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Nonlinear Vibration Analysis of Simply Supported
Stiffened Plate by a Variational Method
Anirban Mitra
a
, Prasanta Sahoo
a
& Kashinath Saha
a
a
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India
Accepted author version posted online: 24 May 2012.Published online: 05 Mar 2013.
To cite this article: Anirban Mitra , Prasanta Sahoo & Kashinath Saha (2013): Nonlinear Vibration Analysis of Simply Supported
Stiffened Plate by a Variational Method, Mechanics of Advanced Materials and Structures, 20:5, 373396
To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15376494.2011.627640
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Mechanics of Advanced Materials and Structures (2013) 20, 373–396
Copyright C Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
ISSN: 15376494 print / 15376532 online
DOI: 10.1080/15376494.2011.627640
Nonlinear Vibration Analysis of Simply Supported Stiffened
Plate by a Variational Method
ANIRBAN MITRA, PRASANTA SAHOO, and KASHINATH SAHA
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India
Received 28 July 2010; accepted 4 April 2011.
Largeamplitude free vibration analysis of uniaxially single stiffened rectangular plates subjected to transverse loading with simply
supported boundary conditions has been presented. The mathematical formulation is based on energy principle. Geometric nonlin
earity is accounted for by consideration of nonlinear straindisplacement relations. The static problem is solved through an iterative
scheme and the dynamic problem is solved with the static displacement ﬁeld as an initial guess. Inﬂuence of stiffener position, plate
aspect ratio, and stiffener to plate thickness ratio on the large amplitude dynamic behavior has been studied. The dynamic behavior
has been furnished in the form of backbone curves in a dimensionless frequencyamplitude plane.
Keywords: stiffened plate, nonlinear vibration, geometric nonlinearity, energy methods, backbone curves
Nomenclature
a length of the plate
b width of the plate
b
s
width of the stiffener
{d} vector of unknown coefﬁcients
D ﬂexural rigidity of the plate
e distance between the centroidal axis of the
plate and stiffener
E
p
elastic modulus of the plate material
E
s
elastic modulus of the stiffener material
{f } load vector
[K] stiffness matrix
[K
b
] stiffness matrix due to bending
[K
m
] stiffness matrix due to stretching
[K
sx
]
p
, [K
sy
]
q
stiffness matrices of the pth stiffener
along xdirection and qth stiffener along y
direction, respectively
[M] mass matrix
[M
p
] mass matrix for plate
[M
sx
], [M
sy
] mass matrix for x and ydirection stiffeners
nw, nu, nv number of constituent functions for w, u, and
v, respectively
p uniformly distributed transverse load
P concentrated transverse load
t
p
thickness of the plate
t
s
thickness of the stiffener
T total kinetic energy of the system
T
p
kinetic energy of the plate
Address correspondence to Prasanta Sahoo, Department of Me
chanical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Raja S C Mullik
Road, Kolkata 700032, India. Email: psjume@gmail.com
T
s
total kinetic energy of the stiffeners
T
p
sx
, T
q
sy
kinetic energy of the pth stiffener along x
direction and qth stiffener along ydirection,
respectively
u displacement along xdirection
U total strain energy of the system
U
b
strain energy due to bending of the plate
U
m
strain energy due to stretching of the plate
U
p
strain energy of the plate
U
s
strain energy of the stiffeners
U
p
sx
, U
q
sy
strain energy of the pth stiffener along x
direction and qth stiffener along ydirection,
respectively
v displacement along ydirection
V work potential
w transverse displacement
␣
i
set of functions deﬁning approximate displace
ment ﬁeld u

i
set of functions deﬁning approximate displace
ment ﬁeld v
␦ variational operator
ε predeﬁned value of error limit for the iteration
scheme
i
set of functions deﬁning approximate displace
ment ﬁeld w
␥
i
set of temporal functions
normalized coordinates in ydirection
relaxation parameter
total energy of the system
p
density of the plate material
s
density of the stiffener material
time coordinate
Poisson’s ratio
natural frequency of the system
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374 A. Mitra et al.
