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13'o Congress

IMAM 2009, istanbul, Turkey,

of Intl. Maritime Assoc. of Mediterranea

12_15 Oct.200

Computerized method for propeller design of optimum diameter and rpm
M.M. GAAFARY

AssociateProress"?r:,;!:::;";'#!g:j

j'"*'::-:#:;TJ#""""Engineering; ".:

ABSTRACT: The process of marine propeller dosign, using theoretical or experimental charts of methodica series' consumes time and effort. This work proposes a computerized desigrr process for optimization o propeller diameter and number of revolutions for better characteristics and higher performance. In thir process, for known propeller rpm, thrust, and blad e area ratio, anoth.r *ol.ston of propeller thrusl coefficient is developed such that the unknown diameter is eliminated. Hence, a new developed curve ol thrust coefficient can be plofted on any arbitrary propeller performance curyes such as ssp; ;;;;r-"1'rn*.0 B-Series charts of prdpeller performance. using- Newton's divided differgnce method of, interpolation, the required optimum propeller diameter can be determined' A similar process has been appried to determine the optimum propeller number of revolutions o1 known propeller diameter. Flow charts and computer programs have been developed to represent the proposed procedure. Applications have been performed on the design of three different propellers of the existing ships. complete agreement is achieved between results of the present work and the real ships propeller
diameters.

NOMENCLATI.IRE

diameter,

Ka

torque coeffi cient of open propeller,

(*)
^o

A^

Kr
blade area ratio, projected area, Wageningen series coefficient of Rn torque coefficient, thrust coefficient,
Po

AP

Pv

Cijt
Cq

t

Rn
n

effect,

tlirust coefficient of open propeller, static pressure at propeller CL, psi water-vapor pressure, psi Reynolds number, propeller number of revolutions per
second.

Cr D
i,
J

PID

j,

k,l

propeller diameter, integers,
advance ratio,

a
T
t

Kd

thrust coefficient with eliminated
number of revolutions, thrust coefficient with eliminated

Vu

V.

propeller pitch/diameter ratio propeller torque, propeller thrust, thrust deduction factor. propeller advance speed, service ship speed,

K"

211

Usually there are two ways to develop a successful propeller design.. 5. the most efficient propeller is that having the largest possible diameter and lowest rpm. Berlram. Troost. Also. (196I). hence. A similar process can be applied to determine the optimum propeller number of revolutions when the propeller diameter is known. Morgan. Applications have been performed on three different propellers of existing ships. such as: irnportant 1. et al .and B-Series.{ . This useful and simple polynomial form is expressed by its multi-terms of arbttrary propeller's number of blades. instead of the propeller thrust. surface theories. water density.a . Lindgren. These curves are based on theoretical or experimental results of methodical series of marine propellers. the present work introduces some kind of substitute of these design charts. and q) versus (J).____. a naval architect is faced with sorne requirements. namely. to achieve the highest possible efficiency. Kerwin. 0987 and 1995). Using Newton's divided difference method of interpolation. thrust. Kq. pitch/diameter ratio.Sufficient thrust 3. for known propeller rpm. then computerize that method. habitable Generally.i t. (1981). INTRODUCTION To perform a successful propeller design. the optimum diameter and rpm can be determined. SSPA-Series. and Carlton. w Z q p 1. (1979. such as the NSMB Wageningen A. It is the main target of this paper to develop a direct computerized design procedure for optimization of propeller diameter and rpm that guarantees the highest possible propeller performance. et al (2006).:. there are many experimental propeller series test results. and FORMULATION OF THE METHOD This work presents a proposed procedure for propeller design. (1951). but the area ratios are limited. the theoretical and experimental methods. where complete agreement has been achieved for propeller particulars deduced method and those of the real ship. which makes it a difficult process. number of blades. (1994). and it is very efficient method of conventional propeller design. Hence.Acceptable low vibration and noise excitation. and blade area ratio. 2. . 4.. Breslin. Bahgat. Troost. propeller efficiency. and a designer usually interpolates between chafts. Either theoretical or experimental method is applied the main task of propeller design is the optimization process of propeller particulars. blade area ratio. Carnahan. et al (1915) has developed a mathematical polynomial to represent the propeller performance curves of B-Series propeller type. ship's wake fraction. (2000).High efficiency. by the proposed Oosterveld. Gaafary.(1976). such as lifting line and lifting Turnock. the required optimum propeller diameter has been determined from the advance ratio of the highest propeller efficiency. et al (1919). this proposed procedure is valid to apply when the propeller torque is known. advance ratio and Reynolds number. a new developed curve of thrust coefficient is plotted on Oosterveld's form of Wageningen B-Series charls of propeller performance.Proper strenglh. This is to develop the proper theory. (1966). There are many moderrr theoretical methods.E. (1951) and Lewis. In this process. Aside from the well known useful charts of Bp . of propeller series of B-type of NSMB. Andersen. 2. and many others. another expression of propeller thrust coefficient is developed such that the unknown diameter is eliminated. Also. The main target of this work is to develop a simple computerized procedure of propeller design that achieves optimum propeller diameter and number of revolutions.No cavitation erosion. (1975). et aI (1994). The Wageningen B-Series is still up to now applicable. Flow charts and computer programs have been developed to represent both of the Oosterveld's mathematical polynomial of Wageningen series and the proposed procedure.:9 :. where it deals with charts of propeller performance curves of (Kr. (1989). apply the 212 .

