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M O L T R 71-124
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DEVEL O PM ENT AND T EST O F T HER M AL
PR O T ECT I O N M ET HO DS FO R BO M B FUZES
T O EXT END CO O K-0"F T I M E I N L AR GE
AI R CR AFT FUEL FI R ES
By
Donald Levin*
9 DECEM BER 1971
NOL
NAVAL O R DNANCE L ABO R AT O R Y , W HI T E O AK, SI L VER SPR I NG, M AR Y L AND
Z&9/C
CN
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DI ST R I BUT I O N L I M I T ED T O U.S. GO VER NM ENT
AGENCI ES O NL Y :^
T est

and
Evaluation
DAT E ST AT EM ENT APPL I ED;
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/fi-
x
f '7 I
O T HER R EO UEST S FO R T HI S PUBL I CAT I O N M UST
BE R EFER R ED T ry fJoL. CO Jg JJA.
•2/
UNCLASSIFIED
NOLTR 71-124
DEVELOPMENT AND TEST OP THERMAL PROTECTION METHODS FOR BOMB FUSES
TO EXTEND COOK-OFF TIME IN LARGE AIRCRAFT' FUEL FIRES
Prepared by:
Donald Levine
ABSTRACT: (U) Both experimental and theoretical investigations
have been performed on ways of extending the cook-off times af the
Noze Fuse M904E2 and Ml 4 b" Adapter Booster when engulfed in a liquid
hydrocarbon fire. Several insulatlve materials were examined for
utilisation In fuze3 and adapter booster fixes. The materials
showing the greatest promise when fabricated into sleeves,
Candidates No. 10 and No. Ik, These materials extended th<
times of the Fuse M904E2 with deflagration being the usual
An open Adapter Booster problem was determined to exist.
the Adapter Booster was unprotected and flame was directed
open cavity, cook-off resulted in approximately four minutes. When
the Adapter Booster was protected with intumescent paint on the
adapter ring, and a disc and washer of Candidate No. 10 was inserted
into the booster cavity, times in excess of 12 minutes were obtained.
When the two fixes were combined the times to cook-off, with a
somewhat lower fire temperature, were in excess of lc minutes with
detonation being the reaction. This report describes the CJ?~
:
-: -Oü?
test procedures and discusses the laboratory and fiele results
of cook-off fixes for Fuze M90*JE2 and Ml4b Adapter Booster.
were
coo rf-Off
reac tion.
hen
into the
Approved by: A. 3. DIETEMANN, Chief
Chemical Engineering Division
Chemistry Research Department
U. S. NAVAL ORDNANCE LABORATORY
WHITE OAK, MARYLAND
1
UNCLASSIFIED
1
UNCLASSIFIED
NOLTR 71-124 9 December 1971
Development and Test of Thermal Protection Methods for Bomb Fuzes
to Extend Cook-off Time in Large Aircraft Fuel Fires
(U) NOLTR 69-112 and NOLTR 71-54 are previous reports that
describe the cook-off characteristics of ordnance items when
engulfed In a liquid hydrocarbon fuel fire. This report describes
the results of a number of experimental and analytical investigations,
supported by Task NOL-346/NMC Prob. No. 5, to extend the cook-off
time of the Nose Fuze M904E2 and the M148 (T45E7) Adapter Booster.
Based on an elimination process two (2) fixes for the M904E2 Puze
and one (1) fix for the M148 Adapter Booster were procured for
evaluation. The recommendation for release to production of the
chosen fix is contained in reference (4).
ROBERT WILLIAMSON II
ALBERT LIGHTBODY /
By direction
ii
UNCLASSIFIED
UNCLASSIFIED
NOLTR ll'U'H
CONTENTS
!
INTRODU'TI JV ,
THEORY ,
MATERIAL CONSIDERATIOi;
Suecimer. Preparation A:.J /ire- Tent.} at NOL
Specimen Prepai-'Jti jn 'ind FU".- T- :t:.. "a NASA Arne ;
Temperature and ? e:. peratur- -.nJ ;:i,l,U^ Treatment
FIEL:} TEST PROGRAM
PAST OOOK-OFF FES1 ARRANGEMENT
:«0-iiLAClUHl lOii
HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
GENERAL FuEFOSE ^oü -Pü uEJJ I4ARK 2 FOML-
DEFINITION OP TSRK3
EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND CONCLUSION'S
Fri^e Test No . 1 through Fuse Teat No.
OPEN ADAPTER BOOSTER INVESTIGATIONS ...
oUMMARi HND CQNoLUSlONo
r . JKNOWLEDGEMSNT 1 - v
REFERENCES l'c i
APPENDIX A A-l
APPENDIX B , 5-1
APPENDIX C C-l
APPENDIX D D-l
ILLUSTRATIONS
Fipure Title Fare
1 Foam Insulation Thickness Needed for Fuoe
Protection ror 10 Minute;"
2 Sample Plate Assembly • • • i
3 Photograph :> f Specimens After Exposure to Flame
a t 1730° F
h Typical Time-Temperature plot of Backface Tempera-
ture in Exposure to 17E0
0
F FT ame K
Shore A Durorneter Hardnraa VG Time for these
Temperature Exnosuros .......
*« <■ • •••
ta**4*4t>t« • ••••
• •
• • * * •
ill
UNCLASSIFIED
UNCLASSIFIED
NOLTR 71-124
Figure Title Page
6 Shore A Durometer Hardness vs Time for these
Temperatures 2
r
7 Shore A Durometer Hardness vs Tine for these
Temperatures Exposures....,, 2c
8 Shore A Durorneter Hardness vs Time for these
Temperatures Exposures 27
■ j Shore A Durometer Hardness vs Time for these
Temperatures Exposures 29
10 Shore A Durometer Hardness vs Time for these
Temperatures Exposures 3C
11 Shore A Durometer Hardness vs Time for these
Temperatures Exposures 31
12 Shore A Durometer Hardness vr> Time f ;r tnese
Temperatures Exposures 32
13 Shore A Durometer Hardness vs Time for these
Temperatures Exposures 33
14 Shore A Durometer Hardness vs Time for these
Temperaturer Exposures 34
15a Schematic of Field Test Arrangement 37
15b Test Site Layout 3c
16 The FM Recording System 40
17 M904E2 Installed in a Mark 80 Series Bomt 42
18 Mechanical Nose Fuze M904E2 - Sectional and
Exploded Views 43
19 Adapter Booster T45E Series 44
20 Mechanical Ling Delay Fuze Mark 346 Mod 0 45
21a Fuze Drive Mark 5 Mod 1 45
21b Typical Arming Assembly 46
22 Adapter Booster T46 Series 46
23 Mk 82 General Purpose Bomb 48
24 Photograph of Thermally Protected Live Mk 82 Bomb
Outfitted with Mk 346 Tail Fuze and M904E2 Nuse
Fuze 50
25 Ionlzation Probe Location in Mk 82 Thermally
Protected Bomb 51
26 Representative Case Fragment from Test Fuze No. 1. 53
27 Top View of Thermally Protected Live Mk 82 Bomb
Containing Mk 346 Tail Fuze and M904E2 Nose Fuze -
Fuze Shot No. 2 54
28 Cratering and Case Remnants of Fuze Test No. 2 ... 54
29 Actual Air Blast Trace of Fuze Test No. 2 55
30 Bomb Fragments from Fuze Test No. 3. Top View
Shows Tall Section. Bottom View Shows Aft End of
Bomb , 56
31 Air Blast Curve of Fuze Test No. 3 58
32 Thermocouple Arrangement in Ml 4c (T45E7) Adapter
Booster 60
33 Thermocouple Arrangement in Nose Fuze M904E2 6l
34 Time Temperature Plot of Fuze Te3t No. 4 62
35 Time Temperature Plot of Fuze Tost No. 5 64
36 Time Temperature Plot of Fuze Test No. 6 65
lv
UNCLASSIFIED
UNCLASSIFIED
NOLTK 7i-l^
Figure
1 r
FV
1
4u
41
4j
43
HL
4*
kl
47
4.
:
iO
ol
jk
b-
or
60
öl
62
6^
64
65
66
67
66
6s<
70
71
7?
73
74
ILme Temperature PI ot jf Fuze Test No, 7
Thermocouple Location in Auapter booster Well -
Fuze Teat No . t:
Time Temperature Plot of Fuse Test Nc
Teat Set Up for Fuze Teat Ho.
Time Temperature Plot of Fuze Teat No. ;
Time Temperature Plot of Fuz- Teat No. K
Typical Arrangement of Aircraft on Flight Deck ...
Photograph of Teat Set Up of Fuze Te3t No. II ....
Photograph of Teat Site After Fuze Test No. 11 ...
Time Temperature Plot of Fuze Test No. 11
Test Set Up Before Test No. lc
Teat Set Up After Fuze Teat I< b. 11;
Time Temperature Plot :f Fuze Test No. II
Time Temperature Plot of Fuze Test No. 1;
TLme Temperature Plot :f Fu2e Test No, l4
Wind Generator
Pov« er Generator
Air Flo* Patterns for 300 H.P. Wind Generator ....
Experimental Thermocouple Grid for Determining
Hottest Point in Fire *
Time Temperature Curve of Thermocouple Positioned
One Foot Above Fuel Level
Time Temperature Curve of Thermocouple Positioned
Two Feet Above Fuel Level
TLme Temperature Curve of Thermocouple Positioned
Three Feet Above Fuel Level
Time Temperature Curve of Thermocouple Positioned
Four Feet Above Fuel Level
Time Temperature Curve of Thermocouple Positioned
Five Feet Above Fuel Level
Parts Arrangement of M148 Adapter Booster Modified
to Incorporate Intumescent Paint Fix
Te3t Configuration for Fuze Test No. 13
Time Temperature Curve for Fuze Test No. 13 ......
Time Temperature Curve for Fuze Test No. 15
Profile of Fire Temperature for Fuze Test No. 15 .
Di3c and Washer Made from Candidate No. 10 Material
Photograph of Area After Fuse Test No. 16
Fire Temperature Thermogram of Fuze Test No. 16 ..
Ml 48 Adapter Booster Thermogram of Fuze Test No. It
M146 Adapter Booster Thermogram of Fuse Teat No. 16
Mold No. 1 for Protective Fuse Covering
Mold No. 2 for Protective Fuse Covering
Jig for Drilling Holes In Protective Covering ....
Photograph of Test Set Up for Fuze Test No. lit ...
Thermograms of Fuze Thermocouples for Fuze Test
No. 18
Thermograms of Adapter Booster Thermocouples for
Fuze Test No. V
1C C
101
101
i Uc
106
107
lot
110
111
11;
UNCLASSIFIED
UNCLASSIFIED
NOLTR 71-1 ? • ' ,
Figure Title Page
i* 7 Thermogram 3f Thermaetuples for Fuse Test No. 1^ .. HA
7c- Thennograms .>f Adapter Booster Thermocouples for
Shot N . 19 115
7
:
- Schematic :■ ! ' Caniiiate Ni. 1, N . 1 -,] « '.> . ;, and No.
1A Sleeve 11'-
.: Photograph of Sleeve Candidate No. 1, No. t
Modified No. 10, No. 14 117
■ 1 Thermogram of Fuse Teat No, .0 with Candidate No.
: Sleeve 11
Therm -
t
;ra;r. ■ f Fuse Test No. 10 wit:. C'ndldatf No. 1
. >1eeve and Adapte j' r>o j:,cer .«asner I i
The rm o>* *
,r
t' 'i Fust
-
Te c t N * < . - witi: ^anoldate No
1- Sleeve . . . 11
,: l Thermogram of Fuse Tesi, N-. " . w i t ; . Cnnuicste No. 10 11;:
■ :5 Thermogram jf Adapter Booster Thermocouple in Fuze
Test No. :\ , with Candidate No. Sleeve* JH MO-C^E2
Fuse 1: C
oc Thermogram of Adapter booster Then:.: couple in Fuze
Test No. ;.0 with Candidate No. 1- Sleeve ^n M904E2
Fuze 1: v
" 7 Thermogram of Adapter Booster Thermocouple in Fuze
Test No. 20 with Candidate No. 1 Sleeve on M904E2
Fuze and Washer on Adapter 121
co Thermogram of Adapter Booster Thermocouple in Fuse
Test No. 20 with Candidate No. 10 Sleeve on M< ? 04E£
Fuze and Washer on Adapter Booster Ring 121
s9 Thermogram of Fire Temperature Thermocouple for
Fuze Test No . 20 « 122
90 Test Set Up for Fuze Te3t No. Co 123
91 After the Fire - Fuze Test No. 20 124
92 Fuze Test No. 21 - Thermogram of M904E2 Fuze
Protected with Candidate Ho. ; Sleeve 12c
y3 Fuze Test No. 01 - Thermogram of M904E2 Fuze
Protected wich Candidate No. 1 Sleeve 120
94 Fuze Test No. 21 - Thermogram of Fuze Protected
w i t h the Candidate No. 14 Sleeve 127
95 Fuze Test No. 21 - Thermogram of Fuze Protected
w i t h Candidate No. 10 Sleeve 127
96 Fuze Te3t No. 21 - Thermogram on Inert Ml4c Adapter
Booster Thermocouple with Live M904E2 Fuze Protected
with Candidate No" . 10 Sleeve and Washer 126
97 Fuze Test No. 21 - Thermogram of Inert Ml4c Adapter
Boo3ter Thermocouple; with Live Fuze MPe4E2 Prot ect ed
w i t h a Candidate No. 14 Sleeve 120
98 Fuze Test No. 01 - Thermogram of Fire Temperature
Thermocouple 129
99 Fuze Test No. 22 Thermogram of Fi re Temperat ure
Tht rmcoouple 129
100 Fuze Te3t No. 22 - Tnermogram of Inert M904E2 Fuze
Protected with Candidate No. Ik Sleeve 130
vi
UNCLASSIFIED
UNCLASSIFIED
NOLTO 71-1L-N
Figure ntlp Page
101 Fuze Test No. -, - 'The — .
T
;v,x- -d' Llv Ml A- Adapter
booster - Inert M .< u--*E.- Fuze Protected with tne
Candidate No. U Sleeve 1 o -
102 Fuze Test No. 20 - Thermo? rar. of Live K < 0< ;E.- Fuze
Protected with a Candidate No. i Sleeve 1-1
103 Fuze Teat No. LO - Thermogr&
!
:i -f Inert Ml^t Adapter
Booster with Candidate No. 1 Sleeve 1-1
iJi; Fuze Test No. ? ! - Thermogram f Live K ./C'-E. Fuse
Protected with Candidate No, id. Sleev - Ij'l
10
r
Fuze Test No. 00 - Thermogram -0 Inert M1" C Adapter
Booster with Live MyQkZ? Fuze Protected with
Candidate No. lä Sleeve ...
c
......... l'<
lOo Fuze Test No. 0. - Thermogram -f a Live Mr-HEO
Fuze Protected with Candidate No. 10 Sleeve
10? Fuze Test No. CO - Theraograr. of an Inert
Adapter booster with Live MVO^EO Fuze Protected
with Candidate Ho. 10 Sleeve
10c Exposed View sf Thermocouples installed in on
Adapter Booster
1 > ■ Fuze Test No. 23 - TheiTnogram r> f n Live MrOAE.
Fuze Protected with candidate No. 1 Sleeve
110 Fuze Test No. 2 j - Thermogram of an Inert XI ^0
Adapter Booster Containing a Mr-'^Ff Fuze Pre'
witn canoxuatc ivo, L sleeve »« .•.•».« •.»« « .•••« •.« 0 jr
111 Fuze Test No. 23 - Photograph, of Mk sJ- BOJIH After
Cook-Off 1M.
112 Fuze Teat No. 23 - Thermogram of an Inert M oodEL'
Fuze Protected with Candidate No. I Sleeve IHI
113 Fuze Test No. ^3 - Thermogram > f a Live xUe
Adapter Booster Containing a Fuze My-04E2 Protected
with Candidate No. 1 Sleeve 1-1
11** Fuze Test No. 03 - Thermo gram of an Inert Mr 0^E2
Fuze Protected with Candidate No. 1 Sleeve 101
115 Thermogram of a Live Klk'6 Adaptor Booster Contain-
ing M90^E2 Fuze Protected with Candidate No. 1
Sleeve , 10
116 Fuze Test No. 2- - Thermogram of a Live M'-O^EO Fuze
Protected with a Candidate No. 1 Sleeve 100
117 Fuze Test No. 23 - Thermogram of an Inert MlOc
Adapter Booster Containing NO-OMES Fuze Protected
with Candidate No. i Sleeve lOO
113 Fuze Test No. ?h - Thermogram of a Live W-Qh EZ.
Fuze Protected with a Candidate No. 10 Sleeve .... lOh
lly Fuze Test No. 2 h - Thermogram of an Inert MlkB
Adapter Booster Containing K0O0E2 Fuze Protected
with Candidate No. 10 Sleeve IO3
120 Fuze Test No, 2 k - Thermogram of Inert M0-O> JE2 Fuze
Protected with Candidate No. \ii Sleeve 107
121 Fuze Test No, o4 - Thermogram of 0 Live Ml'O
Adapter Rooster Containing W-f OkE'. Fuze Protected
with Candidate No . Id» 0-1 < v»vo 1*17
', v -,-
vii
UNCLASSIFIED
UNCLASSIFIED
NOLTR 71-124
Figure Title Pare
122 Fuze Test No. 24 - Therm-jgram of an Inert M904E2
Fuze Protected with Candidate No. 10 Sleeve 14c
123 Fuze Test No. 24 - Thermogram of a Live Ml4fc
Adapter Booster Containing M504E: Fuze Protected
with Candidate No. 10 Sleeve 14c
124 Fuze Test No. 24 - Thermogram of a Live M;.-04E2
Protected with Candidate No . 1 A Sleeve 145
125 Fuze Test No. 24 - Thermogram of an Inert Ml4b
Adapter Booster Containing M904E? Fuze Protected
with Candidate No. 14 sleeve Ik?