1
ﬁrst linear natural frequency
nl
nonlinear frequency
normalized coordinates in xdirection
1. Introduction
Large amplitude dynamic behavior of various structural ele
ments differs signiﬁcantly from its linear behavior. This is due
to the fact that the stiffness of a deformed structure changes
appreciably due to the effect of geometric nonlinearity. So, in
the case of the loaded natural frequencies, the behavior is also
signiﬁcantly different from the linear counterparts. This leads
to the inference that linear free vibration analysis, carried
out to predict the dynamic response of a system, is not suf
ﬁcient to estimate the large amplitude vibration frequencies.
In the present article, the study of the large deformation free
vibration analysis of stiffened plates is presented. Stiffened
plates have wide applications in many branches of modern
civil, mechanical, and aerospace engineering. They are fre
quently used to construct marine structures, such as ﬂoors of
bridges, bridge decks, ship hulls, etc., and aircraft structures.
Research work on dynamic behavior of stiffened plates
has gone through different phases and the evolution pro
cess can be traced back with the help of review works of
Mukherjee and Mukhopadhyay [1], Mukhopadhyay and
Mukherjee [2], and Bedair [3]. Nonlinear analysis of stiffened
plates has been carried out by different researchers through
different techniques and methodologies. One of the earlier
studies on vibration of such plates was taken up by Wah [4]. He
used the orthotropic plate approach to evaluate the vibration
characteristics of beamplate systems. The natural frequencies
of the ﬁrst symmetric and ﬁrst antisymmetric modes of a sim
ply supported rectangular plate were determined by Kirk [5].
Pratap and Varadan [6] dealt with the large amplitude, free
ﬂexural vibrations of clamped and simply supported stiffened
plates with two different inplane edge conditions—movable
and immovable. The solutions were obtained on the basis of a
single termvibration mode shape by making use of Galerkin’s
method. Varadan and Pandalai [7] investigated large ampli
tude free ﬂexural vibrations of eccentrically stiffened elastic
rectangular plates with clamped boundary conditions and
movable inplane edge conditions. They observed hardening
type nonlinearity for the system. A free vibration character
istic of rectangular stiffened plates having a single stiffener
was examined by using the ﬁnite difference method by Aksu
and Ali [8]. Using a variational technique, they minimized the
total energy of the stiffened plate with respect to discretized
displacement components and obtained natural frequencies
and mode shapes as the solutions of a linear algebraic eigen
value problem. Aksu [9] later included the effect of inplane
inertia into free vibration analysis of stiffened plates. Koko
and Olson [10] developed a new numerical technique for large
deﬂection elastoplastic analysis of stiffened plates using super
ﬁnite elements. They also carried out free vibration analy
sis of rectangular plates [11] with discrete stiffener utilizing
the super elements and including the effects of bending and
inplane effects as well as beam torsion and lateral bending
motion. Harik and Guo [12] put forward a compound ﬁnite
element model to investigate free vibration of eccentrically
stiffened plates. Chen et al. [13] presented a spline compound
strip method for analyzing the free vibration problem of stiff
ened plates. Vibration and stability analysis of stiffened plates
through a semianalytical ﬁnite difference method was per
formed by Mukhopadhyay [14, 15] with and without con
sidering the effects of axial displacements. Mukherjee and
Mukhopadhyay [16] introduced an isoparametric quadratic
stiffened plate bending element for the free vibration analysis
of eccentrically stiffened plates. They included the effect of
shear deformation in the formulation and studied the effects
of eccentricity, shape, and torsional stiffness on the natural
frequencies of the system. Bedair and Troitsky [17] studied
the fundamental frequency characteristics of eccentrically and
concentrically stiffened simply supported plates on the basis
of energy formulation and mathematical programming tech
nique. Bedair [18] also presented a methodology for deter
mination of the lowest natural frequency of stiffened plates,
where the nonlinear strain energy function was transformed
into an unconstrained optimization problem and sequential
quadratic programming was used to achieve the solution. Ge
ometric nonlinear analysis of stiffened plates was done by