a Determine the different values of (r1) for each intersection. Consider the point at which the curve o{ (q) osculates the envelope of maximum efficiency curyes. 2. and finaliy.sVo Ap .ormance wi I I i ncrease.computer program on existing ships of ih" . (1989). o "r ! . (Ar)' : AI1F - I- L360(Po-Pv)I. the optimum propeller diameter can be accomplished by eliminating the diameter between the relations defining thrust coefficient. (1961).(1-r) For the number of propeller blades. and the thrust deduction _^o Consider a specific systematic series of conventional marine propellers with available performance curves. (J). n2T 1 (3) (1. as in Lewis. (w) at ship (4) KnJn This relation of equation (4) can be graphed on a Kr: service speed. (1989). and blade possible manual solution can follows. the speed ofadvance is: . (Ao: no. 4. eompare the resuits. of specific number of blades. where 1. Kq. Vs (1 -w) As the blade area ratio increases. as: . as' it increases. et al ( (2) as developed by Kn: get: o To avoid the harm of cavitation.2. such as those of Troost. and Lindgren. and 3) together to . These particulars can be determined according to the following: Now.u-" propeller t1'pe. The optimum diameter is secured at a specific manually interpolated (P/D) ratio 213 . A be secured as 1. This might be a direct verification of this computerized method. ). and less propeller efficiency. Kr: Pn2Pa (1) tI:vo nD Introduce a new variable. where. are limit of Burrill's cavitation for merchant diagram ships. . there will be less chance of cavitation occwrence.sqft J. area ratio. the lower propeller rpm. speed ofadvance. it gives a line just specific Wageningen B-Series chart of marine propellers performance curves of (Kr. To reach there a naval architect need to know the following propeller particulars: propeller rpm. of (4). an expression of projected blade area has been developed by NSMB. required propeller thrust. above the upper 2. K-" Breslin. with those (Krt culves which dependent on varying (PiD) ratio. Rr. where. the propeller efficiency and perf. Knowing the ship's Va: wake. this expression is. Manipulating equations fr 994). and q) versus (J). However.1 Optimum Propeller Diameter Using this equation one can get the blad '' 'A area rario. (t). (Kr) and advance ralio. Determine each intersection of (Kr. the less chance of cavitation occurrence could be. and then draw a curve connecting them. we might return to our main track of finding the optimum propeller diameter. blade arearatio.. 2. factor. and 5. propeller number of blades. P- (1951). Lewis. according to Burrill. The propeller thrust can be determined on basis of accurate determination of the total ship resistance. 3. to avoid cavitation or reduce it. ( + ). When this expression is plotted. as shown and depicted on Figure (1). (Z).