126 Fuze Test No. 24 Fire Temperature Thermogram ..... ISO
127 Fuze Teat No. 2o Fire Temperature Thermogram 150
126 Fuze Tejt No. 25 - Thermogram of a Live M5C4E2
Fuze Protected with Candidate No. 1 Sleeve 151
12^ Fuze Teat No. 25 - Thermogram of an Inert Ml4c
Adapter Booster Containing M904EZ Fuze Protected
with Candidate No. 1 Sleeve 151
130 Fuze Test No. 25 - Thermogram Df an Inert M904E2
Fuze Protected with Candidate No. 1 Sleeve 153
131 Fuze Test No. 2o - Thermogram of a Live MI48
Adapter Booster Containing M904E2 Fuze Protected
with Candidate No. 1. Sleeve 153
132 Fuze Test No. 25 - Thermogram of an Inert M904E2
Fuze Protected with Candidate No. 14 Sleeve 154
133 Fuze Test No. 25 - Thermogram of a Live M148
Adapter Booster Containing M904E2 Fuze Protected
with Candidate No. 14 Sleeve 154
134 Fuze Test No. 25 - Thermogram of an Inert M904E2
Fuze Protected with Candidate No. 10 Sleeve 155
135 Fuze Test No. 25 - Thermogram of a Live M148
Adapter Booster Containing M904E2 Fuze Protected
with Candidate No, 10 Sleeve .
v
155
136 Fuze Test No. 26 - Thermogram of a Live MS-04E2
Fuze Protected with Candidate No. 1 Sleeve Bonded
on with RTV 3145 157
137 Fuze Test No. 26 - Thermogram, of an Inert Ml48
Adapter Booster Containing M9-04E2 Fuze Protected
with Candidate No. 1 Sleeve 157
138 Fuze Test No. 26 - Thermogram of an Inert M904E2
Fuze Protected with Candidate No. 1 Sleeve Bonded
on with RTV 3145 . 156
139 Fuze Test No. 26 - Thermogram of a Live Ml4b
Adapter Booster Containing M904E2 Fuze Protected
with Candidate No. 1 Sleeve Bonded with RTV 3145 . 156
140 Fuze Test No. 25 - Thermogram of a Live M904E2
Fuze Protected with Candidate No. 14 Sleeve Bonded
with RTV 3145 159
141 Fuze Test No. 26 - Thermogram of an Inert Ml48
Adapt-r Booster Containing M904E2 Fuze Protected
with Candidate No. 1 Sleeve 159
viil
UNCLASSIFIED
UNCLASSIFIED
NOLTR 71-1 24
Figure Title Page
142 Fuze Te3t No. 26 - Thermogram of an Inert M604E2
Fuze Protected with Candidate No. 14 Sleeve Bonded
with RTV 3146 • 160
143 Fuze Test No. 26 - Thermogram or a Live Ml 46
Adapter Booster Containing M'j04E2 Fuze Protected
with Candidate No. Ik Sleeve Bonded with RTV 21^6 l^S
144 Fuze Test No. 26 Fire Temperature Thermocouple .. iCl
145 Fuze Test No. 27 Fire Temperature Thermocouple .. 161
146 Fuze Test No. 27 - Thermogram or Live Ml4c
Adapter Booster Containing fuze My04EL Protected
with Candidate No. 10 Sleeve Manufactured lj a
New Source iC'i
14? Fuze Test No. 2? - Thermogram of a Live Ml4c
Adapter Booster Containing M604Ef. Fuse Protected
with Candidate No. 1 Sleeve from 3 New Source ... 165
146 Fuze Test No. 2? - Thermogram of a Live Ml 46
Adapter Booster Containing Fuse M904E2 Protected
with Candidate No. 10 Sleeve from a New Source .. 166
14,: Fuze Test No. 27 - Fhermogram of a Live Ml6t
Adapter Booster Containing H604E2 Fuse Protected
'*_ th Candidate No. 10 Sleeve iron a New Source .. •.'
150 Photograph of Pit After Cook-Off Seat
1-1 Fuze Test No. 2c' - Thermogram of a Live Ml 4::
Adapcer Booster Containing M604E2 Fuze Protected
with Candidate No. 14 Sleeve It.
152 F\ ;e Test No. 28 - Thermogram of a Liv~ K146
Adapter Booster Containing M6'04E2 Fuse Protected
with Candidate No. 10 Sleeve fron" a New Source ., It-
153 Fuze Test No. 26 - Photograph of Ablated Candidas
No. 14 Sleeve After Test I 2
154 Fuze Test No. 28 - Thermogram of a Live Ml4c
Adapter Booster Containing M904E2 Fuze Protected
with Candidate No. 10 Sleeve fron; a New Source .. 171
155 Fuze Test No. 28 - Photograph of Recovered Fuse . 172
156 Fuze Test No. 28 - Thermogram of a Live Ml46
Adapter Booster Containing M904E2 Fuse Protected
With Candidate No. 10 Sleeve 173
157 Fuze Test No. 28 - Photograph of Candidate No. 14
Showing Slot Oriented Toward Fire 176
16c Fuze Test No. 26 - Photograph of Candioate No. 10
Sleeve with Slot- Oriented Toward Fire 176
159 Fuze Test No, 22 - Photograph of Disc and Washer
of Candidate No, 10 Material 177
160 Fire Test No. 2v Thermogram cf Fire Temperature
Thermocouple „ 17S
161 Fuze Test No. 22 - Thermogram of a Live Ml46
Adapter Booster Containing Fuze MS-04E2 Protected
with Candidate No. 14 SI eeve 172
162 Fuze Test No. 26 - Photograph of a Typical
Detonation löO
ix
IINCLASS1FTE0
UNCLASSIFIED
NOLTR 71-1^
Figure
163
163
Title Page
Fuze Test No. 2 -.< - Therrnogram of a Ml 48 Live
Adapter Booster Containing MS< 04£2 Fuze Protected
with Candidate No, 10 Sleeve Ill
Therrnogram of a Live Adapter Booster - Fuze
Protected with Candidate No. 1M.Sleeve 161
Fuze Test No. 2y - Thermogram of a Live Ml46
Adapter Booster Containing Fuze M'_ ;04E;- Protected
with Candidate No. 10 Sleeve Ic2
? ABLES
Table ? ltle Page
1
2
3
4
5
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
of Specific Indicent Heat Fluxes
Heat
Lorn- Fuze
Radiant Heat Shield on Total
Frequency
Effect of
Transmitted to a 3" Diameter x 3" Long Fuze Surface
Candidate Materials .,
Results of Small Scale Burn Tests at NASA and NOL.
Performance of Insulating Materials Ranked According
to Their Insulating Properties
Effect of
Retardant
Effect of
Retardant
Effect of
Retardant
Effect of
Retardant
Effect of
Retardant
Effect of
Retard an t;
Effect of
Retardant
Effect of
Retardant
Effect of
Retardant
Effect of
Retardant
No
Accelerated Climatic Conditioning
Properties of PF-1 (Candidate No.
Accelerated Climatic Conditioning
Properties of BC-62 (Candidate No
Accelerated Climatic Conditioning
Properties of UP-1 (Candidate No.
Accelerated Climatic Conditioning on
Properties of N-NOL-7 (Candidate No.
Accelerated Climatic Conditioning on
Properties of N-NUL-213-A (Candidate
Accelerated Climatic Conditioning on
Properties of UR-38OO (Candidate No.
Accelerated Climatic Conditioning
Properties of P-NOL-FM (Candidate
Accelerated Climatic Conditioning
Properties of TH-1 (Candidate No.
Accelerated Climatic Conditioning
Properties of FM-30 (Candidate No
Accelerated Climatic Conditioning
on Fire
8) ....
on Fire
1) ...
on Fire
14) ...
Fire
12).
Fire
No. 4)
Fire
10)..
Fire
7)..
Fire
4a
12
14
15
15
17
18
3 )
Properties of MIL-R-6855 Neoprene
on
No,
on
13)
on Fire
j1 . . . .
on Fire
(Candidat«
21
Climatic Conditioning of
Protected
Summary of Effects of
Candidate Materials
Summary of Cook-Off Results of Thermally
H-6 Loaded Mk 82 Bombs with Live Fuzes
Cook-Off Results on BHize M904E2 Equipped with
Candidate No. 1 Sleeve and Mounted in Thermally
Protected Mk i2 Bombs
Cook-Off Results on Ml46 (T4-E? ) Open Adapter
35
» # * ♦ »
Boosters Mounted in Thermal Protected Mk Bomb s
72
X
UNCLASSIFIED
UNCLASSIFIED
NOLTR 71-l£i«
Tail. Pare
Cook-Off Results on Nose Fuse WjOh . '• ; Equipped
with Various Protective Coverings Bonded with
RTV 737 \IK
Cook-Off Results on Thermally Protected Concrete-
Loaded Mk 82 Bombs Containing Live and Inert Nose
Fuzes MS04E2 with Various Protective Coverings
Assembled In Live and Inert M148 Adapter Boosters 1C2
Cook-Off Results of Nose Fuze My04E£ and Live K146
(T4
r
oE7) Adapter Booster - Combined Test Results .. lcjj
xl
UNCLASSIPIEP
UNCLASSIFIED
NOLTR 71-1ck
INTRODUCTION
A great deal of Interest haa recently been expressed aver the
resDon3e of ordnance Items to flame engulfment. Both the
USS PORRESTAL and USS ENTERPRISE tragedies have intensified this
Interest. These fires have vividly demonstrated the hazards of a
fire on the flight deck of an aircraft: carrier. Following the
USS FORRESTAL catastrophe, the Russell Committee, investigating
this tragedy, recommended that a program be initiated to extend
the cook-off times of this incident. In response to the committee 's
recommendations, Naval Ordnance Systems Command assigned the
Naval Ordnance Laboratory the ta.sk of determining the feasibility
of extending the cook-off* times of the Mk " 0 3erles of tombs to
five (5) minutes.
Under the ground rules established by NAVORD the solutions
selected for study were to (1) be economically feasible, (2) be
compatible with loading plant operations and (3) employ materials
commercially available. Theoretical and experimental test studies
were conducted on many materials. As a result of this program a
new high melting point asphalt was developed for the Interior of
the bomb cases. Coupled with this fix, was a commercially available
intumescent paint, which was applied on the outer skin of" the
Mk 80 bombs. This combination of fixes gave times in excess of
five minutes. Unfortunately., the commercial intumescent paint was
not weather resistant and effort on other external coatings was
necessary. ]
i
I
In December 1963, the cook-off program was shifted to Naval
Air Systems Command (NAVAIR). NAVAIR continued investigations of
other materials and systems to provide greater and more reliable
protection for unfuzed Mk 80 bombs under varying environmental
treatment and rough handling conditions. ]
In January 1970, NOL was assigned the task to investigate the
cook-off characteristics of the Nose Fuze M904E2, commonly used j
in the Mk 80 series of bombs and tc provide solutions to extending
the cook-off time. Since detonations are more probable If the
Fuze M904E2 initiates first, It Is desirable to extend the cook-off
times of the Fuze M904E? to times longer than the main explosive
charge. This report describes the cook-off studies of the Fuze
M904E2 and Ml48 (T^5E7) Adapter Booster.
j
THEORY j
Basically, a large turbulent fully developed hydrocarbon fuel
fire is a high temperature chemically reacting turbulent gas. The
length and intensity of the fire I» dependent upon the fuel supply,
oxygen level and upon the heat available. These hydrocarbon fires
are extremely high in soot concentration, and the flame temperature
1
UNCLASSIFIED
UNCLASSIFIED
NOLTR 71-124
is generally between 150ü °-2000°F In the fire zone. Since the
carbon or 3oot concentration is high it is assumed that the
principle mechaniara by which heat Is transferred from a fire to an
object engulfed In flames is by radiation. The teat item is
assumed to be completely engulfed in the fire with the dimensions
of the fire being much greater than the dimensions of the test
item. The character of the radiation is essentially :hat of a
gray gas with effective emittance of 0.8 to 1.0. It is the soot
concentration that gives the gas its high effective emissivity.
Convection plays a secondary but important role in large fires.
If the emissivity of the fire and the absorptivity of the item is
assumed to be unity, than the average heat " flux may be expressed
as
q = er(T
f
- T. )
4
where
q = the heat flux BTU/hr-ft
a
a * > the Stephan-Boltzman constant 0.1713 x 10~
8
BTU/hr-ft
a
°R*
T
f
= the average temperature of the fire
T, = the temperature of the outer surface of the case
Previous investigators (references 1-3) have characterized fires
by reporting either an incident heat flux (based on T
f
*»T,*) or a
fire temperature. If one assumes the emissivity of the fire to be
unity, then tht* incident flux, q, (in) is related to the fire
temperatury by q(in)= 0T.*. Takata (reference 2) studied the
frequency of incident fluxes in hydrocarbon fires of different
sizes. The results of his work are shown in Table 1.
Table 1
Frequency of Specific Incident Heat Fluxes
Incident Heat Flux, BTU/Hr-Ft
3
Frequency of Occurrence
25,000 - 30,00'J 0,06
30,000 - 35,000 0.12
35,000 - 40,000 0.1c
40,000 - 4S,000 0.21
45,000 - So,000 0.29
50,000 - 55,000 0.12
25,000 - 55,000 1.00
Based on the work of Takata and other Investigators, incident
heat fluxes of 30,000 BTU/Hr-Pt
3
and 45,000 BTU/Hr-Ft
3
were selected
O
t
UNCLASSIFIED
UNCLASSIFIED
NOLTR 71-124
aa being representative of liquid hydrocarbon fires. Thefire
are
temperaturea corresponding to 30,000 and
863*C and 98l°C respectively.
49,000 BTU/Hr-Ft
a
The Fuze M904E2 surface to be protected thermally Is approximately
3" diameter by 3" long. The front of the fuze cannot be protected
easily because of an arming vane which must turn freely. If we
take the average flame temperature of the Jet fuel fire as l600°F
nominal, the heat flux produced is approximately 36,000 BTU/Hr-Pt
2
.
If it is assumed that the fire completely surrounds the fuze then
the area exposed to the radiative (S*0$ ) and convective (1056) heat
flux is (TT) 3 in * 3 In = 28.2 in
3
or £ b.2 = .195 Ft
2
. Based on
thi3 area the heat flux to the fuze is 0.9 x .199 x 36,000 - 63OC
BTU/Hr radiative and 0.1 x .199 x 36,000 - 700 BTU/Hr convective.
If thermal protection i3 to be provided for 10 minutes then a total
of approximately 1/6 of these values, 1090 BTU radiative heat and
116 BTU conveetive heat must be dissipated or otherwise prevented
from reaching the fuze.
Since the majority of the heat involved is radiated, a
radiation shield will eliminate a large amount of the heat input
to the fuze. The total heat inputs to a fuze surface are tabulated
on Table 2 based on the use of highly polished aluminum or gold.
Table 2
Effect of Radiant Heat Shield on Total Heat Transmitted to a
3
:
" Diameter x 3" Long Fuze Surface
Shield Material
Aluminum Gold
Characteristic High Polish High Polish
Emlssivity 0.1 C.02
Radiative Heat In 10 min. (BTU) 109 35
Conveetive Heat In 10 min, (BTU; 116 lit
Mote that the heat input to the fuze with a radiative shield is
8l-S7# less than the 1166 BTU input if no shield is used and if
the fuze is considered to have an emlssivity of one. However,
because of the cost Involved In a radiation shield and the handling
which these fuzes receive, this approach was rejected.
UNCLASSIFIED
UNCLASSIFIED
NOLTR 71-12')
Another method of delaying the arrival of the cook-off
temperature to the lead and booster explosive In the fuze Is to
provide an lnsulative foam layer on the surface of the fuze.
A typical foam Insulation is assumed to have a density of
4 lbs/ft" , specific heat 0,3 BTU/11» °F and thermal conductivity of
0,017 BTU-ft/hr-ft
a
°P. Calculations have been made to estimate
the thickness of lnsulative foam needed at various heat fluxes to
reach 300°F in 10 minute explosure to the flux. The results of
these calculations are shown in Figure 1. This type of an approach
was abandoned because the thickness of insulation required would
be unacceptable.
MATERIAL CONSIDERATION
It was decided to Investigate fifteen insulation materials for
the exterior cylindrical portion of the Fuze M904E2. This was
done by a screening test on the basis of such factors as fire
performance (conducted at the Ames Research Center and N0L),
physical properties, cost considerations and the results of
exposure to thermal shock and temperature and humidity cycling.
Table 3 lists the fifteen (lo) candidates and the source of
finished sleeve, or in some oases, source of material from
which sleeves were fabricated.
UNCLASSIFIED
VXCI>53IJfI£J>
MOLTR 71-];?«
Candidate
Mo. Code flame
1 BC-b2
H-HOL -'iU
10
TABU. : .
Candidate Materials
Descr l^t Ion
Proprietary Int umescent
Nec.prene {Mil,-R- ;u'.-
Fabricated Parts)
N-N0L-' Heopre.ne tMIL-H-6
1
-^' Sheet)
^ource
ibt er joodvesr Rubber Company
!!'• • - E. Market St.
AKTOn,, OhlC
..* ..cjiteel 1 hatter Company
111',' Shaekajr.axon St.
Philadelphia, Pa.
Aberdeen Proving around
Aberdeen, Maryland
Sleeves fabricated by
Gs ■ • Corp., Aberdeen, 'Ac.
N-NOL-UjA Neoprene, ;< oric Acid, Phenol 1
PM-30 Proprietary Pilled Polyester
P-NÜL- Polyaulfide Kutter
(MXI.i-.i--
!
V j)
Ur.iroyal Rubber Company
;< lsha»a«ca, Xnglana
Avc Corporation
LjQt»elij Massachusetts
PT-Cucts Rets, i Cheff.. C<
-1-,"-• '«!• Jers'-y Ave.
01 jucestc-r City. N.J.
P-NOIr-FM Polvsuli'lde Rubber
und
-• ,* Tris . ,; Dl'orjriopr&pyl
Phosphate fFlremaster)
PF-1
E-HOL-6
Propri et ary Pi lled Polysull'lde
Jg°* y J
Epoxy Adhesive Paste (Wc-1 ^OV.
and
:• > Phenolic Mlcrotalloons
OR-3600 Butadlene-Acrylonltrlle Rubber
Doric Acid, Phen 1lc 'W5--:/)
Pr ducts Res. h Cherr.
Gloucester City, N.J
Co .
Xichlf&n Chemical Co.
;' ] East Ol. ii
Chicsj.%.-, Illinois
Universal Propulsion
tM( Riverside, Calif;
Co.
ml«
.) Hysol Dlv. f Kxter
Pittsburgh, Callforn.3
Corp
a
Union Carbide.
Bound Brookj N.J.
Unireyal Rubber Co.
Klsha»aka, Indiana
E.P. Goodrich Aerospace
;-0C S. Main, Ai-jon, Ohio
11 UR-6?i Proprietary Polyurethane,
Acid, Phenolic
Ur.lroyal Rubber Company
Klahawaka, Indiana
12
13
11»
15
N-NOL- Neoprene and ICf Flremast er Uni rcyal Rubber Company
^i shaw aka, Indi ana
TH-1 Proprietary Pilled Epoxy with
Mloroballoona
Thloi-ol Chemical Company
Brlghaji City, Utah
ÜP-1 Propri et ary Pi lled Polyest er
?b-h h Proprietary
Unique Products
': il. M Cyprus St.
Santa Ana, California
Insulation Systems Inc.
1 • ',' South Ricney St.
Santa Ana, California
Ha
UNCLASSIFIED
u
u

1
'■ JQLTK /)-':'/•
u-
c£^
-
CJ '""''
_ -'",
>^_
^s
a-O
0 -.
"6. 2
z 8
u. <*>
Un
X
v
-
;
*~ Uj
* -'s
<iU
—) a.
z-
1 .. i
10,000 ?0,000 30,000 40,0"
FÖTAL HEAT TC FU7E
;
BTU/HR - F" '
FIG. 1 FOAM INSULATION THIO MESS NEEDED FQR FÜ7E PROTECTION FO? 10 ViNl'TES
J
UNCLASSIFIED
NOLTR 71-12^
Specimen Preparation and Fire Tests at NOL
Two sizes of specimens were uaed for the candidate material
study. Plat aluminum plates 9" x 5" x I/o" were coated with £ " of
the test materials. These were instrumented with thermocouples
and subjected to a Meeker burner flame. The heat flux was adjusted
to 10 BTU/Sec-ft* . A continuous recording, was made of the
temperatures associated with each test. A mask of rigid asbestos
12" x 12" x S" with a 2.50" square in the center, was placed against
the face of the sample assembly. The asbestos assembly equipped
with the sample plate was then placed over the burner. The
aluminum plate was outfitted with a thermocouple in order to measure
the backface temperature. The baekface thermocouple was kept in
plac
-
" by means of a fire brick which also acted as an insulator,
allowing minimum heat losses.
