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**Eﬀects of pretwist and presetting on coupled bending vibrations of rotating thin-walled composite beams
**

S.-Y. Oh a, O. Song b, L. Librescu

a

a,*

Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Mail Code (0219), Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA b Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chungnam National University, Taejon 305-764, South Korea Received 30 October 2001; received in revised form 10 October 2002

Abstract A reﬁned dynamic theory of rotating blades modeled as anisotropic composite thin-walled beams, experiencing the ﬂapping-lagging-transverse shear coupling is presented. The structural model encompasses a number of non-standard features, such as anisotropy and transverse shear, pretwist and presetting angles, the presence of a rigid hub on which the beam is mounted, and the rotatory inertia. The developed theory and the methodology used to determine the eigenfrequency characteristics are validated against the results available in the literature, and new results emphasizing the inﬂuence played by the ply-angle, pretwist and presetting, coupled with that of the rotating speed on blade free vibration characteristics are supplied, and pertinent conclusions are outlined. Ó 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Free vibration; Thin-walled composite beams; Presetting and pretwist; Rotating beams; Shearable beam model

1. Introduction The accurate prediction of free vibration characteristics of turbine blades, tilt-rotor aircraft, helicopter blades and aircraft propellers is of a considerable importance towards the reliable design of these structural systems. A good knowledge of their free vibration characteristics is essential toward determination of their dynamic response to external excitations, resonant behavior, ﬂutter instability and of their fatigue life. In order to be able to predict adequately the free vibration response of advanced rotating blades constructed of composite materials, comprehensive structural models that encompass a number of features such as anisotropy and transverse shear warping restraint, and the pretwist and presetting angles should be developed and used. Traditionally, this problem, considered in specialized contexts, was approached within a solid isotropic beam model. In this sense, the reader is referred e.g. to the papers by Slyper (1962), Carnegie and Thomas (1972), Subrahmanyam et al. (1981), and Banerjee (2001), where, problems of

*

Corresponding author. Tel.: +1-540-231-5916; fax: +1-540-231-4574. E-mail address: librescu@vt.edu (L. Librescu).

0020-7683/02/$ - see front matter Ó 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. PII: S 0 0 2 0 - 7 6 8 3 ( 0 2 ) 0 0 6 0 5 - 4

1204

S.-Y. Oh et al. / International Journal of Solids and Structures 40 (2003) 1203–1224

non-rotating beams have been addressed; to Kumar (1974), Putter and Manor (1978); Wang et al. (1926), Hodges (1981), Hodges and Rutkowski (1981), Rosen et al. (1987), where issues on vibration of rotating solid beams have been developed; and to the survey-paper by Rosen (1991) where ample references to the literature addressing various related issues have been supplied. Within the concept of thin-walled beams (TWBs), the treatment of the free vibration problem of rotating beams was carried out in various specialized contexts in a number of papers (see e.g. Rehﬁeld et al., 1990; Chandra and Chopra, 1992; Song and Librescu, 1997, 1999; Song et al., 2001a,b; Jung et al., 2001). The survey papers, by Jung et al. (1999), Hodges (1990) and Kunz (1994) supply extensive references on the state-of-the-art of this problem. However, in spite of the extensive work devoted to this problem, one should remark the absence of a structural model of rotating TWBs encompassing the basic features of advanced ﬁlamentary composite structural systems, such as directionality and transverse shear, as well as the pretwist and presetting eﬀects. Within this paper, the coupled ﬂapping-lagging-transverse shear vibrations of a pretwisted rotating composite TWB mounted on a rigid hub of radius R0 at a setting angle c, and featuring the previously mentioned eﬀects are investigated. In this context, the eﬀects of the ply-angle of the ﬁlamentary constituent materials and of transverse shear, as well as that of the hub radius and angular velocity on coupled bending vibrations are addressed. In addition, comparisons with a number of predictions obtained in special cases are presented, and excellent agreements are reported.

2. Analysis 2.1. Preliminaries The case of a straight pretwisted ﬂexible beam of length L mounted on a rigid hub of radius R0 , rotating at the constant angular velocity X as shown in Fig. 1 is considered. The beam is allowed to vibrate ﬂexurally in a plane making an angle c, referred to as setting angle with the plane of rotation. The origin of the rotating systems of coordinates ðx; y ; zÞ is located at the blade root, at an oﬀset R0 from the rotation axis.

Fig. 1. (a) Geometry of the pretwisted beam. (b) Cross-section of the beam with pretwist and presetting angles.

the superposed dots denote time derivatives. where the spanwise. the inertial reference system ðX . y and z are the Cartesian coordinates of the points of the 3-D continuum in its undeformed state. 2001a. Z ) with the constant angular velocity Xð XJ ¼ XjÞ. € À 2u _ X À ðR0 þ z þ wÞX2 : az ¼ w ð5a–cÞ _. y . y ¼ x p sinðc þ bðzÞÞ þ y p cosðc þ bðzÞÞ. Vx ¼ u and _ X À ð x þ uÞ X 2 . b0 denoting the pretwist at the beam tip. It is further assumed that the rotation takes place in the plane (X . we also deﬁne the local coordinates ðx p . j.2. The considered structural model corresponds to a single-cell TWB of uniform closed-section. the spin axis being along the Y -axis. As concerns the components of the displacement vector. y . (1997). y . v and w denote displacement components. zÞ belonging to the deformed beam structure is expressed as: Rðx. Recalling that the spin rate was assumed to be constant. / International Journal of Solids and Structures 40 (2003) 1203–1224 1205 Besides the rotating coordinates ðx. Z Þ. KÞ we deﬁne the unit vectors associated with the rotating and inertial coordinates. while u. y p . zÞ and (X . along with the associated systems of coordinates are presented in Fig. z. In addition to the previously deﬁned coordinate systems. ax ¼ € u þ 2w ay ¼ € v.-Y. respectively. The geometric conﬁguration and the typical cross-section. and the terms underscored by one or two superposed solid lines are associated with Coriolis and centrifugal inertia terms. the precone angle of the blade is assumed to be zero. ð2Þ ð1a–cÞ where x. where bðzÞ ¼ b0 z=L denotes the pretwist angle of a current beam cross-section. Kinematics The position vector of a point M ðx. (x. Y . kÞ and ðI. respectively.S. The two coordinate systems are related by the following transformation formulae: x ¼ x p cosðc þ bðzÞÞ À y p sinðc þ bðzÞÞ. tÞ ¼ ðx þ uÞi þ ðy þ vÞj þ ðz þ wÞk þ R0 . j. y . one obtain the velocity and acceleration vectors of an arbitrary point M of the beam under the form _ ¼ Vx i þ Vy j þ Vz k R and € ¼ ax i þ ay j þ ax k R respectively.. 1. zÞ. z p Þ.b). kÞ. In addition. Oh et al. J. 2. keeping in mind that the rotation takes place solely in the XZ plane. and making use of equations expressing the time derivatives of unit vectors ði. and are reproduced here for completion . Z Þ is attached to the center of the hub O. a local (surface) coordinate systems (s. Y . where xp and y p are the principal axes of an arbitrary beam cross-section (see Song et al. their expressions have been supplied by Song and Librescu (1997) and Librescu et al. Vy ¼ v _ À ð x þ uÞ X Vz ¼ w ð4a–cÞ ð3bÞ ð3aÞ In these equations and the following ones. Their components are as follows: _ þ ðR0 þ z þ wÞX. z ¼ zp. z. By ði. z-coordinate axis coincides with a straight unspeciﬁed reference longitudinal axis. n) is considered. Within the present work.

