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LEAN MANUFACTURING IN APPAREL INDUSTRY

INTRODUCTION :

Below are the few steps which are required to implement lean manufacturing    
-Identifying

the fact that there are wastes to be removed. -Analysing the wastes and finding the root causes for these wastes. -Finding the solution for these root causes. -Application of these solutions and achieving the objective.

HISTORY OF LEAN MANUFACTURING:

  

Specify the value required by the customer. Identify the Value Stream for each product. Make the product flow continuously through the remaining value-added steps.

Perfection THE TRADITIONAL PRODUCTION VS LEAN MANUFACTURING. let customers pull value from the next upstream activity. Flow 4. Traditional Manufacturing . Introduce a ‘pull system’ where possible THE BASIC LEAN MANUFACTURING PRINCIPLES: 1. 5. 2. Value Specify value from the standpoint of the end customer by product family. Value stream mapping 3. Pull As flow is introduced.

It is a calculated number. It is determined by dividing the available production time by the rate of customer demand. no Interruptions because of inventory scrap or yield issues.Lean Manufacturing THE LEAN PRODUCTION GOALS: The principal goal of lean manufacturing is to create a continuous flow of Product from raw material to finished goods and on to the customer – no stoppages. ones that a typical lean practitioner must be proficient it and capable of applying: · Value Stream Mapping · Takt Time · EPEI · Leveling (Heijunka) · Pull Systems · Setup Reduction · Pokayoke (Mistake Proofing) · 5S · Seven QC Tools · JIT · Kanban Value Stream Mapping Value stream mapping is the identification of all the specific activities (material and information flow) as well as the resulting lead times occurring along the value stream for a particular product or product family. . no delays. "maximizing value (give the customer what they exactly need)” “Minimizing waste (eliminate anything not needed for delivering value)” “Pursuing perfection” LEAN MANUFACTURING TOOLS & TECHNIQUES: Here are some of the most important tools of lean. usually represented pictorially in a value stream map. downtime or the other problems that occur in a typical manufacturing operation. Takt Time Takt time is the rate at which product must be turned out to satisfy market demand.

EPEI Leveling (Heijunka) Leveling is the sequencing of orders in a repetitive pattern. set in order. It sets the pace of production to match the rate of customer demand. worksheets. checklists. Shitsuke (sustain) means to maintain the five S gains by training and encouraging workers to form the habit of always following the first four Ss. It enables production without preset schedules. metrics. operations. or general use of the environment. to create a workplace that will meet the criteria of visual control and lean production. parts." it is an improvement technology that uses a device or procedure to prevent defects or equipment malfunction during order-taking or manufacture. and may pertain to equipment use. quality. SEVEN QC TOOLS: Check sheet or tally sheet . Pull can operate with single units or small batches. Poka-yoke (Mistake Proofing) Japanese term used by Shigeo Shingo to mean "innocent mistake-proofing. Seiton (set in order) means to neatly arrange and identify parts and tools for ease of use. originally summarized by five Japanese words beginning with S.not a reflection of your capability. Pull Systems A pull system is a system of production and delivery instructions in which nothing is produced by the upstream supplier until the downstream customer signals a need. diagrams. The long-term objective is always zero setup. in which changeovers are instantaneous and do not interfere in any way with one-piece flow. Seiri (sort) means to separate needed tools. and instructions from the unneeded and to remove the latter. Setup Reduction (Single Minute Exchange of Dies or SMED) SMED is a series of operator techniques pioneered by Shigeo Shingo that result in changeovers of production machinery in less than ten minutes. and the smoothing of day-to-day variations in total orders to correspond to longer-term demand.. and shine at frequent (daily) intervals to keep the workplace in perfect condition. safety. Mistake proofing devices are important to the production line in several ways: (1) enforce correct operations by eliminating choices that lead to incorrect actions. and also to make use of visual control systems. movement in an area. 5S Five S (5S) an improvement process. storage. processes. etc. Seiso (shine) means to clean and inspect. Seiketsu (standardize) means to require as the norm that everyone sort. area maps. (2) signal or stop a process if an error is made or a defect created (3) prevent machine and product damage.

more output per man hour. Quality performance. Greater levels of Stock Turnover. Improved delivery performance. Greater Customer Satisfaction. Improved Supplier Relations. Improved employee morale and involvement. Fewer Machine and Process Breakdowns. Lower levels of Inventory. Less Space Required. Higher efficiencies. fewer defects and rework (in house and at customer). HIGHER PROFITS! INCREASED BUSINESS! Are these not good enough reasons to implement Lean? .Histogram Pareto chart Cause and effect diagram Process flow chart Control chart Scatter diagram JIT (JUST IN TIME): KANBAN TOOLING: Withdrawal kanban Production kanban BENEFITS OF LEAN MANUFACTURING Typically Lean will improve. Faster Development.