Specimen Preparation and Pire Tests at NASA Ames
The Ame3 Test Facility utilized an oil burner which burned Jet
fuel at the rate of approximately l£ gal/hr. The chamber was
fire-brick lined, and the combustion products were exhausted out
the top rear of the unit. For these tests the flow rate to the
burner was adjusted to maintain 10 to 10.5 BTU/ft
a
sec (36,000 -
37,800 BTU/ft* hr) total heat flux. The temperature at the hot
face of the sample was maintained at 1700°F minimum throughout the
teat. The samples used for this test were 2-7/6" x 2-7/6 x £ "
specimens. A schematic of the sample assembly 13 shown in Figure 2.
The samples were backed with 1/8" thick 2024-T^ aluminum alloy,
bonded to the surface with a high temperature epoxy. The back plate
had a 1.25 in. diameter hole, to which was bonded a 1" diameter
slug calorimeter of the same class and thickness. The aluminum
back or supporting plate had a dual function. First it represented
the thickness of the actual fuze skin, and second It acted as a
supporting plate for the samples in the test apparatus and prevented
any warping of the insulating sample during the test. The test
samples were ^placed in a mask of asbestos 12" x 12" x t" thick
with a 2-7/8' square cut in its center and then placed in the oil
burner. The aluminum backface temperature was recorded continuously
for the teat duration.
Temperature and Temperature and Humidity Treatment
The temperature and humidity tests were employed to get
preliminary information on the ability of the materials to withstand j
adverse climatic conditions of temperature and humidity. The I
total teat is made up of two complete 14-day " JAN temperature and
humidity cycles" . The basic 14-day unit or " JAN temperature and j
Humidity cycle" consisted of cycling the samples nine times between
the extremes of +l60°F (95 percent RH) and -65°F with additional j
storage at +l60°F (95 percent RH) and -80 F. The first step was to
store the test item (2-7/5" x 2-7/8" x 1/6" aluminum plate with
test insulator cemented on with epoxy cement) in a cabinet at -65°F
UNCLASSIFIED
1
NÜLTK 71-124
0.125 IN.
ALUMINUM BACKING PLATE
TEMPEMATIM SENSING ! ISC
<s4
0.250" 'HICK SAMPLE
cb
7
FIG. 7 SAMPLE PLATE ASSEMBLY
UNCLASSIFIED
NOLTR 71-l^iJ
for two hours. The temperature *as then raised to +l60°F (95£ HH)
and the test Item maintained at this temperature for Ik hours.
The temperature was then lowered again to -65°P and the samples
maintained at this temperature for two hours. The operations were
repeated Monday to Friday. After raising the cabinet temperature
to 1-150°F {J5% rlH) on Friday evening, these conditions were
maintained until 0600 on the following Monday. At öbOü Monday,
the sequence of operations was carried out again until Friday of
the second week. On Friday of the second week the cabinet temperature
was reduced to -c.0°F instead of -b
r
i° F and this temperature was
maintained until the beginning of the third wee*. The second cycle
then began. Two such cycles wer« applied In testing these Insulators.
In addition^ samples were stored at -65°F for 2c days and also at
l60°F for 2c days in order to determine which conditions were the
most severe for the various samples. Hardness measurements were
taken every week to determine any post-curing or degradation.
Hardness measurements were made with the Shore Durometer Hardness
Tester Type A-2. The samples were allowed to come to room
temperature before the measurements were made, Samples l
s
2, 3, k,
10, 11, 12 (refer to Table 3) (rubbery type sheet materials) were
cemented to the aluminum plate by epoxy cement and allowed to cure
overnight. All of the other plates were prepared by applying a
mixed resin system to one surface of an aluminum plate with a
spatula. The proper thickness was obtained by machining the
finished samples whenever possible. Many of the mixed resin systems
(eamples No. 5, 6, 7, 8, S, 13, I
1
* and 15 (Table 3)) were quite
viscous and difficult to mix.
A single Chrom* 1-*Alumel thermocouple was attached to each
specimen by means of aluminum backed tape and was held In place by
means of a good insulator such as fire brick.
Results and Conclusion of Burn Tests
Prior to testing ^he specimens, the thickness of each of the
insulating materials was determined in several locations « »peclally
in the center around the a lug calorimeter.
The individual test specimens were than exposed to the flame
with a heat flux of 10 to 10.6 BTU/ft" sec. Only the coated
surface of the fiat plate apecimens were exposed to the flame. The
fire temperature wa^ 1750°F.
Time-temperature plot3 were recorded and exposure was texrolnated
when the temperatur° reached 400°F. The test specimens were
examined after exposure and photographs taken > f some of the
specimens after the test. ar< * shown In Figure
;
.
After an Induction period of approximately 3o seconds the
time-temperature curves were essentially linear. Figure 4 is a
typical time-temperature plot. Since different thicknesses were
Involved with each sample, the data were normalized to account for
UNCLAS3IFIEI
NOLTR 124
Ss
3
D
i/i
o n
o
i*5
o
X K-
CN
< L L
a:
LU
u
s
<
LU
y~
0
o t
Ü ) 1
— 0
<
<
u
o
(s ainNiw) 3wii
10
1
h
UNCLASSIFIED
NOLTR 71-124
differences In thickness. Both the NASA burn teat results and NOL
burn teat resultö are shown in Table b, The thermal tarriers are
ranked in the order of their insulating properties in Table 5.
From Table 5 it can be seen there in reasonable agreement from bot)
types of tests. One of the candidates produced an outstanding firm
and rigid char. It3 lower ranking was believed to be due to a
crack at the thermocouple position and points up a possible serious
disadvantage of small scale test3 of this nature. Small Imperfections
sometimes cause :atastrophic failures, whereas, in actual large
scale fire tests, the temperature effects of the crack are averaged
over a large surface area.
After completion of the small scale fire tests, five candidate
samples were discarded from the program as no longer promising.
These candidate samples were No. [i, No. l
r
, No. 11, No. 6 and No. ^.
The remainder of the samples « ere subjected to -65 F, -6
c
;°F to -rl60°F
(95* RH) and +l60°F with weekly withdrawl3. Figures 5 through 1A
are plots of Shore A Durometer hardness as a function of time for
the three conditions of exposure. The change in hardness was
measured since this characteristic is related to the change In
crosslink density of a polymeric network. Tables 6 through li
represent the times to reach 200°F, AO0°F and the temperature at
the end of 10 minutes after exposure to a Butane flame of 2000°F.
The changes in fire protection were qualitatively followed in this
manner. Table 16 includes various observations associated with the
material treatment.
Figure 5 shows the effect of accelerated climatic conditions
on the physical and mechanical properties of candidate No. b
material, indicating that the material looses about 100* of its
strength after 28 days of exposure in the JAN cycle changing from
a rigid polymer to a soft putty like material. Table 6 indicates
that the material also loses part of its thermal insulating rroperties
when cycled between -65°F and +l60°F. However, the insulating
properties are still quite good (Table 6).
Candidate No. 1, lntumescent Neoprene rubber, appears to possess
good low and high temperature resistance. Figure i indicates no
significant changes in crosslink density. Table 7 indicates no
loss of fire protection after one month of storage at high and low
temperatures.
Candidate No. 1^ was affected by environmental storage. Table 0
indicates that the cycled conditions were the most severe. After
28 days In the JAN cycle, the material appeared to have lost part
of Its insulating properties (Table Ü), Figure 7 indicates a
degradation in crosslink demaity at +160°F and after JAN cycling.
The material also cracked badly after 28 days of JAN cycling. It
al3o appeared to have lost its adhesion to the aluminum substrate.
Candidate No. 12 was al3o affected by accelerated aging.
Figure 8 shows that when the material was cycled depolymerizatlon
occurred. The rubber compound changed from a soft rubbery material
11
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N0LTR 71-12 4
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NOLTB 71-12 4
Table . ,
Performance _ r Insulat i ng Mat eri als Ranke,
In 3u1 atlng Proper11et
„ec ord lng to Their
Cand id ate No. NASA Ranking
PF-1
Canc id ate 1 1 IIOL Ranki;.£
PF-]
IG
11
5
15
K-NOL-: jA
TH-1
P-NOL-FM
UP-1
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FM-30
N-NOL-6655
PL-4 4
N-N0L-30or
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1 -
14
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r-1\ JLJ-r 1',
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PL-M--
N-NOL-Cc
p_ MAT . '
N-N0L-2 C
E-NOL-C
12
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to a Jell. The sample also discolored, changing from an off white
color to a reddish brown. The fire retardancy of the material,
shown in Table ... does not appear to te affected by the environmental
treatment. On a close examination of the rubber It appears &B
though the trls 2,3 dibromopropyl phosphate was not compatible with
the rubber stock.
Figure and Table 10 indicate that the Candidate No. H was
affected by both the high temperature and low temperature storage
conditions. The material appears to show a narked degradation In
physical properties and thermal protection after low temperature
storage, and exposure to the ?
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day JAN cycle.
Figure 10 indicates the changes in mechanical properties and
thermal protection of Candidate No. IS. The rubber appears tc be
post curing at the elevated temperature, the performance in a fire
is shown on Table 11.
The physical properties of Candidate No. 7 do not appear to
be affected by the accelerated temperatures (Figure 11). The
material was relatively soft at the onset, and appears to assume
a permanent set on aging at ±l60°F. Table 12 indicates the material
loses its intumescent character at l60°F.
The physical properties of Candidate No. 1; is shown lr»
Figure 12; it was relatively unaffected by the storage conditions.
The material, however, was extremely brittle and had por impact
resistance. The thermal properties were extreMly poor and are
shown in Table 13.
Figure 1? and Table 1^ Indicate Candidate No. 3 was somewhat
affected by high temperature storage. Shrinkage/expansion character-
istics appeared to be a problem area (Table 16),
Candidate No. 3 wac relatively insensitive to the storage
conditions at high and low temperatures as shown in Figure 1M and
Table 15. The sample burned quite vigorously when the burner
was removed from the sample.
Candidate No. 13 was eliminated -n the basis that it would be
incapable of withstanding the treatment It would experience in
the Fleet. Candidate No. 3 *as also eliminated because of its
flammabllity.
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Table lo
Material
PP-1
Candidate No
BC-0'2
Candidate No, 1
UP-1
Candidate No. Ih
N-NOL-7
Candidate No. 12
N-NOL-213A
Candidate No. k
P-NOL-FM
Candidate No. 7
UR-3800 - ws S939
Candidate No. 10
Neoprene MIL-R-6855
Candidate No. 3
Candidate No. 13
Candidate No. 5
Summary of Effects of Climatic
Conditioning of Candidate Materials
Results
Changed in hardness—became .soft. Marked
degradation in physical properties. Lost
soir.e thermal properties.
No noticeable change.
Material warped at high temperature. On
burning it pulled away from metal. At
JAN cycle, thermal properties reduced
and cracking occurred.
Tris DIBromopropyl Phosphate not
compatible with Neoprene—became soft and
mushy. Lost intumescence.
Lost its fire protection and physical
characteristics.
Lost its intumescence at 160 F.
Post cured—properties Improved with age.
Produced outstanding char.
No noticeable change.
Material very brittle; questionable
handling ruggedness.
Lo3t some of its thermal properties at
high temperature storage. Shrinkage/
expansion characteristics were noted as
possible problem area.
FIELD TEST PROGRAM
Concurrent with the laboratory program a field test program
was planned and begun. Sleeves were fabricated and placed on
M904E2 Fuzes, These were equipped with thermocouples, assembled
to Mk 82 bombs and fire tested at White Sands Missile Range,
New Mexico,
UNCLASSIFIED
UNCLASSIFIED
NOLTR ?1-1?M
FAST COOK-OFF TEST ARRANGEMENT
Flame envelopment testa were performed by suspending the test
Item approximately 3b" from the surface of kHOQ gallons of JP-^
fuel. A 35' x 35' * 1' enclosure (pit) was constructed from tand
and polyethylene sheet. The pit was located in an excavation
55" x 55" x 10" deep in order to minimize the effects of wind
currents. The pit contained the fuel with two inches of water
beneath the fuel to provide a level surface. The fuel was ignited
with four thermite grenades modified with electric aquiba. These
were placed in four locations ao aß to initiate burning over the
entire fuel surface, as rapidly as possible. The fire testa were
conducted when the wind velocity was five knots or less, to ensure
complete engulfment of the teat item. Generally, the wind velocity
at ground level was approximately twice as high as in the pit.
Schematics oV the field teat arrangement are shown in Figures 15a
and 15b. The instrumentation trailer was housed in an earth
barricade to protect the occupants and instruments during the test.
A trench cOG feet long x 1 foot deep x 1 foot wide was dug, in order
to house the cables. After placement of the cables they were then
covered with sand. A smaller earth barricade of k
1
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dug approximately SO feet from the burn pits in order to house the
reference Junction and to protect it from the intense heat, A
preliminary specification for fast cook-off test of the Mk 30 series
of low drag bombs is contained in Appendix J.
INSTRUMENTATION
A Vidar Data Acquisition System was used to measure tne
thermocouple data. This equipment is capable of scanning up to
1000-three wire guarded input channels and recording on paper tape.
Approximately half-way during the program a magnetic tape recording
capability was added which simplified the data reduction process.
The system measured d.c. voltage between one microvolt and 500
millivolts which could be translated tc a temperature range between
-30°F and 3000°P. These moles and ranges of measurement were
remotely selected and were programmed in blocks of 10 for easy
insertion Into the computer. The usefulness of this system is its
high degree of noise immunity from both common and normal mode
interference. The system normally scanned st the rate of 5 pts/sec
although faster scanning rates were sometimes used. Twenty-eight
gauge chromel-alumel thermocouple t*ir? was uaed to instrument the
test item, internally and externally. The external thermocouples
were used to measure the fire temperature and were located
symmetrically around the teat it
c
n . Ice was used as the reference
Junction. Color motion picture cameras were used to cover each
teat and were located IOOL feet from the test. Normal frame rates
of 2^4 fps were useu. Still camera coverage was employed for
documentary purposes. The teat firings were viewed on closed
circuit television and a video tape recording was made of each shot.
The capability to record the magnitude T pressure resultin
©
from a bom! detonation was afforded by the use ,f pytrex pressure
transducers. Since the detonation 'f an explosive In air causes
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a relatively large amount .-f energy " ■ f released in a sh> rt time»
the 'ihock wave starts with an Initial higr pressure near the
explosive and eventual I> decays to a sound wave at some distance
from the charge. The Bytrex transducer utilizes semi-conductor
strain gage» aa the aenscr. The gages are bonded to a force member
which is attached to the center of a pressure responsive diaphragm.
When the diaphragm Is subjected to pressure, the force member la
compressed. This compression induces a strain and changes the
electrical resistance ,-f the strain »napes. The strain gages are
connected to form a wheatstone bridge, When excited with a constant
voltage, the change in resistance :,f tht gage causes an unbalance
in the wheatstone " bridge and produces a voltage proportional tc the
applied pressure.
The signal conditioning equipment consists cf two separate
components. Transducer excitation was provided by a veil regulated
power supply capable > f providing ..-.M volts A. c. , when operated
in the constant voltage mode, and 0 to 100 mill lamps when operated
In the constant current mode. The second signal conditioning
component is pio/lded for bridge balancing and shunt calibration of
the transducer. The electrics! calibrations wer*» achieved by
shunting one am f trie wheatstone 1 ridge w-itn a pre-determined
resistance and measuring the vcltag-e ; reduce i y the resulting
bridge unbalance. D.C. amplifier., were ased to increase the
transducer cutout tc the level repaired by one tape recorder FM
record amplifier f r full scale ca.] I: ration. The amplifiers were
differential amplifier! and had continuously variable gain from
upper band peso JV the amplifiers was IOC KHz.
Standard commercial! :, available magnetic tape was -sea to
record data on ail tests. one tape recorders were supplied by the
White 3and3 Missile Range. The reorders were .sec In the Z' KHz
-ode and all data woo taken at n tap.- cpeee f K. inchea per second.
The instrumentation is illustrated in bl " ck f...rm in Figure lb.
A pin switch control circuit was oe^ up and nmd in this program
to establish the origin ': any i^tonati > n or deflagration occurring
In the cook-off of n Mk '• ',. bomb. Thermocouple wire was used as the
sensing element. When a detonation or deflagration occurred, a
switch'waT closed discharging a capacitor an
4
triggering an
oscilloscope equipped with 0 polaroid earners. The 3i? nal was also
recorded on a tape recorder. By judiciously placing the probes at
various positions in a Mr; O 'tomb It was? pocsitle to ascertain the
origin of the det" = r,at i -< n wave, i-. complet« » description of the pin
probe circuit is nh > wr. in Appendix A,
HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
The Fuze MoOugo is the most extensively jned fuze in the Mk oC
series of bombs. Preliminary
4
:^so d*ta fr^o tne Naval Weapons
Laboratory, Dahlgren, Virginia» Indicated that the Fuze K904E2 was
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NOLTR 71-12M
likely to be a limiting component in cook-off when protection was
provided on the boat» Because of its high usage by the Fleet,
cook-off protection of the Fuze W?MZ2 wa&
fc
lven first priority.
The Nose Fuze M9Q4E2 weighs about 2-1/3 pounds and it has an
aluminum bodyj it la approximately 9-£ inches long and it has a
2.0 inch t hread which screws into the MlAb Adapter Booster. When
assembled into the bomb the fuze protrudes approximately 4-1/8
inches (Figure 17). The M90AE2 Fuze Booster contains approximately
Ik grama of tetryl. Figure lb shows a sectional and exploded view
of the fuze in the unarmed position,
The arming of the Fuze M90^E2 is accomplished by rotation of
an arming vane and it mu3t turn freely in the air stream when the
bomb is released.
There are three positions on the side of the fuze which must
not be covered by any fixed insulator that is employed for fire
protection. One is the observation window where the safe or armed
position of the fuze is observed. The second is a stop screw
which needs to be removed for arming times below 6 seconds. The
third Is the setting index locking pin which when depressed releases
an internal lock so that the knurled delay setting knob may be
rotated.
Th« Ml46 (T45E7) Adapter Booster (Figure 19) is used In
conjunction with the M904E2 Mechenieal Nose Fuze. Its overall
length is 6. 63 inches and the outside thread diameter is 3.5 Inches.
The inside diameter has a 2.0 inch thread to accommodate the
Fuze M904E2. The purpose of this adapter booster is to mate the
Fuze M904E2 with the Mk 60 series of bombs. It also serves to
transmit the explosive train action of the fuze to the main charge
of the bo»b. The Adapter Booster contains approximately l60 grams
of tetryl (doughnut shape) in its base and is covered with a steel
closing cup.