In these equations. ! ! dx dy þ hy ð z . tÞ and hx ðz. In the absence of transverse shear eﬀects where. t Þ x ð s Þ þ n À /0 ðz. tÞ. v2 .g.-Y. cxz and cyz denote transverse shear strains. respectively. x3 Þ ðx. The equations of motion and boundary conditions In order to derive the equations of motion and the associated boundary conditions. q denotes the mass density.g. and performing the integrations in the circumferential and thickness directions. as well as in the forthcoming ones. Upon substituting (3) and (6) into (11). For their deﬁnition. see e. ð 9Þ t0 s s where rij and eij stand for the 3-D stress and strain tensors.3. v3 Þ ðu.b). Z Z 1 1 _ ÁR _ Þ ds rij eij ds and K ¼ qðR U¼ 2 s 2 s ð10a. while /ðz. tÞ ¼ u0 ðz. z. z. and ðx1 . tÞ þ x/ðz. for t ¼ t0 . Fw ðsÞ and naðsÞ play the role of primary and secondary warping functions. respectively. respectively. the primes denote diﬀerentiation with respect to the longitudinal z-coordinate. wÞ. tÞ. tÞ À y /ðz. 2. the extended HamiltonÕs principle is used. zÞ. t0 and t1 denote two arbitrary instants of time. Song and Librescu (1997) and Song et al. tÞ y ðsÞ À n ds ds uðx. tÞ ¼ Àu00 ðz. tÞ. hy ðz. z. tÞ: ð7a. tÞ denote the twist about the z-axis and rotations about the x. bÞ In Eqs. w0 ðz. y . ð6a–cÞ In these equations u0 ðz. tÞ: ð8a. y . v. For this case. t. while d denotes the variation operator. (9) and (10) the Einstein summation convention applies to repeated indices. hy ðz. t1 is involved. tÞ À u00 ðz. hy ðz. Oh et al. hx ðz. x2 . bÞ denote the strain energy functional and the kinetic energy. v0 ðz. tÞ½Fw ðsÞ þ naðsÞ: wðx. we have: Z t0 t1 d K dt ¼ Z t0 t1 Z s _ Á dR _ Þ ds d t ¼ À ðR Z t0 t1 Z dt s € Á dR ds. qR ð11Þ where HamiltonÕs condition dR ¼ 0. (v1 . tÞ. bÞ In these equations. tÞ. tÞ ¼ cxz ðz. Librescu. This can be stated as (see e. The expressions of hx and hy are hx ðz. tÞ. y . / International Journal of Solids and Structures 40 (2003) 1203–1224 vðx. tÞ ¼ cyz ðz. (6a–c). (2001a.and y -axes respectively. dsð dn ds dzÞ denotes the diﬀerential volume element. tÞ À v00 ðz. an undertilde sign identiﬁes a prescribed quantity. In Eqs. t. In the same equations. tÞ þ hx ðz. where Latin indices range from 1 to 3. tÞ. Hi denote the components of the body forces.and z-axes. tÞ ¼ Àv00 ðz. the various energies that are involved in the variational principal have to be rendered explicitly. As necessary pre-requisites. tÞ ¼ w0 ðz.1206 S. tÞ denote the rigid body translations along the x-. one obtains . tÞ ¼ v0 ðz. 1975) ! Z t1 Z Z dJ ¼ rij deij ds À dK À dA À qHi dvi ds dt ¼ 0.

Considering also the virtual work of external forces we have. on the other hand. This consists of the lamination scheme hðxÞ ¼ hðÀxÞ. 1989. My . dhx . (see Atilgan and Rehﬁeld. referred to as the circumferentially uniform stiﬀness conﬁguration achievable via the usual ﬁlament winding technology. this ply-angle conﬁguration. dv0 . d/ and d/0 Þ are independent and arbitrary.. their coeﬃcients in the two integrand must vanish independently. Oh et al. / International Journal of Solids and Structures 40 (2003) 1203–1224 1207 Z t0 t1 d K dt ¼ Z t0 t1 (Z 0 L _ 0 X À u0 X2 Þdu0 þ b1€ € 0 À 2u _ 0 X À ðR0 þ z þ w0 ÞX2 dw0 À fb1 ð € u0 þ 2w v 0 dv 0 þ b1 ½ w . Qx and Qy ) and stress couples (Mx . . Tr and Bw ). 3. Z L ½px du0 þ py dv0 þ pz dw0 þ mx dhx þ my dhy þ ðmz þ m0x Þd/ dz dA ¼ !L 0 d w þ M d h þ M d h þ M d / À B d / þ Qx du0 þ Qy dv0 þ T 0 x y z x y z x : $ $ $ $ $ $ $ 0 0 ð14Þ Using (12)–(14) in the HamiltonÕs principle. t1 and the fact that the variations ðdu0 . Smith and Chopra. $$$$ $$$$ € À 2b4 Xh _x À ðb4 À b5 ÞX2 / À ðb10 þ dn b18 Þð/ € 00 À X2 /00 Þd/g dz þ ½ðb4 þ b5 Þ/ ¼¼¼ ) € 0 À X2 /0 Þd/L dt: À ½ðb10 þ dn b18 Þð/ 0 ¼¼¼ ð12Þ For the variation of the strain energy dU one obtains Z t1 Z L Z t1 Z 0 0 0 rij deij ds dt ¼ ÀfTz0 dw0 þ ðMy0 À Qx Þdhy þ ðMx0 À Qy Þdhx þ ½B00 x þ Mz þ ðTr / Þ d/ t0 s t0 0 þ ½Q0x þ 0 ðTz u00 Þ du0 þ ½Q0y þ 0 ðTz v00 Þ dv0 g dz dt þ Z t0 t1 Â Tz dw0 : þ My dhy þ Mx dhx ÃL À Bx d/0 þ ðB0x þ Mz þ Tr /0 Þd/ þ ðQx þ Tz u00 Þdu0 þ ðQy þ Tz v00 Þdv0 0 dt: ð13Þ These equations are represented in terms of 1-D stress resultants (Tz . In the present study only the former problem involving the bending–bending coupling will be considered. Governing system 3. As it was previously shown. dhy .. Their expressions have been supplied by Song and Librescu (1993). invoking the stationarity of the functional in the time internal ½t0 . hðy Þ ¼ hðÀy Þ.. and extension-torsional motion. 1991).S. €y À X2 hy Þdhy þ ½ðb4 þ dn b14 Þðh €x À X2 hx Þ þ 2b4 X/ _ dhx þ ðb5 þ dn b15 Þðh . dw0 .. that are not displayed here. and will not be recorded here. Mz . on one hand. This yields the equations of motion and the boundary condition. 1).1.-Y. results in an exact decoupling between ﬂapping-lagging-transverse shear. ð15Þ where h denotes the ply-angle orientation considered to be positive when is measured from the positive s-axis towards the positive z-axis (see Fig. The shearable system In the present paper a special case of ply-angle distribution inducing special elastic couplings will be considered.

