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GUIDELINES FOR THE DESIGN OF CENTRES FOR STREET CHILDREN

Architecture Barbara Brink for Education - BSc Hons. ED/ERD/EAR Dip Arch. MSc. - UNESCO

Under Contract No. 148.446.6 with the Architecture for Education Section, UNESCO Paris

0 UNESCO 1997
ED-97/Ws/a

1. PROJECT STRATEGY

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URBAN CHILDREN IN DISTRESS RESEARCH METHOD AND APPROACH

EDUCATIONAL
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APPROACH

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PRIMARY AIMS EDUCATORS CHILDREN COMMUNITY

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PHYSICAL COMFORT
1 PHYSICAL COMFORT 3 THERMAL COMFORT 4 ACOUSTIC COMFORT 5 LIGHTING COMFORT
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1 ORGANISATION OF CENTRE 2 UPKEEP OF CENTRE 3 RECREATION AND SOCIO-CULTURAL 4 EDUCATIONAL 5 SPECIAL CARE 6 VOCATIONAL TRAINING
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FUNCTIONAL RELATIONSHIPS : some examples
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RESIDENTIAL CARE BASED CENTRE HEALTH CARE BASED CENTRE VOCATIONAL TRAINING BASED CENTRE

This

paper

has been

elaborated

by the

Educational

Architecture

department (ED/ERD/EAR), UNESCO, Paris as part of the ‘ Educational Buildings and Equipment series. It hopes to address particular problems associated with educating street children - children who have not only from fallen out of the formal education find themselves programme excluded system but have been separated at all levels.

their families (often spending all, or most, of their time on the street) and by society An educational with their specific into society. needs to be developed that is compatible

learning needs and will ultimately enable their reintegration The environment considered best as possible. and designed so as to complement

in which. these activities take place should be carefully the learning process as

The author, Architecture Countries. ’

Barbara

BRINK

(BSc

Hons.

Dip Arch.

MSc.)

studied College

at the Bartlett

School

of Architecture,

University

London, UK. She has a Masters degree in ‘ Building Design for Developing

B. BRINK spent 9 months working in INDIA for the People’ s Participation Programme settlement practices consultant (NGO), on a low income housing project in a squatter in architectural UNESCO in the suburbs of Bombay. architect in the Architecture She has worked for Education

in London an Paris and most recently has been working as a Sector,

Paris, under the supervision of Rodolfo ALMEIDA The opinions in this paper are not necessarily those of UNESCO

Rodolfo ALMEIDA CHIEF of Architecture for Education Section & Development of Education Systems Division for the Reconstruction UNESCO Paris May 1997

1993. 1948). Thailand in 1990. ultimately contributing to productivity and economic growth at local.128 million children not enrolled in school. to find out what their living conditions are. ’ In 7990 . UNESCO. The ability to adapt to different situations and potentially generate change or new ideas is a valuable quality that can contribute to society and human development and can be learnt given the presence of an appropriate and supportive learning environment. adapted or arranged to make them function as efficiently. Paris. as possible. It is the foundation for lifelong learning and human development on which countries may build. UNICEF.4 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. and what their priorities and desires are. ’ (Article 1. In year 2000 numbers are likely to reach 162 million of which 2’ 3 are girls (Education for All: Status and Trends. by individuals.‘ Basic education is more than an end in itself. informal environments where the children feel comfortable and secure. There are a number of projects currently being carried out in Africa. Asia and South America that address problems such street children face. to highlight the importance of basic education. social and economic characteristics of people and communities.) . It was sponsored by UNESCO. not an end goal to be quantified by a certificate or diploma. STATEMENT OF INTENT ” This paper aims fo provide suggest?ons Andy ideas. further levels and types of education and training. of their own culture. Education is a means of investing in society. It is directed towards any person(s) and/or organisation(s) working with these children and hopes to serve as a sfimulus and reference. Special care should be taken to gain the child’ s confidence by creating non-intimidating. It served as a forum for sharing experiences and research findings. Unfortunately many are deprived of this basic right’ The world conference on ‘ Education for All’ was held in Jomtien. and to establish and forge commitment from member countries in providing basic education for all. where learners acquire new skills and knowledge that enable them to control their own lives and reach their full potential. For education to have a significant impact on human development it should be accessible to all members of society. Education can improve relationships and understanding between different cultures through understanding. systematically. national and global levels. Research has been carried out to try and understand street children better. Education should be a continual process. in terms of user’ s needs. what effect these exceptional circumstances have had on their thought processes and attitudes towards life and society. on the provision of educational spaces for street children. ‘ Education for All’ Education is often considered to be the key to development and a basis for improving quality of life. It can have major influences upon cultural. UNDP and the World Bank. realistic and innovative approaches to how exisfing an&or new build structures m ight be treated. The general consensus is that approaches should be flexible and adaptable to meet the wide range of different needs of these children including the provision of social and psychological guidance and support. providing a wide range of economic.

indicating potential problem areas and proposing effective and appropriate solutions to these problems so as to develop a coherent project that complements the educational brief. Appropriate and carefully considered spatial organisation and design can complement and facilitate implementation of an educational programme. Quality in architecture and planning Building designer. combining their specialised knowledge to develop a more comprehensive project. held at Jomtien. not ignoring the constraints imposed by the site and its surroundings. are clearly imperative when developing an educational brief. materials. In monograph II of the conference on ‘ Education for All’ . with its needs and priorities. Thailand in 1990 (pp:27-31) the author suggests 5 principal inputs that contribute to improvement of learning: Learning environments A carefully developed educational approach/philosophy. public awareness. It is not simply a question of specifying what spaces are required. and a good understanding of the target population. their treatment and placement on site all influence the way in which a building functions. the local climate. to name but a few. Scale. and the interrelation and connection between spaces can all change the way in which ideas are exchanged and how the users feel and hence behave. Limited resources need to be concentrated on interventions that improve learning in the most effective way. and the availability of reliable financial institutions and resources. treatment of surfaces. The designer’ s role is to provide technical advice and support. The interrelation of these spaces. . the availability of building materials and labour. and public interest and commitment. community and target population should work together. So too is a good understanding of the environment in which these activities take place.financial resources. colours.Quality of Education Quality of education is dependant on a wide range of factors . Quality in architecture and planning is achieved by understanding.

educational project might Sections B and C introduce the reader to street children and some current educational approaches adopted by organisations working with such children. Section G sites 3 hypothetical examples of centres for street children and presents a conceptual model for each indicating the functional relationships between different activities. No single prototype would satisfy all these provisions. Example 1 -’Centre that provides residential facilities 2 . Section F puts forward design ideas and examples. Provisions offered to street children vary greatly according to need and available resources. They are not radical.Organisation of Paper Section A suggests ways in which a sustainable be developed.Centre that provides health care. It is hoped that the three examples given in this section cover some of the more typical needs. Section comfort D gives some basic information in built environments about the importance of physical Section E proposes a wide range of services and activities that might be made available to street children as part of their rehabilitation and reintegration into society. 3 . a centre for street children. .Centre that provides vocational training. suggesting ways in which indoor and outdoor spaces might be treated and designed for the proposed range of activities. design solutions but hope more to serve as a thought provoking check list for any person building from scratch. or adapting from an existing structure. complex.

1 l PFQlECT STRATEGY

PROJECT STRATEGY

Before developing a project proposal it is important to establish a clear plan of action - a strategy that will allow the project to run as efficiently and effectively as possible from the start. For example: A
Conception

Determine principal aims of project;

F Project Evaluation Continually evaluate prbject, making changes where appropriate with a view . to successful continuation of project over time.

Development of Pro]ect Options From the information gathered in stage B develop several sketch plans. The proposals that,appear viable on initial scrutiny can be selected for detailed design.

c

E project Implementation Put theories into action. First phase of implementation should start as soon as possible, preferably before proposals are too developed, thus facilitating process of modification

D Development of Proposels Develop physical design and financial and administrative organisation. Process should be linked as closety as possible to implementation, even running alongside once project is in progress

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PROJECT OBJECTIVES

For a project to be successful it should external expertise and resources have been of project, care should be taken to ensure and hopefully develop even when this withdrawn.

be sustainable over time. If employed during initial stages that the project can continue external support has been

‘ Basic education should be pursued not merely as a secforal target, but as an integral part of human development’ (William H. Draper III, Administrator, UNDP)

A sustainable plan of action is particularly important for educational programmes where a range of different services are offered to children of different’ age groups. There will be no definable end to the programme new children will enter the system while others complete it. To stop a child midway through this process will deny them chances they may otherwise : have had to compete successfully in the ‘ outside world’ . .
INPUT REQUIRED TO MAINTAIN A SUStAINABLE PROJECT

Educational and building design expertise -> LOCAL +/or EXTERNAL

Co-ordination and collaboration between Government, NGO’ s and Community Government commitment

Building facilities maintenance programmes Local labour

Sufficient and sustained funding Community, family and child interaction and participation Maximum Public awareness through media support and information campaigns etc. Human resource development

Training programmes

Continual project evaluation, reflection and modification

Research and recording of project’ s progress

A B C

Conception Feasibility & Detailed studies l Development of project options D l Development of Proposals E l Project implementation F l Project evaluation
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PROJECT OBJECTIVES

Flexibility is a very important consideration when developing an informal education programme. The provisions are likely to be wide and varied and directed towards a diverse group of children. For this reason an adaptable programme needs to be developed that can address all these different needs as best and most efficiently as possible, allowing for possible changes in the future . For example:

AN IDEAL SITUATION

Centre is open 24 hours a day and children can come at any time during the day or night, choosing activities or services that best suit their needs.
SHIFT ORGANISATION

Shift systems are used in many countries. For example a centre might have two shifts, one in the morning and one in the afternoon. Children can choose to come at the time that suits them best. In this way the same set of resources and equipment can be used by twice as many students.
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Is educational curriculum flexiblle?
WIDE RANGE OF AVAILABLE SERVICES AND ACTIVITIES

MANY ACTIVITIES

AND SERVICES

AVAILABLE

By offering a wide range of activities and services the children can select according to their needs and wishes.

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Does bufldfng dasigt~ all&

for flexibMy and adaptability?

PROJECT OBJECTIVES

If resources and spaces are limited it will be advantageous to have areas that can be used for different activities. For real flexibility to be achieved quick changes should be possible without undue disturbance to the rest of the building and its users. This can be achieved in a numbers of ways I I

MOVEABLE

PARTITIONS

/ SCREENS

Flexibility can be achieved by having moveable that open out or enclose spaces.

partitions

and/or screens

ROOM SHAPE

Square or L shaped rooms allow for more flexibility organisation of furniture and hence internal space

in arrangement

and

Modular furniture arranged in many configurations can be different Furniture that is stackable +/or easy to move allows for quick changes in room layout thus accommodating different activities more easily 4 t Furniture that can be used in different classroom planning ways will allow for more versatile .2 PROJECT OBJECTIVES FURNITURE DESIGN Flexibility can be achieved by careful furniture design.

e. Points fo consider at all stages of a project: a w Target population b l Financial Framework c l Project sitp d l Expertise. including the very poor’ (Education for All. their physical condition etc. their social status. carried out and invested so far would be wasted. a l Target population ‘ Policy makers. a project proposal should be realistic and appropriate. At best this might result in a less successful project but at worst may mean that the project needs to be abandoned and all the work and money. their material needs. their psychological needs. where they live. who they are. ‘ . their cultural. how they live.2 PROJECT OBJECTIVES To be successful. t p . as defined by themselves. experience and commitment. personnel and finance management is available to implement a successful project that will be sustainable. Monograph ll:pp66) It is important to have a good understanding of the target population i. Points to consider: l Where is money coming from? l Some possibilities: Local government l International organisations . There is no sense in developing a project whose objectives cannot be met. b l Financial framework Early on in the project it is important to establish who will be responsible for financing the project and whether the necessary authority. social and religious traditions. 1 1 ). educators and administrators must learn to listen to their clients. NGO’ s l Local community organisations l Religious organisations l Individual private donors l Private business sector l Whaf makes up capital costs and reccurh?g cosfs Capital derived from-SHEATH costs & VICKERY:pp36 Recurring costs .