The Meohanical Long Delay Tall Fuze Mk 3^6 Mod 0 is also used
to a limited extent in the Mk 80 series of bombs and is of Interest
from a cook-off point of view. The Fuze Mk 3^6 is shown in Figure
20. It Is approximately 6-3 /8 inches long and is threaded for a
two-inch adapter well. For purposes of description the term " outer"
end and " base" end are used. The outer end couples to a fuze-tail
drive shaft (Figure 21a). Because it is a tail fuze which is not
mounted at the extreme end of the fin, the Mk 3^6 must be fitted
with an arming assembly. The arming assembly consists of four
basic components, Fuze Drive Mk S, an adapter, drive shaft and a
funnel guide. Figure 21b shows the complete arming assembly. The
adapter in Figure 21b is affixed to the conical tall section by
means of three socket-head set screws. The extension drive shaft
couples the output spindle or the fuze drive to the input shaft of
the fuze. The extension drive shaft therefore provides a direct
heat path from the fire to the fuze. The funnel guide is a molded
polyethylene sleeve which snaps over the outer end of the fuze. The
141
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NOLTR 7(-12 4
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MECHANICAL NOSE FUZE MWE2- SECTIONAL AND EX PLODED VIEWS
±2
4-
NOLTR 71-124
ANTI-REMOVAL CAM
8ASE END
TIME
OBSERVATION
WINDOW
2" THREAD
SAFE-ARM WINDOW
OUTER END
INPUT SHAFT
6 3/8"
TOTAL WEIGHT 4.4 LBS
FI G. 20 MECHANICAL LING DELAY FUZE MARK 346 MOD 0
AWING VANE
VANE SHAH
VANE PLATE
GO Vf*NO « HO USI NG
L Ö CKNüT
T O O T HED
ftlT AtNiNG SW I NG tna-S-l*
FIG. 21A FUZE DRIVE MARK 5 MOD 1
45
NOLTR 71-124
ADAPTER
FUZE DRIVE
FUNNEL GUIDE
FIG. 21 B TYPICAL ARMING ASSEMBLY
CLOSING
PLUG
FUZE
ADAPTER
LOCKING
PIN
HOLE
SHOCK
ABSORBER
CLOSURE
DISK
ADAPTER
BUSHING
FIG. 22 ADAPTER BOOSTER T46 SERIES
46
UNCLASSIFIED
NOLTR 71-12*
base end of the fuze fits Into an adapter booster- well. The Adapter
Booster T46 Is Installed into the bomb fuze »ell. It contains
approximately 410 grams of tetryl. The overall length of the
adapter booster is 8.7 inches. The outer thread diameter is 3.5
inches and the inside thread diameter is 2.0 inches to accomodate
the Fuze Mk 346. The Adapter Booster T46 series is shown in
Figure 22. The only explosive components integral to the fuze are
a detonator and lead. It is unknown how these components react
under Intense heat.
GENERAL PURPOSE 500-POUND MARK 82 BOMB
The Mark 82 Bomb has a cylindrical body with an oglval nose.
A conical fin is attached to the aft end of the bomb body by set
screws. The length of the assembled bomb is 66.90 inches. The
fin span is 15.1 Inches. The average weight of the explosive
charge is 192 pounds and the weight of the assembled bomb is 531.0
pounds. The Mk 82 bomb is shown in Figure 23. \ 1
The tubes for the electric fuze cable harness connect the nose
and tall cavities with the charging well between the lugs on the
outer surface of the bomb. The electric fuze cable harness was
removed in cook-off tests in order to provide space for thermocouples
and probes. Two suspension lugs, spaced 14 inches apart> and a
hoisting lug at the center of gravity were threaded into lug inserts
on the bomb body. The bombs were hung in the burning pit by means
of chains attached to the suspension lugs.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
The detonation of an explosive in air causes a relatively large
amount of energy to be released in a short time. A shock, or
blast wave is formed at the surface and propagates outward. This
shock wave starts with an initial high pressure-high velocity near
the explosive and eventually decays to a sound wave at some distance
from the charge. In order to classify the type of reaction occurring
it is usually necessary to obtain the air blast parameters such as
peak pressure, time, of reaction and the length of the duration of
the shock front. In the cook-off experiments which will be described,
air blast procedures were used when possible to classify the type
of reaction occurring. Often times however, inert bombs and live
fuzes were used and insufficient explosive was present to measure
the air blast parameters. Because of the high temperatures
surrounding the pit, close in measurements could not be made. The
following definitions of reactions as promulgated by NAVORD Message
132244Z March 1969 were used in interpreting uhe violence of the
cook-off event.
Detonations Munition performs in design mode. Maximum possible
air shock formed. Essentially all of case broken into small
fragments. Blast and fragment damage Is at maximum. Severity of
blast causes maximum ground crater or flight deck hole capable
by the warhead.
47
UNCLASSIFIED
NOLTK 71-124
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UNCLASSIFIED
NOLTR 71-124
Partial Detonation: Only part of total explosive in munition
detonated. Strong air shock and small as well as large case
fragments produced. Small fragments are similar co those in normal
munition detonation. Extensive blast and fragmentation damage to
environment. Amount of damage and extent of breakup of case into
small fragments increases with increasing amount of explosive
that detonated. Severity of blast could cause large ground crater,
or large flight deck hole on carrier if munition is large bomb;
hole size depends on amount of explosive that detonates.
Explosion: Violent pressure rupture and fragmentation of munition
case with resulting air shock. Most of metal case breaks into
large pieces which are thrown about with unreacted or burning
explosive. Some blast and fragmentation damage to environment.
Fire and smoke damage. Severity of blast could cause minor ground
crater, or small depression on flight deck of carrier if munition
is large bomb.
Deflagration; Explosive in munition burns. Case may rupture or
end plates blow out; however, no fragmentation of the case. No
fragments are thrown about. Damage to environment due only to
heat and smoke of fire. No discernable damage due to blast or
fragmentation.
EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS
The first series of cests were performed to establish a baseline
for an unprotected Nose Fuze M904E2 and Adapter Booster Ml48 (T45E7).
A Tall Fuze Mk 346, Adapter Booster T46 and an arming assembly
were also included in this test to ascertain their cook-off
characteristics. lonization probes were utilized to determine the
site of the reaction. It was decided if the Tail Puze Mk 3^6
Adapter Booster combination reacted first, they were to be eliminated
from the program and investigated at a lafcer date following a
solution to the Fuze M904E2 and Ml 48 Adapter Booster combination.
The Mk 346 Puze and T4& Adapter Booster assembly therefore rode
piggy-back to the Puze M904E2 program.
The Mk 82 Bombs used during this series of tests were thermally
protected bombs produced by NAD, Crane, The bomb casings were
the regular production type and ware Insulated on the interior
with i of high melting hot melt. The exterior surface was protected
with 15 mils of an intumescent paint manufactured by Chee3man Elliot
and Company.
The lonization probes were 28 gauge chromel-alumel wire and
were placed in the charging wells in six different locations. Eight
thermocouple wires were placed symmetrically around the bomb to
obtain the fire temperature. The bomb was suspended 36" above
2,500 gallons of JP-4 Jet fuel in a 35' x 35' x l
1
deep enclosure.
The experimental set up is shown in Figure 24. The probe locations
are shown in Figure 25. A wind velocity for firing of 3 knots or
49
UNCLASSIFIED
NOLT« 71-124
FI G. 24 PHOTOGRAPH Of THERMALLY PROTECTED LIVE
MK 82 BOMB OUTFITTED WITH MK 346 TAU
FUZE AND M-90412 NOSE fUZE
50
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NOLTR 71-12**
less was generally observed, Wie fuel was Initiated by means of four
thermite grenades positioned at each end of the pit. The thermocouple
data was recorded on paper tape and the probe data on magnetic tape.
Fuze Test No, 1
The first teat of the Nose and Tall Fuze combination in an
H-6 loaded and protected bomb gave a reaction five minutes and
eighteen seconds (31& seconds} after the start of the fire. The
average fire temperature was l? §Cff and it burned for 16 minutes.
Pin probe data indicated that the start of the reaction occurred
in region 1, nearest to the M904E2 and Ml46 Adapter Booster. The
bomb was blown into several large pieces and a slight overpressure
was detected. Figure 26 shows a representative case fragment.
The reaction was classified as an explosion.
Fuze Test No. 2
In the next test the same configuration as above was exposed
to the fuel fire. The atmospheric conditions were similar to
the previous shot and the wind velocity was 1-2 knots. The average
fire temperature was l600°F. Th* lonlzation probes were located
in the charging wells identical to Figure 25« A top view of the
set-up is shown in Figure 2? . Seven minutes and fifty-five seconds
{4? 5 seconds) after the start of the fire the bomb detonated. Small
fragments were strewn about the area and a crater approximately
•i^t feet in diameter and one foot deep was formed. A photograpn
of the area after the shot, Figure 28, shows the crater and case
remnants of the detonation. Air blast over pressure measurements
were also recorded. The close in gaage was driven off scale and
the second gauge recorded a small overpressure. The over pressure
measurement Is shown in Figure 29. The steep initial pressure rise
and the shape of the curve is indicative of a detonation* The
average fire temperature in this run was lower than in the previous
experiment which could account for the difference in cook-off times.
The Ionisation probe data for this experiment indicated that the
reaction initiated In the position where the tail fuse was located.
As a result of this test the tail fuze investigations were set
aside for future consideration.
Fuze Test No. 3
Another test waa
!
made with the same configuration as in Fuze
Test No. 2 except the tail fuze and adapter booster were removed.
The wind conditions were calm. Five minutes and forty-two seconds
{342 seconds) after the start of the fire the bomb exploded. The
nose of the bomb was blown 6 to 7 feet from the supporting stand.
Small pieces of unburned explosive were found in the pit and at
the surface. The bomb was essentially blown into 10 large fragments.
Representative pieces of the bomb are shown in Figure 30. No
probe data was taken in this shot. A small overpressure was
observed with the close in air blast gauge. From the air blast curve
52
UNCLASSIFIED
v> ;
NOLTK 71-124
3, % REPRESENTATIVE CASE FRAGMENT
FROM TEST FUZE NO. 1
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NOLTR 71-12 4
FIG. 7 ? TOP VIEW Of THERMALLY PROJECTED LIVE MK C
BOMB CONTAINING MK 34« TAIL FUZE AND M-
9Q4E2 NOSE FUZE-FUZE SHOT NC. 2
J
FIG, 28 C8ATERING AND CASE RFMN
OF FUZE TEST NO. 2
54
NOLTR 71-124
A »" 0,005 SEC (TIME IN SEC)
FIG. 29 ACTUAL AiR BLAST TRACE Of FUZE TEST NO 2
55
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NOLTR 71-12 4
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.... ■ . ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ;■ ■ ■ " '■ ■ ■ - ■ .. ■ . ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ '.■ ■ .
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FIG. 30 BOMB FRAGMENTS FROM FUZE IE5T NO, 3. TOP
VIEW SHOWS TAIL SECTION, BOTTOM VIEW
SHOWS AFT END OF BOMB,
56
UNCLASSIFIED
NOLTR 71-124
It appears as though two reactions were occurring. This Is show*
In Figure 31. The average fire temperature was l650°F, similar
to the fire temperature observed in Fuze Test No, 2, it appears
from these results that the average cook-off time of an unprotected
fuze in a thermally protected bomb Is on the order of five minutes.
It was Immediately apparent that a fix would have to be applied
to the fuze In order to extend its cook-off time and make It more
compatible with the thermally protected bombs which were being
tested at the Naval Weapons Laboratory, Dahlgren, Va. The thermally
protected bombs proposed for ultimate Fleet issue will be coated
externally with an insulation coating and internally with high
melting hot melt. Cook-off times range from nine minutes to 15
minutes.
The results of Fuze Test No's. 1, 2 and 3 are tabulated in
Table 17.
Since fuzes, particularly nose fuzes, cook-off first when
tested in thermally protected bombs, it wa3 decided to investigate
the use of a rubber sleeve over the fuze body to delay cook-off.
Candidate No. 1 sleeving was ahosen because of (1) the small scale
bum tests, (2) superior environmental characteristics, (3) its
availability and (4) because of our familiarity with the material
from previous bomb testing. From previous tests it was determined
that the Candidate No. 1 sleeve must be bonded to the metal
substrate to achieve maximum insulation. The adhesive which was
found to be most effective was a Dow Corning Slllcone Adhesive # 737.
Fuze Test No. 4
A Mk 82 Bomb internally coated with £ " high melting hot melt
was filled with Filler E which is an inert simulant for explosive.
The Filler E loaded bomb was fitted with an inert T45E7 Adapter
Booster and live Fuze M904E2 containing the Candidate No. 1
rubber cover bonded on with the Dow Corning Slllcone Adhesive.
The aluminum sleeve in the Adapter Booster was instrumented with
four thermocouples, the Fuze M904E2 with four thermocouples and the
inert adapter booster charge with four thermocouples. Eight
thermocouples were positioned 90° around the major diameter of the
bomb. The thermocouple arrangement Is shown in Figure 32, for the
adapter booster and In Figure 33 for the Fuze M904E2» No air blast
measurements were made due to the small amount of explosive present
and the inability to make close in measurements because of the
intense heat generated by the fuel fire. The wind velocity was
0-1 knots measured in the pit at the bomb level. Eleven minutes and
sixteen seconds (676 seconds) after the start of the fire the fuze
appeared to detonate. The fuze was blown approximately 900 feet
from the site of the reaction and the cup containing the tetryl in
the Fu*e M904E2 was blown completely apart. The fire temperature
was approximately 1700°F and the fuze temperature approximately 425°F
before detonation. The fire burned for 15 minutes. The adapter
booster temperature appeared to be approximately 350°F before the
reaction. The thermocouple data is shown In Figure 34.
57
UNCLASSIFIED
NOLTR 71-124
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TIME (MILLISECONDS)
FIG. 31 AIR BLAST CURVE OF FUZE TEST NO 3
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NOLTR 71-124
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CLOSING PLUG
ADAPTER
SLEEVE
CLOSING
CUP
BOOSTER
CHARGE
FUZE
SEAT
LINER
CASING
FELT DISC
FELT DISC
FIG. 32 THERMOCOUPLE ARRANGEMENT IN MI48
(T45E7) ADAPTER BOOSTER
60
NOLTR 71-124
KNURLED DELAY
SETTING KNOB
SPRING LOAD LOCKING PIN
FOR DELAY ELEMENT
PERMANENTLY ATTACHED
ARMING VANE
INDEX ING LINE
NOSE RETAINING RING
SETTING INDEX LOCKING PIN
STOP SCREW
UPPER OBSERVATION WINDOW
2"THREADS
LOWER OBSERVATION WINDOW
BOOSTER
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FIG. 33 THERMOCOUPLE ARRANGEMENT IN NOSE FUZE M904E2
61
NOLTR 71-12 4
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UNCLASSIFIED
NOLTR 71-12 * 4
Fuze.Test No« §
Another test was run in the »« me manner as In the previous
shot, Wie fuze-bomb configuration was Identical to Fuze Test No. U,
The .wind velocity at the bomb level was 0-1 knot. Ten minutes
and thirty-eight seconds {638 seconds) after the start of the fire
the fuze detonated. The cup containing the tetryl was blown apart
and the aluminum sleeve was also destroyed. The average fire
temperature was 1700°F. The fire burned for 15 minutes and twafcty
seconds. The thermocouple registering the highest temperatures
for the fuze, adapter booster and fire temperature are sho> in
Fifure 35. The maximum difference between the four thermocouples
was 50°F.
Fuze Test No. 6
In order to ascertain the vulnerability of the Adapter Booster
Ml48 (T45B7) ä live Nose Fuze M904E2 *as protected with Candidate
No. 1 sleeve In an identical fashion to the two previous experiments.
However, this time a live T45E7 unfixed Adapter Booster was used.
An inert bomb with t" high melting hot melt liner, Filler E, and
lntumescent paint was again used as the teat vehicle. Four thermo-
couples were again used in the adapter booster to detect the time
and temperature of the reaction. Eight thermocouples were used to
measure the outside fire temperature. The wind velocity was 0-1
knot. Engulfraent was complete. Six minutes and forty-seven
seconds (407 seconds) after the start of the fire the adapter
booster deflagrated expelling the Nose Fuze M904K2. The fuze was
recovered intact. The aluminum sleeve was still intact in the bomb,
although welded to the walls because of the intense heat of the
burning explosive. Thermocouple data Indicated that the average
fire temperature was 1650
s
F. The cook-off temperature of the adapter
booster explosive was 375°F. The thermocouple record is shown In
Figure 36. It was observed in this fuze test that Filler E
appeared to contribute to the burning of the adapter booster,
therefore, it was decided to discontinue using this simulant in
future cook-off tests.
Fuze Test No. 7
Thus far fixed M904E2 Fuses and unfixed live and inert M148
(T45E7) Adapter Boosters has been tested in inert bombs. The
configuration for this test consisted of a live Fuze M904E2 outfitted
with a Candidate No. 1 sleeve bonded onto the fuze body with
Silicone Adhesive # 737. The live fixed nose fuze was inserted into
an unfixed Adapter Booster T45E? and this in turn was installed
into a live thertuUly fixed bomb attaining 1-6 explosive. The
wind velocity in the pit »as 0-3 knots, however, there were
occasional gusts up to 5 knots. The average fire temperature was
1600°F shown in Figure 37. No thermocouples were Installed Into
the fuze or bomb for this test. Eight minutes and fifty seconds
{530 seconds) after the start of the fire the adapter booster reacted
63
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FOLTR 71-124
expelling the fuze, and leaving most of the fuze intact. Nine
minutes and twenty seconds (560 seconds) after the start of the
experiment the fire died out. At 11 minutes and 20 seconds or two
minutes later tne mass of the explosive in the bomb exploded
I splitting the case into several large fragments. This was observed
on cloj»ed circuit television. It indicates that once a bomb has
been heated in a fuel fire it is still subject to reaction even
after the bomb is no longer engulfed in flame.
Fuze Test No. 8
j The same configuration was used as in Fuze Test No. 7. Eight
outside thermocouples were used to record fire temperature. Four
thermocouples were positioned in the bottom of the adapter booster
well to record the booster action. The adapter booster thermocouple
location is shown in Figure 38. Cook-off resulted 6 minutes and
I 24 seconds (384 seconds) after ignition of the fuel. The action
I resulted in adapter booster ignition and fuze ejection. The
:| Puze M904E2 was recovered intact approximately 100 yards from the
pit. Ten minutes and sixteen seconds (616 seconds) after ignition
the bomb deflagrated. The average fire temperature waa 1650 F, This
Is shown in Figure 39. A photograph of the test set up is shown
in Figure 40.
Fuze Teat No. 9
Fuze Test No. 9 was run in order to establish a baseline time
for adapter booster cook-off. An inert Fuze M904E2 equipped vdth
the Candidate No, 1 sleeve material bonded with Sllastlc 737 *as
inserted into a live T45E7 Adapter Booster. An inert sand filled
thermally protected bomb was used as the test vehicle. The
thermocouple arrangement was identical to those in the previous
experiment. The average fire temperature in this experiment was
1575°F. A typical thermogram is shown in Figure 41. St--m n minutes
- 28 seconds (448 seconds) after Ignition of the fuel the adapter
booster reacted. The resultant action was a partial detonation,
destroying the adapter ring of the Adapter Booster and part of the
fuze. This time, however, the front of the bomb was not peeled
back as in other violent actions.