Sheikh and Mukhopadhyay [19] utilizing the spline ﬁnite strip
method and von Karman nonlinear plate theory. The same au
thors, in an earlier work, had undertaken free vibration anal
ysis of eccentrically and concentrically stiffened plates having
arbitrary shapes [20]. More recently, Peng et al. [21] analyzed
stability and free vibration problem of stiffened plates via the
ﬁrstorder shear deformation theory and meshfree Galerkin
method. Sapountzakis andMokos [22] developedanimproved
model presenting a general solution for the dynamic analysis
of plates stiffened by arbitrarily placed parallel beams. Asemi
analytical solution method based on the statevector equation
theory for free vibration analysis of stiffened laminated plates
was introduced by Qing et al. [23]. Dozio and Ricciardi [24]
proposed a combined analyticalnumerical method for pre
diction of modal characteristics of rectangular plates rein
forced by a small number of light stiffeners. They used the
assumed modes method to formulate the equations of motion
of the plate and ribs separately and obtained the equations
for the builtup structure by enforcing appropriate continuity
conditions at the interface. Xu et al. [25] introduced an an
alytical method for the vibration analysis of plates stiffened
by any number of beams of arbitrary lengths and placement
angles considering coupling at an interface of the plate and
beam.
A review of the literature indicates that studies are pri
marily focused on the free vibration problem, and quite a few
different techniques have been used to determine the natural
frequencies and their corresponding mode shapes. However,
the emphasis is mainly on developing different methodologies
to obtain the natural frequencies compared to studying the
variations in the dynamic behavior corresponding to changes
in system geometry and boundary conditions. It is also noted
that, works on large amplitude dynamic behavior, speciﬁcally
variation of loaded natural frequency with amplitude are
quite limited. The present study deals with large amplitude
dynamic behavior of stiffened plates and looks into amplitude
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Nonlinear Vibration Analysis of Stiffened Plates 375
dependency of the loaded natural frequency. The nature of
change in the mode shape with increase in vibration amplitude
is also investigated. The effect of variation of systemgeometry
(namely, stiffener position, plate aspect ratio, and stiffener
to plate thickness ratio) on the said dynamic behavior is
studied. The present article documents the large amplitude
frequency parameters for the ﬁrst six vibration modes of
a thin, isotropic stiffened plate with a single stiffener for
simply supported bending boundary conditions and immov
able membrane boundary conditions. The present analysis
employs an energy approach to arrive at the appropriate
governing equations. The formulation is displacement based
and the unknown displacement ﬁelds are approximated by
ﬁnite linear combination of admissible orthogonal functions.
It should be mentioned here that the present semianalytical
formulation is associated with the whole domain, which
implies that the assumed displacement ﬁelds are a function of
the whole physical domain. However, a domain decomposi
tion technique, which divides the computational domain into
subdomains according to the location of the stiffener, is used
to ensure an adequate number of computation points around
the location of the stiffener and boundaries of the plate so
that the displacement ﬁeld can be captured accurately. The
results are furnished in the form of a graphical representation
of the large amplitude behavior, shown through backbone
curves in the dimensionless amplitudefrequency plane. The
vibration mode shapes are also provided corresponding to
the minimum and maximum amplitudes of vibration.
2. Analysis
Astiffened plate with a single stiffener parallel to yaxis along
with the notations for signiﬁcant dimensions and coordinate
system used for the present analysis is shown in Figure 1. It
is assumed that the stiffeners are always parallel to the edges
of the plate and they are rigidly connected to the plate. The
mathematical formulation is further based on the following
assumptions:
1. Plate and stiffener materials are isotropic, homogeneous,
and linearly elastic.
2. Thicknesses of the plate and stiffener are uniform.
3. The thickness of the plate is sufﬁciently small compared to
the lateral dimensions, such that the effect of shear defor
mation and rotary inertia may be neglected.