l Purchasing in advance and in bulk can reduce costs.2 PROJECT OBJECTIVES l Has a project cost plan been made? + Site location In centre of cities. Building + construction and design costs - ii -b Building maintenance Investing in quality building materials mav be more exoensive but can reduce costs in the long term as building maintenance will be reduced. I Absence of basic infrastructure i. 20-30% of total building costs (HAMEL:pp23) Curriculum plan Costs will vary according to what services are being provide and the child/staff ratio the most 1 Salaries represent significant percentage of educational costs (aprox 80-SO%)(SHEATH & VICKERY:pp37) Educatlonal Salaries costs + Training Training schemes may seem an expensive luxury but can contribute to the overall success of a project These will vary according to the services provided. Larger centres will cost less per pupil as facilities can be shared + Equipment.: Water etc.e. e. may reduce land costs but installing these facrlrtres is expensive and overall costs’ may not end up being less Clearing obstacles or filling in land is expensive and will add to overall 1 t nf rastructure 1 L Site characteristics Iand costs Labour l Labour forms approximately 25% of total costs (HAMEL:pp7) l Costs can be reduced by promptly awarding contracts Materials include Material costs iransportation costs. l Continual maintenance of buildings and eauioment can increase their life span considerably l Y L Furniture and equipment Furniture and equipment represent a significant percentage of total building costs .23).aprox. electricity.1 gas. land prices will be greater than in the suburbs I I Land tenure -b r Land costs Existing land tenure and ownership of the site will effect the overall cost of the project. where prices can be disproportionaly high (DAVIDSON & PAYNE :pp7.g. Government owned land is not part of the ‘ free’ market and hence not subject to the same fluctuations as the ‘ free’ land market. Using local materials is advantageous as transport costs are reduced. teaching aids and supplies - .

2 PROJECT OBJECTIVES c l Project Site In most cases information concerning the project site can usually be obtained by discussing with the relevant central or local government agencies or by referring to metropolitan and local planning proposals (DAVIDSON & PAYNE:pp22). l What are the site’ s building and/or land characteristics ? Pohts to look out foe Area and layout M: I/ Buildinas on site l l How big is site? what shape is it? Are there any existing buildings on the site? l What condition are they in? l Could they be incorporated into project design? l Ground soil conditions t Topography and vegetation I l What are existing conditions? ground soil l What are existing landscape features? natural Infrastructure WATER-drinking l l &/or other? ELECTRICITY? l GAS? DISPOSAL? DISPOSAL? l RUBBISH l SEWAGE l What infrastructure exists on site? already .

as well a commitment from all participants Expertise may be found locally or externally: Local? -> In the long term.World Declaration on education for All) An informal education project requires a wide range of expertise and experience . building/construction. l What activities neighbouring sites? take place on Proximity to public facilities l Are there any facilities near by that could be used by children as part of teaching programme? d Expertise. financial. design . experience and commitment l ‘ The provision of basic education for all depends on political commitment and political will backed by appropriate fiscal measures and reinforced by educational policy reforms and institutional strengthening’ (Article 8.l PROJECT OBJECTIVES Where is site located? Points to look out for: Accessibility Site boundaries l Is site accessible by foot? By car? By bus? By truck? etc. External? . administrative.educational. local expertise is desirable so that project can be sustained over time with out being dependent on external expertise. during early design and implementation stages of project. -> External expertise may be required initially.

However. Communication For a project to succeed there should be continual communication between all people involved. Local government l Supporting financial institutions. . it should it will be beneficial to the project. On the basis of any findings made during this process.PROJECT OBJECTIVES Throughout project there should be a continual process of evaluation to see if project aims are being met. it will also be easier to make modifications and adaptations to project (34JNESCO :pp36).ideas for possible Research Research takes time which costs be included in the programme as spent reflecting and synthesising Weaknesses of project which modifications to project. the project should be adapted and modified wherever appropriate. l How can problems be identified? & Observation money.ve . if possible. In this way any problems arising can be identified as soon as possible and dealt with in an appropriate way.e. l How can modifying be made simpler? Step by step approach Carrying out many small rapidly set up operations that can be quickly assessed will help to meet specific needs more immediately. Time information can highlight strengths and in turn wilt gi. at all levels: i. between: l process of Educators Children Personnel Local community l l l .

in Honduras. resistoleros (little rebels). on the street.mikon chkren throughout the ~world struggling for survival u&h.. Saligoman (nasty kids) in Rwanda.’ . and most probably works on the street as well. -no :gdult support. most of them derogatory. marginais (marginals) in Brazil.treet and have lost all contact with their families. and those that live and vork on the street but maintain regular contact wiih their families. educational and reinsertion nstitution. protection or prbvisibn and no or very &I& edt&$ic& (BARRETTEzp#G) 2‘ There are numerous terms used to describe urban children in distress.lal-ly vulnerable Jroup of children who spend all or most of their time on the street tnd have fallen outside any social. bui doi (dust children) ir Vietnam.__’ Food A place to live Work without harassm&t l l Recourse tb justice in ca-39 of . ’ (BARRETTE: pp7) street ?Zhildren 2 is a term used to describe a particu. )r example: A Completely abandoned child child that lives and works on the street and has no contact with his or her family B Child ‘ OF’ the street child that lives on the street but maintains regular or irregular contact with the family C Child ‘ IN’ the streei child that lives with family. spending all of their time on the .lUO. and ma/a pipe (pipe sleepers) in parts of South Africa. The above definition is a broad one that does not distinguish between hose children who live totally alone. poussins (chicks) (x moustiques (mosquitoes) i7 Cameroon. For example: gamin (urchin) and chinches (bed bugs) in Columbia. who live on the street. scugnizzi (spinning tops) in /ta/y.ANALYSIS 1 l OF TARGET POPULATION IN DISTRESS URBAN CHILDREN 1 URBAN CHILDREN IN DISTRESS ‘ In 1993 it was sstimaied that there were aver. contributing to tht family income Source-BARRETTE:ppG CHILDREN SHOULD ACCESS TO: l l l l HAVE CHILDREN l SHOULD RIGHT TO: HAVE A Health care Education Training l l l Be listened to Be ‘ different * Play and have hobbies l Leisure activities l l Express themselves Organise themselves Information difficulties .

.as a result of social changes i..q -. hiah unemployment etc. growth. yf.o. ” : . Economic problems (most common) Social changes i..‘ -. floods. l l l High unemployment levels rate i. both physical and mental Lack of care affection and emotional support achievement(parents l l l l l &MMON RESULT l Children run away from home to escape abuse Children have to work to contribute to family income Children are rejected by their families l l Source .~.y . _ material goods key to recognition l l l high population . single head of house and Children l Large and poor families High divorce/separation low educational Alcoholism Abuse in the home.. :..^.-..Y>.. transport.J :>l. ( i.ih.e. land ownership Poor working conditions No access to basic services i. water electricity etc. . :‘ : l Cultural changes .zy . I. up to 18/20 years (after which they are considered to be adults) B Child ‘ CJF’ me street l l Ages 0@-2 14 l C Chlid ‘ IN’ the street Ages 819 -> 14 0 M&t prtiddminant ages 10 -z 12 Most predo.‘ . I ~.: jll’ . . .SZANTON BLANC:pp 33 . housing..~ .e. In most cases the children are voluntary runaways escaping from problems within the family. . earthquakes l : ViiDtiRLYINE 1kZAlJ$l& (cci@mbnity) l Inadequate employment opportunities l Uneven distribution of resources.e. ..’ $.: +..._I I .r:.minant ?lgep 10 -> 12 Source .> ‘ ~’ .e.derived from Barrette:pp25-29 Ages of street children vary from anything as young as 5 years (this is rare). Political unrest Natural disasters. rapid urbanisation. i.. drought. services and opportunities i. of social acceptance etc..e.’ . ~ I. . :: . / I: ..i:<.1 URBAN CHILDREN IN DISTRESS Children turn to the street for a complex variety of reasons.e.i .

etc.2.5% boys (SPARCpp65) Kenya . street girls are difficult to locate. though to a lesser extent. so find themselves in an ‘ institution’ . l l l l l l Factory workfpiece work Deliveries Porters Washing cars Begging Stealing (petit theft) Stealing (gangs) Selling drugs Prostitution * ParkingIguardtng cars l Restaurant work l’ Rag pickin@ l Shpeshlning l Shop assisting l Domestic work Source . Those girls that do leave their families are very commonly driven to prostitution.e. off the street: Brazil .. if became c/ear that these girls are very independent and more than capable of looking after themselves’ (Children’ s Rights Ministry1 994) Street children are predominately boys. In many cultures both the family’ s and girl’ s reputation are at risk if girl is allowed to ‘ roam’ without adult supervision.. whether (SZANTON BLANC:pp that there are surprising similarities between the out by street children all over the world. Through basic interviews and assessment of 10 such street girls.1% girls & 97.1 URBAN CHILDREN IN DISTRESS ‘ Whilst street boys are highly visible.10% girls & 90% boys (SZANTON BLANC:pp 61) India . 326) Some common examples of work activities: Setting inexpensive items for a small profit VENDING SERVICES Oft& marginal activities that are hard to quantify l l l l l OTHER Newspapers Lottery tickets l Flowers * Food (snacks) l Fruit * Chewing gum * Biscuits’ .SZANTON BLANC:pp324 - . Girls are to be found on the street as well. The small seem to reflect the economic development of the economy is agriculturally or industrially based.9% girls & 91% boys (SZANTON BLANC:pp 236) Philippines (SZANTON . they exist none the less.37% girls 63% boys BLANC:pp ) Research has shown work activities carried variations there are country i.

Some approximate different countries: examples of hours spent working by street children in INDIA l 25~30 days a l l month 50% work more than 8 hours a CQY 5% work more &Y than 10 hours a Source .These findings should only be taken as a very general indicator as street children. the main station or the Onatra Port). They stop work between midday and 2pm andget together to play or rest on the pavement Those who do the washing up or work as porters or shoe shiners can hardly even take a midday break. very often.181. Research has shown. When the shops and markets close the children go off to the Victoire roundabout (In Kinshasa (Zaire) VELIS:pp53) It is impossible to be very precise about how many hours street children work a day as their working hours are usually sporadic i.350 . Around 6 am they have break-fast if they have any money and then go to their workplace (the post office.SZANTON BLANC:pp 64. vendors will work as and when there is a demand for the products they are selling. the Memling Hotel. will give the answers they think people want to hear rather than what they really feel (SWART:pp4) ‘ The children get up at day break.e. .186. the central market. that between 20 & 40% of child’ s earnings goes to the family (providing child is still in contact with his/her family)(SZANTON BLANC:pp 61) HOW STREET CHILDREN IN NAMIBIA PRIORITISE THEIR SPENDING (TACON:ppl7). however.1 URBAN CHILDREN IN DISTRESS It is hard to quantify how much street children earn and how they spend these earnings.

SZANTON BLANC:pp351 .’ (MURRAY:pp231) l ‘ Hygiene is poor and the many injuries caused by physical violence or accidents during their dangerous lives on the street often become infected (.(SWART:pp89) l ‘ Hungry children do not learn well. variety and stimulation from work * Interaction with peers Interaction with meaningful adults l l Source . The children inhale glue fumes to escape from reality.SWART:ppSl Physical Hazards Malnutrition Susceptibility to diseases Physical tiredness Lack of sleep Skeletal deformations @ofleN Accidents (factory workers. Hungry and unhealthy children are more likely to drop out of school than other children. fear. loneliness. In the long term smoking glue is damaging to the health. street vendors) Infections (scavengers) Sexually transmitted diseases (prostitutes) Unhealthy. Solvent abuse also causes rapid mood swing and inability to concenVate. Monograph ll:pp64) Source .1 URBAN CHILDREN IN DISTRESS Research shows that in most cases the general health of street children is not good. police etc.) They are at high risk from sexually diseases. hunger etc. peers etc. to dull their senses and shut out the cold. airless environments (factory workers) Danger of Abuse and Exploitation l Psychological and Social Hazards Lack of sufficient: l l l l l l l l l l l Psychological-z=from employers. teachers.(SWART:pp84)..’ (Education for All.. transmitted notably Aids. about which they are ill informed (VELIS:ppGl) Drug and solvent abuse is 3 major problem for many street children. ‘ The root cause of many of their problems is malnutrition. l l l Parental t6ve and care Control over decisions Leisure time Personal satisfaction. Street children have lower average heights and weights than the overall child population indicating malnutrition. It attacks the respiratory system and can damage eye sight due to light penetrating into dilated pupils. Sexual Physical->from police.