3. a similar procedure developed to yield the optimum propeller rpm for given: useful experimental test results of Wageningin methodical series of B-type propeller performance of NSMB. It is the target of . the is In a very similar fashion. RPMopumu* xo: ILo -"P_. . Dopti. . propeller diameter. some special steps are made to treat the differences befween applying the method numerically and manually. Troost. of the available methodical series charts of propeller performance curves. (n). 5. Kq. A new curve of Kr. one may get. o. while the fifth step is given instead. just as in the case of optimum diameter. these parameters can be determined as previously described. PROPOSED COMPUTEzuZED METHOD 3. canbe graphed on a specific Wageningen B-Series chart of marine propellers performance curves of (Kr. and 5. 3.by Newton's interpolation. determine the propeller efficiency for each value of (J). the (P.r" is performed manually for propeller design according to on. 5. and hence. advance ratio at this osculation point determines the optimum rpm. between the expressions of (Kr) and (J). but to determine numerically. . (1951).this paper to perform this procedure using a newly developed computer program. of specific number of blades. et al (1976). based on equation (7). 2. 4. speed ofadvance. Until now. At every specific value of (J) and (P/D). : Ka 'J' Q) (8) V r\d and Tc.curve at every value of (J) with equal small steps. F (xn. this procedr. The The applied expression of Newton's divided difference method of interpolation as given in Carnahan.. one may apply a very similar procedure to -that previously described. propeller number of blades. Find the highest efficiency at every specific (J).----|r-- that coresponds to the point where the fwo curyes of (n) osculate each other. and 11) versus (J). now we fum to the optimum rpm formulation.*u . were plotted in charts form known 214 . the optimum diameter can be determined.. Now. determine the (Kq) value. this is the formulation of the optimum diameter. curves of varying (p/D) ratio. In the same manner. this process is depicted on Figure (1). Kr where. Not to find intersections between Kr-curve of (4). blade area ratio. A possible manual solution can be secured when following the same first four steps mentioned in the case of optimum diameter.4D) ratio of Kr. The advance ratio at this osculation point determines the optimum diameter.# (5) l. o wT- Dffirences when the procedure ls apptied nttmerically rctther than manually : l. During the development of the program.1 Computer Programfor Wageningen B-Series For propeller design pulposes. ttj=s\^i-xj) n The present developed computer program is applicable to determine the optimum propeller rpm. with (Kr. 2. after eliminating the propeller number of revolutions. . hence. 2. and blade arearatio.s p 1(1v] (e) To determine the optimum propeller rpm for a given diameter.# (10) Hence. is. required propeller thrust. xn-1-.2 Optimum Propeller RPM 3.