These results clearly establish that a material such as
Candidate No. 1 sleeve when bonded properly onto a Fuze M904E2 will
extend the cook-off time of the fuze. It also shows, however,
that when this is accomplished the adapter booster becomes the
weak link and must be thermally protected. The results of the tests
using Candidate No. 1 sleeve is summarized in Table 18.
Fuze Test No. 10
It was decided to explore the worth of a Neoprene sleeve in
accordance with Federal Specification 22T-831, Amendment 2 on the
Fuse M904E2. Neoprene tubing £ " wall thickness was bonded to a live
67
UNCLASSIFIED
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NOLTR 71-124
ADAPTER
SLEEVE
CLOSING
BOTTOM
CHARGE
CLOSING PLUG
FUZE SEAT LINER
CASING
FELT DISC
FELT DISC
FIG. 38 THERMOCOUPLE LOCATION IN ADAPTER
BOOSTER WELL- FUZE TEST NO. 8
68
NOLTR 71-124
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Fuze M904E2 by means of Silastic 73 7. This thermally protected
fuze was Installed In an Inert T45E7 Adapter Booster and the entire
assembly Installed In a Mk 82 Inert sand filled thermally protected
bomb. The bomb was Instrumented with thenü ocouples, as In our
previous tests. Seven minutes twelve seconds (432 seconds) after
Ignition of the fuel the fuze reacted. The reaction was violent
and can be classified as an explosion. The plots of temperature vs
time for Fuze Test No, 10 is shown in Figure 42. This theraogrun,
as in other cases, represents the thermocouple which recorded
the highest temperatures. The cook-off temperature of the fuze
appears to be 470*F. The results of this test indicate that when
intumescence capability is incorporated into a rubbery neoprene
type material (such as Candidate No. 1) superior thermal insulating
properties result. The military specification Neoprene material
was therefore eliminated from future testing based on these results
and laboratory screening.
OFEN ADAPTER BOOSTER INVESTIGATIONS
As a result of the previous tests with live and inert Adapter
Boosters, concern was expressed regarding the performance of the
unprotected adapter booster when containing a thermally protected
fuze. Even more concern was expressed when it was observed that
operationally, unfuzed bombs, containing adapter boosters are
brought to the flight deck without any cover on the adapter booster.
Shortly before aircraft take off, the fuzes are installed into the
bomb. It therefore became of interest to try and simulate a
condition aboard ship where wind was blowing toward the nose of the
bomb so the flames would lick into the open adapter booster cavity.
Statistically, the probability of the wind blowing in the proper
direction is high, since the aircraft are lined symmetrically
around the fan tail. See Figure 43.
Fuze Tests No's. 11, 12, 13 and 14 were concerned with
determining the vulnerability of the open adapter booster to flame
lmpingment. These tests were run in a pit 28' x 28' x 1
f
deep,
Fuze Test No. 11
Two thermally protected, inert sand filled bombs were hung on
one stand in the center of the pit» m e bomb contained a live M146
Adapter Booster having the aluminum sleeve removed to ascertain if
the removal of this highly conductive mass would influence the
cook-off time. The second bomb contained a standard M148 Adapter
Booster. The test was run in calm weather in order to ascertain
the vulnerability of the adapter booster under calm Kind conditions.
The wind velocity was 0-3 knots in the pit and the atmospheric
conditions were good, A photograph of the test set up is shown in
Figure 44. Eleven « inutes 43 seconds (703 seconds) after the start
of the fire the adapter booster containing the aluminum sleeve
deflagrated. Eighty-nine seconds later the adapter booster without
the sleeve deflagrated. The reaction was extremely mild. See
73
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Figure 45. Prom a rev! ©* of I6mm motion pictures and the video tape
replay it was evident that the flames did not impinge on the metal
closing cup in the adapter booster cavity but they did flow over
and around the open adapter booster. The fire temperature vas
1600 F. The cook-off temperatures of both adapter boosters are
plotted In Figure 46 together ^ith the fire temperature. The long
cook-off times of the unprotected open adapter booster suggest that
the Fuze M904E2 is a strong contributor to the adapter booster
problem by providing a heat path to the closing disc in the adapter
booster cavity.
fuge .Test No. 12
Fuze Test No. 12 was designed to determine the vulnerability
of the Adapter Booster M148 when flames were directed into the open
cavity. The configuration was the same as in Fuze Test No, 11
(i.e., one Adapter Booster with sleeve and one without) except that
the bombs were positioned in the direction in which the wind was
blowing. The bombs were hung from a trapeze sort of arrangement
which was designed so that the bombs could be moved in any direction
based on the prevailing wind conditions» see Figure 47. Four
thermocouples were placed symmetrically around each bomb to measure
fire temperature. The bombs were suspended two feet above the
fuel instead of three feet in order to ensure complete engulfment.
The wind velocity was ten knots. After the fuel was ignited it
was observed from the video tape replay that the fire was being
directed into the booster cavity. Three minutes 46 seconds
(226 seconds) later the adapter booster with the aluminum sleeve
exploded. Fourteen seconds later the other adapter booster
exploded. Both adapter boosters reicted quite violently destroying
the aluminum sleeve and fragments were hurled toward the instrumenta-
tion bunker, see Figure 46. The time temperature plot for the
adapter boosters and fire temperature are shown on Figure 49. Note
the larger variation In fire temperature when the wind is blowing.
The average deviation is much larger In these wind experiments.
Fuze Test No. 13
Fuze Test No. 13 was designed to repeat Fuze Shot No. 11. Tvo
thermally protected inert sand filled bombs containing live adapter
boosters with and without the aluminum sleeving vere positioned
26 inches above the level of the jet fuel. The wind was four knots.
Four and one-half inches of fuel was placed in the pit. The
thermite grenades were ignited and buildup was quite rapid. The
average fire temperature was 1550°F. Time temperature plots and fire
temperature are shown on Figure 50. Thirteen minutes 30 seconds
(810 seconds) after ignition of the fuel the adapter booster without
sleeve deflagrated vigorously. The reaction occurred just as the
fire died out. Four minutes later the adapter booster containing
the aluminum sleeve exploded splitting the bomb case open. Again
we see that once an explosive item is heated in a fire and is no
longer engulfed the danger of a violent reaction is still great.
77
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Prom these three experiments It appears that In calm wind
condition» the open adapter booster compares favorably with a fixed
Fuze M904E2'in cook-off resistance. However, In strong wind
conditions, when the flame is directed into the booster cavity
the cook-off times are relatively short, and the adapter booster
must be fixed.
Fuze Test No. 14
The top, bottom and inner surface of one of the aluminum sleeves
of the M148 Adapter Booster were coated with intumescent paint in
addition to the top of the closing disc and the face of the adapter
rir^t. This was assembled into an inert loaded bomb and tested In
a fire *ith a companion bomb containing a standard M148 Adapter
Booster. It was hoped that when the flame impinged on the inner
surface of the adapter booster, the paint would intumesce and
thereby retard the heat transfer to the adapter booster explosive.
The wind velocity was ten knots. The grenades were ignited, the
wind shifted l80 in direction and the flame was not directed into
the open adapter booster. As a result, the standard adapter booster
deflagrated in twelve minutes fifteen seconds (735 seconds). The
fixed adapter booster deflagrated in thirteen minutes forty-five
seconds (825 seconds). The time temperature curves of this test
are shown in Figure 51.
Due to the uncertainity in conducting wind tests in this manner,
it was decided to conduct the test utilizing a wind generator
whereby both the wind velocity and direction could be carefully
controlled. A three hundred horsepower electric motor with a
variable pitch propeller blade was used (Figure 52). The motor was
driven by a portable generator, see Figure 53, capable of delivering
1000 amperes for short intervals. A great deal of current was
initially needed to start the engine. Once the engine was in
operation, the current dropped to approximately 100 Amperes. A
study was then made to determine the air flow patterns at different
heights and distances from the center line of the propeller. Figure
54 shows the results of this study. The ordinate of the plot
indicates the vertical distance along the center line of the
propeller in feet. The abscissa represents the air velocity in
miles per hour. A family of curves are shown in the figure ranging
from distances of 20 ft to 50 ft. Due to the nature of the open
adapter booster test and the hazards associated with the test
set-up, it was decided to place the wind generator fifty feet from
the test pit.
An experimental thermocouple grid shown in Figure 55 was then
set up in order to determine the proper height the bombs should
be positioned above the fuel level In order to get maximum tempera-
tures. The results of this test are shown in Figures 56, 57, 58,
59 and 60. From the temperature time plots It was determined
that the bombs should be positioned one foot above the level of
the burning fuel to achieve the highest temperatures. The computer
84
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UNCLASSIFIED
NOLTR 71-124
plots shown in the above figures were made possible at this stage
in the program by coupling an incremental tape recorder (magnetic
tape) with the data acquisition system. The program for the plot
routine is shown in Appendix B.
Fuze Test No. 15
Fuze tests 15 ana 16 were performed with the air of the wind 1
generator. Fuze Test No, 15 consisted of suspending two inert I
concrete filled thermally protected bombs outfitted identically I
with live adapter boosters. The adapter boosters were both thermally
fixed in the following manner. The inner surface and top surface 1
of the aluminum sleeve were coated with 30 mils of an NOL formulated
Intumescent paint called Insunol (Sec NAVAIR Dwg. No. 599ASIO5). J
Four mils of a polyurethane overcoat were used to seal the paint.
A steel disc 2.50" In outside diameter and 29 mils thick was painted
on both sides with a 30 mil thickness of intumescent paint and the
overcoat. The face of the adapter ring was also painted with 30 I
mils of Intumescent paint and a k mil overcoat. The steel disc
with the intumescent paint was placed on top of the closing disc 1
of the adapter booster, the painted aluminum sleeve reinserted and
held in a place with the painted adapter ring. A parts arrangement
of an Adapter Booster Ml 41 incorporating the intumescent paint fixes
is shown on Figure 61. The coating of the steel adapter ring vith
the intumescent paint was done to retard the heat transfer to the
booster of the Fuze M904E2. It was hoped, however, that the
Intumescent paint would also extend the cook-off times of the
adapter booster. Two identical Mk 82 Bombs vere suspended one foot
above the surface of the fuel level; they were placed at the extreme ]
end of the pit facing the wind generator. Figure 62 shows the
experimental set up. Eight thermocouples were installed in each
bomb. Four thermocouples were placed at the Interface of the tetryl
and felt disc, and four were placed in the booster adapter ring
hole. Four thermocouples were symmetrically placed around each
bomb to record fire temperature. Seven inches cf fuel (JP-^) on
top of one inch of water was placed in the pit. The wind velocity
was measured at 2 k knots at the level of the adapter booster. The
fire burned after ignition for lC minutes (1060 seconds) and then
went out. Tw o hundred fifty-two seconds later one of the adapter
boosters deflagrated. Two hundred ei ght y-8lx seconds later the
second bomb deflagrated. The temperature profiles of the thermo- ^ j
couples in contact with the explosive are shown in Figures 63 and 6k. \
The fire temperature thermocouple is shown In Figure 05. The
recorder was shut after I36O seconds. The fire temperatures are ]
consistent with the temperatures determined in the calibration shot.
The flames were directed into the booster cavity as determined by j
visual observations and l6;am color film3. j
Fuze Teat No. 16 \
Fuze Test No. 16 was set up to test an alternate fix if the
intumescent paint fix failed on environmental storage or if an I
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97
UNCLASSIFIED
HOLTR 71-124
incompatibility with the fuze fix developed.
There were a number of proposed approaches in addition to
intumescent paint to increase the cook-off time of the open adapter
booster. These are listed below:
1. Insulative disc and washer
2. Spring and cup
3. Phenolic fuze liner
4. Heat resistant cover
ifiese > ä Fttrao™ iti" catr--i*^^ by hardware for
further consideration, with a phenolic disc and^ä ^w-feeiiigthe
first choice for further test. However, before any tests ecu" !
accomplished we were directed by the Naval Missile Center, as
program manager, to test a .1" thickness of disc and washer of
Candidate No. 10 at the exclusion of all others. Figure 66 is a
photograph of the disc and washer. The dimensions of the disc are
2.50" in outside diameter and .100" thick and it goes on top of
the steel closing disc. The washer is £ ..625" O.D. x 1.625" I.D.
x .100" thick and It goes between the adapter ring and sleeve.
The sleeve was machined to a height of 2.903" to accomodate this
increased thickness of material.
Two thermally protected inert concrete loaded bombs were fitted
with thermally fixed live adapter boosters containing the Candidate
No. iodise and washer. The bombs were suspended one foot above
seven inches of the JP-4 fuel. The wind generator was turned on
and the wind velocity was measured as 32 knots of which twenty
knots was from the wind generator and 12 knot3 from natural wind
which was blowing in the westerly direction.
Seventeen minutes and twenty seconds (1040 seconds) after the
start of the fire the first bomb detonated. The nose of the bomb
was bulged out and expanded, (3ee Figure 67). The aluminum sleeve
was destroyed. At 20 minutes and 42 seconds (1242 seconds), or
202 seconds later, the second bomb deflagrated. The fire temperature
thermogram is shown in Figure 68, Again, the average fire temperature
is compatible with what we find in the calibration shot. The time
temperature response of the thermocouples in contact with the
explosive are shown in Figures 69 and 70. We see a flat spot on
the thermogram of the thermocouples in contact with the explosive.
This indicates that the Candidate No. 10 material may be evolving
water keeping the explosive relatively cool. The results of the
open booster tests are summarized in Table 19.
From an analysis of the preceding data, both the intumescent
paint and the Candidate No. 10material appear to be thermally
acceptable as a fix for the open adapter booster. The intumescent
paint, however, was chosen as the primary fix because of the cheap
material costs and Its easy application. Since only one adapter
96
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booster fix was to be evaluated the final choice was to be based
on a combined te3t with the thermally protected Fuze M904E2. This
combined fix would determine if the fuze was compatible with the
adapter booster fix.
In order to obtain the most effective Nose Fuze NQ04E2
protective covering the best insulators from the small scale fire
tests were fabricated into protective sleeves. The castable sleeves
were fabricated by using two piece aluminum molds showr. in Figures
71 and 72. The center core was fabricated out of Teflon in order
to act as a mold release. The entire assembly vas also sprayed vith
teflon mold release agent to facilitate easy removal from the
molds. A Jig was also made so that the holes for the vlndov, screv
and spring release of the Fuze M904E2 could be drilled in the
proper place. This Jig is shown In Figure 73.
Fuze Test No. 17
Based on experience gained on cook-off testing and in the
interest of obtaining more information for each fire, at less cost
per bomb, it was proposed to test four bombs in each fire. Such
a plan was possible because of the ability through data acquisition
equipment to determine the origin of reaction and information from
a large number of sensors. Fuze Test No. 17 consisted of four
inert sand filled bombs containing £ " high melting hot melt but not
painted on the exterior surface with lntumescent paint. All the
adapter boosters were sand filled and inert. Three bombs contained
live fixed Fuzes M904E2 and one bomb contained an inert unfixed
Fuze M904E2 which served as a reference calorimeter. The live nose
fuzes were equipped with sleeves fabricated out of Candidates No.
14, No. 8, and No. 1 materials. These sleeves were bonded on the
fuze with Silastic 737.
Unfortunately, a different insulation procured for the protection
of the thermocouples coming out of the bombs and into the reference
junction was inadequate. Although 1000°F thermocouple wire *as
used the thermocouples shorted out after three minutes engulfment
in the fire. It was therefore impossible to ascertain which shot
cooked-off and when and only the total cook-off times as determined
from the sound of reactions were obtained.
Six minutes (360 seconds) after the start of the fire the first
fuze deflagrated. One hundred twenty seconds later the second
fuze deflagrated and sixty seconds later the third fuze deflagrated.
From Inductive reasoning it is believed that the bomb outfitted with
the fuze with Candidate No. 14 sleeve went in 360 seconds, the
Candidate No. 8 material reacting next in 460 seconds and Candidate
No. 1 material in ^40 seconds. The shorter cook-off times of the
Candidate No. 1 material, than was experienced previously, (see
Table 18), was attributed to heat transfer through the front and
sides of the thermally unprotected bombs. Therefore all future
experiments were performed with thermally protected bombs fixed on
the exterior with lntumescent paint and the Interior with high
105
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NOLTR 71-12 4
melting hot melt.
Faze Teat No. lb
Three of the next beat Insulators chosen from the small scale
tests were fabricated Into protective sleeves. The materials
chosen for study were Candidates No. 12, Candidate No. k and
Candidate No. 7. Candidate No. 1? and No. k were prepared by a
contractor. Candidate No. 7 was procured, cast into a mold and
cured at 1:0°C for one half hour at NOL.
Four thermally protected inert sand filled bombs were suspended
three feet above the fuel level as in our previous te3ts. All
bombs contained inert T^rE"
7
Adapter boosters. Three of the M904E2
Fuzes were fitted with one each of the sleeves and served as our
reference calorimeter. The test arrangement is shown on Figure 74.
The thermocouple arrangement was the same as in previous tests.
In order to simplify the data presentation typical time temperature
plots for each nose fuze and adapter booster will be presented.
The fuze outfitted with Candidate No. 1? was the first to cook-
off. It deflagrated in nine minutes (3^0 seconds). Two hundred
sixteen seconds later the fuze prepared with the Candidate No. k
deflagrated. One hundred ninety-two seconds later the fuze prepared
with Candidate No. '< deflagrated mildly. Representative fuze
theraograjns for each of the fixes are shown in Figure 73. It is
to be noted that the cook-off temperature of the fuze is approximately
'»00° p independent of the protective device on the fuze. Representative
thermocouple data are shown for the adapter booster in Figure 76.
The intumescent paint on the surface of the adapter booster appeared
to be effective in preventing heat from entering the front of the
bomb .
Subsequent t3 this test, the environmental storage tests
Indicated that the above materials would not survive environmental
handling. Therefore Candidates No. 12, No. 4 and No. 7 were
disregarded from any future consideration.
Fuze Test No. I9
Fuze Test No. 19 was similar to Fuze Test No. 17. The four
materials tested were Candidates No. 14, No. r, No. 1 and No. 3.
All the bombs contained inert T45E7 Adapter Boosters. All the bombs
were thermally protected. Three had live fuzes protected with
Candidates No. 14, No. 3 and No. 1. The other was an inert fuze
protected with Candidate No. 5 material that was .included at the
request of the NMC, Pt. Mugu representative. The bombs were
suspended three feet above 2200 gallons of JP-^4 jet fuel and ignited
by means of thermite grenades. All of the fuzes deflagrated mildly.
The fuze with Candidate No. 1M sleeve deflagrated in eight minutes
fifty seconds (330 seconds). The fuze with Candidate No. 6 sleeve
deflagrated in eight minutes fifty-eight seconds (
:
;3& seconds) and
103
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the fuze with Candidate No. 1 sleeve eooked-off In nine minutes
fifty-eight seconds {59? seconds). It was estimated that had the
fuze with Candidate No. 5 sleeve been loaded cook-off would have
occurred in nine minutes fifty seconds (590 seconds). The fire
temperature plot and fuze plots are shown in Figure 77. The
temperatures on the Adapter Booster thermocouples are shown on
Figure 78. From these data it is also observed that the fuse
protective covering influences the heat transfer to the booster.