It is known that for nonlinear vibration, an increase in
amplitude of vibration changes the dynamic behavior of the
system. However, the maximum deﬂection is not the only in
ﬂuencing parameter as the dynamic behavior is also dependent
on the nature of the deﬂected proﬁle, which again is a func
tion of the boundary conditions of the plate and the type of
loading to which the plate is subjected. It can be said that
a change in amplitude or the deﬂection proﬁle correspond
to a change in strain energy stored in the system and conse
quently a change in the stiffness of the systemand its dynamic
behavior. The present large amplitude vibration problem is
analyzed in two steps. The static problem corresponding to
Fig. 1. Schematic drawing of a stiffened plate with notations for
signiﬁcant dimensions and coordinate system.
a transverse loading is solved ﬁrst and subsequently the dy
namic problemis taken up with the known displacement ﬁeld.
The mathematical formulation is based on variational form
of energy principle. Geometric nonlinearity is accounted for
by consideration of nonlinear straindisplacement relations.
Appropriate start functions are assumed and the necessary
higherorder constitutive functions are formed by following
the twodimensional GramSchmidt orthogonalization proce
dure, thus making the solution space complete. To predict the
largeamplitude vibration frequency of the stiffened plate, ﬁrst
a static analysis is carried out and then knowing the deformed
shape, an eigenvalue problem is formulated corresponding
to the system stiffness to determine the loaded natural fre
quency. The static problemis solved by employing an iterative
method with an appropriate relaxation technique. As the solu
tion of the dynamic problem is obtained through the solution
of the static displacement ﬁeld, the effect of statically imposed
large amplitude of vibration is incorporated into the dynamic
system.
2.1. Static Analysis
From the principle of minimum total potential energy of the
system,
␦() = 0, (1)
where
= U + V = total potential energy of the system;
U = U
p
+U
s
= total strain energy stored in the system, i.e.,
of plate and stiffener;
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376 A. Mitra et al.
V = work function or potential of the external forces;
␦ = variational operator.
In the case of large displacement analysis of plates, both
bending and stretching effects are taken into consideration.
Thus, total strain energy stored in plate (U
p
) is given by U
p
=
U
b
+U
m
, where U
b
is the strain energy due to pure bending
and U
m
is the strain energy due to stretching of its middle
surface. The expressions of U
b
and U
m
have been mentioned
in an earlier study [26] for rectangular plates and are indicated
here once again.
U
b
=
D
2
(ab)
_
1
0
_
1
0
_
_
1
a
2
_
∂
2
w
∂
2
_
+
1
b
2
_
∂
2
w
∂
2
__
2
+2
× (1− )
1
a
2
b
2
_
_
∂
2
w
∂∂
_
2
−
_
∂
2
w
∂
2
__
∂
2
w
∂
2
_
__
dd,
(2)
U
m
=
E
p
t
p
2(1 −
2
)
(ab)
_
1
0
_
1
0
_
1
a
2
_
∂u
∂
_
2
+
1
a
3
_
∂u
∂
__
∂w
∂
_
2
+
1
b
2
_
∂v
∂
_
2
+
1
b
3
_
∂v
∂
__
∂w
∂
_
2
+
1
4
_
1
a
2
_
∂w
∂
_
2
+
1
b
2
_
∂w
∂
_
2
_
2
+2
_
1
ab
_
∂u
∂
__
∂v
∂
_
+
1
2a
2
b
_
∂v
∂
__
∂w
∂
_
2
+
1
2ab
2
_
∂u
∂
__
∂w
∂
_
2
_
+
1 −
2
_
1
b
2
_
∂u
∂
_
2
+
2
ab
_
∂u
∂
__
∂v
∂
_
+
1
a
2
_
∂v
∂
_
2
+
2
ab
2
_
∂u
∂
__
∂w
∂
__
∂w
∂
_
+
2
a
2
b
_
∂v
∂
__
∂w
∂
__
∂w
∂
_
__
dd, (3)
where E
p
, , and D(= E
p
t
3
p
/12(1 −
2
)) are the elastic mod
ulus, Poisson’s ratio, and the ﬂexural rigidity of the plate, re
spectively. u, v, and w denote the displacements along x, y,
and zdirections, respectively.