237. (Approximate figures as children will often deny that they have stopped attending school). and does ‘ Authority figures in the community.1 URBAN CHILDREN IN DISTRESS ‘ Street observation showed that one of street children’ s main survival strategies was lie telling in order to keep people at a distance. !r&jo * Table B. such as magistrates. to generate handouts and to preserve a sympathetic view of their condition. IN VARIOUS COUNTRIES.SZANTON BLANC:ppl24.1% 11% 16% 67% 58% 45.. Sources-TACON:ppl7. The arrest and detention of street children is common . ’ (Agnelli :pp60) In general street children are distrustful of authority. the police and social workers are inclined to view street children with disapproval and to take punitive action against them. hours can not find the time to attend school.224. SZANTON BLANC:ppll5. OR ARE ATTENDING SCHOOLS. Street Children who HAVE been to school Street Children who ARE CURRENTLY in school Street Children who have NEVER been to schoot or are curre$. TACON:pp24: SPARC:pp71 .. The malunde run away from the police.’ C 13 years Source Street children are frequently apprehended by the police: .8% 45% 48.) 40% 40-60% 24% Frequently Source .6% 13% . ’ (SWART:pp4) The majority of children who are living and working on the street do not attend formal schools. The police is going to hit him with a stick. text books not l is often unrelated of these children to their lives.SWART:pplO9 COUNTRY INDIA PHILIPPINES NAMIBIA KENYA N’ OF CHILDREN APPREHENDED BY POLICE AT LEAST ONCE (afirox.ut of Literacy rate COUNTRY INDIA PHILIPPINES _NAMlBlA KENYA 2. SPARC:pp67 Some common reasons: l Malnutrition and poor health may be underlying attendance (NKINYANGI & VAN DER VYNK:ppl) .: SHOWS PERCENTAGES OF CHILDREN WHO HAVE. particularly the police ‘ This is by Fontana (a shop in Hillbrow) . often school factors during for low school formal school l Money -> many children are unable and other learning materials The teaching curriculum cater to the special needs to afford uniforms. Some may have been to school earlier on in their lives but have dropped out. Time -> Children working too many hours.

l The street children The local community Other organisations working with street children that in combination can Each group will reveal different bits of information provide an insight into the lives of street children STREET CHILDREN Establish priorities children needs and of street through: LOCAL COMMUNITY Establish views and available resources (human and material) within the community through: l Interviews Questionnaires l Observation l Informal talks group and individual l Observation l Drawing techniques l RESEARCHER OTHER ORGANISATIONS Exchange and share information through: l Talks Meetings l Seminars Conferences l l . the adults try to entice the children to come to the Patio de Gamin. Traditional methods (i. Discovering how they live. a Welfare Centre. the organisers of the project and helpers from ICBF (Institute Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar)go out to visit the street children.. requires specialised research approaches. At first the sharing of a few cigarettes or sweets and a simple ‘ hi there’ are sufficient. One is never truly in their position. their likes and dislikes. Medellin. street children are often mistrustful of authority. Twice a week. ‘ The first step is to establish contact with the children and to win their confidence.2 RESEARCH METHOD AND APPROACH As a result of being rejected by their families and society. sniffing glue.. sometimes even elaborating on their hardships in life to impress the interviewer. (DALLAPE:1988) It is impossible to participate fully in children’ s lives as this would involve living in dustbins. their needs and priorities. at night. In order to find out more about the way they live it is necessary to combin various information gathering techniques. Little by /M/e. It has been found that these children will often give you answers that they think you want to hear.’ (The Ciudad Don Bosco project.e. Colombia Sited 3 l UNESCO:ppl93) Information about street children can be gathered observing and having a dialogue with: 1 3 4 l l by approaching.) are not usually appropriate. begging etc. questionnaires and formal interviews etc.

’ Group discussions can yield information on many aspects of the children’ s lives giving a broad overview of the children’ s street life style. hopes and needs.2 RESEARCH METHOD AND APPROACH ‘ Formal interviewing was impossible for three reasons. Secondly their concentration spans were low due to inhaling glue fumes or to poor health.playing a game. patronising them l Source . singing etc. not when they are working).BARRETTE:pp92 Meeting children in their own environment . l Meet to children in their own environment them (i. feelings. beliefs. and listen carefully to what they have to by doing (SWART:pp4) l Make contact with the child casually i. Below are some hints as to how street children might best be approached. It can be used to check the accuracy of _statements made by street children (SWART:pp5) l How should street children be approached? By meeting the children in their own environment it is possible to understand a little about their day to day lives. Firstly the children hesitated to trust information to authority figures. and formal interviewing implied authority. And /asHy discussions were continually interrupted by the children dashing off to guide cars into parking bays or to beg for money. In combination with individual discussions and observation a reasonably accurate impression can gained about these children. attract their attention something unusual . Drawings done by the children can provide a valuable additional perspective on their lives (SWART:pp2). community responses to street children and the way street children interact with each other.e.e. avoid persuading. l Do not treat them with fear Treat them as equals. Drawings may reveal information about the children that they would otherwise be unwilling or unable to communicate Observation is an important means of discovering daily routines. convincing. at a time that is convenient to l Give them your full attention say.

Reintegration of child into society l How can street children be reintegrated info society? Prepare children for prison release Widen children’ s range of experiences Promote public awareness Reduce time spent by child in the street l ‘ It was concluded (Grand Bassam Conference. - ‘ Basic education should be provided to all children .give child a role + purpose. the repressive strict character of such institutions is considered to contribute to the children’ s isolation rather than to promote their reintegration into society. Better understand and address children’ s real needs l Improve self esteem .of society towards street children . vocational training etc. moral support Stop exploitation Child participation . Africa 1985) that the placement of street children in formal institutions for rehabilitation served no useful purpose..allow beneficiaries l of their rights and how to exercise to play key role in their own l development l Put to good use qualities required to survive on the street (intuition. boldness.e birth . documents i.2 3 l l EDUCATORS CHILDREN 1 PRIMARY AIMS When working with street children the ultimate hope is that they will eventually.of street children towards society l Encourage community participation and interaction Exploit positive aspects of the street (space. facilities etc. schools. street and working children. responsibility.. imagination.) Generate funds (to maximise organisation’ s Get administrative independence) balance right .Inform children .igh& opportunities and g future.) undeserved groups the poor.World Declaration on Education for All) Jamily reintegration /reconciliation. Parent/child relationship development Reinsertion of ’‘ dhild’ back into work. practical intelligence. through a supportive assistance and learning programme. become respected. Although it suits society to have children out of site. (. . quick wittedness) l Assist children in obtaining administrative certificates. capacity for organisation.maximum production / minimum administration and them l l l . national identity cards etc. should not suffer any discrimination in access to learning opportunities.’ (Ahua and Yacouba:pp24)) l l l 9 Change attitudes . integrated members of society with . ’ (Article 3 ..

persuade them to go to the day centre where patient attempts are made to wean the child of certain habits. protection and affection l Be reliable and consistent l Be fair + sympathetic l Be open-minded and non judgmental (no moralising) l Be flexible and adaptable necessary ‘ The approach here is step-&v-step because there is c/ear awareness that success can never be obtained immediate/y. through theatre .Recreational activities and sport . Then the street educator. may perhaps.Child -> child education (other children are well placed to understand their peers) .2 EDUCATORS The fundamental role of educators is to act as ‘ facilitators’ . The third step is entry into the ‘ /We hostels’ .’ (Hogares The teaching method and approach enabling project to run as efficiently should complement project and effectively as possible aims 9 How can teaching method achieve these aims? l Step by step approach . These hostels are purposefully small. a /earning environment of vibrancy and warmth .Education conducted through dialogue (improve communication skills) . Argentina.i. ‘ The education of children and their parents or other caretakers is mutually supportive and this interaction should be used to create. not ‘ instructors’ . respected members of society. educator and family . a family atmosphere where activities can be carried out together work.World + Hok wwducaiors Educators should: l achiawfhese aims3 Declaration on Education for All) Act as ‘ facilifators’ not as ‘ instructors: -> provide children with information and support wherever and /or helpful . with rights opportunities and a future.To meet each child’ s individual needs l l Creative teaching l Personalised teaching Don Bosco project.Qualifications not so important as commitment . house chores. study. Sited 3 l UNESCO:pp246) .Role playing . The aim is to recreate.’ (Article 6. Not behave in authoritarian manner l Always be available l Be a source of encouragement. First these children must be contacted wherever they are actually found. assisting and supporting street children wherever appropriate.Constant revaluation and assessment of project -> continually changing system to meet needs l Team work Reciprocal teaching -Between child.e. at /east in part. in the process of becoming integrated. Buenos Aires. sports and other forms of recreation. for a//.Positive use of peer pressure .

’ (Africa Foundation project. tiny businesses adapted to the experience of street children. Having actually ‘ lived’ similar problems to other street children they may be able to communicate more successfully with them.@.(3 l UNESCO:ppl02) Introduce reciprocal teaching l For example: l ‘ Child to child’ teaching or ‘ junior educators‘ in which child is both teacher and pupil.(3 l UNESCO:ppl32). l l Involve incIuding children generat in the upkeep of school facilities maintenance of buildirig(s) in administration and fund-raising and equipment. l Involve children For example: ‘ Nothing. The children. shoe polish. can lead to greater understanding and complicity. peer counselling works on the assumption that street children are their own best confidants. These ‘ youth stores’ stock various items i. are well placed to communicate with other children and to understand what approaches work best. Source 3 l UNESCO:ppl86) l In Bolivia (ENDA-Bolivia project) they have set up micro co-operatives.)The children themselves are responsible for stocking the store and dealing with suppliers etc. . For example: Hold meetings between children and staff to discuss future course of project l Allow children to choose which educators they would like to collaborate with l In a centre where meals are provided allow children to draw up food menus. allow children to decide on what types of objects to make and what to do with finished product i. however.e. Children who have already come to terms with and resolved some of their difficulties can be trained in basic counselling techniques.@ional. They are the ones who supply the social workers and other adults with the relevant and vita/ information needed to approach street children for the first time.e. Kampala. including ordering/buying of food and cleaning of kitchen l Allow children to decide how to dress l Where workshop activities are available. Their shared experiences and language. UGANDA. toothbrushes etc. would be possible without the participation of those now ‘ readapted’ youngsters who were on the street themselves and have personal/y experienced the different phases in the re adaptation process. participate in meal preparation. and they continue to provide invaluable help to children passing from one phase to the next. l ‘ Peer counselling I-> In a similar way to ‘ child to child’ teaching. are they to be sold or used in centre etc.3 CHILDREN The children should be allowed to participate decision making with a view to developing appropriate and relevant to their real needs and collaborate a project that in is Allowing children to have a say in how project is and will be organised will help them to feel more involved and therefore more committed to the project l lnvolye technical the children in decisions concerninq and prufessional training programmes thSe2. This approach has been adopted by a number of organisations working with street children (3 l UNESCO:ppl9) and has proved to be very successful. having experienced similar problems and having personally experienced the different phases in the re-adaptation process.

e. pride and _ accomplishment and will help to ensure that project is appropriate to the general needs of the community.World Declaration on Education for All) l City level Action committees of l Nation& National forum Justice forum level l l l l l Government Organisations Action committees Non Government Organisations City corporation Government departments for women and children.. the private sector. This involves identifying the measure of responsibility of every member of the community for the growth and development of each street child and for the prevention of delinquency and other related problems. at a local level. (Education for All. Continual input by the community before and after project implementation is important if project wishes to be susfainable. and tabour Individual citizens Media and publicity i. education.) new and revitalised partnerships at all levels will be (Bosco Yuvodaya street children project. development Participation can help restore or build feelings of ownership. Source 3 l UNESCO:pp228) From project conception a dialogue organisers and the local community l should be initiated between participation project What are the advantages of community agency staff learning from each other (. ’ (Paaralang Pang-Tao street children project. communications and other social sectors . equally the ‘ street child educational institution may have facilities that can be used by the community l l l How can community participation be achieved? ‘ Bosco has developed as a community based project involving society at large and using the services available within the community. national rallies and campaigns l l l . PHILIPPINES. local rallies and campaigns Private businesses Religious groups l Organisations working for policy implementation and transformation * Media and publicity i.4 LOCAL COMMUNITY ‘ The process of designing learning opportunities with a development project should be interactive. religious groups and families.~~66) l Members of the local community will be able to provide information on how things function.e. with local groups and ‘ Get the community behind you and you will find that you have tapped into an immense fund of creativity. ’ (Article 7. India. This is achieved by action at different levels’ To provide basic education for all (. manila. As ‘ street children’ are often looked upon by society as outcasts. Monograph 11.) With more imaginative planning. partnerships between government organisations. Bangalore. l l interventions provide could significant learning opportunities which in turn could enhance the empowerment of the communities concerned’ . youth services. -Local community can make available facilities that can be used by the children..and resourcefulness. local communities. finance. Sited 3 l UNESCO:pp215) For example: necessary: partnerships between education and other government departments including planning... labour. socially and financially. politically. involvement by the community in the project can improve general public awareness to the realities of the problem Pooling of resources => socio-economic improvement for all.