Because of the poor results of environmental screening of Candidate
No. 8 and cost It was eliminated from any future consideration.
Candidates No. Ik, attractive from a cast point, and Candidate No. 5
were retained for further testing.
Fuze Test No. 20
Four sleeve materials consisting of Candidates No. 5, No. 10»
No. 1 and No. 14 were employed in this test. The configurations are
shown in Figures 79 and Bö. Candidate No. 5 sleeve was fabricated
with a lip to cover the face of the adapter ring on the adapter
booster. A washer of Candidate No. 1 material (same thickness as
sleeve) was cemented to the adapter ring face for test in conjunction
with Candidate No. 1 material on the Fuze M904E2. A similar
arrangement was made up with Candidate Ho. 1C material. Candidate
No. Ik sleeve has a contour similar to a fuze on an existing Navy
weapon. The heavy wall is judged to be necessary for the material
to meet the insulation requirements and the projected relatively
low material costs makes this choice possible. The base diameter
of the truncated cone conforms to the diameter of the bomb at the
Juncture. The four live Fuzes M9C4E2 with the above sleeves were
assembled into Inert MlkH Adapter Boosters and Mk 62 sand filled
thermally protected bombs. The Fuze M9C4E2 with Candidate No. 5
deflagrated in nine minutes twenty seconds (560 seconds), see Figure
81. The fuse with Candidate No. 1 deflagrated in twelve minutes
forty seconds (760 seconds), see Figure "l. The fuze with Candidate
No. Ik deflagrated in thirteen minutes (7-0 seconds), see Figure 83•
The fuze with Candidate No. 10 sleeve and washer deflagrated in
twelve minutes forty seconds (760 seconds), see Figure ck. The
Adapter Booster thermograms arc shown in Figures 85-88. The fire
temperature thermogram is shown in Figure £ 9» Ail °f the cook-off s
resulted in deflagrations. The bombs were completely intact after
the fire, photographs of the set up ? nd a view after the fire are
shown in Figures 90 and -.-1.
Fuze Test No. 21
Fuze Test No. 21 was a repeat of ?u^ Test No. ? 0. The washers
prepared from Candidate No. 1 and No. 10 were secured tc the
Adapter Booster ring face with RTV 7-7 adhesive.
The fuze protected with -.he Candidate No. " ■ deflagrated in seven
minutes twenty seconds {kkC seconds). The fuze with Candidate No. 1
deflagrated in twelve minutes (720 seconds). The fuze vith
Candidate No. 10 sleeve deflagrated in seventeen minutes twenty
seconds (1040 seconds) and th*
5
fuze with Candidate No. Ik deflagrated
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TIME (SECONDS)
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FIG, 78 THERMOGRAMS OF ADAPTER BOOSTER THERMOCOUPLES FOR SHOT NO 19
115
NOLTR 71-12 4
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FIG. 79 SCHEMATIC OF CANDIDATE NO 1, NO 10, NC 5 AND NO 14 SLEEVE
116
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FIG. 89 THERMOGRAM Of FIRE TEMPERATURE THERMOCOUPLE FOR FUZE TEST NO. 20
122
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In twenty minutes fifty-three seconds (1253 seconds). Six and
one-half Inches of fuel were used in the fire test. The fire
burned for 1100 seconds. The fuze with Candidate No. 14 sleeve
cooked-off after the fire was going out. Representative thermograms
for each of the fuzes and adapter boosters are shown In Figures 92
through 97. Typical fire temperature thermograms are shown In
Figure 98. The average fire temperature was :i660® F. Based on the
cook-off times obtained In Fuze Tests No. 20 and 21, Candidate No. 5
was eliminated.
Fuze Test No, 22
Fuze Test No. 22 was conducted in order to build the confidence
level of the three best fuze fixes tested to date, and to determine
the vulnerability of the adapter booster with a fixed fuze.
As before, four inert sand filled thermally protected bombs
were tested. One live Fuze M904E2 was protected with a sleeve of
Candidate No. 10 material and a washer of Candidate Ko, 1 material
was cemented to the adapter ring. The second live faze was protected
with a Candidate No. 1 sleeve and a Candidate No. 1 washer on the
adapter ring. The third live fuze was protected with a Candidate
No. 14 sleeve. These fuzes were assembled in inert M148 Adapter
Boosters, The fourth fuze was Inert and protected with a Candidate
No. 14 sleeve and was assembled into a live M148 (T45E7) Adapter
Booster.
Eight minutes twenty seconds (500 seconds) after the start of
tho fire the fuze on the bomb equipped with the Candidate No. 14
sleeve and live M148 Adapter Booster deflagrated.
1
The fuze with Candidate No. 1 sleeve deflagrated in fourteen
minutes thirty seconds (870 seconds). The fuze with Candidate No.
14 deflagrated in sixteen minutes forty seconds (1000 seconds) and
the fuze with Candidate No. 10 sleeve deflagrated in twenty minutes
thirty-five seconds (1235 seconds). The fire laster 18 minutes and
20 seconds so the fuze with the Candidate No. lu sleeve reacted
after the flame subsided. The reactions were quite mild even after
slow cook-off. Figure 99 is a thermogram of the fire temperature.
Figures 100-107 are thermograms of thermocouple data. It is
Interesting to note again that even after the fire is out the
explosive continues to self heat until the ignition point is reached.
The data on this section of the fuze program 1* summarized in
Table 20.
As a result of the preceding tests, the choice for a protective
covering was narrowed from a field of fifteen candidates to three.
The most promising were (1) Candidate No. 1, (2) Candidate No» 14
and (3) Candidate No. 10.
The following fire tests were designed to uncover any
deficiencies in the insulative properties of the sleeve, and to
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NOLTR 71-124
build up the confidence level of the fixes. Ultimately, one material
would be chosen as a back-up In case any deficiencies vere uncovered
in the evaluation phase of the program.
Concrete loaded Mk 82 Bo^bs were used in this phase of the
program. These bombs were readily available, and served as a
reasonably good simulant for the explosive. The bombs were painted
on the exterior with intumescent paint and are referred to as
thermally protected bombs.
Fuze Test No. 23
In previous discussions, both a washer and intumescent paint
were used on the exterior of the adapter ring. Fuze Test No. 23
was accomplished to select the paint or the washer as an adapter
ring fix. The paint was shown to be effective previously In the
open adapter booster fixes.
Four thermally protected Mk 82 Bombs were used as in our
previous tests. Two of the bombs contained live Fuzes M904E2 and
inert M148 Adapter Boosters and two contained inert Fuzes M904E2
and live Ml48 Adapter Boosters. All of the fuzes were protected
with Candidate No. 1 sleeves. Cne of the live M148 Adapter Boosters
contained a washer cemented to the adapter ring with RTV 737. The
other was coated with intumescent paint. The inert adapter booster
rings were equipped in a similar fashion.
The instrumentation of the fuzes both live and inert was similar
to those ia previous tests. Four thermocouples were placed
symmetrically around the fuze in the same horizontal plane at the
center of the delay element. The adapter boosters vere instrumented
by placing four thermocouples in contact with tetryl in the adapter
booster. This is shown in Figure 108. Eight thermocouples vere
placed in the flame to record the fire temperature. Nine minutes
fifty seconds (590 seconds) after ignition of the fuel, the bomb
with the live Nose Fuze M904E2, Candidate No. 1 sleeve and Insunol
paint on the adapter ring deflagrated. The reaction was minor.
The thermocouple data for the Fuze M904E2 and M148 Adapter Booster
are shown in Figures 109 and 110. The second reaction occurred at
ten minutes twenty-five seconds (625 seconds) after the start of
the fire. The bomb contained an inert Nose Fuze M904E2, Candidate
No. 1 sleeve and a washer of Candidate No. 1 material cemented to
the face of the adapter ring. The reaction was a detonation. The
nose of the bomb was peeled back. This is shown In Figure 111»
The thermocouple data for the fuze and adapter booster is shown in
Figures 112 and 113.
The third bomb contained an inert Nose Fuze M904E2, Candidate
No. 1 sleeve and a live M148 Adapter Booster with the adapter ring
coated with frisunol intumescent paint. A deflagration occurred
eleven minutes fifty seconds (710 seconds) after the start of the
fire. The reaction was mild. Figure 114 is a typical thermogram
137
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of a thermocouple In the Inert Fuse M904E2. Figure 115 indicates
the cook-off temperature and time of the live adapter booster, The
plateau on the adapter booster thermogram may Indicate ^hen
Intumescence is occurring) however, it does not indicate the
intumescent temperature because of heat losa along the adapter
booster,
The fourth bomb contained a live Nose Fuze M904E2 with Candidate
No. 1 sleeve. A washer of Candidate No. 1 material was cemented
to the face of the adapter ring of the inert M148 Adapter Booster.
Cook-off occurred in thirteen minutes thirty seconds (010 seconds).
The reaction was a deflagration» The time temperature plot of the
fuze is shown in Figure 116. The time temperature plot of the
adapter booster is shown in Figure 117. Here we notice the plateau
is gone.
The thermal protection of the paint and washer were similar
and were within the experimental error of this measurement. From
an operation viewpoint, the washer would be in the way in assembly
of the adapter booster into the bomb and difficult to completely
bond to the adapter ring. For these reasons the washer was Judged
to be impractical. As a result of this test, the washer was
discarded in favor of the intumescent paint. In all Ml48 Adapter
Boosters for future tests the adapter ring face was coated with
the Insunol system (intumescent paint and barrier coat).
The formulation of the Insunol system and the source of
material are noted on NAVAIR Dwg. No. 599AS105 Included as
Appendix D.
Fuze Test No. 24
Fuze Test No. 24 was conducted to evaluate the reliability of
the other two fuze coverings. Two inert Nose Fuzes M904E2 were
prepared, one with Candidate No. 14 sleeve and one vith Candidate
No, 10 sleeve. These were installed in thermally protected bombs
containing live Ml48 Adapter Boosters, In the other two bombs two
live Fuzes M904E2 were installed, one with Candidate No. 14 and
one with Candidate No. 10 sleeves. The bombs contained two inert
M148 Adapter Boosters. In all cases the adapter rings were coated
with Insunolj i.e., 30 mils intumescent paint and a 5 ail overcoat.
The thermocouple arrangement was the aame as in Fuze Test No. 23.
The wind velocity was 0-4 knots throughout the entire test. Six
and one-half inches of fuel were used in this test. Hie average
burning time was computed to be twenty minutes.
Thirteen minutes thirty seconds (810 seconds) after the start
of the fire the live Hize M904E2 with Candidate No. 10 sleeve and
the inert adapter booster reacted. The reaction was mild and from
the fuze remnants recovered after the test the fuze appeared to
deflagrate. Figure 118 shows the temperature vs time plot of the
Fuze M904E2 thermocouples and Figure 119 represents the thermogram
of the M148 Adapter Booster, Here ^rain, the plateau is evident.
Fourteen minutes (840 seconds) after the fire was started the
bomb containing the inert Nose Fuze M904E2 witli the Candidate No. 14
143
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HOL T* 71-12*
sleeve and the live M148 Adapter Booster Initiated» The reaction
was rather mild and the fuze was recovered intact. Figures 120
and 121 represent typical thermograms of the fuse and adapter
booster thermocouples, respectively.
The third reaction occurred fifteen minutes twenty seconds (920
seconds) after the initiation of the fuel originating from the
inert Nose Fuze K904E2 protected with the Candidate No. 10 sleeve
and Live Ml48 Adapter Booster, The reaction was mild and the fuze
was also recovered. Figures 122 and 123 Indicate typical thermograms
for the fuze and booster.
The fourth reaction occurred fifteen minutes thirty-five seconds
(J35 seconds) after the start of the fire at the bomb containing a
live fuze M904E2 with Candidate No. 14 sleeve and inert M148
Adapter Booster. The reaction was mild and could not be audibly
or visibly detected. The only indications were from the thermocouple
records. Figures 124 and 125 indicate the fuze and booster ignition
times. The fire temperature thermogram is shown in Figure 126.
These results indicate that Candidates No. 14 and No. 10 sleeves
are promising as protective devices for the Fuze M904E2. The next
two fuze shots were designed to choose the primary and back-up
fixes.
Fuze Test No. 25
Four thermally protected inert concrete loaded bombs were again
used, as in previous teats. One bomb contained a live Nose Fuze
M904E2 protected with Candidate No, 1 sleeve. The Ml48 Adapter
Booster was inert. The remaining three bombs contained inert Nose
Fuzes M904E2 with Candidate No. 1, No. 14 and No. 10 sleeves
assembled in Live M143 Adapter Boosters. All the sleeves were bonded
to the fuze body with RTV 737.
The first reaction occurred thirteen minutes twenty seconds
(800 seconds) after ignition of the fuel. The live Fuze M904E2 with
the Candidate No. 1 sleeve and inert adapter booster reacted first.
The reaction was rather mild, and the pieces of the adapter booster
were recovered without major change. The wind velocity *as 3-5 toots
with occasional gusts up to eight knots. This was higher than in
our previous experiments. As a result, the excursion of flame
temperatures were larger than in our previous tests, and cook-off
times were longer. Figure 127 indicates the variation of fire
temperature with time. Figures 128 and 129 indicate the cook-off
temperatures of the fuze and adapter booster.
The second reaction occurred fifteen minutes ten seconds (910
seconds) after the fuel ignition started and it was the bomb
containing the inert Fuze M904E2 with the Candidate No, 1 sleeve and
live M148 Adapter Booster. The reaction was mild and both fuze
and adapter booster were recovered. The back of the adapter booster
146
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cup had a large hole, due to explosive burning. The time
temperature plots for the fuze and adapter booster are shown in
Figures 130 and 131.
The third reaction occurred at fifteen minutes forty seconds
(940 seconds). This bomb contained a Fuze M904E2 with Candidate
No. 14 sleeve assembled in a live M148 Adapter Booster. The
reaction was a deflagration. The fuze was not recovered, however,
the aluminum sleeve was still intact in the bomb. Figures 132
and 133 indicate the temperature of the fuze and adapter booster
before and after ignition.
The fourth reaction involved the inert Fuze M904E2 with
Candidate No. 10 sleeve assembled into a live M146 Adapter Booster.
The reaction occurred seventeen minutes forty-five seconds (IO65
seconds) after ignition of the fuel. The deflagration reaction
was similar to those occurring in the assemblies. The temperature
time thermogram for the fuze is 3hown in Figure 134, The temperature
time curve for the adapter booster is shown in Figure 135.
These results indicate that the cook-off time of the fuze and
the adapter booster can almost be doubled by means of a protective
sleeving on the fuze and an intumescent paint system on the adapter
booster.
At this time we were informed that Dow Corning no longer planned
to market the RTV 737 because of production difficulties and RTV
31^5 was proposed as a replacement. RTV 3145 evolves methyl alcohol
on cure while RTV 737 releases acetic acid and this was considered
desirable from a corrosion point of view.
Candidate No. 10 appeared to be attractive from a fire performance
standpoint, however, the cost per sleeve was unattractive. Since
the material is defined by a military specification alternate
sources were contacted and new methods of manufacture resulted in
a more favorable projected unit price. While these processing
studies were in progress we were interested in determining vhether
the performance of the other two fixes (Candidate No. 1 and
Candidate No. 14) would be affected by a change in the adhesive.
Fuze Teat No. 26
Fuze Test No. 26 was designed to answer this question. Four
thermally protected concrete loaded bombs were utilized. Two of
the bombs were equipped with live Nose Fuzes M904E2 and inert MlkB
Adapter Boosters and two were equipped with Inert Nose Fuzes M904E2
and liv3 Ml48 Adapter Boosters. The Candidate No. 1 sleeves were
bonded to the live fuze and the Inert fuze by means of RTV 3145.
The Candidate No. 14 protective sleeve were also bonded to the
remaining two fuzes by means of RTV 3145. The fuzes and adapter
boosters were instrumented Identically as In the previous tests.
152
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UNCLASSIFIED
NOLTR 71-124
The first reaction occurred six minutes (36O seconds) after the
start of the fire. The bomb containing a live Nose Fuze M904E2
with the Candidate No, 1 sleeve (bonded on with RTV 3145} and an
inert adapter booster deflagrated. The fuze was not recovered.
However, the adapter booster and bomb showed no sign of a detonation.
Typical time temperature thermograma of the fuze and adapter booster
are shown in Figures 136 and 137. The first peak in Figure 136
should be disregarded because of an imperfection in the magnetic
tape,
The second reaction occurred twelve minutes ten seconds (730
seconds) after the start of the fire. This configuration consisted
of a Candidate No, 1 sleeve bonded on an inert fuze with RTV 3145.
A live adapter booster with a fixed adapter ring was used. Time
temperature therraograms of the fuse and adapter thermocouples are
shown in Figures 138 and 139.
The third reaction occurred with the Fuze M904E2 protected
with Candidate No, 14 sleeve assembled in an inert M148 Adapter
Booster deflagrated in twelve minutes forty-five seconds (765 seconds)
The time temperature plots of the fuze and adapter booster thermo-
couples are 3hown in Figures 140 and 141.
The fourth reaction occurred in fifteen minutes fifteen seconds
(915 seconds). The bomb contained an inert Nose Fuze M904E2 with
Candidate No. 14 sleeve and a live Ml48 Adapter Booster. The
reaction was a deflagration and was exceedingly mild. The nose fuze
was recovered Intact. Typical thermograms of the fuze and adapter
booster are shown in Figures 142 and 143. " The first peak in Figure
142 should bt disregarded because of an Imperfection in the tape.
The fire temperature therraogram is shown in Figure 144.
Thase results are summarized in Table 21. It can be seen that
the cook-off time of the Fuze M904E2, protected with a Candidate
No, 1 sleeve, is markedly dependent upon the adhesive which is used
to attach the device to the fuze. The Candidate No. 14 sleeve
appears to be only slightly affected by the change in adhesive.
The adapter booster with the Insunol on the adapter ring seems to
be unaffected by the adhesive which Is used on the nose fuze. As
a result of this test the Candidate No. 1 material was eliminated
from the program since insufficient time or funding was available
for further testing of various adhesives. The Candidate No, 10
sleeve produced by another source per specification WS-8939 was
continued since as stated previously the projected cost by" a new
manufacturing method was attractive.