70 :0.(11) The propeller performance cur-ves of (Kr. As an application of the developed computer program to determine the propeller performance values has been performed for a specific propeller of the following particulars: Considering the formulation steps of the optimum diameter introduced in2. to determine the optimum diameter as in equation (5). is considered for applications: every stepped (J). and minor modifications on the flow chart of finding optimum diameter. the performance cur-ves can be developed at any intermediate blade area ratio. interpolation fot (P/D) value at every step of (J) which is done according to Newton's method of interpolat ion.06 In this numerical approach. Hence.as Bp . developed by Oosterveld. the mathematical polynomial representation of Wageningen BSeries type of propellers. Based on that flow char1. calculation of (Kr) as shown in equation (4). Howevet. another flow chart has been designed to describe the procedure's logic and its executing steps.6 diagrams.. has developed a mathematical polynomial to represent these propeller perfonnance curves of B-Series propeller type. any number of blades.7. et al (1975). should be made to represent the procedure's logic and its executing steps. interpolation for (P/D) value at every step of (J) which is done according to Newton's method. a decision must be taken by choosing the highest efficiency and its corresponding advance ratio. and q) versus (J) at different (P/D) ratios. In the present wotk.. (J). . {f. a computer program has been designed and developed specially to perform this proposed procedure numerically. considered. using the "pre-" and "post-" values of (Kr. Almost for any arbitrary B-type propeller. /D). a flow chart has been designed to represent the logical steps of processing numerically the Oosterveld's mathematical polynomial of Wageningen series.iur. calculation of (Kr) as shown in equation (7).. 3. Repeating this process -is required at . as shown on Figure ( ) This include5 representation of the mathematical polynornial of Wageningen series of propeller characteristics. Kq. o Rn ':2 x1. This includes representation of the mathematical polynomial of Wageningen series of propeller characteristics. ou no .75 . Important Feature I: the propeller performance curves shown on Figure (1) of Wageningen series can be reproduced by using this developed program. it yields. Oosterveld. which will save time and effort as a contribution of this present work. shown on Figure (4).3 Computer Programfor Optimum kPM In a very similar manner. (X)t . :5 t Z . the formulation steps of the optimum rpm introduced in sub-section 2.)u 'l' . (P/D). aside from Bp -6 diagrams. as shown on Figure (2). P/D :0. calculations of (Kq and n) are performed. At that specific (P/D) of equation (12). When Newton's equation of interpolation. it is the target of this work to apply the curves of propeller performance of (Kr. and their corresponding (P/D) values. Based on that flow chart. and also at any pitch/diameter ratio.2 Computer Programfor Optimum Diameter (1975). (Z). and q) are plotted versus (J) as shown on Figure (3). . calculations of (Kq and q) (P are performed. et al 3. It is true that these B-type propeller chafts are still applicable and yields accurate propeller design."qurred : PD(j) + IPD(j + 1) (12) PD(i\1 v / ' * 1--!I:!IJi)-l 'Kr(j+1)-Kr(j)' At that specific (P/D). Repeating this process is required at every stepped ztc . Kq. a computer program has been designed and developed in this work.t . (6) is applied numerically to determine the required (P/D).2 are Kr: Ito If =o ZJ=oE?=o c.

74 N :85'p*.0.733. This work provides a quick way to design a propeller with optimum diameter and rpm. yields and rym for almost any N : 10s tp*. 4. ANALYSIS OF THE RESULTS From the present work.200. Comment: There is agreement befween and P/D ratios.794 Figure (4) shows another flow charl that has been developed to represent the proposed computerized method that might determine the optimum propeller diameter propeller methodical series. APPLICATIONS OF THE PROPOSED present Important Feature III: The computer program gives accurate output results that almost agree with the real ship propeller diameters.92 m and P.3 Optimum Propeller Diameter of 250.028. Vs : 16 knots.1 Optimum Propeller Diameter of SL-7 Container Ship The SL-7 container ship has the following data: Vs :33 knots. w :0. Comment: There is agreement between the application of the program. As an :7.8m Present Method Results: Doptimum 4. which effort in finding oplimum rpm.75.13 N : 134 tp*. Figure (2) shows a flow chart that has been developed in this present work. Z : 5: PID : 0. will save time and Important Feature II' A naval alchitect is not obligated to use charls such as Bp . t:0. (Yo) :0.6 which has fixed blade ratios and then interpolate between them to get the optimum propeller particulars. performance curves of one of the the diameters and PiD ratios. as shown on Figure (3).. w : 0. a decision must be taken by choosing Doptimum the highest efficiency and its corresponding advance ratio. to determine the optimum lpm. such as provided herein together program output data. a process which will consume time and effort. :8.25 EHP :26. A computer program has been developed by following the designed flow chart.t. it gives the logical sequence of executing steps. f#) :0.D :7. Z :6. P/D: 1. Hence.606. as in equation (10).26 m and P/D :0.792. Z :5: P/D:0. Applications of the present method on three different existing ship propellers. as shown and depicted on Figure (1). (J). with the computer 24.000 Ton Dwt Tanker This tanker has the following data: 'diameters :8. in order to determine the propeller performance curyes EHP : 81.65. there are three different examples 5.22 EHP :23.2 m and P/D : I.0 m Present Method Results: Doptimum for almost any 3- propeller methodical series. Wageningen B-series propellers. (ff) :0.1D :0. the 4. where each set of data has been prepared as an input data to the developed computer program.D : 8.--- (J). Comment: There is agreement betw-een the diameters and P/D ratios. METHOD For the purpose of applying the computerized method on some existing ships.The proposed computerized method has been developed to be applied almost on any propeller performance curves.D :8.74.2 m 5- Present Method Results: 216 .2 Optimum Propeller Diameter of a Merchant Ship 4- This merchant ship has the following data: Vs : 19 knots.the following remarks and comments can be drawn: l. t: 0.25.12.098 Wageningen B-series propellers.37. Minor modifications need to be done to the computer program of finding the optimum diameter numerically. In the following.125. w : 0.