If it is too noisy. if the light is too bright or too dull we get sore eyes and heads. These measurements and ratios should be taken into account when designing furniture so that it is comfortable for its users Some examples of ratios of standing educational building design Source . Sizes of rooms.. Our bodies adapt and adjust but the overall effect. we can’ t hear and lose concentration. If we are too hot we become lethargic and lose concentration.e.EB No1 8:pp2 height (SH) that are important for - . if we continue working in these hostile conditions for too long.‘ (NEUFERT:ppS) Body ratios tend to be very similar in different countries (EB-18:ppl) This has allowed researchers to develop a system of proportion whereby measurements of all parts of the body can be deduced from the standing height alone. Suddenly when the lights in the room are turned on again it seems impossible to imagine having been able to work in the poorly lit conditions present a few moments earlier. interior decoration (i.PHYSICAL COMFORT 1 l PHYSICAL COMFORT 2 l THERMAL COMFORT 3 l ACOUSTIC COMFORT 4 l LIGHTING COMFORT PHYSICAL COMFORT How often has the reader found themselves working in dwindling light without really noticing. Creating an environment where the users feel physically comfortable is important to their productivity.. comfortable and secure.. if we are too cold. or intimidated and threatened.etc. if our chairs or tables are too big or too small we get pains. Building design influences the way users feel both physically and psychologically. our bodies stiffen up.e. use of different materials and colours) can change the ‘ ambience’ of a room and hence change how the user feels i..etc. can be detrimental. l What is meant by Anthropomefrics? ‘ Anthropometrics is the science of measurement of the human body and its movements in space.

aqd g+& npisy n roof and walls wind blown rain horizontal % AL facing prevailing wind not a significant design aspect vertical %\a\ \ not a significant design aspect not a significant design aspect vertical wind driven rain not required I facing prevailing wmd wind driven rain wind driven rain .apq & noisy IL n ieavy. not reauired Source 6 l UNESCO:pp7 .i?&.THERMAL COMFORT ie?vy.

lNG WINDS - .2 THERMAL COMFORT Hint Look at traditional buildings to see what buSding techniques and materials have been used in the past l l Exclude direct sunlight 1 /1’1’ \‘ .‘ .‘ . \‘ . y ‘ \‘ \A \ \v \\ \\\\ l Maximise natural ventilation 7 Al4 MOVEMENT lHROWi t?UILDlNG OPEN PlANNIdG TD CATL%ms’ ~~.

2 THERMAL COMFORT l Keeping buildings warm by avoiding heat loss I’ I .

Different activities are affected by noise in different ways i.e. I~ Source .1977 Source .unwanted sound . At low levels it can be disturbing or annoying and at very high levels it can damage the hearing.VIROCHSRIRI & XANTHARID.EB No1 - . reading requires a quieter environment than workshop activity.. l *Sound absorbing materials (@specialty on ceilings) l Dense material paftitkons Double partitions {a cupboard has two partitions and could serve as an acoustic buffer] *Avoid air passages.can interfere with verbal communication. beIween rooms .ACOUSTIC COMFORT Noise .

200 tux Source -6 l l UNESCO:ppl4 How c_anglare be reduced? Glare can be reduced by: Painting internal surfaces around small windows. in light colours thus reducing contrast levels l l Increasing the size of windows .LIGHTING COMFORT Good lighting conditions in learning.%xample~ l For exmtpl% l on a blackboard l WorkshQps . Objects are seen bjwontr%st between ihe. with out significant changes in temperature Illumination ieveis @IX) l light can be let in contrast Glare _.-wall => blinding bright iiqht 9 Naked r&asting surface iight bulb on j shiny Gircrtlation & toitets f Kl~fLt% aasi room l . tasks areas ^and their siirroundings >. l The II @chafer. l White chalk Iju’ iiting is easier ‘ to see than cdwred crhalk‘ Small wlhcbwe‘ in d large ‘ d&. By carefully planning size and location of openings.215 -> 323 lux * Administration -‘ 215tux. they can also let in direct sunlight (causing temperature rises and hence discomfort in hot climates). l + Okire is caUsed by sharp differengel in brightness ‘ and can resuft in discomfort to the syss For. Shading naked light bulbs . tha contrast the 4nwe visible the object . l Large windows/openings allow natural light in. Continual straining of eyes in dimly lit rooms can eventually cause permanent damage to the eyes(EB N012). or they let out warm air (causing temperature drops in cold climates). cracks etc. recreational or working environments are required for users to see properly and feel comfortable.

ADMINISTRATION AND RECEPTION 9 General administration and secretarial work l Filing office work/information l Promoting public awareness . and problem solving) and the basic learning content (such as knowledge. Holding meeting between staff members .. to improve the quality of their lives. tug of war. circus. numeracy. oral expression.!. theatre /variety show etc. CELEBRATION l Birthdays l Religious festivals/ ceremonies l National holidays l l l l l l l l B l PLAY Board games Cards Educational videos Outings Camping.f U~#!$3~~~~~m~ 03 @j#e . .li ii A ‘ . to furniture and equipment ‘ Essential learning too/s (such as ‘ literacy. sack races. to develop to their full capacities to live and work in dignity.e. ’ (Article l-World Declaration on Education for All) 3 b ffecreatbn and socio-cultural ? A. values. Holding meetings with people from outside organisation -Parents -Members of local community -Government representatives -Police l Interviewing future staff members (paid and volunteer) l Monitoring project process 2 Upkeep of centre l A l l l l HOUSEKEEPING Preparing meals Cleaning centre Laundry B l MAINTENANCE (inside and outside ) . l i . to make informal decisions and to continue learning. etc. skills. Pool/billiards Television and video Team games -> Relay races. 3 legged race. C l SPORT . and attitudes) (are) required by human beings to be able to survive. to participate fully in development. scouting. Acrobatics l Badminton . Painting / decorating l repairing damages i.2 SERVICES/ ACTIVITIES some examples a . Ball games -Basket ball -Football -Table tennis -Tennis -Volley ball l Running l Swimming .

goats. and arithmetic -General studies -History -Geography -Current affairs -Language -Science(s) ’Learning does not take place in isolation. AGRICULTURAL Fruit tree farming Market gardening (vegetables) Rearing livestock i. general physical and emotional support they need in order to participate actively in.2 SERVICES/ ACTIVITIES some examples 4 l Educationai A l PERSONAL l l l l Hygiene -including personal Nutrition Health -abortion. chickens. writing. income generating l l l l l A. sexually transmitted diseases. must ensure that a// learners receive the nutrition. contraception. pigs etc. AIDS etc. Courier service Domestic help Hotel boy training Interior decorators Launders Massage Painting/decorating Receptionist Remunerative employment Typing l l l l l l l l l l .market gardening Tree planting l B SERVICES Cooking ..) First aid (staff and children) l B*SELF EXPRESSION & COMMUNICATION Arts and crafts -Painting -Sculpture 9 Theatre /Drama -Puppet -Street (theatre) -Role playing Music (group & individual) -Singing -Musical instruments -Percussion (innovation) -Dance l C l l TRADITIONAL SCHOOL SUBJECTS Literate / numeracy -Reading. parents Referral to big hospitals in cases of emergency l l 6 Vocational training. health care. Societies therefore. drug dependency. Counselling -group/individual -With children.e. and benefit from their education’ (Article 6-World Declaration on Education for All) 5 l Special care l l l l l l A MEDICAL CARE AND COUNSELLING Basic medical treatment Providing free medicines Dental care Eye care (glasses) Immunisation/vaccination De worming .

con t. knitting Textile.. ’ -Block making -Windows -Doors Electric’ s -electronic. weaving and spinning Toy making Woodcarving l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l D WORKSHOP ACTIVITIES (heavy duty) Car mechanics -Car body work -Car electric’ s -Car mechanics Construction material product -Brick making. income generating . electricity and house wiring -Radio engineering -Refrigeration and air -conditioning Metal work -Iron moulding -Locksmith and welding -Sheet metal working -Welding Wood work -Carpentry -Joinery -Woodcarving Plumbing l l l l l l l 7 Residentiaf l l l l l l l Sleeping Resting Cooking Eating Washing Laundry .SERVICES/ ACTIVITIES some examples C 6 9 Vocational training. l WORKSHOP ACTIVITIES (light ..Art and Crafts) Book binding Cane work Candle making Carpet weaving Ceramics and pottery Door mat making Embroidery Leather work Lithography Mat and carpet weaving Papier mache Printing Tailoring (uniforms).

working with street children will vary according to how project isorganised and the scale of project.govemment representatives. and gathering and giving out information. police etc.Offlce~s) Basic administration and management of centre 3 l - Wleeting.EXAMPLE Administration Typical provisions COMMENTS The administrative provisions required to run a centre. C l Resource centre Fmal centre where fund raising and public awareness takes place and where information can be gathered and dispersed DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS A l Office(s) Basic administration and management of centre Horizontal work surface(s) Lockable storage space for office equipment and personal Source . For larger scale projects there will probably need to be provisions for holding meetings. TYPICAL PROVtSlONS A. For smaller scale projects there may only need to be an office space where secretarial work takes place. parents.rwm(s) Meeting place for staff.SPIEGLER:ppCS Storage space for filing of records . organising fund-raising activities.. members of the community.