In order to check the material a small scale fire test was
performed on a sheet of the Candidate No. 10 material obtained
from the new source. No difference in thermal protection could
be detected from material obtained from either source. Sleeves
were then fabricated by the new source for assembly on Puzes M904E2,
150
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UNCLASSIFIED
NOLTR 71-12 4
Table 2 1
Cook-Off Results on Thermally Protected Concrete Loaded
K&82 Bombs Containing Live and Inert Nose Fuzes
M904E2 with Various Protective Coverings
Assembled In Live and Inert HI 48 Adapter Boosters
Fuze
Test
No,
Nose Fuze
Configuration
Adapter Booster
Configuration
Reaction
Time
Sec,
Type
of
Reaction
23 Live H9C-I2 with
Candidate No. l
and HIT 737
Inert T45E7 with
Insunol on adapter
ring
590 Deflagration
23
Inert M904E2 with
Candidate No. 1
and RTV 737
Live T45E7 with
Candidate No. 1
on adapter ring
625
Detonation
23
Inert M904E2 with
Candidate No. 1
and RTV 737
Live T45E7 with
Insunol on adapter
ring
710 Deflagration
23
Live M904E2 with
Candidate No. 1
sleeve and RTV 737
Inert T45E7 with
disc of Candidate
No, 1 material on
adapter ring
610 Deflagration
24 Live M90ME2 with
Candidate No. 10
and RTV 737
Inert T45E7 with
Insunol on adapter
ring
610 Deflagration
24 Inert M904E2 with
Candidate No. 14
and RTV 73
7
Live T45E7 with
Insunol on adapter
ring
840 Deflagration
24 Inert M904I2 with
Candidate No. 10
and RTV 737
Live T45E7 with
Insunol on adapter
ring
920 Deflagration
24 Live M904E2 vith
Candidate No.14
and RTV 737
Inert T45E7 with
Insunol on Adapter
ring
935
Deflagration
25
Live M904E2 with
Candidate No. 1
and RTV 737
Inert T45E7 with
Insunol on adapter
ring
800 Deflagration
25
Inert M904E2 with
Candidate No. 1
and RTV 737
Live T45E7 with
Inpunol on adapter
ring
910 Deflagration
25
Inert M904E2 with
Candidate No. 14
and RTV 737
Live T45E7 with
Insunol on adapter
ring
940 Deflagration
16?
UNCLASSIFIED
UNCLASSIFIED
NOLTR 71-12 4
Table 2* (Con't.)
Fuze
Teat Note Fuze
No. Configuration
35 Inert M904E2 with
Candidate No. 10
and RTV 737
26 Live M904E2 with
Candidate No. 1
and RTV 3145
26 Inert M904E2 with
Candidate No. 1
and RTV 3145
26 Live M904I2 with
Candidate No. 14
and RTV 3145
2 6 Inert M904E2 with
Candidate No. 14
and RTV 3145
Adapter Booster
Configuration
Reaction
Time
Sec.
Type
of
Reaction
Live T45E7 with
Ineunol on adapter
ring
1065 Deflagration
Inert T45E7 with
Ihaunol on adapter
ring
360 Deflagration
Live T45E7 with
Insunol on adapter
ring
730 Deflagration
Inert T45E7 with
Insunol on adapter
ring
765
Deflagration
Live T45E7 with
Ineunol on adapter
ring
915 Deflagration
163
UNCLASSIFIED
"1
UNCLASSIFIED
HOLTR 71-124
Tfet next series of tests were oombined tests. The first test
contained m Candidate No, 10 sleeve on a Nose Puze M904E2 with a
fixed inert M148 Adapter Booster and an Inert Puze M904E2 with a
Candidate No, 10 sleeve in a live fixed Ml48 Adapter Booster. The
other two thermally protected bombs contained live Candidate No. 14
M904E2 fixed Nose Fuzes »Ith live fixed Ml4b Adapter Boosters. All
of the adapter boosters were equipped with a steel disc .027" thick
coated on both sides with .034 of Ihsunol including overcoat. The
aluminum sleeve was coated on the top surface and Inside surface
with .034" of Inaunol Including overcoat. The front of the adapter
ring also was coated with .034 of Insunol including overcoat.
The adapter boosters contained thermocouples In the same position
as In our previous teats. No thermocouples were placed on the fuze.
The first reaction occurred in seven minutes fifty-five seconds
(475 seconds) after ignition of the fuel. The Puze M904E2 with
Candidate No» 14 assembled in a live Ml48 Adapter Booster deflagrated.
The adapter booster cup had a large hole burned in the rear,
however, the Mk 82 Bomb was still Intact and there was no damage
to the bomb. Prom the thermocouple data It appears as though the
fuze dfflagrated since no self-heating appeared to have taken place
in the adapter booster. A typical fire temperature thermogram is
shown In Figure 145. The thermogram for the Adapter Booster is
shown In Figure 146.
The second rtaetlon occurred at the bomb containing the fixed
inert PU2e M904E2 with Candidate No. 10 sleeve with the fixed live
M148 Adapter Booster. The reaction occurred fifteen minutes twenty
seconds (920 seconds) after Ignition of the fire. The reaction
was a deflagration. One can set from the thermogram in Figure 147
the evidence of self-heating of the tetryl in the adapter booster
shortly before ignition.
The Fuse K904E2 with Candidate No. 14 sleeve in a live M148
Adapter Booster reacted next at fifteen minutes fifty seconds (950
seconds) after ignition of the fuel. The reaction was a deflagration
and appears to have originated in the fuze. A typical thermogram
Is shown in Figure 148. The rapid rise before Ignition is missing
In these thenaograms.
The live Nose Fuze M904E2 with Candidate No. 10 sleeve in an
Inert sand filled M148 Adapter Booster reacted next after seventeen
minutes (1020 seconds). The reaction was mild and was considered
a deflagration. A typical thermogram of the Inert booster adapter
is shown in Figure 149.
Because of the short reaction time taking place with the fuze
containing the Candidate No. 14 sleeve and fixed live adapter
booster, it was decided to repeat this test utilizir
s
nly live
adapter boosters and live fuzes. The live adapter -stero and live
164
UNCLASSIFIED
NOLTR 71-12A
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UNCLASSIFIED
NOLTR 71-124
nose fuzes were tested together In order to determine the
compatibility of the open adapter fixes with the live fuze fixes.
Two tests were planned in this study due to fund limitations and
scheduling limitations.
Fuze Test No. 2c
Concrete loaded bombs were coated with Lisunol lntumescent
paint on the exterior surface. All adapter rln
t
s were also painted
with In3unol (,03V thick including overcoat). All live Ml^.b
Adapter Boosters were equipped as before with a .027" thick steel
disc coated on both sides with .030" thick lntumescent paint plus
.004" overcoat. The aluminum sleeve v.as coated on the top and
inside surfaces with Insunol .03 V thick. All protective sleeves
were cemented to the fuzes (using RTV 31^5), allowing forty-eight
hours drying time before testing. Thermocouples were installed
In the usual fashion, in contact with the explosive and in the
rear booster cavity.
Seven minutes fifty seconds (^75 seconds) after the beginning
of the fire the Fuze M904E2 protected with Candidate No. Ik sleeve
deflagrated. The reaction was mild. A photograph of the pit
after the test is shown in Figure 150. The reaction appears to
have originated in the fuze, judging from the appearance of the
adapter booster curve shown in Figure I5I. The average fire
temperatures was l650°F and is comparable with the other fuze test.
The second reaction (deflagration) occurred eight minutes
(¥i0 seconds) after the ignition of the fuel. The Fuze M904E2 was
protected with a Candidate No. 10 sleeve. Again the reaction
appears to have originated in the fuze section from the appearance
of the thermocouple thermogram shown in Figure 132.
The third reaction occurred nine minutes (5^0 seconds) after
ignition of the fuel. The reaction took place at the bomb equipped
with the Candidate No. Ik sleeve. The bomb jetted like a rocket
for approximately thirty seconds. The fuze body vas recovered vith
the protective sleeving still cemented to the fuze body. A close-up
of the ablated sleeve is shown in Figure 1S5. The reaction is
believed to have originated in the fuze. The adapter booster
thermocouple trace is shown in Figure 1-4.
The fourth reaction occurred on the assembly vith Candidate
No. 10 sleeve on Fuze M904E2 fourteen minutes thirty seconds (870
seconds) after the ignition of the fuel. The reaction was a
deflagration. The fuze was recovered outside of the pit and is shovn
in Figure 155. The adapter booster is believed to have caused this
reaction. Its thermogram is shown in Figure 156. The rapid
temperature rise before ignition is indicative of a booster adapter
reaction.
The 3hort reaction times of the three of the four assemblies
in Fuze Test No. 28 caused a great deal of concern. Three
167
UNCLASSIFIED
NOL?K 71-124
FIG.150 PHOTOGRAPH Of Hü AHER COOK: -C
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NOLTR 71-124
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NOLIK 71-124
FI G. 15 4 FUZE T EST NO . 28 THERMOGRAM OF A LIVE M U8 ADAPTtR BOOSTER CONTAINING
M 904E2 FUZE PROTECTED WITH CANDIDATE NO. 10 SLEEVE FROM A NtW SOURCE
4atlyf&
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FI G. 15 6 FUZt T EST NO . 28 THtRMOGRA'
M904F.2 FsJZf PR O P-CHD A I T H C
i O F A L I VE MUFi ADAPT ' R BO O ST ER CO NT AI NI NG
'O JÜDAT F (40. in SLEEVE
J
HOLTR 71-124
possibilities were postulated. The first possibility considered
was that the p otective sleeving contained occluded air which when
heated caused the sleeves to fracture and fall off. This was
rejected since the Candidate No, 14 fuze covering w*s still intact
on the fuze body, yet reaction tiae was only 540 seconds. The
second po6Sibili> y considered was that the heat transfer through
the three unprotected holes Inserted in the fine covering for the
atop screw, upper observation window and setting index locking pin
caused early reactions. Maximum heat transfer through these areas
occurs when the openings are directed toward the fire. On a close
review of the photograph taKen before the test, the fuzes with the
shorter cook-off time were orientated in this unfavorable position.
These photographs are shown in Figures 157 and 15&. It was confirmed
that In the case of three assemblies the holes are Oriented toward
the rising fire. The third possibility was that the Insunol was
not effective aa an insulator in the closed adapter booster
situation since it must intumesce before it performs an insulation
function.
Fuze Test Ho. 29
The last experiment in this fuse series was designed to
determine (1) whether orientation of the fuze influenced reaction
times, and (2) whether the Candidate No. 10 material used as a
disc and washer in the Ml48 Adapter Booster Kould be an improvement
over Insunol.
Pour thermally protected concrete loaded bombs were used as
before. The s*m# thermocouple arrangement was used as in the
previous tests, ill fuzes and adapter boosters were explosive
loaded, The sleeves were bonded to the Nose Fuze M904E2 with RTV
3145, Instead of the lntumescont paint, a di»c and washer of
Candidate No, 10 material ,100" inches thick were used. These are
shown in Figure 159. The aluminum sleeve was reduced in length
to accommodate the added thickness of the disc asuß washer. The
length »as cut from a nominal length of 3.-9° to a length of 2.906" .
All of the adapter ring faces of the adapter booster were coated
with Insunol.
Two Fuzes M904E2 were protected with Candidate No. 10 sleeves.
One fuze was oriented with the openings (holes and slots) t»ward
the fire and the other away from the fire. The other two Fuzes
M904S2 were protected with the Candidate No. 10 sleeves. One fuze
was oriented with the opening« toward the fire, the other oriented
away from the fire. The w^nd velocity was higher than usual and
was between 3*5 knots. The fire temperature was lower than in our
previous testa, averaging approximately l480°F (Figure 160),
The first reaction was experienced thirteen minutes forty
seconds (820 seconds) after the start of the fire. The Fuze M904E2
protected with Candidate No. 14 sleeve with the openings oriented
toward the fire detonated violently, destroying, half the bomb. Tne
17
;
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UNCLASSIFIED
NCIITR 71-12^
reaction seemed to occur In the fuze, after examining the adapter
booster thermocouple data. The time temperature plot of the thermo-
couple Is shown in Figure lol.
The Becond reaction occurred in fourteen minutes fifty-five
seconds (895) seconds) with the fuze protected with the candidate
No. 10 sleeve. Again, the holes were orientated toward the fire,
and again the bomb detonated. This resulted in banana peeling of
the front of the bomb and Is shown in Figure 152. The thermocouple
plot is shown In Figure 1*53« The reaction again appears to have
started in the fuze.
The third reaction occurred sixteen minutes (96O seconds) after
the start of the fire. The Fuze M904E2 contained the candidate
No. 10 sleeve with the holes orientated away from the fire. Th e
reaction again resulted in a detonation, destroying the front end
of the bomb. The reaction appears to have originated in the fuze.
The adapter booster thermocouple trace is shown In Figure 164.
The last fuze containing the candidate No. 14 sleeve reacted in
nineteen minutes forty seconds (HSo seconds). The adapter booster
appeared to have started to self-heat, however, the fuze is be-
lieved to have caused the reaction due to the low exotherm produced.
This is shown In Figure I65, The bomb detonated Just as the fire
was dying out. The fuze cover was oriented with the
fron, the fire,
opening away
These re;
Table 22,
iltS Test: ? o and are summarized in
It appears that (1) the orientation of the holes and slots in
he sleeve downward contribute tc the rapidity of cook-off and
2) intumescent paint does net perform its insulation function in
he closed adapter booster application.
the
(
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The Mk RO series of bombs are composed of three major elements
that are vulnerable to cook-off namely (1) fuzes (2 ) adapter boosters
and (3) the main charge. The work on extending the cook-off of the
main charge has been carried out under another program. It was a
desired goal that the fuze and booster cook-eff time exceed the main
charge,
(1) Cook-off tests on an unprotected Nose Fuze M904E2 in 3
thermally protected H-6 loaded Kk 62 Bomb (coated internally with
1/4" high temperature hot reit and externally with intumescent paint)
cooked off in approximately five minutes. The Mk 346 Fuze cooked off
In approximately eight minutes. A solution to the W; 3-46 Fuze cook-
off problem was not pursued. Fire tests Jndieated that when the
flame was directed into
in a bomb, (assisted by
less than four minutes.
more were experienced.
an K1U~ open
at least a 1 <
Under calm <
179
UNCLASSIF
idarter booster cavity, assembled
knot wind) ccok-off occurred in
tire z^f 1C rinutes or
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NCITft 71-12 4
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27
UNCLASSIFIED
NOLTR 71-12 *
Table 22
Cook-Off Results of Nose Fuze M904E2 and Live Kl4b
(T45I7) Adapt er Booster - Combined Test Results
Hose Fuze M904F.2
Configuration
Candidate No, 10
Sleeve and RTV 31^5
Live Fuze,
Candidate No. 10
Sleeve and RTV 3* 4-
Iner t Fuze.
Candidate No. X*4
Sleeve and RT7 314^
Live Faz*,
27 Same as above
2d Candidate No. 10
Sleeve and RTV 314
Live Fuze.
28 Same as acove
28 Candidate No. 14
Sleeve and RTV 3143.
Live Fuze.
28 Same as above
2v Candidate No. 10
Sleeve and RTV 3145.
Live Fuze. Slot
directed toward fire
29 3aae as above. Slot
away from fire.
29 Candidate No. 14
Sleeve and RTV 3145.
Live Fuze. Slot
directed toward fire,
29 Same as above. Slot:
away fro» fire.
Adapter Booster
Configuration
Inert T4^E7 and
34 mils Insunol en
adapter ring» disc
»nd aluminum sleeve
&ive T4SE7 and
34 mils Insunol on
adapter ring, disc
and aluminum sleeve
Same as above
Same as above
Same h t> above
Same ae ebove
Same as above
Same as above
U-te T45E7 and
34 mils Insunol on
adapter ring. Disc
and washer of
Candidate No 10.
Same as above
Same as above
Sane as above
ReactloB
Time
Sec.
1020
h'7> --
~ l ,-
950
4bo
670
695*
lido*
820*
Q6O*
Type
of
Reaction
Deflagration
Deflagration
Deflagration
E^flagratian
Deflagration
Deflagration
Deflagration
Deflagration
Detonation
De£4* tti£R
Detonation
Detonation
* Fire temperatures lower than in the other teats. The average fire
fire temperature was XfcÄÖ*f,
H3
UNCLASSIFIED
" ^CLASSIFIED
NO Iff R 71-124
(2 ) Exj lorav.ry tests or. possible approaches to extend fu ;e oook«
off indicated that* a sleeve of candidate Kc. 1 material* cemented to
the exposed cylindrical portion of the ? " uze M904E2, extended the cook-
off time and this approach was pursued in developing a cook-off fix.
A screening progras was carried out Involving some 15 candidates
possessing > hysical properties ranging fror: thermoplastic material
to rubber t*pe materials. Seme were eliminated based on poor thermal
performanv. , others were eliminated because of poor performance under
environmental treatment of temperature ?\r v £ humidity.
(? ) k series o** fire tents in the field reduced the fuze covering
to three, namely» candidates No. 1, No. 1' and Ho. 14. Candidate
No. ! (an elastic material) requires a high temperature adhesive for
bonding to the fuze and it was dropped when the adhesive initially
used was no longer available commercially» and no adequate replace-
ment ecu14 be readily found.
(4) Candidate Nc. 14 required the greater thickness afforded by
a truncated cone to provide acceptable ecok-eff time. The material
was Inexpensive enough to allow this increase In thickness. Under
conditions of exposure to extreme temperature (-Ö5°F to +l60°P)
severe Tacking occurred and the greater diameter configuration re-
duce:! the number of ruses that could be placed in each package from
io ♦ -.• : ,
{: : ) Candidate Nc 1C a filled butadier.e-acrylonitrile polymer
(military specification material) when fabricated into a sleeve 1/4"
in thickness, and bonded to the Ftizt W904E2 with RTV 31^5» fulfilled
every requirement. It produced outstanding char, had good environ-
mental performance, and twelve fuze" * could be packaged with this
sleeve on the fuze»
(-S) Candidate No. 14 and No, 10 sleeves were selected for final
evaluation.
(7) A heat insulator on toe face of the * dar tor Ring of the
A iapter Booster to interrupt the heat path was found necescry as ?
part of the ? uze Ml'-04E2 fix when the 1/4" thickness sleeve was used.
Washers of candidate material No's 1 and 1C were tested and found
satisfactory fror a thermal protection point of view, however, they
appeared impractical fror a shij board handling standpoint. Intu-
mescent paint- gave .-< -r,parable protection and wan chosen as a fix BE
xore ac :eptible on ber»rd ship thai' materials that would interfere
with Ml4
Q
Adp;ter Poofter Installation into bombs. An internal disc
and washT c
#
candidate Nu
4
l " " ma
4
" .eripl war also included in the
adapter booster, Th'n o or'u'nation w-r procured for evaluation,
po, rock-off tinea Ir.tswesr of 1" ~ minutes were obtained with the
complete fl* (M904f? p Fun? with candidate No. K sleeve, M1^
J
Adapter
Booster with intumescent paint on adapter ring and candidate No. 10
washer and disc Internally), however, utenat'e-! ' were the final
action. It wa ? nuspectei that the »anold^te No, 10 material out-
ffaas^d c-ns'dTably -d; eif-vated temperature « nd together with
184
:-VCTA r CT tr r v r -
DECLASSIFIED
NOBTR 71-124
intumescense probably provided favorable conditions for confinement
of the explosive and consequent violent reaction. A rigid phenolic
material for the disc and washer would have been 8 better choice,
(9) orientation of the fuse so that the holes and slots in the
sleeve were directed downward caused shorter cook-off times than
when the openings were up,
(10) Cost and time precluded a program of extensive testing and
the establishment of statistical confidence In a minimum fuze cook-
off time attained by the fixes, however, the limited results tests
indicate that at least a 10 minute thermal protection was obtained
for both the M904E2 Fuze - M148 Adapter Booster combination or the
adapter booster without a fuse,
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The author wishes to thank Mr, David Dancer for his invaluable
assistance in the data reduction and in the theoretical analysis of
the data, and Mr. H. Cleaver for the design and fabrication of the
pin switch circuit.