U
s
is the total strain energy stored in all the stiffeners and
can be expressed as U
s
=
ns
x
p=1
U
p
sx
+
ns
y
q=1
U
q
sy
, where U
p
sx
,
U
q
sy
are strain energies stored in the pth stiffener along x
direction and qth stiffener along ydirection.
U
p
sx
=
E
s
2
___
Vol
_
ε
s
xx
_
2
dV, (4a)
U
q
sy
=
E
s
2
___
Vol
_
ε
s
yy
_
2
dV, (4b)
where ε
s
xx
is the total axial strainof a stiffener along xdirection
andit includes axial straindue tobendingabout the major axis,
axial strain due to stretching of midplane, and axial strain due
to bending about the minor axis and can be expressed as:
ε
s
xx
=
du
dx
+
1
2
_
dw
dx
_
2
− z
s
d
2
w
dx
2
− y
s
d
2
v
dx
2
. (5)
Substituting Eq. (5) in (4a) and utilizing the following rela
tions:
__
Area
z
2
dA = I
y
,
__
Area
y
2
dA = I
z
,
__
Area
yz dA = 0,
__
Area
z dA = Q,
__
Area
y dA = 0,
__
Area
dA = A,
the strain energy stored in a single stiffener is obtained as:
U
p
sx
=
E
s
a
2
_
1
0
_
I
p
y
1
a
4
_
d
2
w
d
2
_
2
+ I
p
yz
1
a
4
_
d
2
v
d
2
_
2
− Q
p
y
_
2
a
3
_
du
d
__
d
2
w
d
2
_
+
1
a
4
_
d
2
w
d
2
__
dw
d
_
2
_
+ A
p
y
_
1
a
2
_
du
d
_
2
+
1
4a
4
_
dw
d
_
4
+
1
a
3
_
du
d
__
dw
d
_
2
__
d. (6)
Similarly,
U
q
sy
=
E
s
b
2
_
1
0
_
I
q
x
1
b
4
_
d
2
w
d
2
_
2
+ I
q
xz
1
b
4
_
d
2
u
d
2
_
2
− Q
q
x
_
2
b
3
_
dv
d
__
d
2
w
d
2
_
+
1
b
4
_
d
2
w
d
2
__
dw
d
_
2
_
+ A
q
x
_
1
b
2
_
dv
d
_
2
+
1
4b
4
_
dw
d
_
4
+
1
b
3
_
dv
d
__
dw
d
_
2
__
d, (7)
where E
s
is the elastic modulus of the stiffener material. I
p
y
, I
q
x
and I
p
yz
, I
q
xz
are moment of inertia of the pth (xdirection)
and qth (ydirection) stiffener crosssection about the co
ordinate axes of the plate. They can be determined by car
rying out suitable transformation on the moment of inertia
about the centroidal axes of the stiffener crosssection. For
example, in case of a single ydirection stiffener as shown
in Figure 1, I
1
x
and I
1
xz
are determined by using the follow
ing relations: I
1
x
= I
1
x
+ A
x
.e
2
, I
1
xz
= I
1
xz
+ A
x
.(a
1
stf
)
2
, where
I
1
x
(= b
s
t
3
s
/12) and I
xz
(= b
3
s
t
s
/12) are moment of inertia about
the major and minor axis of the stiffener crosssection and
A
x
= b
s
t
s
,
stf
= x
stf
/a, ande = (t
p
+t
s
)/2. Q
p
y
, Q
q
x
are the ﬁrst
moment of area about the plate coordinate axes and A
p
y
, A
q
x
are the crosssectional areas of the pth xdirection and qth y
direction stiffeners, respectively. Q
x
= A
x
.e for the case of the
uniaxially stiffened plate shown in Figure 1. Similar nomen
clatures have been used for xdirectional stiffeners also.