and very rapid throughput times to respond to changing customer desires.  Identify the Value Stream for each product. Ford’s problem is that he could not provide the variety needed. Lean Manufacturing is a systematic approach for achieving the shortest possible cycle time by eliminating the process waste through continuous improvement. and invented the Toyota Production System. high quality. Below are the few steps which are required to implement lean manufacturing     -Identifying the fact that there are wastes to be removed. Womack and Jones stressed five  Specify the value required by the customer. Thus making the operation very efficient and only consisting of value adding steps from start to finish. This was a revolutionary break from shop practices of the American system. information management could be made much simpler and more accurate. and others at Toyota looked at this situation in the 1930s. As Kiichiro Toyoda.  Make the product flow continuously through the remaining value-added steps. They therefore revisited Ford’s original thinking. it would be possible to obtain low cost. Jones. In 1913. high variety. -Application of these solutions and achieving the objective. -Analysing the wastes and finding the root causes for these wastes.” in 1996. .” by James P. pioneering quick setups so each machine could make small volumes of many part numbers. Taiichi Ohno. Ford lined up fabrication steps in process order wherever possible. Also. “Lean Thinking. to the flow of the product through the total process. The though process of lean is described in 1990 in the book “The Machine That Changed the World. and having each process step notify the previous step of its current needs for materials. In simple words lean is manufacturing without waste. he integrated consistently interchangeable parts with standard work and moving conveyance to create what he called flow production.LEAN MANUFACTURING IN APPAREL INDUSTRY INTRODUCTION : A systematic approach to identifying and eliminating waste through continuous improvement by flowing the product at the demand of the customer”. that usually consisted of general-purpose machines grouped by process. lining the machines up in process sequence. introducing self-monitoring machines to ensure quality. -Finding the solution for these root causes. In a later book. This system in essence shifted the focus of the manufacturing engineer from individual machines and their utilization. Womack and Daniel T. Toyota concluded that by right-sizing machines for the actual volume needed. HISTORY OF LEAN MANUFACTURING: Henry Ford was the first person to truly integrate an entire production process. and more intensely just after World War II. it occurred to them that a series of simple innovations might make it more possible to provide both continuity in process flow and a wide variety in product offerings.

Value Specify value from the standpoint of the end customer by product family. The resulting competition among U. value streams are identified. 5.Introduce a ‘pull system’ where possible Manage towards perfection. capital investment. begin the process again and continue it until a state of perfection is reached in which perfect value is created with no waste. materials. and flow and pull are introduced. but not always easy to achieve: 1. THE TRADITIONAL PRODUCTION VS LEAN MANUFACTURING.S. 3. 4. Perfection As value is specified.S. and time in all aspects of operations. wasted steps are removed. Value stream mapping Identify all the steps in the value stream for each product family.   THE BASIC LEAN MANUFACTURING PRINCIPLES: The five-step thought process for guiding the implementation of lean techniques is easy to remember. floor space. 2. Pull As flow is introduced. so that the number of steps and the amount of time and information needed to serve the customer is continually reduced. and Japanese automakers over the last 25 years has lead to the adoption of these principles within all U. eliminating whenever possible those steps that do not create value. Traditional Manufacturing . manufacturing businesses. let customers pull value from the next upstream activity. The term "lean" is used because Japanese business methods used less human effort. Flow Make the value-creating steps occur in tight sequence so the product will flow smoothly toward the customer.

all labor and so forth. Takt Time Takt time is the rate at which product must be turned out to satisfy market demand. It is a calculated number. costing is a vital process for charting production expenses. costing is the act of assigning costs to particular production activities and steps. costs are typically categorized by department or stage. usually represented pictorially in a value stream map. with one cost being assigned for all resources. It is determined by dividing the available production time by the rate of customer demand. Accountants need to find more accurate ways of representing costs. the traditional methods of costing create problems. downtime or the other problems that occur in a typical manufacturing operation. no Interruptions because of inventory scrap or yield issues. each often requiring its own types of labor.In traditional manufacturing. THE LEAN PRODUCTION GOALS: The principal goal of lean manufacturing is to create a continuous flow of Product from raw material to finished goods and on to the customer – no stoppages. broad costing procedures do not work as well to represent production expenses. resources and machines. "maximizing value (give the customer what they exactly need)” “Minimizing waste (eliminate anything not needed for delivering value)” “Pursuing perfection” LEAN MANUFACTURING TOOLS & TECHNIQUES: Here are some of the most important tools of lean. no delays. With a variety of different work cells. . In this situation. The goal is to assign costs to the parts of production that actually produce related value. Lean manufacturing tends to use techniques like work cells in order to easily adapt to new product needs and rapidly shifting production amounts. ones that a typical lean practitioner must be proficient it and capable of applying: · Value Stream Mapping · Takt Time · EPEI · Leveling (Heijunka) · Pull Systems · Setup Reduction · Pokayoke (Mistake Proofing) · 5S · Seven QC Tools · JIT · Kanban Value Stream Mapping Value stream mapping is the identification of all the specific activities (material and information flow) as well as the resulting lead times occurring along the value stream for a particular product or product family. known as the matching principle. Lean Manufacturing In lean manufacturing.