. $$$$ 0 ð16Þ €x À X2 hx Þ þ my ¼ 0. py .1208 S. i0 h 0 dv0 : a52 ðzÞh0y þ a53 ðzÞh0x þ a55 ðzÞðv00 þ hx Þ þ a54 ðzÞðu00 þ hy Þ À b1€ v0 þ b1 X2 ½RðzÞv00 þ py ¼ 0. px . À ðb6 ðzÞ À dn b13 ðzÞÞðh .-Y. Oh et al. ð18Þ v 0 ¼ 0.. the homogeneous boundary conditions result as: At z ¼ 0: u 0 ¼ 0. the external loads should be discarded. / International Journal of Solids and Structures 40 (2003) 1203–1224 The governing dynamical equations of pretwisted rotating blades expressed in terms of displacement variables are expressed as: i0 h du0 : a42 ðzÞh0y þ a43 ðzÞh0x þ a44 ðzÞðu00 þ hy Þ þ a45 ðzÞðv00 þ hx Þ À b1 € u0 þ b1 u0 X2 þ b1 X2 ½RðzÞu00 þ px ¼ 0. and centrifugal-rotatory eﬀect by a solid line superposed on a wavy line ð$$$Þ.. hx ¼ 0. ð19Þ 2 whereas the coeﬃcients aij ðzÞ ¼ aji ðzÞ and bi ðzÞ denote stiﬀness and reduced mass terms. rotatory inertia terms by a dotted line ðÁ Á ÁÞ. In Eq. respectively. the terms associated with the centrifugal acceleration terms are underscored by two superposed solid lines ð¼¼¼¼Þ. For the sake of identiﬁcation. Assuming the blade to be clamped at z ¼ 0 and free at z ¼ L.. respectively. Their expressions are displayed in Tables 1 and 2. or the free vibration problem. $$$$ $$$$ €y À X2 hy Þ þ mx ¼ 0: À ðb6 ðzÞ À dn b13 ðzÞÞðh . i0 dhx : a33 ðzÞh0x þ a32 ðzÞh0y þ a34 ðzÞðu00 þ hy Þ þ a35 ðzÞðu00 þ hx Þ À a55 ðzÞðv00 þ hx Þ À a52 ðzÞh0y h €x À X2 hx Þ À a54 ðzÞðu00 þ hy Þ À a53 ðzÞh0x À ðb4 ðzÞ þ dn b14 ðzÞÞðh . dv0 : a52 ðLÞh0y þ a53 ðLÞh0x þ a55 ðLÞðv00 þ hx Þ þ a54 ðLÞðu00 þ hy Þ ¼ 0. in the previous equations.. mx and my are the external loads and moments that are assumed to be functions of both z and t coordinates.. $$$$ Herein.. dhy : a22 ðLÞh0y þ a25 ðLÞðv00 þ hx Þ þ a24 ðLÞðu00 þ hy Þ þ a23 ðLÞh0x ¼ 0. h i0 dhy : a22 ðzÞh0y þ a25 ðzÞðv00 þ hx Þ þ a24 ðzÞðu00 þ hy Þ þ a23 ðzÞh0x À a44 ðzÞðu00 þ hy Þ À a43 ðzÞh0x €y À X2 hy Þ À a45 ðzÞðv00 þ hx Þ À a42 ðzÞh0y À ðb5 ðzÞ þ dn b15 ðzÞÞðh . and at z ¼ L: du0 : a42 ðLÞh0y þ a43 ðLÞh0x þ a44 ðLÞðu00 þ hy Þ þ a45 ðLÞðv00 þ hx Þ ¼ 0. In the latter case. hy ¼ 0 ð17Þ . dhx : a33 ðLÞh0x þ a34 ðLÞðu00 þ hy Þ þ a35 ðLÞðv00 þ hx Þ þ a32 ðLÞh0y ¼ 0: As is clearly seen. these equations can address either the dynamic response of rotating blades exposed to time-dependent external excitation. (16) and the following ones Â Ã RðzÞ R0 ðL À zÞ þ 1 ðL 2 À z2 Þ ..

... the expressions a44 ðu00 þ hy Þ þ a45 ðv00 þ hx Þ and a55 ðv00 þ hx Þ þ a54 ðu00 þ hy Þ. and (18)2 followed by consideration of hx ! Àv00 and hy ¼ Àu00 .2. These quantities can be found in the paper by Song and Librescu (1993). As a result..S. ð20Þ . respectively. ap ij ð¼ aji Þ. Oh et al. the governing equations read as: 00 00 du0 : ½a22 ðzÞu00 u00 À X2 u00 Þ þ ðb6 ðzÞ À dn b13 ðzÞÞð€ v00 À X2 v00 0 Þ 0 þ a23 ðzÞv0 À ½ðb5 ðzÞ þ dn b15 ðzÞÞð€ . indicate their aﬃliation to the beam cross-sections referred to the principal axes ðxp . (16)1 . y p Þ. (16)2 . pretwist and presetting angles aij ðzÞ a22 a33 a44 a55 a23 a24 ¼ Àa35 a25 a34 a45 Their expression p p 2 2 ap 22 cos ðc þ bðzÞÞ þ a33 sin ðc þ bðzÞÞ À 2a23 sinðc þ bðzÞÞ cosðc þ bðzÞÞ p p 2 2 a33 cos ðc þ bðzÞÞ þ a22 sin ðc þ bðzÞÞ þ 2ap 23 sinðc þ bðzÞÞ cosðc þ bðzÞÞ p p 2 2 ap 44 cos ðc þ bðzÞÞ þ a55 sin ðc þ bðzÞÞ À 2a45 sinðc þ bðzÞÞ cosðc þ bðzÞÞ p p 2 2 a55 cos ðc þ bðzÞÞ þ a44 sin ðc þ bðzÞÞ þ 2ap 54 sinðc þ bðzÞÞ cosðc þ bðzÞÞ p ðap 22 À a33 Þ sinðc þ bðzÞÞ cosðc þ bðzÞÞ p Àðap 25 þ a34 Þ sinðc þ bðzÞÞ cosðc þ bðzÞÞ p p 2 2 ap cos ð c þ bðzÞÞ À ap 25 34 sin ðc þ bðzÞÞ þ ða24 À a35 Þ cosðc þ bðzÞÞ sinðc þ bðzÞÞ p p p 2 2 a34 cos ðc þ bðzÞÞ À a25 sin ðc þ bðzÞÞ þ ða24 À ap 35 Þ cosðc þ bðzÞÞ sinðc þ bðzÞÞ p ðap 44 À a55 Þ cosðc þ bðzÞÞ sinðc þ bðzÞÞ Table 2 The reduced mass terms bi ðzÞ in terms of their counterparts in the cross-sectional principal axes bp i bi ðzÞ b1 b4 b5 b6 b13 b14 b15 Their expression bp 1 p p 2 2 bp 4 cos ðc þ bðzÞÞ þ b5 sin ðc þ bðzÞÞ þ 2b6 sinðc þ bðzÞÞ cosðc þ bðzÞÞ p p 2 2 b5 cos ðc þ bðzÞÞ þ b4 sin ðc þ bðzÞÞ À 2bp 6 sinðc þ bðzÞÞ cosðc þ bðzÞÞ p p 2 2 ðbp 5 À b4 Þ cosðc þ bðzÞÞ sinðc þ bðzÞÞ þ b6 ðcos ðc þ bðzÞÞÞ À sin ðc þ bðzÞÞ p p ðb14 À b15 Þ cosðc þ bðzÞÞ sinðc þ bðzÞÞ p p 2 2 bp 14 cos ðc þ bðzÞÞ þ b15 sin ðc þ bðzÞÞ À 2b13 sinðc þ bðzÞÞ cosðc þ bðzÞÞ p p 2 2 b15 cos ðc þ bðzÞÞ þ b14 sin ðc þ bðzÞÞ þ 2bp 13 sinðc þ bðzÞÞ cosðc þ bðzÞÞ The quantities aﬀected by superscript p. $$$$ 00 00 dv0 : ½a33 ðzÞv00 v00 À X2 v00 Þ þ ðb6 ðzÞ À dn b13 ðzÞÞð€ u00 À X2 u00 Þ0 0 þ a32 ðzÞu0 À ½ðb4 ðzÞ þ dn b14 ðzÞÞð€ 2 0 ½RðzÞv00 þ b1 € v 0 À b1 X À py À m0x ¼ 0: The associated homogeneous boundary conditions are: At z ¼ 0: u0 ¼ v0 ¼ u00 ¼ v00 ¼ 0 ð21Þ . yields the Bernoulli–Euler counterpart of the shearable beam model..-Y. 3. (16)3 and (16)4 . $$$$ . in terms of their cross-sectional principal axes xp and y p counterparts.. $$$$ . Non-shearable counterpart of the previously obtained system Extracting from Eqs. (18)1 . and their corresponding replacement in Eqs. / International Journal of Solids and Structures 40 (2003) 1203–1224 1209 Table 1 p Expressions of stiﬀness quantities ðaij ðzÞ ¼ aji ðzÞÞ... $$$$ þ b1 € u0 À b1 X2 u0 À 0 b1 X2 ½RðzÞu00 À px À m0y ¼ 0.