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Nonlinear Vibration Analysis of Stiffened Plates 377
In the case of a stiffened plate under uniform transverse
pressure ( p) and a concentrated load (P), total potential en
ergy is given by:
V = −Pw
,
−(ab)
_
1
0
_
1
0
( pw)dd, (8)
where w
,
is the deﬂection of the point of application of
the concentrated load. In Eqs. (2), (3), (6), (7), and (8), the
midplane coordinates are expressed in dimensionless form
as =
x
a
, =
y
b
, while the dimensions of all other physical
quantities, such as load, deﬂection, elastic modulus, etc., are
retained as such.
2.1.1. Approximate Displacement Fields
The displacement ﬁelds w, u, and v are expressed by linear
combinations of unknown parameters d
i
as follows:
w(, ) =
nw
i =1
d
i
i
(, ),
u(, ) =
nw+nu
i =nw+1
d
i
␣
i −nw
(, ),
v(, ) =
nw+nu+nv
i =nw+nu+1
d
i

i −nw−nu
(, ), (9)
where (, ), ␣(, ), and (, ) are sets of nw, nu, and
nv numbers of orthogonal functions for w, u, and v, respec
tively. Appropriate start functions for these orthogonal sets
are selected in such a way that they satisfy the ﬂexural and
membrane boundary conditions of the plate. The functions
(, ) describe the displacements due to plate bending and
the base function for this comes from the ﬂexural boundary
condition. The start functions for stretching of the plate (u
and v) come from the inplane boundary conditions, and zero
displacement is assumed at the boundary edges, i.e., u = 0 at
= 0, 1 and v = 0 at = 0, 1. The higherorder functions are
generated from the selected start functions following a two
dimensional implementation of the GramSchmidt orthogo
nalization scheme.
The displacement ﬁelds depicted in Eq. (9) are two dimen
sional and compatible with the plate. But the stiffeners are a
onedimensional element and the displacements at the junc
tion of the plate and the stiffener are always equal. Hence,
to obtain the displacement ﬁelds of the stiffeners, an interpo
lation function is used on the twodimensional displacement
function of the plate at the location of the stiffener. For exam
ple, in the case of the stiffener shown in Figure 1, the transverse
displacement function is given by w(, )
stf
= w(
stf
, ).
2.1.2. Governing System of Equations
Substituting Eqs. (2), (3), (6), (7), (8), and (9) in (1) gives the
governing set of equations in matrix form:
[K]{d} = { f }, (10)
where [K] = [K
b
] +[K
m
] +
ns
x
p=1
[K
sx
]
p
+
ns
y
q=1
[K
sy
]
q
is the
total stiffness matrix, [K
b
] and [K
m
] being the contributions
frombending andstretching actionof the plate, whereas [K
sx
]
p
and [K
sy
]
q
are stiffness matrices of the pth stiffener along x
direction and qth stiffener along ydirection, respectively. { f }
represents the load vector and {d} is the vector of unknown
coefﬁcients. Both these vectors and the total stiffness matrix
have an order of (nw + nu + nv). The details of the stiffness
matrices are as follows.
The form of [K
b
] is given by:
[K
b
] =
⎡
⎢
⎢
⎣
k
b
11
k
b
12
k
b
13
k
b
21
k
b
22
k
b
23
k
b
31
k
b
32
k
b
33
⎤
⎥
⎥
⎦
,
where
_
k
b
11
_
= D(ab)
nw
j =1
nw
i =1
_
1
0
_
1
0
__
1
a
4
_
∂
2
i
∂
2
__
∂
2
j
∂
2
_
+
1
b
4
_
∂
2
i
∂
2
__
∂
2
j
∂
2
_
+
1
a
2
b
2
_
∂
2
i
∂
2
__
∂
2
j
∂
2
_
+
1
a
2
b
2
_
∂
2
i
∂
2
__
∂
2
j
∂
2
__
−
(1 − )
a
2
b
2
__
∂
2
i
∂
2
__
∂
2
j
∂
2
_
+
_
∂
2
i
∂
2
__
∂
2
j
∂
2
_
− 2
_
∂
2
i
∂∂
__
∂
2
j
∂∂
___
dd
_
k
b
12
_
=
_
k
b
13
_
=
_
k
b
21
_
=
_
k
b
22
_
=
_
k
b
23
_
=
_
k
b
31
_
=
_
k
b
32
_
=
_
k
b
33
_
= 0.