REFERENCES
1. Gordon, W., and McMillan, R. D., " A Study of the Temperature
Distribution within Aircraft-Fuel Fires" , NAVWEPS 8277, August 1963.
2. Takata, A. N., et al, " Final Report of Fire and Snpact Tests,
Joint AIC-DOD Vulnerability Program*, AFSWC TDR-62-132, DASA 1276,
1963 (SRD).
3. Bader, B. E,, " Heat Transfer in Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuel Fires" ,
SC m 320-63, Sandla Corporation, February 1964,
4. HOL Ifcr 043sBLs8W 8010 Sarial Ho. 4683 of 17 August 1971
to HMC, Pdi at Mugu, California and NAVAIRSYSCOM.
185
UNCLASSIFIED
mtcu ssmw
kttm m ix A
U. S. NAVAL ORDNANCE LABORATORY
White Oak, Silver Spring, Maryland
233JHCJJ« J
1 July 1969
Prom: Harry Cleaver
To: NOL Piles
Subj; Pin Switch Control Box
Abst: Pin Switch circuits are being used in the Bomb Cook-off
program to establish the origin of any detonation wave in
the event that detonation does occur. Operating instructions
and a circuit description for the pin switch control box are
contained in this note.
Encl: (1) Display of Probes Triggered in Order - Figure 1 and
Pin Switch Circuit - Figure 2
(2) Pin Switch Circuits - Figure 3
(3) Pin Switch Control Box Schematic - Figure 4
OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
1. Attach the multioonductor pin switch input cable to the side
of the control box. A grounding switch is provided to short th e
input cable while personnel are setting up the test model at the
burning pit site. This switch can be left on the grounded position
at all times ot-her than when the control box is to be operated. To
put the box into operation, turn on the power switch and unground
the input cable. The red READY light will then go on. Adjust the
capacitor voltage to the level desired using controls in lower left
hand section of top panel.
2. Test each pin switch circuit for external shorts, Test one
circuit at a time using the 12 position (10 probes and 2 off)
selector switch and the pushbutton TEST switch,
A. Set up the oscilloscope controls for
+ INTERNAL DC TRIGGERING
5 VOLTS/CM vertical sensitivity*
50 MICROSECONDS/CM sweep time*
B. Use either a differential preamplifier operated in the
A-B DC mode or a dual trace preamplifier operated channel A normal,
channel B inverted, in the ADDED ALGEBRAICALLY mode.
* or as dictated by voltage level and probe placement.
A-l
UNCLASSIFIED
NOLTR 71-12 4
Subj: Fin Switch Control Box
C. Connect points marked CHAN A and CHAN B to the A and B
inputs to the oscilloscope,
P. Set selector switch to probe 1 position and, adjusting the
oscilloscope trigger level and stability, test for a signal from
pin switch number one. Refer to Figure 1 for the signal to be
expected from any given probe,
E. Test odd numbered pin switch probes 1, 3# 5# 7# 9 adjusting
oscilloscope triggering as needed«
F. Change the oscilloscope internal triggering from POSITIVE
to NEGATIVE to test for the even numbered probe3.
Q. Adjust the trigger level and stability for negative
triggering and check probes 2 , h
t
6, 8, 10,
■ y H. Absence of a test signal for any probe circuit indicates
a shorted probe. Since a test signal can be generated whether the
pin switch probes are connected or not, breaks in the input cable
cannot be detected. There is no easy way to check for open circuit
continuity.
I, Since I know nothing about the tape recorder to be used
with this control box, no mention will be made of its checkout or
operation. Ten separate output connectors are provided for use
with the tape recorder. All the signals going to the tape recorder
are negative in polarity and of the same amplitude which is equal
to the signal from probe No, 1»
3. When all the probes have been checked out and the system is
ready, the final oscilloscope control settings are to be as in
2A above. The triggering level and stability should be set so that
a test signal of the lowest positive amplitude (signal from probe
No* 5} will trigger the sweep, This means that the oscilloscope
will trigger upon the first pulse generated by any odd numbered
probe.
THEORY
1.' Figure 2 shows the basic pin switch circuit. The capacitor C
is. charged through a relatively high resistance Rj. and R
§
to the
potential of the supply voltage, Since R» « R
lt
R, can be neglected
in discussing the capacitor charging operation. When the pin switch
is closed, the capacitor discharges through R, generating a single
pulse. The charging time constant R
a
C is made much larger than the
discharge time constant R-C to avoid any regeneration of the signal
during the experimental time Interval.
The line resistance R
t
represents the total resistance in the
connecting wires leading to the pin switch. In most cases this
A-2
I
I
HOIffR Tl-124
Subjj Pin Switch Control Box
resistance is negligible but in the present situation it is not.
There is at least 1000 feet of No, 22 HW*Q copper wire leading to
the test site with an additional length of about 60 feet of type
K thermocouple wire added on the end. Taking a value of 16 ohms
per 1000 feet for the copper wire and 2 . k ohms per combined foot
for the thermocouple wire we have a line resistance of nearly
180 ohms. This resistance must be used in computing the RC dis-
charge time constant, Being in series with the discharge path
resistor R
a
, the line resistance acts to reduce the signal ampli-
tude 3een by the recording instruments by virtue of its voltage
drop.
In practice a number of identic - pin switch circuits are
used in a given experiment. The pin switches are physically
displaced at a known separation in the test object. Closing of
the pin switches by the event under study generates a pulse pattern
which is studied for time displacement between signals,
2. Figure 3 Is
a
partial schematic of the circuits used to produce
the display shown in Pigure 1, The purpose of such a display is
to provide each individual probe with its own identifiable signal
characteristics. The pulses as shown vary in amplitude, polarity,
and width, There are 10 circuits divided into groups of 5 each.
The odd numbered circuits go to oscilloscope channel B while the
even numbered circuits go to channel A. All pulses generated by
the circuits have negative polarity. Signals to the oscilloscope
B channel are inverted by the A - B operation and appear as positive
in the display» Signals to channel A are not Inverted and appear
negative In the display. Amplitude variation is achieved by holding
the total discharge path resistance constant at 51 ohms but picking
off the output signal through various resistor divider networks
at approximately full signal, 2/3# and 1/3 full signal. Pulse width
variation is achieved by using different capacitor values to change
the HC discharge time constant.
The charging time constant for the first six probe circuits
Is 2.2M ohms x ,05 mfd or 110 milliseconds. Discharge time constant,
assuming 180 ohms for R
t
, is 230 ohms x ,05 mfd or 11,5 microseconds.
The remaining four circuits have a .1 mfd capacitor which doubles
their time constant to 2g0 milliseconds for charging and 23 micro-
seconds for discharging,.
The diodes shown In Pigure 3 are used to isolate the circuits
from each other. The resistor connected to the signal output
terminal is used to provide a comparable time constant on the
anode side of the diode string. The tape recorder connections
are made at the capacitor-resistor junction so that the full signal
voltage is sent to the tape recorder. Each signal to the tape
recorder is recorded on a separate track so unique character-
istics are not needed for identification.
A-3
i
i
NöUra 71-12 4
SubJ; Pin Switch Control Box
3. Figure 4 is the complete ac-heait,
v
lc for the control box showing
all ten pin switch circuits» Two parts not discussed so far are
the power supply and th« teat circuit sections.
The power supply transformer applies stepped dov< n full wave
rectified voltage to a resistor-capacitor filter. An output voltage
of 36 volts DC is developed across the 100K ohm adjustment pot.
Power, ripple, and regulation requirements are minimum for this
application and aided the simple design,
A silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) is used in the test
section to simulate the pin switch. The SCR is connected to any
desired pin switch circuit using the 12 position selector switch
such that the SCR is in parallel with the pin switch probe. A
150 ohm resistor is used in series with the SCR to represent the
line resistance. The test signal generated will then appear similar
to the true signal. The SCR Is triggered by a pulse from the 0.1
mfd capacitor discharging through the 51 ohm gate lead resistor when
the test button is actuated. The 100K and 13K ohm divider holds
the voltage on the capacitor to Just over k volts. This type of
capacitor discharge triggering was used because of the low current
output capabilities of the power supply section.
HARRY B. CLEAVER
Chemical Engineering Division
k-H
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PN « ANSHOT ♦ Aj/inn»
DO *> 90 I = l.NTJCH
IF « JVID ,E0. ITICH(I)} GO TO 600
5« ? n CONTINUE
00 5« 5 I « UNSCH
ip « jvm.Fo. isciHin r, o TO 6or
;.. *o« > CONTINUE
AJ« J - N
H
TJ
TIMIN1 * AJ« TIMTNC
DO 59? M * 1,ICY
UTIL »A - ABS(XXDATA(M« J))
UTfLl » ft * B ~ 4, * UTJL * C
TP0AT*« M)« < (S0RT(UTIL1) -») /
I F tNBT I CH , L T . 01 GO T O 4<>8?
T I DAT A(M ) « (XXDAT A(M .NBT j)
GO TO 5987
-49ft? AMI * M - 1
TIOATA(M) « {TIMINC * IANCH*AM1 +AJ1) + TIMST»/ 100.
« H87 CONTINUE
■ 59? CONTINUE
698? FORMAT« 28H UN5M00THED DATA FOR
1 RXt
2 TEMPtlOfWl TIME« 1ÖQ5EC}
3< 100SFC) TEMPI1000F))
798? F0RMAT< 6F
f
'0,4)
WRf TE« 6»69« 7) JVID
WR I TE (617987 I ( T I DATA < M ! . TÜ.DA T A (M > tM« 111CY}
If I I PLOT »LE* 0» GO TO 610
TFMMX » TFM]
DO ^OR I « 1,NLTCH
IF UVID *NF» iLTCHtU'l GO TO 5<?fi
T EM M X « T FM ?
GO TO 599
I * > * % CONTINUE
1 599 CONTINUE
IF { fPl.OT ,GT
#
" M GO TO 602
B-3
(2. »O )/ 1000.
TIMIN1) / 100.
CHANNEL.15./
112H TIMFf
TEMP(IOOOF)
100SFC)
TIM£
NOLTR 71-124
{F
(If,'-0JT(J? ,f,T. 1) GO TO 602
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B-4
UNCLASSIFIED
NOLTR 71-12 4
A?FENDIX C
. FAST COOK-OFF TEST SPECIFICATION FOR MARK SO SERIES LD BOMBS*
1, Fust Cook-Off Tost Arrangement
Tost Pan Si ze - Mi ni mus t est pan si ze for MARK 80 seri es LD
bombs i s 2 4• square. Maxi mum pan si ze i s 3 5' square.
Test Pan Const ruct i on - The t est pan may be const ruct ed on
ei t her a semi -permanent basi s w i t h st eel plat e, or, i f i t i s
expect ed t o be dest royed by t he ordnance bei ng t est ed, i t may be
const ruct ed i n a cheaper manner from eart h and polyet hylene.
Provi di ng a Level Surface for t he Flame - Wat er should be
used t o fi ll t he bot t om of t he pan t o provi de a level surface
for t he fuel.
Fuel Speci fi cat i ons - Fuel t o be used should be JP-5 ai rcraft
fuel w hen avai lable, or JF-4 ai rcraft fuel as an alt ernat e. The
quant i t y of fuel should be suffi ci ent t o cause a react i on of t he
ordnance, or t o i nsure a 15-mi nut e fi re, w hi chever i s short er
(1500 gallons i n t he 2 4• pan w i ll last approxi mat ely 15 mi nut es).
Fuel Igni t i on - For i gni t i on of t he ai rcraft fuel 2 0 gallons
of gasoli ne and/or one gallon of et her should be added aft er t he
| fuel la poured» w hen usi ng JP-5. A sui t able flame produci ng devi ce
should be used t o i ni t i at e t he fi re, such as a t hermi t e grenade,
squi b and pow der bag, et c. , and t hese should be i n at least four
locat i ons so as t o Ini t i at e burni ng over t he ent i re fuel surface
as rapi dly as possi ble. Flame bui ldup t i me t o 1000 F should not
exceed 3 5 seconds.
Weat her Condi t i ons - For an unshi elded 2 4* pan, a w i nd of
t hree knot s or less measured w i t hi n 1000 feet of t he t est si t e at
t he level of t he t est i t em(s) i s accept able. For t he 3 5* pen, a
fi ve knot w i nd or less measured w i t hi n 1000 feet of t he t est si t e
at t he level of t he t est i t em(s) i s accept able.
Average Flame Temperat ure - An average flame t emperat ure of
1650 F or great er at t he w eapon w i ll be consi dered a good t est .
Thi s average t emperat ure i s arri ved at by averagi ng flame t emperat ure
from t he t i me t he flame reaches 1000°F or, i n t he case of li ve
ordnance, unt i l t here i s a react i on.
§
« THIS SPECIFICATION IS PRELIMINARY AND IS INTENDED
FOR USE BY NWL/DAHLOREN, NWC/CHINA LAKE, NOL/WHITE OAK,
NAD/CRANE, AND NMC/PT MÜ0U ONLY.
I ■
C-l
UNCLASSIFIED
'■ ~ :; yM^2. . : ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ', . '■ - -v. . . ^O-^-v,. . -/,-,: . '-- . -■ : . - ■ :■ ■ - ■ ■ ■ ':■ " v . • '■ ■ : /■ ■ -: V ' -. ■ -. : ■ ■ : ; . - " . '. . . . . V ; ' ; : . . ^-rf-: -T >
UNCLASSIFIED
NOLTR 71-124
2. Test Item(s) Placement
Height of Test Item(s) (Live and/or Inert) Above Fuel - The
lowest item(a) should be suspended with the centerline between
36
M
and 66
n
above the fuel surface.
Attitude - The test item(s) should be suspended with the
centerline parallel to the fuel surface.
Suspension of the Test Item(s) - The test item(s) should be
suspended above the center of the pan by the lugs used to hang it
on the aircraft.
Test Item(s) Configuration - The following configurations are
to be used;
a. All-up round; i.e., including operational fuzes and
fin assembly.
b. Inert fuzes and no fin assembly.
c. Additional operational configurations as required.
3. Instrumentation
Thermocouples - Iron-constantan or chromel-alumel thermocouples
shall be used to instrument the test ltem(s) internally and
chromei-alumel thermocouples shall be employed externally.
Thermocouple Locations - External thermocouples shall be
located in a horizontal plane coincident with the centerline of
the test item{s). A mlnumum of four thermocouples should be used,
spaced equally around the test item(s), one at each end and one
at each side, one to six inches from the test item(s),
Suggested Thermocouple Records - Sampling and/or continuous
temperature recorders will be used. When using sampling recorders
no more than four seconds shall elapse between cyclesj that is,
from TC 1 through all TC's back to TC 1.
Camera Coverage - Color motion picture cameras will cover each
test from at least two directions 90° apart. Both normal (24 fps)
and high frame rate (48 - 200 fps) cameras may be used to provide
complete coverage, Still oameras and/or motion picture cameras will
be used for documentary purposes.
Time Records - Complete time-to-event histories of each test will
be kept. This record may be obtained from thermocouple records in
some cases, depending on the methods of recording. Ignition of the
fuel will serve as Zero time in all cases. The time when the fire
temperature first exceeds 1000°P (as measured by one or more of the
external thermocouples) is used as the point at which the test item
C—2
UNCLASSIFIED
■ i:..v
ü
■ is
ä
UNCLASSIFIED
NOLTR 71-124
Is considered engulfed In flame,
leas.
This time »111 be 35 seconds or
Pressure Measurements - In tests of live ordnance, pressure
measurements should be taken to aid In determining the severity
of any explosive reaction(s) which occurs.
UNCLASSIFIED
p;;i:
T
> :" -.:"
I
fiiai
UNCLASSgIED
_ .._3gK }l
n
*% . C"iasy ititiC» f^
OOCUMiHT COHTiOL PAT* RiB
I Unclassified
Naval Ordnance Laboratory titi»ejr——--—-————
Whit« Oak, Maryland 20910 jj/ A
5 «£f*^3*T TiT; E
DEVELOPMENT AND TEST OF THERMAL PROTECTION METHODS FOR BOMB FUZES
TO EXTEND COOK-OFF TJ&E IN LARGE AIRCRAFT FUEL FIRES
4. ÖCK«i*»ir! VS NÖTIi flVp* #1 *#jw** jwi*| **»r! u #t?« „.at**;
*u : HMtMtlti (Wityt Awn, mi4Mm initimt, fa«? H«HFS#J
DONALD LEVINE
9 December 1971
f*. TöTÄl N-3 OF PACE! I?*. WO &* »C*»
2 11
«*- CON »s *c T O» «•>** t .10
6
'"
MC,NO
' TasK N0L-346/NMC
$«. &*t*$t*| » TO«'t fiEPOKT hl'M»t«Sli
NOLTR 71-12 4
fill* ¥#p&r t)
0! *t«lBu TlON tTttCMCNf
Distribution limited to U.S. Government .Agencies only; Test &
Evaluation; date statement applied 10/22/71. other requests for this publication
taust be referred to NOL, Code 233,
II. SUPfi-EMENT* * « NOUi '2 S^O*S0«**G M'tl ?*ftv ACtlVitV
Naval Material command
i » *» » T« *e T
Washington, p.c
(If)'" Both experimental and theoretical Investigations have been
performed on ways of extending the cook-off times of the Nose Fuze
M9C4E2 and: M148 Adapter Booster when engulfed In a liquid hydrocarbon
fire. Several insulatlve materials were examined for utilization in
fuses and adapter booster fixes. -.The materials showing the greatest
promise when fabricated into sleeves were Candidates No. 10 and No. 14.
These materials extended the cook-off times of the Fuze M904E2 with
deflagration being the usual reaction. An open Adapter Booster problem
was determined to exist. When the Adapter Booster was unprotected and
filme was directed into the open cavity», cook-off resulted in
approximately four minutes. When the Adapter Booster was protected
with Intumetcent paint on the adapter ring, and a disc and washer of
Candidate No. 10 was Inserted into the booster cavity, times in excess
of 12 minutes were obtained. When the two fixes were combined the
times to cook-off, with a somewhat lower fire temperature, were in " T*^
excess of 12 minutes with detonation being the reaction. This report
describes the cook-off test procedures and discusses the laboratory
and field results of cook-off fixes for Fuze M904E2 and Ml48 Adapter
Boosters
FO KH
UU 1 MOV t»
$/H Ö 1Ö L 807-68O 1
1473
(PAGE I )
UNCLASSIFIED
S*CUrt(¥ CI ***ifU» 4l
UKCLAgSiriiP..
"'S«< W«~v Cim tntu* tie»
K £ * * ü* i?t
Fire tests
Fuze cook-off
Intumescent paint
Thermo Insulation
lOLi | * *

DD/2T M 473 « » « *>
(PAGE- 2)
UNCtASSIFIED
Sec u rity Ct«**ific «tiort
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