À X2 u00 Þ $$$$ À mx ðL. a35 ðzÞ and a45 ðzÞ. 00 0 0 ð24aÞ . First of all. in this special case. tÞ. in a plane at angle c with the plane of rotation as: ½SW 00 þ f½b5 þ dn b15 ðx2 þ X2 ÞW 0 g À b1 X2 ½RðzÞW 0 À b1 x2 1 W ¼ 0. tÞ ¼ W ðzÞ½sin c. 00 v00 À X2 v00 Þ dv0 : ½a33 ðLÞv00 0 þ a32 ðLÞu0 À ðb4 ðLÞ þ dn b14 ðLÞÞð€ $$$$ ð22Þ À ðb6 ðLÞ À dn b13 ðLÞÞð€ u00 . and the mass term b6 ðzÞ (when also the rotatory inertia eﬀect is discarded). the out-of-plane and the in-plane bending. as emerging from Tables 1 and 2. cos c expðixtÞ. v0 ðz. as well. $$$$ À ðb6 ðLÞ À dn b13 ðLÞÞð€ v00 . a number of couplings become immaterial.. Oh et al.. . the governing system.... Consequently. Eqs. Expressing in (20)–(22) u and v through W . 00 dv00 : a33 ðLÞv00 0 þ a32 ðLÞu0 ¼ 0: The expressions of stiﬀness aij ðzÞ and reduced mass terms bi ðzÞ are supplied in Tables 1 and 2. each of these governing. the stiﬀness quantities and reduced mass terms become a function of the spanwise coordinate. In this case. in the presence of the pretwist and presetting a supplementary coupling between the ﬂappinglagging-transverse shear motions is experienced.. it should be reminded that in the context of the implemented ply-angle conﬁguration. (16)–(18). a24 ðzÞ..-Y. the stiﬀnesses a23 ðzÞ. as a result. the two classical bending equations and the associated boundary conditions exactly decouple into two independent groups. 00 du00 : a22 ðLÞu00 0 þ a23 ðLÞv0 ¼ 0. the stiﬀness and mass terms cease to experience the spanwise dependence. and in the absence of rotatory inertia (implying b6 ¼ 0). Most similar comments related to the stiﬀness a23 ðzÞð¼ a32 ðzÞÞ and mass terms b6 ðzÞ and b13 ðzÞ are applicable to the classical beam counterpart. as well as b13 ðzÞ become zero valued quantities. Several comments on the governing system In connection with the governing equations of pretwisted rotating beams several comments are in order. a35 ðzÞ and a45 ðzÞ. 4. for any pretwist or presetting angle. one can recast the dynamic equations governing the bending of a Bernoulli–Euler rotating beam featuring doubly symmetry. implying a22 ¼ a33 . tÞ ¼ 0. where W ðzÞ is the deﬂection in the plane deﬁned by the setting angle c. b4 ðzÞ ¼ b5 ðzÞ and b15 ðzÞ ¼ b14 ðzÞ: ð23aÞ From the system of governing equations (20)–(22). the stiﬀness quantities a23 ðzÞ. / International Journal of Solids and Structures 40 (2003) 1203–1224 and at z ¼ L: 00 0 du0 : ½a22 ðLÞu00 u00 À X2 u00 Þ 0 þ a23 ðLÞv0 À ðb5 ðLÞ þ dn b15 ðLÞÞð€ . involve the ﬂapping-lagging-transverse shear elastic couplings. it results that a22 ¼ a33 S . a24 ðzÞ. specialized to the case of zero pretwist. and. tÞ ¼ 0. 0 À X2 v00 Þ $$$$ À my ðL..1210 S. It also becomes evident that for the non-pretwisted beams featuring also zero presetting. p p p p We should however remark that for doubly symmetrical beam cross-sections. one can express u0 and v0 as pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ð23bÞ ½u0 ðz. for non-pretwisted beams. as well as the mass terms b6 ðzÞ and b13 ðzÞ become zero valued quantities for any value of the pretwist and presetting angles. b4 ¼ b5 p p p and b14 ¼ b15 . It also clearly emerges that for doubly symmetric beams of a square cross-section. However. Moreover. ½i ¼ À1.

Eqs. Eqs. To this end.. bj vj ðzÞ.... whereas the increase of the rotor hub radius results in frequency increase.. u0 . its increase yields a decrease of the fundamental frequency.. Oh et al. and of the complex character of dynamic boundary conditions..S.. the eﬀects of the hub radius and presetting angle on eigenfrequency are immaterial. multiplied by time-dependent generalized coordinates. tÞ. reduce to those supplied by Hodges (1981). The results also reveal that for the non-rotating blade.. (24)–(26) reduce to the rotating beam counterpart experiencing the motion in lagging and ﬂapping... These conclusions are in excellent agreement with those outlined by Lo and Renbarger (1952). hx ðz. Applying the Rayleigh-quotient procedure to the governing Eq.. tÞÞ ¼ ðV ðzÞ... hx and hy are represented by means of series of space-dependent trial functions that should fulﬁl the boundary conditions. It should be noticed that for c ¼ p=2 and 0.. S ðzÞ.. From this equation one can easily conclude that rotatory inertia yield a diminution of fundamental frequency. v0 ðz.-Y. ~ 2 . tÞ.. dj pj ðzÞÞ j ¼1 ð29Þ ð30Þ . (24b) one can see that the ﬂapping frequency is x2 1 ) x any c expressed in terms of that at c ¼ 0 can be expressed as ~ 2 À X2 sin2 c: x2 ¼ x ð27Þ This expression reveals that the frequencies at any setting angle are lower than those corresponding to the purely ﬂapping motion counterpart.. P ðzÞÞ ¼ n X ðaj uj ðzÞ. (19). S ðzÞ. an approximate solution procedure should be applied.. while the vibration frequencies at From Eq.. while the spatial parts are expressed as ðU ðzÞ. cj sj ðzÞ. and the boundary conditions: W ¼ W0 ¼0 and ½SW 00 0 þ ½b5 þ dn b15 ðx2 þ X2 ÞW 0 ¼ 0.. the natural frequency at any setting angle results as " #) Z L( 2 2 00 2 0 2 0 2 2 S ðW Þ þ X b1 RðzÞðW Þ À ðb5 þ dn b15 ÞðW Þ À b1 W sin c dz x2 ¼ 0 RL 0 & $$$$$$$$ ðb5 . For the problem at hand the displacement measures are represented as ðu0 ðz. / International Journal of Solids and Structures 40 (2003) 1203–1224 1211 where 2 2 2 x2 1 ¼ x þ X sin c ð24bÞ ð25Þ SW 00 ¼ 0. v0 . at z ¼ L: ð26Þ at z ¼ 0 These equations specialized for the case of the absence of rotatory inertia. dz ð28Þ þ b1 W where W ¼ W ðzÞ should fulﬁl boundary conditions. (25) and (26). V ðzÞ. 5. Solution procedure Due to the intricacy of the eigenvalue problem. Þ þ dn b15 ðW 0 Þ2 ' 2 .. V ðzÞ.. P ðzÞÞ expðixtÞ where x is the eigenfrequency. tÞ.. respectively.. (24) considered in conjunction with the boundary conditions and Eq. As concerns the setting angle.. hy ðz.