The form of [K
m
] is given by:
[K
m
] =
⎡
⎢
⎣
k
m
11
k
m
12
k
m
13
k
m
21
k
m
22
k
m
23
k
m
31
k
m
32
k
m
33
⎤
⎥
⎦,
where
_
k
m
11
_
=
E
p
t
p
2(1−
2
)
(ab)
nw
j =1
nw
i =1
_
1
0
_
1
0
⎡
⎣
1
a
4
_
nw
i =1
d
i
∂
i
∂
_
2
∂
i
∂
∂
j
∂
+
1
b
4
_
nw
i =1
d
i
∂
i
∂
_
2
∂
i
∂
∂
j
∂
+
1
a
2
b
2
_
nw
i =1
d
i
∂
i
∂
_
2
∂
i
∂
∂
j
∂
+
1
a
2
b
2
_
nw
i =1
d
i
∂
i
∂
_
2
∂
i
∂
∂
j
∂
+
2
a
3
_
nw+nu
i =nw+1
d
i
∂␣
i −nw
∂
_
∂
i
∂
∂
j
∂
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d
b
y
[
N
a
t
i
o
n
a
l
I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e
o
f
T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y

R
o
u
r
k
e
l
a
]
a
t
0
4
:
4
6
2
1
J
u
n
e
2
0
1
3
378 A. Mitra et al.
+
2
b
3
_
nw+nu+nv
i =nw+nu+1
d
i
∂
i −nw−nu
∂
_
∂
i
∂
∂
j
∂
+
2
a
2
b
_
nw+nu+nv
i =nw+nu+1
d
i
∂
i −nw−nu
∂
_
∂
i
∂
∂
j
∂
+
2
ab
2
_
nw+nu
i =nw+1
d
i
∂␣
i −nw
∂
_
∂
i
∂
∂
j
∂
+
(1 − )
ab
2
__
nw+nu
i =nw+1
d
i
∂␣
i −nw
∂
_
∂
i
∂
∂
j
∂
+
_
nw+nu
i =nw+1
d
i
∂␣
i −nw
∂
_
∂
i
∂
∂
j
∂
_
+
(1 − )
a
2
b
__
nw+nu+nv
i =nw+nu+1
d
i
∂
i −nw−nu
∂
_
∂
i
∂
∂
j
∂
+
_
nw+nu+nv
i =nw+nu+1
d
i
∂
i −nw−nu
∂
_
∂
i
∂
∂
j
∂
_
⎤
⎦
dd
_
k
m
12
_
= [k
m
13
] = 0,
_
k
m
21
_
=
E
p
t
p
2(1 −
2
)
(ab)
nw+nu
j =nw+1
nw
i =1
_
1
0
_
1
0
_
1
a
3
_
nw
i =1
d
i
∂
i
∂
_
×
∂
i
∂
∂␣
j −nw
∂
+
ab
2
_
nw
i =1
d
i
∂
i
∂
_
∂
i
∂
∂␣
j −nw
∂
+
(1 − )
ab
2
_
nw
i =1
d
i
∂
i
∂
_
∂
i
∂
∂␣
j −nw
∂
_
dd,
_
k
m
22
_
=
E
p
t
p
2(1 −
2
)
(ab)
nw+nu
j =nw+1
nw+nu
i =nw+1
_
1
0
_
1
0
_
2
a
2
∂␣
i −nw
∂
×
∂␣
j −nw
∂
+
(1 − )
b
2
∂␣
i −nw
∂
∂␣
j −nw
∂
_
dd,
_
k
m
23
_
=
E
p
t
p
2(1 −
2
)
nw+nu
j =nw+1
nw+nu+nv
i =nw+nu+1
_
1
0
_
1
0
_
2
∂
i −nw−nu
∂
×
