you can understand the concept of the above Japanese verbs because Japanese use them frequently in their daily conversation. Third Person 2.. use くれます (kuremasu)..