SSPA. The method could be considered as a quick alternative tool that saves time and effort that are consumed in propeller design by the available charts.. Butterworth and Heinemann.2" Institute Skibs-og Havteknik. Pashias. W"B. Morgan. S. Croatia. the Swedish State Shipbuilding Experimental Tank.. Italy. and AnderserrP. Propeller Lifting Surface Corrections.W.. Bertram.. Stevens Institut€ of Tech. Cambridge 6. Open Water Test Series with Modern Propeller Fornts. V. M. REFERENCES Andersen.. Wageningen.. Marine Propellets. This computerized method is also valid to be applied when the propeller torque is known instead of propeller thrust. Bahgat. C.E. M.C.. Breslin. H. and Hamdi. Gaafary. Oosterueld. Part II. S.No.1. and (P/D).. and Oossanen. DTH. Yol.almost a complete agreement of the results with those of reai ships. Flow . T. Mass. P... J. Volume Ii. Department of Ocean Engineering. Carlton.8. Nov. Marine Propellers & Propuluon.. 2000. ship required thrust. and Part III. 1961 .. yields the determination of optimum propeller diameter at specific (J).. Vol. 1979..O. Alexandria. N. Y o1. Intemational Shipbuilding Progress. Practical Ship Hydrodynamics. and number of blades. Future Work: The present method might have more development for the application on other a4a ztt .New Approach. N. P. The following conclusions can be drawn from the present work: . such as Gawn-Burrill series. Silovic. Propeller Design by Lifting Line Theory. be the optimum propeller diameter can Universify Press. 47. F. Buttelwofth . 1994. and Rogers. Lewis. 19b6.ISH Design Basic Program. Luther. Younis..V.. A CONCLUSIONS proposed computerized method of propeller design has been developed and checked for applications on Wageningen B-series of conventional marine propellers. A. and Wiikes. MIT Deparlment of Ocean Engineering. Dissertation.. yields almost a complete agreement of the results with those of real ships. Feb. New York. 1951. 1916. M... Optimizing the different values of Kr and Kq for the highest efficiency. M. New 2- 3- 4- 5- 6- 78- On the curve of required KT.. Dubrovnik. Proceedings of the the optimum propeller diameter and optimum rpm. Egypt.. Hydrodynamics of High Speed Marine Propellers -.fcation for capture of propeller tip vortex evolution. Cambridge. Gaafary. M. Applied Numerical Methods. M. INSEAN Italian Ship Model Basin / Office of Naval Research. Ktype propeller series ofducted propellers. the Newton's divided difference method of interpolation has been applied to determine intermediate values of pitch/diameter ratios at different advance coelflcients. H. Further Computer-Analyzed Data of the Wageningen B-Screw Series. Nr.For known propeller determined rpm. and Denny.. Denrnark. Hoboken. A. Oxford..J. 1989. USA. B. 1995.4ay 1987. Edward V. 26th Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics. L. J. M. Al-Maaref Establishment. P.. Principles of Naval Architecture. V. The method is also applicable to determine the optimum propeller rpm. NSMB.. The Sociefy of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers. IMAM'95. Hydrodynamic T'heoryfor Propeller Design and Analysls. and Boil. Model Test with a Family of Three and Five Bladed Propel/ers. Lindgren. J. Carnahan.Heineman-r.Y. by following the same procedure to determine York. Ph. 22. Applications of the present method on three different existing ship propellers. SNAME. 1981. 86. July 1975. 1979.r.R. Kerwin.2006. J.A. 25 1. P. Forces on Ship Propeller Blades of Low Aspect-Ratio.. blade area ratio.. Rome.D. Mosaad. First Edirion.S. methodical series. SNAME. G. Tumock. Hydrodynamics of Ship Propellers.. Troost. 1994. A computer program has been designed to represent l"he developed method. Trans...feattrre identi.E. John Wiley. l.