g. for static validation. and hub radius have been used and are listed in the same sequence: 2. As it was previously revealed in diﬀerent contexts (see e. In the spirit of the Extended Galerkin Method (see e. c1 . c2 . However. natural frequency. are used. bn . extensive validations of the statics and dynamics of composite single-cell box beams have been accomplished and reported in the papers by Qin and Librescu (2001. vj ðzÞ. (1997)). comparisons with a number of results available in the literature are presented. where A ¼ MÀ1 K. / International Journal of Solids and Structures 40 (2003) 1203–1224 In Eq. Yokoyama (1988). is compared to that obtained in the papers by Wang et al. . . The equations derived for the case of rotating TWB are similar to the ones corresponding to a solid beam model. . d1 . representations (29) in conjunction with (30) are inserted in the HamiltonÕs principle. dn is a constant vector. a2 . only admissible functions. . (1997)). In these numerical simulations the following dimensionless parameters of the rotational speed. b2 . where various methods have been applied. . have been reported by Qin and Librescu (2001. Librescu et al. M and K being the mass and stiﬀness 4n Â 4n matrices. ðX 0 ¼ R0 =L: R ð31Þ The results reveal the excellent agreement.e. the trial functions are expressed as polynomials of various power in the z variable which exactly fulﬁl the boundary conditions at z ¼ 0. . 2002). an . (see e. as well as the ones supplied by Smith and Chopra (1991) and Rehﬁeld et al. . (1990). . In this sense. . Librescu et al. together with the one resulting from the equations of motion. Oh et al. are minimized in the GalerkinÕ sense. the eigenvalue problem results in the standard form Ax ¼ x2 x.-Y. the results obtained within the present model and compared with the ones by Chandra and Chopra (1992). and Lee and Lin (1996). use of dimensionless parameters in which these quantities are absorbed. . . trial functions satisfying also the dynamic boundary conditions. .g. enables one to obtain universal results. valid for both solid and TWBs. sj ðzÞ and pj ðzÞ are the trial functions that should fulﬁl all the boundary conditions. especially with the predictions by Yokoyama (1988) obtained via FEM. can hardly be generated. Volovoi et al. As a result. 6. there are the ones developed by Hodges and his collaborators (see e. uj ðzÞ. comparisons with a number of previously obtained results are displayed. d2 . In order to validate both the solution methodology and the structural model developed in this paper. The diﬀerence occurs only in the proper expression of cross-sectional stiﬀness quantities and mass terms. Librescu et al. b1 . . 2002)). within the assumptions considered in Section 4 above. trial functions fulﬁlling only the geometrical boundary conditions). (2001).g. In Tables 3–5. (i. For this reason. these remain in the functional as residual terms that. . . Moreover. very good agreements between the static (Smith and Chopra (1991)) and dynamic (Chandra and Chopra (1992) and their counterparts based on the present structural model. xT ¼ ½a1 . Among these. the eﬀect of the setting angle and of selected rotational speeds on the ﬁrst four natural frequencies of shearable beams.g. To be consistent with the EGM. x 2 Þ ¼ ðX2 . (1976). . in Table 3. Comparisons with available numerical predictions For the case of the nonrotating thin-walled beams. (1997) and Qin and Librescu (2002)). . For dynamic validation. (30). The validations have revealed that the present thin-walled beam model provides results is excellent agreement with those based on various structural models. x2 Þðb1 L4 =a33 Þ. cn . Because from the boundary conditions only the dynamic boundary conditions are not fulﬁlled.1212 S. the application of this method results in an excellent accuracy and rapid convergence. reveal also excellent agreements. For the problem at hand. while x is the eigenfrequency.

987 21.) frequencies. l ¼ 0:007647 c ¼ 0 deg. (1976).0 Rao (1977) (Galerkin process) 61. p p p p p 6 2 À8 a44 ¼ a55 ð kGAÞ ¼ 3:076 Â 10 N m .148 72.792 96.792 c ¼ 90 deg.9 305.436 22.0 1110.076 72.854 66.867 20. b1 ð qA0 Þ ¼ 0:3447 kg/m.850 20. 22. b4 ðqIxx Þ ¼ 8:57 Â 10 kg m.914 72.037 22. (1981) Reissner method i¼1 i¼2 i¼3 i¼4 61.490 143.431 22.531 143.250 55.9 304.491 56.428 44.873 45.562 96.973 21. and for zero pretwisted rotating beams.t.782 96.716 66. the results are compared with those supplied by Hodges and Rutkowski (1981).0 953.693 144.853 20. there are displayed comparisons of ﬂapping ðc ¼ 0Þ and lagging ðc ¼ 90 deg.240 55.277 55. In Tables 4 and 5.195 45.302 21.0 Present (extended Galerkin method) 62.696 55.0 1206.429 45.524 23. c Lee and Lin (1996). in the sense that the increase of c yields a decrease of bending natural frequencies. R0 ¼ 0) xi Subrahmanyam et al.793 66.359 45.575 96.1 955.570 96.0 301.984 97.298 21. 1987): .S.446 22.673 143.-Y..66 p 2 2 The characteristics of the beam as involved in the considered table are: ap 22 ð EIyy Þ ¼ 487:9 N m .1 949.967 c ¼ 45 deg.968 96.520 66. 0 À2 bp m. The trend of variation of natural bending frequencies with the setting angle is consistent with that emerging from Eq.747 96.0 1205.43 i¼2 Present a b c i¼3 Present a b c i¼4 Present a b c g ðb4 þ dn b14 Þ=ðb1 L2 Þ. Oh et al.011 96.550 66. b5 ðqIyy Þ ¼ 0:000019 kg m.194 144.0 949.002 97.052 144..313 21.15 8. c ¼ 0.985 72.194 44. respectively with some available results from the literature.208 143.313 71.072 55.514 23.315 66.162 96. 21.57 c ¼ 90 deg. In Tables 6 and 7 comparisons of frequency predictions obtained for non-rotating/rotating unshearable blades including eﬀects of pretwist and presetting angles are supplied.71 c ¼ 45 deg.188 97.050 23.598 45.7 937.662 55.815 143.473 143.200 72.287 72.781 66.668 66.0 305.620 g ¼ 0:025.753 44. 23.957 45. a33 ð EIxx Þ ¼ 2:26 N m . experiment(%) 5.982 71. The analyzed beam is characterized by (see Rosen et al.0 Carnegie (1959) (experiment) 59. and excellent agreements are remarked. this being valid for any mode number.0 920.146 71. within the assumptions displayed in Section 4.938 45. (28). a Wang et al.510 23.284 55.913 144.105 56. L ¼ 15:24 Â 10 Table 4 ¼ 10 and R 0 ¼ 3) i of rotating cantilever shearable beams (X Eﬀect of setting angle on natural frequency parameter x i x i¼1 Present a b c g ¼ 0:1. 23.349 143.1 Potential energy method 62.315 73.0 305.866 67.0 1230.0 1220. / International Journal of Solids and Structures 40 (2003) 1203–1224 Table 3 Comparison of coupled ﬂapping-lagging frequencies xi (Hz) of a pretwisted beam (b0 ¼ 45 deg. For c ¼ 0 and 90 deg.653 55. 20.1 1214.911 144. b Yokoyama (1988). 14 ¼ b15 ¼ 0.. l a33 =ðL2 a55 Þ.062 56. respectively.115 44. l ¼ 0:030588 c ¼ 0 deg.619 66.21 3. and Yokoyama (1988) and Putter and Manor (1978).r.955 44.0 290.756 71.974 21.109 71. X ¼ 0.1 1213 Error w.7 Dawson (1968) (Rayleigh–Ritz process) 62. 21.681 67.25 5.775 67.0362 23.411 55.