EXAMPLE Meeting rooms Resource centre typical provisions COMMENTS ‘ In November 1989. police etc. Meeting place for stsff.e.m ! l Design should allow for both informal. parents. however..’ (Atelier Bon Conseil. each department has been given greater autonomy and performance assessment has become much easier. 3-oom J9a3. As a result of these modifications.e.the cammunRy. with families of children and children themselves) and formal with government meetings (i. Site 4-UNESCO:ppl64) DESIGN CONSIDERA’ IIONS B l Meeting ram@) .. m8mbrs of. relaxing discussions (i. government representatives. There should be plenty of horizontal work surfaces Examples conditions of possible seating (NEUFERT:pp238) arrangements and DESlGN CONSlDERATlONS C l Resource centre Focal centre where fund raising and public awareness takes place and where information can be gathered and dispersed l A resource centre could double up as a meeting room and place to receive visitors mend work surfa. representatives and other officials). administration and management services have become less centralised. the accounting. the Centre introduced a new and clearer accounting system so that information on any current operation could be readily unearthed.can beused forholding meefings - . Togo.

z.-$\Q~.‘ $~~ . .l ‘ .. .‘ i.:~:\. .II : .-. .<. ( .~ .” .‘ ..... ~. ~ ..:~ . i. > .I ^ y.. OF Perishable foods. x:“*& . . I ~~ .‘ . .: ._ .I 1 ..: +... ..I** <:. ....:+yi.j.g..I . : . ... oil etc. .‘ . i . :” . : /...’ ... . ... ...::.: . ‘ . ~ ““. .~<>. .’ .~~. .&.y..‘ .” .I . ‘ >l . .Flour. .”.j : .r”.> :‘ $’‘ j... ..I . ..:. ’.‘ ~~ / >’ “ ‘ . .* ’ ‘ . OF l Food l Equipment l Fuel ASSOCIATED l l l l l l ACTIVITIES .i”. j.‘ ‘ _..i.I_ Disposing of kitchen waste Cornposting perishable kitchen waste Derived from THEDE:1991 ..:.. 9 :...... .Firewood... 3.:” <. .i........ .:. <$~ \ ?‘ . y:-.l i._‘ .:t... .y..i 3 .z $. I’ d. .. .. j. +:l 1-C :.. “:‘ ... :... I. .%‘ > I l l OF: Kitchen Equipment and fittings Kitchen and dining area I : WASTE LiI&SAL’ L.h d...:$j$jVING Transferring food to smaller pots l Keeping food warm * Carrying food to tables l Transferring food onto plates I I . between y’ ... .“.‘ i :I.:. i . :.‘ $..:.~. ... .. <.CLEJNING . A ‘ 1. ..I.. .Y .... petrol etc. .EXAMPLE Kitchen Sequence of activities COMMENTS For a kitchen to run efficiently there should be close connections related activities that allow rational organisation of work. . pulses.’ ._‘ .i”. *n ‘ : ~:-. . Ij’ .” “ ’ . . ..*~. ” Weighing Measuring Mixing Cooking l l l l l l l prepared ingredients Baking Boiling Frying Grilling Stirring Mixing Managing stoves I . ....f~~~RINCi&iVASHlN~ . Non perishable foods .. /.’ “. !‘ ..& 7’ f.+<.....: . ..Meat...\1 v ~..~i..“...B’ ~~~~~. ‘ . . I ‘ .:.. ASSOCIATED l l ACTIVITIES :&y. \ .y.. vegetables. ..: : ~‘ .’ ~ . salt.?&> .. Ordering Delivering Carrying Measunng Weighing Paying 1... I”-$’ I : Lzz>:i$ ( I I. . ~ .’ .f~.* .ra?.: . +:..Cooking.’ ~.. UtenSilS .‘ .‘ : ..\‘ ~ “. 1..:.: e ‘ ~ .I .. ‘ ”‘ . gasoline.::.. j ‘ . fruit and dairy products etc.:. (.‘ .i ... :‘ ..:’ : “.?._. .. . *..:. .‘ . .:“. I$ ... ...... ‘ >“:. .‘ .‘‘ ..“L‘ I : . ‘ ...::y .I Cleaning and peeling fruit and vegetables (can be done outside equally well as inside) Cleaning and chopping meat (should be done away from other areas of food preparation) Mixing l l l ingredients FOOD PREFMATION ~ ‘ .. (.:*<>*.&S : a:.: . ‘ I:‘ ~ /.f....‘ :~ Y’ ...^ .’ . ‘ ....: . ‘ .‘ . ‘ ) lj .‘ :‘ Y”.I .+ :.’ ASSOCIATED l ACTIVITIES ” ‘ . . serving and eating equipment Fuel . l.. 3‘ .A<.. ..~‘ .’ .. j*jl” ./. I” . charcoal.. ..>~Y.:. & . . . ‘ ...‘ .‘ S. .t ‘ “ ..:“. ~ : i .~... ‘ . “‘.. ” * P~Gii&ANti $JPPtY : -: .e..~r’ r.::<: .j.:.I’ .+’ : .:... ~: ’ ‘ . _.. I ..: ..-..!‘ ...C... I.x..~i~.!. ASSOCIATED l l l l ACTIVITIES UP ~ l l Transferring used plates to washing up area Washing Stacking Drying Putting away Rubbish disposal ‘ .. . j ......“. .. s ” . .. . ‘ ^. J’ . ~.‘ .~._ ( ..a.. _Is :~I.:.: .* . / ~.. ..““ .>*:... ~I . . s ”‘ _“ ‘ 1 . ^ x .~ ’.: :..“’ . ..L. .. .’‘ .:..’ _’ ‘ .. .. I .. .’ .C.I .““C:. .pj ...ST&.’ . ”: ..‘ I< : : : :.. I . . -‘ ‘ a. y. ... I I “.. . .d ^’.... .I ..‘ .I’ . .. ASSOCIATED ACTIVITIES Preparing ingredients l l ‘ ... .*s:...‘ .::.._. .*< I. a. ..

They should be moveable and covered. 1-1 SERVING AREA The basic requirement for a serving area is a counter (large enough for plates. drying onions. drying food. It should be close to preparation work tops. can be done outside. The main rubbish bins or containers should be outside.) This area should have some protection from direct sun and rain. receiving supplies etc. DUSTBIN AREA DINING AREA Size of dining hall will depend on how many children are eating. In centres serving more than 400 meals it is desirable to have a separate room from which food can be served. serving dishes etc. or cleaning grains and pulses. An outdoor area is particularly important in hot climates. can easily be transferred from tables to washing up area. is carried out by street children themselves of by should be simple and practical. washing rice and beans.) which is close to cupboards containing eating and serving utensils. and close to cooking area COOKING AREA Stove area is best placed in centre of the kitchen area. i. There should be doors leading directly outside in case of a fire. shelf widths and depths should correspond to size of the objects they will be carrying. where traditionally much of general food preparation takes place (i. Passages between work lops and stove should be wide enough to allow the easy movement of people while cooks are working. Smaller rubbish bins in the kitchen especially near dish washing area so that scraps can easily be cleared away. (Derived from THEDE:1991) . though some activities i.e. be orgamsed contents. easy to -1 STORAGE AREA Storerooms should be close to both &w~ and food pfeparation areas.EXAMPLE Kitchen Design and planning considerations COMMENTS Whether food preparation staff members the design and efficient preparation clean environment. In smaller centres a serving area in the kitchen is perfectly adequate.e. chillies etc. well ventilated. thus maximising the efficient use of space. The whole activity of food preparation can be made easier by having plenty of work surfaces at levels which are comfortable to users. PREPARATION AREA Most of the food preparation will take place inside the kitchen. allowing for quick of food in a comfortable. Shutters to close off serving area is recommended if adjoining dining area is used for other activities during the day DISH WASHING AREA OUTDOOR AREA The washing up area can be situated both inside or outside the kitchen. chopping wood. In both cases it should be near to serving counter or dining room entrance so that dirty plates etc.e. They according their a. If there are many children it is advisable to eat in shifts so facilities can be shared.

(Source-LOVE) . can be stored in open boxes at lower IeVelS: (THEDE:ppS) Metal grill or wooden frame used with hooks can be used for hanging utensils etc.e. sacks of flour and maze etc.EXAMPLE Kitchen Storage design considerations COMMENTS Storage space should be well organised so things are easy to find. A clean food store will minimise the possibility of vermin attacks -> food should notbe stored directly on floors l 5 4 i Shelves and cupboards in a store room should correspond to their contents. l Cleanliness is of utmost importance. Objects should be within easy reach. Larger. if possible daylight should be provided especially if there is no electricity. heavier objects i.

It is pointless having sophisticated kitchen equipment that can not be repaired due to lack of spare parts. subdividing a cooking area into small rooms will hamper natural cross ventilation and light. Similarly if there is no electricity for artificial lighting and ventilation. Cupboards accessible from more than one side are practical for a kitchen dining area .EXAMPLE kitchen Preparing ingredients and cooking food COMMENTS Kitchen design should take into account local traditions of food preparation and local climate. . I/&$ 1 mm Passa e ways (THED ? :pplO) between work-top I cooking areas should be wide enough for people to pass by easily :itche vtx .

EXAMPLE kitchen Room planning I I COMMENTS The most successful designs will be those that allow for flexibility in use .

EXAMPLE kitchens Case studies COMMENTS The examples sited below hope to serve as a guideline so the reader can have an approximate idea of how much space is required to serve a given number of meals... SERVES 50 (THEDE:ppS) + ~ ..Mwanga.Ken a. SERVES 100 . Room sizes will vary according to how many meals are prepared at any one time i.. 100 meals prepared over 24 hours in several shifts will require less space than 100 meals prepared in one shift. AFRICA (Source-l-DE BOSCH K E MPER:) Children eat together in a family like environment I 0 1 2 3 4 5 metres applicable to all plans on this page .n -...e. (THEDE:ppl3) AFRICA SERVES 270 .

AFRICA (THEDE:ppl5) C-----.EXAMPLE kitchens Case studies COMMENTS SERVES 250._----L KmEhlm= A-_------ 0 1 2 3 4 5 metres Children can help with the preparation of meals .-.-. Tanga.

lines can be strung up if more hanging lines are required . (Derived from Hamel:pp35-36) l Drying area can be inside or outside depending on the local climate.. Children can be involved in this process as part of their rehabilitation. These can also be used to sort through items.e.Laundry Design and planning considerations Typical sequence of activities l fn a residential centre for street children there will need to be a laundry facility where clothes.e. according to different materials and colours.. l The ‘ sink’ area will vary according to local customs i. Buenos Sited Aires. floor surface should be non-slip and sloped to a drain/channel or directly outside. Depending on the amount of laundry and local customs these might be built in boilers fired with wood. drains channels etc. l Laundering could form part of educational syllabus-->vocationaI training in laundering process: SORTING > REMOiING STAINS/ MENDING ’ > WASHING > RlNStNG > DRYtNG > tRONltiG > FOLDING Depending on the local climate and customs. etc. l Stained clothes can be treated here before they are washed with rest of laundry ’ kl WASHING AREA v Washing area should be directly linked to preparation area to avoid carrying dirty laundry any great distances.e. l There should be plenty of storage for laundered items and general equipment (pressing boards. DRYING AREA Articles are pressed. if inside there should be provisions to allow water to drain away i. baskets or boxes. Any items that are damaged can be mended here. l Stoves may be required to heat water. Argentina. there should be a work top to one side and a draining surface to the other.) l Pressing area and drying area should be closely linked. l There should be plenty of hanging rails and racks. 3*UNESCO:pp252) THE FUNCTIONAL RELATIONSHIPS ASSUME THAT IN THE MAJORITY WILL BE DONE BY HAND INDICATED BELOW OF CASES WASHING PREPARATION AREA --- l Preparation area is where laundry is sorted. can be washed. l Washing area should be easy to clean and durable. standing or squatting. be done both indoors and outdoors laundry can ‘ There is also an educational aspect to the way the children rt?l&fe to theif cio”tilffg (. sloping floor. For either condition.) It Is important ta make them understand #at what they wear forms such an aential element of their appearance (Horgares Don Basco project. to keep dirty laundry. folded and stored in this area. bedding etc. It is helpful to have large containers i. or gas or kerosene stoves on which a boiling pot can be placed PRESSING l AREA I. irons.