in which changeovers are instantaneous and do not interfere in any way with one-piece flow. The long-term objective is always zero setup. Poka-yoke (Mistake Proofing) Japanese term used by Shigeo Shingo to mean "innocent mistake-proofing. set in order. to create a workplace that will meet the criteria of visual control and lean production. Pull can operate with single units or small batches. worksheets.not a reflection of your capability. parts. EPEI A measure of how frequently a process can produce all the items assigned to it. and shine at frequent (daily) intervals to keep the workplace in perfect condition. or general use of the environment. safety. checklists. Seiri (sort) means to separate needed tools. Setup Reduction (Single Minute Exchange of Dies or SMED) SMED is a series of operator techniques pioneered by Shigeo Shingo that result in changeovers of production machinery in less than ten minutes." it is an improvement technology that uses a device or procedure to prevent defects or equipment malfunction during order-taking or manufacture. For example. and instructions from the unneeded and to remove the latter. SEVEN QC TOOLS: Check sheet or tally sheet . area maps. Seiton (set in order) means to neatly arrange and identify parts and tools for ease of use. Seiketsu (standardize) means to require as the norm that everyone sort. operations. Seiso (shine) means to clean and inspect. and also to make use of visual control systems. etc. if a machine is able to change over and produce the required quantity of all the high-running part types dedicated to it within three days. It sets the pace of production to match the rate of customer demand. 5S Five S (5S) an improvement process. processes. and may pertain to equipment use. Leveling (Heijunka) Leveling is the sequencing of orders in a repetitive pattern. quality. Mistake proofing devices are important to the production line in several ways: (1) enforce correct operations by eliminating choices that lead to incorrect actions. storage. diagrams. (2) signal or stop a process if an error is made or a defect created (3) prevent machine and product damage. Thus this machine is making every part every three days. movement in an area.. Pull Systems A pull system is a system of production and delivery instructions in which nothing is produced by the upstream supplier until the downstream customer signals a need. metrics. It enables production without preset schedules. then the production batch size for each individual part type is about three days worth of parts. Shitsuke (sustain) means to maintain the five S gains by training and encouraging workers to form the habit of always following the first four Ss. originally summarized by five Japanese words beginning with S. and the smoothing of day-to-day variations in total orders to correspond to longer-term demand.

HIGHER PROFITS! INCREASED BUSINESS! Are these not good enough reasons to implement Lean? . Waste being categorized as part of the seven wastes: Transport. Quality performance.Histogram Pareto chart Cause and effect diagram Process flow chart Control chart Scatter diagram JIT (JUST IN TIME): Just in time (JIT) is a production strategy that strives to improve a business return on investment by reducing in-process inventory and associated carrying costs. what would it do for your operations? Typically Lean will improve. Lower levels of Inventory. Higher efficiencies. time within ourand operations. Kanban mainly focus on the reduction of overproduction. Improved employee morale and involvement. but very effective. JIT focuses on continuous improvement and can improve a manufacturing organization's return on investment. This is a simple concept. and efficiency. Motion. Improved Supplier Relations. Over-processing. Defects. KANBAN Kanban isTOOLING: one of most popular tools in lean manufacturing. the Many studies have shown that we only add value for around 5% of the Overproduction. To achieve continuous improvement key areas of focus could be flow. Improved delivery performance. Greater levels of Stock Turnover. Fewer Machine and Process Breakdowns. fewer defects and rework (in house and at customer). Kanban are usually 'tickets' but can be simple visual signals. Faster Development. Implemented correctly. Less Space Required. remaining 95% is waste! Imagine if you could remove that 95% wasted time and effort. Inventory. such as the presence or absence of a part on a shelf. employee involvement and quality. which tell production when to make the next part. Greater Customer Satisfaction. the process relies on signals or Kanban between different points in the process. Waiting. more output per man hour. quality. There are mainly two types of kanbans. They are Withdrawal kanban Production kanban BENEFITS OF LEAN MANUFACTURING The implementation of lean manufacturing through trying to make value flow at the pull of the customer (Just In Time) prevents and eliminates waste in your processes. To meet JIT objectives.