0542 16.51602 3.1626 19.2803 23.4461 26.94036 10.5263 23.5263 22.6118 4.2881 61. a33 ¼ 57.13732 4.516 3.412 5.1628 19.9573 29. and L ¼ 3:048 m: The results obtained within the present model and solution methodology (based on the extended Galerkin method––see e.6493 77.5352 84.237 51.9954 31.1702 Present 0 ¼ 1 R Hodges and Rutkowski (1981) 3.2050 66. reveals that for blades featuring a22 6¼ a33 .3022 72.9361 182.4806 Present Yokoyama (1988) Putter and Manor (1978) – 4.7607 72.1843 13.8091 28.1563 93.8418 62. b4 ¼ b5 .5268 Present 3.0273 34.1214 S.1810 22.83369 6. 393 N m2 .9117 37. b0 ¼ 0) Natural frequency parameter x 2 1 x X x R0 ¼ 0 R0 ¼ 1 R0 ¼ 0 Yokoyama (1988) 0 2 5 10 20 50 3.7630 61. either a decrease or increase of natural frequencies. (1997)). the increase of the setting angle yields.2025 12.2992 51.1198 43.51602 3.6145 Present 0 ¼ 1 R Hodges and Rutkowski (1981) 61.68164 4.13732 4.0344 22..9500 28.1996 116.9954 31.1161 44.0345 22.7352 89.6181 61.1843 13. depending on the odd or even mode number.29960 9.6149 23.2580 25.0344 23.6556 77.5965 80.6839 68.3341 29. the increase of the pretwist angle exerts an opposite eﬀect to that .7223 22.3867 74.68165 4.7215 Present 0 ¼ 0 R Hodges and Rutkowski (1981) 22.0687 79.6062 18.0644 64.6972 61.6353 181.83367 6.2732 62.36037 8.08173 7.0541 16.9691 13.6408 Present Yokoyama (1988) Putter and Manor (1978) – Present 0 ¼ 1 R Yokoyama (1988) Putter and Manor (1978) – Present 3.3750 23.3573 76.952 13.0676 64.3660 24.44953 7.6031 Present 0 ¼ 1 R Hodges and Rutkowski (1981) 22.8446 116.51602 3.372 61.07390 7.9238 28.6404 35.7667 98.3203 24.29964 9.7150 61.9278 26.9116 37.3750 23. respectively.1702 3.7725 72.25683 10.2734 25. Oh et al.3528 32.036 22.516 3.2930 72. Moreover.6033 22.074 5.2257 11.04889 13.386 22.g.3203 24.123 25.5295 84.9538 41.881 3.5074 15.6403 35.77927 25.659 116.47505 8.7338 66. Librescu et al.0006 69.5942 76.1154 44.7757 10.6963 68.9868 69.0345 22.58500 6. (1987) and Banerjee (2001).899 Putter and Manor (1978) – 3.58500 6.0013 63.40054 22.44955 7.36038 8.9573 29.5890 37.-Y.7150 62.79728 5.0607 63.3860 70.88882 4.0741 61.4005 7.3682 47.528 7.2189 66.7705 33.3531 51.316 a22 ¼ 2869:7 N m2 .6972 62.4438 11. for which a22 ¼ a33 .9668 65.3528 32.2734 25.3698 47.08175 7.2802 28.2576 32.6149 63. in the same conditions characterizing the blade.7493 67.9820 65.6039 80.359 182.036 4.401 4. displayed in Tables 7 and 8 reveal a very good agreement with the available exact and approximate predictions by Rosen et al.9240 43.7705 33.1197 32.8593 62.622 4. from Table 7.8091 28.0344 22.4115 13.1810 22. Table 8.0431 63.261 6.9278 26.79727 5.2257 11.3968 70.0701 Present 3 x R0 ¼ 0 Hodges and Rutkowski (1981) 61.62179 4. b1 ¼ 34:47 kg=m. / International Journal of Solids and Structures 40 (2003) 1203–1224 Table 5 i of rotating unshearable cantilever beam (c ¼ 0.51602 3.94042 10.88882 4.5277 Table 6 i of rotating unshearable cantilever beams (c ¼ 90 deg.4439 11.51602 3.47505 8.050 6.9500 24.0739 5.282 24. and in contrast to the case considered in Table 3.0272 34.6916 51.1583 93.318 10.0490 6.9850 63.9863 76.25684 10. At the same time.9690 13.0344 22.3944 74.794 10.7315 89.6149 23.5077 15.926 32.3661 24.51602 22.2023 12.0638 79.9539 41.41130 24. b0 ¼ 0) Natural frequency parameter x 2 1 x X x ¼0 R Hodges and Rutkowski (1981) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 3.4461 26.9960 76.6064 18.3341 29.7654 98.2282 76.417 22.5890 37.6941 51.2267 43.

4997 81. for the sake of illustration the case of a rotating beam modelled as a composite box beam (see Fig. 2 and 3 display the variation of the ﬁrst two natural frequencies of the rotating beam (X ¼ 100) rad/s. odd or even. (1987) 3.1677 56.4381 80.3913 Present 3. (10:16 Â 10À3 m).488 81. 7. i.4184 21.S. ET ¼ 0:75 Â 106 psi ð5:17 Â 109 N=m2 Þ GTT ¼ 0:45 Â 106 psi ð3:10 Â 109 N=m2 Þ q ¼ 14:3 Â 10À5 lb s=in4 ð1528:15 kg=m3 Þ where subscripts L and T denote directions parallel and transverse to the ﬁber.3465 25.5924 96.7764 Rosen et al.168 80. lTT ¼ lLT ¼ 0:25. its dimensions are: L ¼ 80 in.6120 96. the increase of the presetting angle yields either a decrease or increase of natural frequencies.263 Present 1215 3.3485 103.200 Banerjee (2001) 3.44898 15.4425 21. (1987) 3. c ¼ 10 in. respectively. depending on the odd or even mode number.023 m). 1) characterized by a cross-section ratio Rð c=bÞ ¼ 5 was considered. for selected values of the setting angle.618 experienced by the increase of the setting angle. (1987) 19. / International Journal of Solids and Structures 40 (2003) 1203–1224 Table 7 0 ¼ 0) Eﬀects of the pretwist angle on natural frequencies xi (rad/s) of a non-rotating unshearable blade (c ¼ 0. In this sense. In addition. Numerical simulations and discussion Although the obtained equations are valid for a beam of arbitrary closed cross-section.-Y. by an increase or decrease of the natural frequency.254 m). b ¼ 2 in. (0.45305 15. (2. and for the pretwist.3716 103. X ¼ 300 rpm) xi i¼1 i¼2 i¼3 i¼4 i¼5 c ¼ 0 deg. The results reveal a continuous increase of natural frequencies that accompanies the increase of the plyangle. GLT ¼ 0:37 Â 106 psi ð2:55 Â 109 N=m2 Þ.132 c ¼ 22:5 deg. .45317 15.620 121. h ¼ 0:4 in. Moreover. as it clearly appears.47173 13. The mechanical characteristics of the beam as considered in the numerical simulations correspond to the graphite/epoxy material.3413 25. b0 ¼ 90 deg. R xi i¼1 i¼2 i¼3 i¼4 i¼5 Untwisted blade (b0 ¼ 0) Exact Rosen et al.7388 121.33 141.711 32.7791 Pretwisted blade (b0 ¼ 40 deg.6399 60.0769 33.47182 13. (1987) 18. Figs. as a function of the ply-angle. (50:8 Â 10À3 m).97 141.4429 21.531 142. Rosen et al.7609 122. the increase of the pretwist angle is accompanied.1707 56.4122 Table 8 Inﬂuence of presetting angle on natural frequencies xi (rad/s) of a rotating unshearable blade with zero pretwist (b ¼ 0. Oh et al.3009 103.62 Present 19.) Rosen et al. unless otherwise speciﬁed. consistent with the results displayed in Table 7.11 Present 18. Rosen et al.2700 56.5542 60.7183 32. respectively.47257 13.585 121.984 96. In the on-axis conﬁguration these are given by EL ¼ 30 Â 106 psi ð20:68 Â 1010 N=m2 Þ. (1987) 3.6406 60.e.536 33.2740 25. depending on the mode number.183 141.