EB N”19:pp2) Ctili@iil fdi@&Gwi& jh@itt&$. p..coun~ig~ arid ‘ WHY IS ~~E@F~~AT~~~&&TA~ PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT Physical skills Stamina Co-ordination Elegance of body movement .t”c)~~~.y j.I.&+. :~~~~~~~~~~i~~~~~~~ .> and. It can be used as a way to make initial contact with street children by breaking down psychological barriers (i.” ‘ ..~~~P.&& Jalg3*4xka~h &t& . ..:. SOCIAL DEVELOPtiikT By playing in groups children can learn to: l Respect and trust each other l Follow rules l Share l Cope with conflict situations EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT Through recreation (group and individual) children develop : l The ability to make decisions l The ability to control aggression l The ability to cope with personal challenges (self reward).~:.~ .&g&j~ be .’ : i ~Adv&~@~&&ytlve pfa@!cs.. hostility etc.$j&g”. Ch@jt’ ei#$$+.*“.i.i~~~~~..&&$&#. Found space .e.~~~~~~~~Y : yk@j . ..&l f3oi!&~Anfj.~i~~~~t~~~~~~~~~~~~f .~~~~~~~~~~f~~~ .:I.BndUgh .ii m%lqw~~y a Madras.&~# ‘ : ci.&:‘ j.’ ~~*.‘ yacranijf$..:.RE&&Ati@ .:..I ’ ’ &undspace.’ @.WHEf% MK#T SPACE FOR :“E L~+EDi .tl~s.pp?76) . ~:. l ~Ttw’ stri%3t-3~ati~htiF:cul de sacs .fj)# @&$ ... ‘ SWw.:.The street . thus improving their self esteem and confidence l Improved attention spans and perseverance (Source . &&qiied..) It can also enhance their physical.-:c :.>i..yh? ‘ .~._ ..$j&~@j@f~~.’:fl& ~*&~~qp#&#m+~ gMifrits.oihkr’ ~~~ &a$ l si+i. y t mrks or. &$j& 2 :. : .. :iti i.i ..u~EscQ.: p&qpq<4 zg$??!&.:4N&HA.’ I_ .~ ‘ .’ :_ . .~: . .~&..I s.. . social and emotional development. ::-:. (EB N”19:pp2) &CreatiOn l l l l .&..f-ivq.EXAMPLE Recreation COMMENTS iS of vital importance when working with street children. +.~:f?#Y~ ~~~~riiSi~~~~~~~:~~~~. mistrust.s~.’ &j.md$ .:Eiot”.

Ground shaping . Existing vegetation should be incorporated into the design of recreational spaces wherever possible Water is always popular in a play area. with simple interventions and some imagination.EXAMPLE Out door recreation COMMENTS Designed play space should not be ‘ over designed’ such that it can only be used for a few specialised activities. -:. Natural changes in ground level can be used for seating or playing. . The best designs will be those that are adaptable. as well as acting as wind screens and creating visual barriers. to a wide variety of games and activities..._ _. Flat areas are best for active games particularly ball games..

co-operation and patience. both individual and group. are endless Sand Sand too has endless possibilities both individual and group for creative play . The possibilities for creative play. Innovative use of tyres for recreational purposes % . inventiveness. Swings and climbing structures I.EXAMPLE Out door recreation COMMENTS Loose materials and construction Constructing objects out of scrap materials requires co-ordination. .

They are all friends.EXAMPLE Out door recreation 1 COMMENTS Recreational activities customs and traditions. They are very happy. there is no place’ (SWART:ppl23) ‘ This is the bus full of boys. STREETWISE does not have the sports field. . aged 13. The bus comes for us. will vary from county to country according to local ‘ On Friday afternoons we go to another school. the Sacred Heart College to swim and play football. SWART:ppl24) Examples of sports field dimensions Source-NEURERT:pp323-326 (dimensions may vary according to local custom). They are going to camp. ’ (VUSI.

at the Egg Essona chapel.EXAMPLE In door recreation COMMENTS Recreational activities offered by a centre for street children need not be especially elaborate.) #I free/y availeb. giving them contidenc& alluwjng them to shrug off fensions and get to know each other.le to the children at the cenfre have the advantage of reassuring the young people. offers ieisuie and cutfur&! activities (including. They are more about providing a space where children can come and play. -according to local custom Centre might be place where children can relax and enjoy quiet games. A room that is used for general classroom teaching during the day may become a common room in the evenings. ‘ The multi purpcse . awaItS. &do etc. watch television and meet other children in a safe environment - . snooker etc. Sited 3 l UNESCO:ppSl) ‘ The vai/ous game& (draughts. Sited 3 l UNESCCkpp47) Ping pong can be enjoyed both inside and outside Board games. phmque. Iitted o.centre.. a fiim club) {Haste! of hope Cameroon. relax. . billiards.ut with fhe hi?lp ’bf~ fhe street Mldren fhemkelves. cards etc.’ (Equipe &Action SocioEducative en Milieu Ouvert EASEMO. meet other children in an environment in which they feel comfortable and safe. Pool.

5m2/child Source -HAMEL:pp21 Outdoor closed to sky Out door need to Educational activities do not necessarily take place inside a ‘ classroom’ . An educational programme needs. to be interesting. they may. sharp. l l Traditional school subjects Self expression and communication Personal awareness Associated activities of educational Some examples topics and their associated activities: Indoors The approximate space required per child for general classroom activities is 1 -> 1. related to their every day lives so as to capture and sustain their imagination and commitment. have short attention spans due to poor health and/or inhaling of glue fumes (SWART:ppl26). however. and most importantly.EXAMPLE l 1 COMMENTS Street children are street-wise. therefore. and have plenty of independence. innovative.

open and adaptable to different activities.e. l l Traditional school subjects Self expression and communication Personal awareness Design and planning considerations PRINCIPAL ----_/_. either as part of general display or as a separate resource area. costumes. if possible.e. pergola.e. there should be the possibility of blocking out light.e. messy work with clay and water etc.--‘ -‘ -. sciences. on rugs. it should have comfortable furniture and flooring that encourages lounging i. FLOORING Generally floorin should be eas to clean and particularly Bor arts and era K s should be non-slip. storage etc. Shelter from direct sunlight (planting. cushions etc. blinds. tr : k FUNCTIONAL AREAS l-n I : I . I ’ _J WET AREA Running water. For theatre activities. Information relating to children’ s experiences and learning path. DISPLAY / RESOURCE There should be provisions for displaying children’ s work (including work in progress). direct sunlight should be avoided as it can cause discomfort to users. shutters etc. books. Fl OUTDOOR AREA 1 Depending on the local climate many educational activities can take place outside. painting. musical instruments. maps etc. i.EXAMPLE l COMMENTS There is no reason why most of the activities indicated on the previous page cannot take place in the same of room. clay work and cleaning equipment. There are many basic provisions in common i. a sink.) Materials and equipment that are in continual use should be easily accessible.. horizontal and vertical work surfaces. arts and crafts +-measuring liquid volumes.‘ E4 0. . mathematics. In some cases it may even be advantageous to work outside i. and easy to clean work tops and floor. cupboards shelves and boxes for storing teaching equipment and materials (books. plus outdoor space. rl -. should be able to accommodate a wide range of activities. STORAGE There should always be provisions for both lockable and accessible storage i. Providing there is enough space to move furniture around. OTHER CONSIDERATIONS LIGHTING Good bright light is desirable for most educational activities but. GENERAL ACTIVITY General activity area should be a large. a single room. In this way they can be encouraged to be proud of their work and common ideas and experiences can be shared. music). posters. Sound absorbing floor finish that encourages lounging would be good for drama music activities. are desirable for many educational activities i. Small openings in dark walls should also be avoided as they cause glare => writing on blackboards becomes hard to see. allowing for free body movement (drama. should be made available to children. theatrical props. A wet area can always be situated outside. stationary and art equipment etc.e.e. demonstration (sciences) and individual and group work. This can be done using screens. veranda) is important for outdoor activities QUIET AREA A quiet area is good for individual and small group work/relaxation.

Z I ---. -Ku. browse through picture books. Shelves to display books Central reference for all activities Small reference sections near each activity Shelf unit serves as bench . t r LIBRARY! RESOURCE AREA A library or resource area can enhance and backup learning. read novels.PasLc ! -5mE B 3 3 1 -L-----J .=ZZZ ~SoOKS7GF. An informal educational approach is thought to be more appropriate.&J Egz&.e. and should be complemented by careful design and planning of rooms in which these activities take place.ETm Z.EXAMPLE Traditional school subjects / general activities Room planning Examples -e-d- COMMENTS Research has shown that street children do not respond very well to structured teaching sessions (SWART:pp3). magazines etc.. especially if the books relate directly to what children have been learning. In can also serve as an area where children can relax i.cms --L----L Ii: i ----__--- -----TSWATWG --g- Dy$$= /LHbq. Design should also provide for individual work as well as small and large interactive group work of how different furniture layouts can change way in which a room is used: $- -!g$-p/ _ 1 : i---------- .

.

The children can be want to be and in this wav can gain confidence and improve their express themselves. Children can work together to design stage make props (larger props could be made in adjoining workshops).EXAMPLE Self expression and communication Room planning 1 COMMENTS Drama and music can help children to understand themselves and rein acting personal experiences or fantasies. others by who they abilitv to sets and I .

Tubes can be painted different colours (HENNESSEY & PAPANEK:pp48) .EXAMPLE Horizontal work surfaces Design ideas COMMENTS Clever furniture design can increase flexibility of space Fold out table .can be folded up when not in use and free up usable floor space (HENNESSEY & PAPANEK:pp43) Trestle tables (HENNESSEY & PAPANEK:pp48) TABLE TABLE simple mechanism requiring no glue or nails (HENNESSEY & PAPANEK:pp44) & CHAIR cardboard tubes taped together form base for table or chair.

work..I.. mounted on wheels facilitates movement HANGING STORAGE can be folded up when not in use to save space (HENNESSEY & PAPANEK:pp85) CRATES can be used for both general and individual storage...i~ : . . can serve SHELVEi as space dividers.e. ...1 ‘ :. .EXAMPLE Vertical display and storage Design ideas COMMENTS Wall space can be used for displaying Smaller objects i. .. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ : I. on narrow shelves..+:::’ ’ I.+!” PIrXXE WL &V SE ~DUxfl~6ltiG (Derived from SPIEGLER :ppC2) STORAGE IDEAS.i~. it can also be used thus liberating usable floor for storing space. They could be painted different colours and personalised by child CANS tied together serve as storage space &/or space divider (HENNESSEY & PAPANEK:pp96) ..

therefore. OUT PATIENT l CARE Basic first aid Minor ailments -> treatment and dressing of cuts. in environments in which the children feel comfortable and familiar. notably. be more appropriate to have counselling sessions in general activity rooms or even outside. about which ‘ they are ill informed. ‘ Hygiene is poor rind the many injuries caused by physidal violence or accidents during their dangerous ilves on the street often become infected. skin infections. AIDS. especially when related directly to the children’ s lives. health and nutrition should be given in conjunction with medical treatment. viruses. TYPICAL PROVISIONS CARE ?‘ he children’ s health is not good. nutrition and hygiene education Basic education in health and nutrition could take place in a health centre. colds. stomach infections etc.’ (Namibia-sited VELlS:ppW) IN PATIENT Inpatient care is required for more serious ailments needing specialised treatment and overnight supervision. Practical demonstrations of ideas and principals will make learning much easier. In order to successfully rehabilitate these children their emotional problems need to be addressed. l l DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS Separate quiet and noisy areas Streamline flow of patients to avoid to and fro movements l Maximise the number of children that can be treated by sharing facilities and spaces wherever possible l Allow for privacy l Provide a relaxing atmosphere to put patients at ease l If health centre is part of a general centre for receiving street children have some visual links between the two so that children do not feel isolated l . This can be done through group and individual counselling discussions between children themselves or between adults and children. Counselling Street children face enormous pressures in their day to day lives. Wherever possible basic education and information on hygiene. It may. fighting for their survival and against social rejection and pressures. Street children do not respond well to formal discussions (SWART:pp4).EXAMPLE Health care Typical provisions COMMENTS Primary health care provisions for street children should cater to both their physical and psychological needs. They are at high risk f&m sexually transmitted diseases. l Immunisation Preventative treatment as well as curative health services should be provided in a health centre for street children Dental care Eyecare l I l l Basic health. A common (resulting) problem is drug (mainly solvent) abuse which in turn is the cause of many of their emotional problems (3*UNESCO:ppl32).

