What is pegging in deaerator?

basically the pegging steam is used to create a scrubbing action between the steam and the feedwater, by which we can eliminate the dissolved corrosive gases mainly oxygen, co2, and ammonia which becomes corrosive at elevated temperatures. The removal of these gases is necessary to protect the piping and associated equipments. The gases removed are vented out of the D/A to atmosphere

Deaerator Pegging Steam
Application Discussion AD114 June 15, 2003

In order to remove corrosive gases entrained in boiler feedwater an open feedwater heater called a deaerator is incorporated into the power cycle. The deaerator is designed to heat the incoming feedwater to the saturation point in order to reduce the solubility of any entrained gases. These are mainly oxygen, carbon dioxide and ammonia that become very corrosive at elevated temperatures. Since main steam temperatures can reach as high as 1050 degrees, it is necessary to remove these gases to protect piping and associated equipment. Figure 1 shows the cross section of a typical deaerator. In this design, the incoming feedwater is pumped from the condensate pumps through the low pressure heaters. The water is sprayed in a fine mist into the area that contains the steam drawn from the high pressure heater drain and extraction steam from the cold reheat section. This divides the water droplets increasing the overall surface area therefore increasing the overall heat transfer. The water is then passed over a set of trays that separates the water into thin sheets from which the gas can easily escape. The gases are then vented out of the deaerator to the atmosphere.

Figure 1: Cross Section of Deaerator

The water level is controlled by what is commonly referred to as the Deaerator Level Control Valve or DALC valve. By placing the deaerator as high possible the need for booster pumps in conjunction with the boiler feedpumps is eliminated. Some plants utilize steam from the cold reheat line while others use main steam or auxiliary steam. the solubility of O2 is zero at the boiling point. The incoming water must be heated to the temperature corresponding to the saturated steam pressure inside the Deaerator. Feedwater to the boiler should contain less than 0. that the water must be at the boiling temperature for the corresponding operating internal pressure . Figure 2: Process Flow Diagram Including DA Pegging Valve and Associated Equipment Valve selection for this application varies by plant design and will depend upon the source of the pegging steam. since theoretically.005 cc of O2 per liter ( equals to 7 ppb) at all loads up to and including the rated capacity There are three main principles that must be met in the design of any Deaerator : 1. which is referred to as cold reheat steam (CRH). The steam pressures vary between 300 and 600 psig with temperatures ranging from 450 to 550 degrees. That is to say . Figure 2 shows a common layout including the condensate pumps and LP heaters.The deaerator is located as high as possible in a plant to provide the suction for the boiler feedpumps. This can be as high as 60 feet in combined cycle plants and 120 feet in conventional fossil fuel plants. In order to ensure mixing in the deaerator and the elimination of corrosive gases the level of incoming feedwater and steam must be properly controlled. The source of the pegging steam varies by plant design. The steam is controlled through the heater drain valves and what is called the DA steam pegging valve. . Since the DA operates under minimal pressures the pegging valve must handle nearly a full pressure drop. One of the most common extraction points is the exhaust steam from the high pressure turbine.

dissolved oxygen in boiler feedwaters will cause serious corrosion damage in steam systems by attaching to the walls of metal piping and other metallic equipment and forming oxides (rust). ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). and hydroquinone. By maintaining an adequate steam flow through the Deaerator.3-diaminourea (also known as carbohydrazide). It is very effective and rapidly reacts with traces of oxygen to form sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) which is nonscaling.005 cm³/L) or less as well as essentially eliminating carbon dioxide. The heated water must be mechanically agitated by cascading over trays . Adequate steam must pass through the water to sweep out the gases after they are released . and to maintain an extremely low partial pressure of non-condensables . diethylhydroxylamine (DEHA). By breaking down the water into thin films or droplets . or by atomization through spray valves .2.[ Oxygen scavenging chemicals are very often added to the deaerated boiler feedwater to remove any last traces of oxygen that were not removed by the deaerator. Most deaerators are designed to remove oxygen down to levels of 7 ppb by weight (0. In particular. 3. the partial pressure of oxygen ( or other incondensable gases) in the steam is held at limits so low that the amount of these gases that can re –dissolve is immeasurable A deaerator is a device that is widely used for the removal of oxygen and other dissolved gases from the feedwater to steam-generating boilers. the distance a bubble of gas has to travel to be released . The most commonly used oxygen scavenger is sodium sulfite (Na2SO3). . Another widely used oxygen scavenger is hydrazine (N2H4). Other scavengers include 1. Dissolved carbon dioxide combines with water to form carbonic acid that causes further corrosion. is greatly reduced . nitriloacetic acid (NTA). packing.