ply-angle for diﬀerent setting angles. the eﬀect of the setting angle on eigenfrequency of non-rotating beam is immaterial. X ¼ 100 rad/s. ply-angle for diﬀerent setting angles (b0 ¼ 90 deg. As it clearly appears also from these ﬁgures. / International Journal of Solids and Structures 40 (2003) 1203–1224 Fig. one should remark from Figs. the trend of variation of various mode frequencies as a function of the presetting angle and angular velocity remains similar to that previously emphasized. as a function of the setting angle. (b0 ¼ 90 deg. Oh et al. Variation of the second coupled ﬂapping-lagging natural frequency vs. On the other hand. at larger angular speeds.1216 S. R Related to these results..-Y. 2. 4 and 5 that the increase of the rotational speed yields an increase of natural frequencies as compared to those displayed in Figs. 0 ¼ 0:1). 3. X ¼ 100 0 ¼ 0:1). the eﬀect of the ply-angle is more individualized for each of the considered setting angles than in the case of lower angular speeds. Moreover. In these numerical simulations the considered pretwist angle was b0 ¼ 30 deg. In Figs. . R Fig. Variation of the ﬁrst coupled ﬂapping-lagging natural frequency vs. where a lower angular speed was considered.. rad/s. for selected values of the rotational speed. 6–8. 2 and 3. there is displayed in succession the variation of the ﬁrst three natural frequencies.

/ International Journal of Solids and Structures 40 (2003) 1203–1224 1217 Fig. 6. The counterpart of Fig. 4. The counterpart of Fig. Fig. presetting angle for selected rotational speeds (h ¼ 0. First coupled ﬂapping-lagging natural frequency vs. 0 ¼ 0:1). 3 for X ¼ 400 rad/s. Fig. R .-Y. 2 for X ¼ 400 rad/s.S. b0 ¼ 30. Oh et al. 5.

b0 ¼ 30 deg. the setting angles c ¼ 0 and 90 deg. 0 ¼ 0:1). the pretwist is b0 ¼ 90 deg. As concerns the frequency variation with that of the setting angle. in the paper by Song et al. and for the ply-angles.. R Fig.b). For zero presetting angle. The results reveal that the diﬀerences between the frequencies corresponding to c ¼ 0 and 90 deg.. as a function of the pretwist angle. the ﬂappinglagging coupling is present also in the cases involving c ¼ 0 and h ¼ 0. coincides with that reported e. 11 and 12.. in succession.-Y. Second coupled frequency vs. b0 ¼ 30 deg. / International Journal of Solids and Structures 40 (2003) 1203–1224 0 ¼ 0:1). 7. for selected values of the setting angle it is displayed in succession the variation of the ﬁrst two natural frequencies. respectively. 8. In Figs.1218 S. h ¼ 0 and 45 deg. 9 and 10. This trend is consistent with that reported in the paper by Kumar .g. (2001a. tend to decay with the increase of the hub radius. Third coupled ﬂapping-lagging natural frequency vs. 11 and 12 there are displayed the implications of the hub radius. R In Figs.. Oh et al. the trend of variation of natural frequencies with that of the pretwist angle. Fig. this is consistent with the trend already indicated in the paper and with that supplied in Table 7. Due to the fact that in both cases. for the beam featuring. as considered in Figs. presetting angle for selected rotational speeds (h ¼ 0.. coupled with that of the rotating speed on the fundamental coupled ﬂapping-lagging natural frequency. presetting angle for selected rotational speeds (h ¼ 0.

pretwist angle for diﬀerent setting angles of the rotating beam (h ¼ 45 0 ¼ 0:1). Figs. the results associated to the same R0 reveal that the increase of the ply-angle tends to exacerbate the diﬀerence between the frequencies corresponding to c ¼ 0 and 90 deg. R Fig. respectively. / International Journal of Solids and Structures 40 (2003) 1203–1224 1219 Fig.-Y.. 13–15 further emphasize the considerable role that the tailoring technique can play toward the increase. without weight penalties. the ﬂapping mode is much stronger aﬀected by the setting angle/rotating speed. pretwist angle for diﬀerent setting angles of the rotating 0 ¼ 0:1). Oh et al. Such a role that renders the composite material systems overwhelmingly superior to the metallic structures. it clearly appears that. X ¼ 100 rad/s. are supplied. From these plots. trends that have already been outlined in the previously displayed numerical simulations.S. of the coupled ﬂapping-lagging natural frequencies of rotating beams. deserves well to be highlighted again in these graphs. . than the lagging mode. Finally. At the same time. R (1974). beam (h ¼ 45 deg. Variation of the second coupled natural frequency vs. in Figs. for selected values of the setting angle or of the rotating speed. In addition. X ¼ 100 rad/s. 16 and 17. 10. deg. these plots reveal a number of trends related to the implications of the setting angle on each mode frequency. 9.. the ﬁrst lagging and ﬁrst ﬂapping normalized mode shapes. Variation of the ﬁrst coupled ﬂapping-lagging natural frequency vs.

h ¼ 0).1220 S. 11. First coupled ﬂapping-lagging for selected ply-angles (b ¼ 0.-Y.. / International Journal of Solids and Structures 40 (2003) 1203–1224 Fig. 12. the rotational speed for diﬀerent hub radii and two setting angles ðb0 ¼ 90 deg. Fig. The counterpart of Fig. Fig. 13. R . Oh et al. 0 ¼ 0:1). 11 for the ply-angle h ¼ 45 deg. X ¼ 100 rad/s. Variation of the ﬁrst coupled ﬂapping-lagging natural frequency vs.

presetting angle for selected ply-angles (b ¼ 0. The developed structural beam model accounts for the eﬀects of the directionality of the ﬁbrous composite materials.-Y. and excellent agreements have been reached. and of the elastic couplings induced thereof. Conclusions A dynamic structural model of rotating TWBs encompassing a number of non-classical eﬀects was presented. and of the hub radius. transverse shear. coupled with the previously mentioned ones have been incorporated and their implications on free vibration have been revealed. 15. rotatory inertias. X ¼ 100 rad/s. / International Journal of Solids and Structures 40 (2003) 1203–1224 1221 0 ¼ 0:1). the eﬀects played by the pretwist and presetting angles. In addition. Comparisons of eigenfrequency predictions based on the developed model and the extended Galerkin solution methodology used in this paper with some available theoretical and experimental ones for rotating and non-rotating beams have been carried out. X ¼ 100 rad/s.S. R 8. Fig. presetting angle for selected ply-angles (b ¼ 0. R 0 ¼ 0:1). Fig. Second coupled ﬂapping-lagging natural frequency vs. Oh et al. 14. It is hoped that the results reported here will be helpful toward a better understanding of the implications of a number of non-classical eﬀects on natural frequencies of advanced rotating beams. Third coupled ﬂapping-lagging natural frequency vs. and toward the .