5 J 0.7 0.o Figure (l): A scheme for the procedure of finding an optimum propeller diameter using Wageningen 8-6-65 performance curves at a *.4 Advance Ratio. Wageningen B-series of Z=5. /\-to*o \ EHV€LOPE Ha q q dlch/diem=r.6 0.4 / =p.7KT at PD= -{-0. Ae/Ad=O.lor .Kr to Ko rl K. breslin.2 0.75 at PID=O.7KQ at PD= 10 :a o Fl F ct n? 0. 218 .Lt .\ \ \ \.rrcJ RaLioJO./oL il !ryigl_]i:Pf qqgg $lpdc. -: l OF Nr: 2 !' xo ro.2 0.nge of (p/D) values./arJ).3 0. 0.6 0. nit.7 0.\ { clEs ^*. et al (1994\.8 Figure (3).5 F tu od 0.1 0.--:(-l.65 i = t.7 0. Present proposed method computer program output of wageningen 8-5-75 propeller perfofinance curves.4 ***0.1 0 I I - :z 0.7ETA at PD= 0 0.r.

02 OUtput Data : KT.s(k)..I .. '. 219 .- :i .+0. Number of blades.. 't:i. :i -l:.i:*ii..1 . . ''l .39 Estimate : thrust coeff.::!: Figure (2): Flowchart to determine the propeller performance curves of Wageningen B-series. . C{k). (KQ) EKQ(t) =EKQ(t)+Ka(t) Estimate : Propeller Efficiency (ETA) J{l)=111.l i ....r r' ::' iit. u{kl.:1'. ' '"i'j. P/D Do k= 1..:: .! .t{k}..:''. n. j.lnput Data : Blade Area Ratio.86 Read : Coefficients of Wageningen Sdries oolvnomials. Do K= 1. EKT{I) =0. (KT) EKT(l)= Estimate : Torque coeff. iLif '. tq!-. KQ.i |:. -. r:.

KQ. D xo * q() F? €t{ c)d NN Do J= 1. slk). Number of blades. EKQ(I)= rKQ(l)+KQ(l) vo Estimate : Propeller Efficiencv (ETA) Yes 9= boo ETA < ETA (r-1) J(l)=1111 +O. (KT) .02 Output Data: J.PD . KT1. Fa Do K= 40. ETA. 86 oti 9H (H* ov Estimate : Toroue coeff. =*.KT.6 t.@ 9! EKT(l)= EKT(l)+KT(l) PD(i+1)= PD(i) + 0. ufk). n. vfk) d g Estimate : thrust coeff. 15 OH p.075 o6 +. ctk). 'tsk r6 9l o9 Eo F5 Ya aO EStiMAtC : KN.Input Data : Blade Area Ratio. <0 =Q Estimate PD1 by Newton's Method of lnterpolation O 9o oo go \JH AH o\< I o.series polynomials.q() -. P/D Read : Coefficients of Wageningen . tlk). (KQ) -0) >f.