4m2 is required per 1000 patients.xing atmosphere If health centre is associated with a general rehabilitation centre for street children it may be desirable to have visual contact with the rest of the establishment so that children do not feel isolated CONSULTATION TREATMENT l / MEDICAL l CONSULTATION / EXAMINATION ROOM The consultation room can be used for medical examinations as well as counselling and demonstrations (for educational purposes). a horizontal work surface and a couch/bed for lying down on. under the shade of trees or on a veranda. both individual (i. and other miscellaneous items A health centre office space should be closely associated with the record storage. It should have its own self contained storage. Medical treatment room should be well lit preferably with natural lighting. and out patients Toilet facilities should be placed so as to be convenient to use and easy to control. l l l Medical treatment room should allow for privacy.e. linen. in each room). As a rule of thumb. if more than one patient is to be treated at any one time. Provisions should be made for storing medicines. separate toilets should be provided for staff.8m2 should be allowed per person in waiting room area (TYAGI & RAJENDRA LAL:ppl2). Waiting area should not be part of general circulation. Staff toilets may be combined with a general sluice area Washing (shower) facilities are needed for inpatient care. As a rule of thumb approximately 0.e. some of which is lockable. cleaning materials and disinfectants. Offering medical treatment and guidance is the starting point for many street children rehabilitation programmes. in. Consultation room should have its own lockable storage. The ward should have a rel--. Reception should be closely associated with storage of patient’ s records. equipment. As a rule of thumb a floor area of approximately 13m2 should be allowed for consultation/ examination rooms (TYAGI & RAJENDRA LAL:ppl4). Reception and waiting areas should be located near to each other.and general. Medical treatment requires its own associated storage for medication.EXAMPLE Health care Design and planning considerations COMMENTS Children should be healthy before they can engage in any meaningful educational activities. It should be extendible as patient documentation will increase over time. In hot climates there should be adequate cross ventilation so patients feel comfortable l l . There should be horizontal work surfaces for administrative work. provisions should be made for screening off areas. l l l If in-patient care is provided there will be a need for a ward. Once their immediate physical ills have been administered to they can be phased into more a structured educational programme (SWART:pp106) MAIN ENTRANCE main entrance should be clearly visible and easily accessible to all patients and staff pF5q RECEPTION AREA &‘ WAITING ---------1 I The reception area is where patients will be received and directed to waiting area or consultation and treatment rooms. l l l l l pq l RECORD STORAGE The record storage area is ideally associated with the reception area but not par-t of it. TOILET l AND WASHING I[ WARD If at all possible. a place where the children can stay over night. The consultation room is best located near to where dispensing of drugs and immunisation takes place so that both functions can easily be performed by one person. Waiting area could be inside or outside i. approximately 1. Record storage should be lockable (TUTT & ADLER:ppl62) l -1 STORAGE Kq OFFICE There should be plenty of lockable storage in a health centre.

of LUND) . 6 nurses.. At any given time we have about 75 children as patients. We have 4 doctors. We also treat more than a 1600 children on an outpatienf basis &.) The root cause of many of their problems. 2 medical students.) (Source-Univ. +~~ ?t ~~.77m2 (aprox. fhe sfaff numbers abouf SO. ‘ (MURRAY:pp231) Example based on a UNESCO / UNHCR model for Kampuchea.There is an intensive care unit which almosf daily receives children who a~ seriously malnourished or otherwise acutely i//(. LIBYA-health centre by- 430m + -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 metres 1 i.=====J 1‘ \_ 1 L--------‘ A -. .) (Source-WIMBS) LJAJE ..health centre AREA . 12 nurses’ *aides and any number of workers and handymen.) Affer the. AREA . When procuring furniture. however is malnutrition.J IJlJ \\ applicable to all plans on this page F 1% 11 I: i Iii .r-.107m2 (aprox. worst is over they are moved to the residential care facility where special treatment continues. AREA-102m2 including garden (aprox.) (Source-VICKERY 1988) +i25m_tm-2&2pi.infirmary attached to a boarding school. ’ The centre continues to grow..EXAMPLE Health care Some examples COMMENTS Furniture arrangements will vary according to working method of individual staff members and general organisation of centre.RINEIV~I~W~‘ LIBYA.. careful note should be taken of existing built in provisions to avoid ordering a surplus of furniture that would clutter up rooms.

e. those to be thrown away and those to be recycled) l Sweeping l Wiping l Rubbish disposal l Painting/decorating l Checking equipment and safety devices l Cleaning. Not only does this produce immediate. thus improving their self esteem and confidence (3 l UNESCO:ppl39) l OF Materials l Tools and equipment ASSOCIATED ACTIVITIES l l l l l l PURCHASE AND SUqPLY .Safe storage or display l Tools . Ordering Delivering Carrying/movement Measuring Weighing Paying of materials I .Basic hand tools -> to be kept near workstation -Accessories and machining tools -> to be kept near machtnes -Collective and specialised tools -> to be kept in central store I SUBJECTS-some l examples ASSOCIATED l l Building Electric’ s general house wiring car radio air-conditioning l ACTIVITIES l VOCiTtONAL TRAINING Mechanics car l Metalwork Iron moulding locksmith welding sheet metal l Plumbing general . sorting through objects (i.‘ &ORlNG l OF Raw materials . oiling etc. visible results. machinery (Derived from 4*UNESCO) . but the objects made can also generate income for the children and/or prepare them for work.EXAMPLE Specialised workshops Sequence of activities COMMENTS Teaching the children a skill or a trade is a good way of assisting them in the process of rehabilitation.bulk materials /stock lengths of &plies l l Projects in progress Completed projects . Woodwork carpentry joinery woodcarving I Arriving/leaving(students) Changing l Demonstrating l Explaining l Listening l Fetching tools/equipment l Sawing l Filing l grinding l Drilling l Cutting l Lathing l Gluing l Hammering l Nailing 9 Painting l Polishing l Finishing DAY TO DAY CLEARING AND CLEANING UP GENERAL M*AINTENANCE OF Workshop l Equipment and machinery ASSOCIATED ACTIVITIES l l Clearing away .

SIERRA LE 8 NE. Depending on the size of the workshop and the nature of the programme demonstration.EXAMPLE Specialised workshops Design and planning considerations COMMENTS ‘ There is a work force of twenty six technicians who provide the trainees with practical on-the-job tuition. explanations etc. At least 3 different storage areas should be planned for Large material store : Projects in progress & finished projects Tool store. and this practical instruction is backed up by theoretical sessions so the boys understand the basic ’ (Street Children project. forges etc. should be located along outside walls so that exhaust fumes can be extracted more easily (4*UNESCO:pp35) l l l l In many cases the teacher needs an area in which he/she can address the whole group. Freetown. (6UNESCO:ppll. As a general rule at least 20% of the total floor area should be allocated for storage. The bench area should be in centre of workshop and easily accessible from machine and storage areas. lt is useful to have tack-boards and/or blackboards around the workshop so that ideas can easily be explained using drawings of writing. The individual design of workbenches relates directly to the kind of work being carried out. Sited 3*UNESCO:pp148) 1-1 IilllllIll BENCHAREA STORAGE AREA(S) One of the most important pieces of furniture in any workshop is the work bench. moveable machines should be located along walls Furnaces. These stores should be in close proximity to bench area l l l MACHINERY l WI TEACHING AREA Heavy machinery should be located as near services doors as possible Frequently used machinery should receive as much natural light as possible and be close to bench area Machines used for cutting stock should be located near material storeroom Smaller. however. Building Bulletin 31 :pp8) Storage is a very important consideration in workshop design. - . In this case the teacher should have a base from which he/she can easily supervise activities and to which children can come for help. may take place in the workshop or in an adjoining room or class room. Much of the teaching. The underlying principals of their fields of frainin Boys’ Society Of Sierra Leone. The teacher will need to be available for small group and/or individual demonstrations and help. will be more informal.

i . Equipment in common Even though many’ subjects ‘ require. sharing furniture.E&iIPii~.rtiiatas ta the size of us&-s and their working po&@n i. In short. Togo. Sited 3 l UNESCO:PP163) w-B-_ . Mechankx. and to forecast and control the stock.. this is the basic methodology of artisanal and industrial stock control..bB made by. space and equiprhknt: ’ : I.21 Source-Derived from LOVE . .e.NT ..I . as the young apprentices need to learn to keep things in order. metal work. . This is highly important.. 1------I Furniture 41 commdti Furniture design . \ . pedagogically speaking. FkktNlTURiE’ AN~. mainly sitting or standing & sfttlng. Those s&j&% which adopt similar working positions will inevitably having furniture in common.’ (Atelier Bon Conseil. mainly standing.. well ordered main storehouse with a stock-holding area of 15OOm2. building construction and electrical work ThbkcGrilJZ1~5~4 T----1 T--------7 r-----l r-----T Source-4 l UNESCO:pp68 STORAGE IDEAS Source-DES:ppl 1. : : .. their own specialised equipment there are a number of common toots and machinery us@ in woodwork. “*‘ ‘ .EXAMPLE Specialised workshops Furniture and equipment COMMENTS ‘ Centre has a full. Care shbuld be ?ak& when ~lar&ng a workshop to see if savings “can .....

8 I8 3. It also plays a major part in building construction and has done much to make the workshop known as a place where original solutions are found for special problems.5 213.Thailand t Source-VIROCHSIRI 1T Source-VIROCHSIRI & XANTHARID.. Sited 34JNESCO:ppl69) 1 l ELECTRICITY . I WORKSHOP 1316n . PER lb 64.EXAMPLE Specialised workshops Case studies COMMENTS ‘ This department is responsible for repairing such items of electrical equipment as air-conditioners.Thailand & XANTHARID. typewriters and other office machines. Togo. ’ (Atelier Bon Consell.6 - .1977 3 l ELECTRICITY Zm .1977 13 zolu 2 l GENERAL . .Venezuela Source-FEDE 1’ 0 1 2 3 4 5 metres appiicabie to all plans on this page AREA OF WORKSHOP (M2) 202. household equipment.9 WORKSHOP CAPACITY (no of students) * AFIg.

.9 UNESCO applicable to all plans on this page .:.’ (Atelier Bon Conseil..2 5. ~illltq myhie.~ . **.~. .Wood work UNESCO CONSTRUCTION WORKSHOP-Venezuela WOOD WORK SHOP .Nigeria l Source .K LUORK ENc+lES 6 4.& 5. .in other words.M:r*. the collection of old parts and scrap metal in Togo and above all the receipt of metal tailings from European companies..58 I . :j&$ 7 ‘ . ~ ... p . .76 j:‘ .$&’ 6 .Metal work 6 l C ..Rwanda l l Source . Togo.&.*. I3 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 metres WOOD WORK SHOP .Wood & metal work 5 l B ... ‘ integral direct recycling’ .35 40 2. no of STUCJENTS 2 STtz4T c 4&A ” 4*B“f :+.6m L T 61n.... i 5. .r:.FEDE Source . . .&&j$@. w2.5 1 ‘ .&@. . ~130.1977 A..1~ * i03.h+L .EXAMPLE Specialised workshops Case studies COMMENTS ‘ The problems of supplies and raw materials has been resolved by what the Atelier Bon Conseil calls.9 I2.. . Sited 34JNESCO:ppl65) 4 l WOOD WORK I METAL lo 03m WORK-Thailand Source-VIROCHSIRI & XANTHARID.‘ . 2.