validation of the ﬁnite element and of other approximate methods that are used in the context of the dynamics of rotating beams. 16. . Fig. Achievements in Composites in Japan and United States. 687–694. 24–27 June. In: Kobayashi. (a) Counterpart of Fig. 1989. 16b for the ﬁrst ﬂapping mode shape in coupled ﬂapping-lagging motion. pp. 17.. The coupled natural frequencies ðx1 Þ (rad/s) associated with the setting angles are indicated in the inset. (Ed..R. Vibration of composite thin-walled beams with designed-in elastic couplings. R i (b) Variation of the ﬁrst lagging mode shape in coupled ﬂapping-lagging for various rotational speeds ðXÞi (rad/s) (b ¼ 0. A. Oh et al. R i i indicated in the inset. (b) Counterpart of Fig. Japan. (a) Variation of the ﬁrst lagging mode shape in the coupled ﬂapping-lagging for various setting angles (b ¼ 0.W. h ¼ 45 deg.1222 S. L. X ¼ 400 rad/s.-Y. References Atilgan.). / International Journal of Solids and Structures 40 (2003) 1203–1224 Fig. 0 ¼ 0:1).. Fifth Japan–US Conference on Composite Materials. 16a for the ﬁrst ﬂapping mode shape in coupled ﬂapping-lagging motion. The coupled natural frequencies ðx1 Þ (rad/s) associated with the rotational speeds ðXÞ (rad/s) are 45 deg.. A.. h ¼ 45 deg. Tokyo. Rehﬁeld. c ¼ 0 ¼ 0:1).

.. Engrs. Song.. D... Structural and dynamic behavior of pretwisted rods and beams. 1981. 358–369. Journal of the American Helicopter Society 36 (3).T. Composite Structures 56. R. 1999..J. Lin.. Lo.W. B. O. Z. Rao. Chopra.Y. Proceedings of the First US National Congress of Applied Mechanics.. Dawson..C.S. S. R... Netherlands. 107.. 1987. R. Use of twisted principal coordinates and non-physical coordinates in blade analysis. 94-WA/ARM-8. London 173. Kumar. Trans.. The eﬀects of shear deformation and rotary inertia on the lateral frequencies of cantilever beams in bending. Applied Mechanics Reviews.H. International Journal of Mechancial Sciences 23 (9). Static and dynamic validation of a reﬁned thin-walled composite beam model. 175–185.. Bending vibration of rotating nonuniform timoshenko beams with an elastically restrained root.T. Z. 1972. Coupled bending–bending vibrations of pretwisted blading allowing for shear deformation and rotary inertia by the Reissner method. L. ASME (February). Qin. Rehﬁeld. Lee. L. O. Natural frequencies of radially rotating beams. J. O. 1991.... 483–515..L. Structural modeling and free vibration analysis of rotating composite thin-walled beams. L... H. H.A. Journal of Aircraft 29 (3). Journal of Engineering for Industry. V.R. Putter.. I.. Mathew. Experimental-theoretical investigation of the vibration characteristics of rotating composite box beams. 1959. AIAA Journal 39 (2). 1993. Kunz. 561–565.. 1978. L.. 381. Survey and comparison of engineering beam theories for helicopter rotor blades. Assessment of composite rotor blade: modeling techniques. 345–358. 36–47.R.. 365–379. Hodges. Nagaraj.. O. Hodges. 169–197. Rao. Rutkowski. 1968. Hodges. Librescu. Journal of Sound and Vibration 77. 7. Reﬁned structural dynamics model for composite rotor blades.. D. B. Song. 1962. 1975. L. Librescu.-Y. Atilgan. Journal of the American Helicopter Society 35 (2). 267–278.. Chopra. Meirovitch. AIAA Journal 39 (2). Journal of the American Helicopter Society 42 (4). 255–279.. S. AIAA Journal 35 (8). Part 1 44 (12). 2001a. Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science 10. Coupled bending vibrations of pretwisted cantilever blading treated by Rayleigh–Ritz method. Free vibration analysis of a twisted beam using the dynamic stiﬀness method. NY. M. S. Librescu.G. 1994. S. Slyper. Dynamic of pretwisted rotating thin-walled beams operating in a temperature environment.. S-Y. 2001. Rosen. Manor.. Noordhoﬀ International Publishing. Proc. 517–530. ASME. Coupled bending vibration of pretwisted cantilever beams. Modeling and dynamic behavior of rotating blades carrying a tip mass and incorporating adaptive capabilities. Free-vibration analysis of rotating beams by a variable-order ﬁnite element method.. Song. K.. Formulation and evaluation of an analytical model for composite box-beams. J. Subrahmanyam. S. S. Inst. Chopra. Hodges... Librescu. Rosen... 2002. D. Journal of Sound and Vibrations 56 (2). Acta Mechanica 134. 2422–2424. E.. Nonclassical behavior of thin-walled composite beams with closed cross sections. Trans. Song. Oh. 339–348. 1981. Librescu. 560–598.H.. 1991. W. Review of composite rotor blade modeling. 1974. AIAA Journal 19..M. S. AIAA Jounral 39 (12). A.... L. 1977. 541–572. 1992. 1999. L. Journal of the American Helicopter Society 44 (3). On a shear-deformable theory of anisotropic thin-walled beams: further contribution and validations..H.. 1981. 657–664. 1459–1466. Librescu. Librescu.. I. Vibration of space booms under centrifugal force ﬁeld. 11–18. L. AIAA Journal 28. D. V. Librescu. 42–51. Paper no.N. Journal of Sound and Vibration 167 (1). Vibration of pretwisted adaptive rotating blades modeled as anisotropic thin-walled beams. Free vibration of anisotropic composite thin-walled beams of closed cross-section contour. Thomas. Kulkarni.N. W. Oh. 2001b. 1990. International Journal of Solids Structures 38. New York. O.. / International Journal of Solids and Structures 40 (2003) 1203–1224 1223 Banerjee.. 1–5. J.. J. Control of cantilevers vibration via structural tailoring and adaptive materials. Coupled vibrations of turbomachine blades. 6703–6722. Oh et al. J. An approximation formula for the fundamental frequency of a uniform rotating beam clamped oﬀ the axis of rotation. Mech. Librescu. Bending vibrations of a rotating beam. Leyden. A. 75–79.. Shock Vibration Bulletin 47.S. Chandra.. Loewy. Smith. Chopra. Vertica 11. 473–479. L. Renbarger. S. L.S. Elastostatics and Kinetics of Anisotropic and Heterogeneous Shell-type Structures. Journal of Thermal Stresses 24 (3). Carnegie. Qin.B.S. Journal Mechanical Engineering Sciences 4 (4). 343. D.. 1990. L. Journal of Applied Mechanics. Nagaraj.H. 1997. 1997. Jung.L. 129–147..-Y. Canadian Aeronautics and Space Institute (CASI) Trans. 1952. 2001.. Journal of Aircraft 31 (3). 188–205. . Vibrations of pre-twisted cantilever blading. 1996. I... H. 2001.. I. 285–295. Jung... Carnegie.V. 1309–1315. Na. A. Song.

Cesnik... V. O. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 30 (10).E. Mahrenholtz. 1099–1112. Wang.V.. 743–755. Mathematical and Computer Modelling 33 (10–11). C. € hm.H.S. T.. Free vibration characteristics of rotating Timoshenko beams. 1976. 1988. 2001. 341–356.. Assessment of beam modeling methods for rotor blade applications. Hodges. D. B. ... Extended GalerkinÕs method for rotating beam vibrations using Legendre polynomials. Oh et al. Yokoyama.-Y. Popescu. / International Journal of Solids and Structures 40 (2003) 1203–1224 Volovoi. Bo Solid Mechanics Archives 1.1224 S.T.S. J.

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