6 7.. main/y concerned with repairing vehicles damaged in accidents or rusting from corrosion. also undertake body work modifications or accept orders to make body work ‘ to specification’ . Atelier Bon Conseil.9 .68.Cameroon BOSCH KEMPER 9 l AUTO MECHANICS .’ (Body work and Painting Department..FEDE 10 l GENERAL WORKSHOP -Thailand Source-VIROCHSIRI & XANTHARID. Togo.ffER 12.36 213.J. ‘ 13.1977 0 I 2 3 4 5 metres applicable to all plans on this page EXAMPLE :$: 8 9 10 AREA OF WORKSHOP (M2) 252 138. Sited 34JNESCO:ppl68) .Venezuela Source .2 WORKSHOP 23 18 16 CAPACflY (no of students) AR.DESIGNAND PLANNING IDEAS EXAMPLE Specialised workshops Case studies 8 9 AUTO MECHANICS Source-BDE COMMENTS ‘ The ten apprentices in this department.

they saw this as a means of earning additional income by se//in items to their employers.qd preparation.Asia Source-8-UNESCO 3 l MULTIPURPOSE Textiles. food preparation.4 j 60 WORKSHOP CAPACITY No of students CQ 32 * 24 AR&l!k 2LT PER 2. the girls looked for activities within their scope. and as a way to learn a craft. They opted for courses in crochet-work.6 j 2. 63..light Case studies COMMENTS ‘ Realising that on-the-job apprenticeships in the minor crafts (carpentry.EXAMPLE Specialised workshops .6 2. craft . dressmaking and knitting. etc. with a view to training for their future duties as mothers and housewives.2 83.’ (Centre fro Domestic servants in the HLM if ontagne quarter of Dakar. ’ AREA OF WORKSHOP (M2.) were reserved for men. Site 34JNESCO:pp202) 1 l MULTIPURPOSE Textiles. In the short term. Source-VIROCHSIRI XANTHARID. Senegal.1977 & 2 handi l TEXTILES .1977 0 1 2 3 4 5 metres applicable to all plans on this page I _: ExA$P~E l*A 1-B 2 3 i .Asia.2 104. masonry.5 . fo. hFEFC~-~E~tH-$~i~ XANTHARID..

where other activities are organised during the day. In the former case washing and dining facilities can be shared Sleeping Accommodation PRiNCIPAL ACTlVtTlES TO BE CATERED FOR .EXAMPLE Residential accommodation Typical activities COMMENTS Residential accommodation may either be attached to a general centre for street children. or it may be a facility/provision in its own right.

one practical and one psychological (.. Individual storage where children can keep their personal belongings and create their own personal space and general storage to keep sleeping accessories i. of one of their major worries(. where children can read/browse and relax. with a key io lock them. Working children may require a bed or rest at unconventional hours. are made available to the children and in fact meet two needs.I (BOSCO Yuvodaya 3*UNESCO:pp222) street children project.) they have of ‘ their own’ . Bangalore.e. a place to keep a few belongings . Street children are accustomed to extreme. They act as both day and night shelters. REST AREA 3titOWER54-?olLETS If possible provision for blocking out daylight should be made in sleeping area. LOCKERS a ‘ private space’ ‘ Lockers. At last their own ‘ private space” ENDA-Bolivia Project.-)no child can afford to Iose sight far even one moment any valuable objects (shoeshine kit for example) or else things risk being stolen&. however. living on the street so it may be preferable to reduces the amount of space per child in favour of accommodating more children.. board games etc.. providing a number of facilities including somewhere to wash. they find themselves free at fast.play games such as cards. bedding. harsh living conditions. Bolivia (Source-3*UNESCO:ppl02) .EXAMPLE Sleeping accommodation Design and planning considerations COMMENTS ‘ The Bosco shelters act as a catalyst to push children through the kmition period between life on the streets and an eventual reintegration info society. India. cook and sleep. . Sited SLEEPING AREA As a general rule between2Sm2 + 5m2 is required per bed/place in a dormitory. ml STORAGE Both individual and general storage should be provided. medical aid. mosquito nets etc. a place where a few meagre things can be kept. Depending on the numbers of children being received a separate rest and relaxation area may be appropriate I QUIET AREA Depending on the size of the centre and the general facilities and services available a quiet area may be desirable. El Alto.) once children have their own locker and key. . fake a bath..

.@+~d both help to meet ‘ some ch#fdren*s @orf ?etrn:$esds ai?d wrve as .:aii :in/nitiat&@ fo #te.Tuitiyan ‘ -proqratiine.ila.’ (ISAAC aged 13. flexibility is of prime importance. w-l\ lndkdual slorage for personal belo.~~@akay Tuluyan street children:pr#&i lbf~ti.:Bahay . Such a ihelter.SWART:ppll5) Sited 34JNESCU~ppl36) “_“. an evening.~ ~ilip@4nes.EXAMPLE Sleeping accommodation Room planning COMMENTS As with other provisions for street children.gings pace dtider doubles up as 2 lhW/’ Beds bulll according IO IOCd ‘ Babay Tulyan has been looking for a night shelter where childran who have no other place to stay for teenlqht could qo and #ceive. me@?1 and breakfast before qoititi :baek ~nfo the streets. ‘ Its good to sleep in a bed not on the street.

DESlGN 1DEAS Minimum sleeping surface required for children who have average heights of 156cm (SPIEGLER:ppClO) Double bed with screen (SPIEGLER:ppCI 1) Source-SPIEGLERppCl O/l 1 .e.EXAMPLE Sleeping accommodation Sleeping surfaces 1 COMMENTS Beds should be designed. 90cm x 180cm. not necessarily using conventional norms i. Considerable savings in space can be made by reducing bed sizes. They can be designed according to the standard/average heights of the children.

Source .CANTIAGO Example of space required for a dormitory with beds that are 65cm x 170cm.-.25 or 5.74JNESCO DORM ITORY 0 1 2 3 4 5 metres applicable to all plans on this page 3 l KENYA Source . Source-SPIEGLER:ppClO 2 l NIGERIA Source .EXAMPLE Sleeping accommodation Case studies COMMENTS .25* l Figure is dependant on whether beds are single or double bunks .l*DE BOSCH KEMPER _ 8.-. ARGENTINA.---~ 1 .

It should ideally front onto an outdoor yard as many of the washing activities will probably take place outside. Given that this room will be used as a dining area it should be next to the kitchen. There should be a link between the sleeping area and the general activity area though this need not be direct and immediate.EXAMPLE 1 Residential care centre l COMMENTS The activities and facilities offered by a hypothetical example of a residential care centre for street children are described below and possible functional relationships between the different rooms/spaces are indicated. If possible there should be some outdoor area (yard) where some of the food preparation can take place. AREA For more information on how room might be designed refer to pages 69-73 section F-7 l Residential.. .‘ . The office area should be near to the entrance of the centre so that it serves as a reception and surveillance point for people arriving at centre . the place where children meet and interact with other children and adults. Hypothetical :‘ : . SLEEPING For more information on how room might be designed refer to pages 39-45 section F-2 l Upkeep. The kitchen should be close to the road to facilitate deliveries and waste disposal etc.4 l Educational. A direct link to an outdoor yard will be advantageous as it will increase usable floor space... This room is likely to be the focal point of the centre. r///////a OUTDOOR ACTIVITY AREA For more information on how room might be designed and refer to pages 47-51 section F-3 l Recreational Socio Cultural as well as pages 53 section F . Depending on the climate toilets and showers might better be located outside.. . The sleeping area should be near to the toilet and shower facilities. They should be closely associated with the kitchen and laundry to minimise pipe work and plumbing etc. In this way it should be easy to find and accessible. ENTRANCE dining area (general activity room). This area could either face out onto the street at the general activity room. Though it should not be physically linked to the entrance of the building a visual link is recommended so that newcomers coming to the centre know where they are going and what to expect. Key Elements GENERAL ACTIVITY ROOM For more information on how room might be designed refer to pages 52-58 section F-4 l Educational. It is the private part of centre that should be situated away from the entrance and Street front. TOILETSANASH AREA ml OFFICE Toilet and washing facilities should be near to the sleeping area as well as the general activity area (especially the toilets). For more information on how room mi ht be designed of refer to pages 37-36 section F-l l 8 rganisation centre. The laundry can be away from the entrance to the centre.~ ._ example . It should be closely associated with the kitchen and washing facilities to minimise pipe work and plumbing etc.. Option chosen culture and site layout.

get away from the hardships of the street. immunisation. KITCHEN en should be closely associated with the dining area (general activity room).ourscis are given to children ae well as to adults who hope to assist in the running of the clinic. for the children and their families. b&c dental care etc. Key Elements WI ADMINISTRATION For more information on how room might be designed refer to pages 37-38 section F-l l Organisation of Centre as well as pages 60-61 section F .infections. health and nutrition classes. It should ideally front onto an outdoor yard as many of the washing activities will probably take place outside. should be at the entrance to building. health and nutrition c. office storage and reception. GENERAL ACTIVITY AREA ormation on how room might be designed refer to pages 52-58 section F-4 l Educational This room will be used for a wide range of different activities including counselling sessions. It should be closely associated with the kitchen and washing facilities to minimise pipe work and plumbing etc. where sfreet children are treated on an out patient basis for general ailments i. therefore. ‘ Th& %zbaceis also used for cotmsehing sessions both individual and group.EXAMPLE 2 l Health care centre Hypothetical example COMMENTS The activities and facilities offered by a hypothetical example of a health care Centre for street children are described below and possible functional relationships between the different rooms/spaces are indicated.e.5 l Special care This area should be next to the reception. It should be linked to waiting area. and as a dining area. pxq WAITING AREA For more information on how room might be designed refer to pages 60-61 section F . The laundry can be away from the entrance to the centre. As room will double g area it should be close to kitchen. There are jlrovislons for a few chhdren to stay over night as and when necessary. Associated with this space is a small kitchen where meals are provided and children Can participate and learn basic cookin$j skits (Mated to their courses on nutrition and health etc.5 l Special care The administrative part of the health care centre based centre i. be close to both the consultancy and treatment rooms so that children can have a chance to watch practical demonstrations. Health care based centre This (hypothetical) health care centre for street children does not have any elaborate facilities and eqripment for speciahsed health care. Depending on the local climate waiting area could be outside. intestinal and respiratory disorders? skin.5 l Special care These rooms should be near to waiting area and accessible to administrative part of centre. it should. Along side the hfzalth clinlcjs a general room where hygiene. If possible there should be some outdoor area (yard) where some of the food preparation can take place. They should be closely associated with the kitchen and laundry to minimise plumbing and pipe work . The toilets should be near to the waiting area as well accessible form the consultancy and treatment rooms.e. The kitchen should be close to the road to facilitate deliveries and waste LAUNDRY AREA TOILETS/WASH AREA For more information on how room might be designed refer to pages 46-47 section F-2 l Upkeep. though shelter from direct sunlight should be provided CONSULTANCY AND TREATMENT ROOMS For more information on how room might be designed refer to pages 6061 section F . broken fimbs. cuts and bruises. It is more a clinic providing primary health care.) There is a small common room where children can come to.

~o$ numefacy classes a few times a week. . When classes are not being held in this room it could serve as a place where children eat and socialise. Ideally it should be near to the shop. METAUWOOD WORKSHOP For more information on how room might be designed refer to pages 62-68 section F-6 l Vocational training The metal/wood workshop should be directly linked to the store. There are fwo principal workshops a)metai&ood work shop where ihe students make objects which are sold in the local market and b) an elecfrlcai eorkshop where electrical household equipment and appliances are repaired Theie is a multi jxrfpose common room which is a&c? us+ tq hold basic litqfa~y. hatch counter not in use. It the general a place to eat For more information on how room might be designed refer to pages 52-58 section F-4 l Educational This room should be away from the workshops as might cause noise from workshop activities discomfort.. A toilet washing area should be provided so that children can wash themselves at the end of the day.. Given an appropriate climate this area would be best placed outside in the yard GENERAL ACTIVITY AREA SHOP The shop would be a small/hut with a that can be locked at night and when would be well placed next to activity/classroom which could serve as and socialise. but highiy. fit & &anie+d&i tin bf ihi dhiidr&$the&eives. i.redopi$$@$$#T ::. If possible it should open out onto a yard/open space. : ““: . If possible it should open out onto a yard/open space. these are not o@igatorV. t There is a small shop&M serving tea and snacks. allowing room for deliveries and more area for working [“*-I STORE ROOM TOILET/WASHING AREA For more information on how room might be designed refer to pages 62-68 section F61 l Vocational training The storeroom should be directlv linked with both for delivery workshops and easily accessible vehicles.EXAMPLE 3 l Vocational training centre Hypothetical example 1 COMMENTS The activities and facilities offered by a hypothetical example of a vocational training centre for street children are described below and possible functional relationships between the different rooms/spaces are indicated.. allowing room for deliveries and more area for working ELECTRICAL WORKSHOP For more information on how room might be designed refer to pages 62-68 section F61 l Vocational training The electrical workshop should be directly linked to the store. A direct link to an outdoor area will be advantageous as it will increase the usable space. Vocational Training Centre This (hypothetical) vocational training centre is one where street children are provided wtih on the job tuition.1ST:t” ‘ 1.

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