∂␣
j −nw
∂
+(1 − )
∂
i −nw−nu
∂
∂␣
j −nw
∂
_
dd,
_
k
m
31
_
=
E
p
t
p
2(1 −
2
)
(ab)
nw+nu+nv
j =nw+nu+1
nw
i =1
_
1
0
_
1
0
_
1
b
3
_
nw
i =1
d
i
∂
i
∂
_
×
∂
i
∂
∂
j −nw−nu
∂
+
a
2
b
_
nw
i =1
d
i
∂
i
∂
_
∂
i
∂
∂
j −nw−nu
∂
+
(1 − )
a
2
b
_
nw
i =1
d
i
∂
i
∂
_
∂
i
∂
∂
j −nw−nu
∂
_
dd,
_
k
m
32
_
=
E
p
t
p
2(1 −
2
)
nw+nu+nv
j =nw+nu+1
nw+nu
i =nw+1
_
1
0
_
1
0
_
2
∂␣
i −nw
∂
×
∂
j −nw−nu
∂
+(1 − )
∂␣
i −nw
∂
∂
j −nw−nu
∂
_
dd,
_
k
m
33
_
=
E
p
t
p
2(1 −
2
)
(ab)
nw+nu+nv
j =nw+nu+1
nw+nu+nv
i =nw+nu+1
×
_
1
0
_
1
0
_
2
b
2
∂
i −nw−nu
∂
∂
i −nw−nu
∂
+
(1 − )
a
2
∂
i −nw−nu
∂
∂
i −nw−nu
∂
_
dd.
The form of [K
sx
] is given by:
[K
sx
] =
⎡
⎢
⎣
k
sx
11
k
sx
12
k
sx
13
k
sx
21
k
sx
22
k
sx
23
k
sx
31
k
sx
32
k
sx
33
⎤
⎥
⎦,
where
_
k
sx
11
_
=
ns
x
p=1
⎡
⎣
E
s
a
2
nw
j =1
nw
i =1
_
1
0
⎧
⎨
⎩
I
p
y
2
a
4
∂
2
i
∂
2
∂
2
j
∂
2
− Q
p
y
2
a
4
_
nw
i =1
d
i
∂
i
∂
_
2
∂
2
i
∂
2
∂
j
∂
− Q
p
y
1
a
4
_
nw
i =1
d
i
∂
i
∂
_
∂
i
∂
∂
2
j
∂
2
+ A
p
y
1
a
4
_
nw
i =1
d
i
∂
i
∂
_
2
∂
i
∂
∂
j
∂
+ A
p
y
2
a
3
_
nw+nu
i =nw+1
d
i
∂␣
i −nw
∂
_
2
∂
i
∂
∂
j
∂
⎫
⎬
⎭
d
⎤
⎦
,
_
k
sx
12
_
=
ns
x
p=1
⎡
⎣
E
s
a
2
nw
j =1
nw+nu
i =nw+1
_
1
0
_
−Q
p
y
2
a
3
∂␣
i −nw
∂
∂
2
j
∂
2
_
d
⎤
⎦
,
_
k
sx
21
_
=
ns
x
p=1
⎡
⎣
E
s
a
2
nw+nu
j =nw+1
nw
i =1
_
1
0
_
− Q
p
y
2
a
3
∂
2
i
∂
2
∂␣
j −nw
∂
+ A
p
y
1
a
3
_
nw
i =1
d
i
∂
i
∂
_
∂
i
∂
∂␣
j −nw
∂
_
d
⎤
⎦
,
_
k
sx
22
_
=
ns
x
p=1
⎡
⎣
E
s
a
2
nw+nu
j =nw+1
nw+nu
i =nw+1
_
1
0
_
A
p
y
2
a
2
∂␣
i −nw
∂
∂␣
j −nw
∂
_
d
⎤
⎦
,
_
k
sx
33
_
=
ns
x
p=1
⎡
⎣
E
s
a
2
nw+nu+nv
j =nw+nu+1
nw+nu+nv
i =nw+nu+1
×
_
1
0
_
I
p
yz
2
a
4
∂
2

i −nw−nu
∂
2
∂
2

i −nw−nu
∂
2
_
d
⎤
⎦
,
_
k
sx
13
_
=
_
k
sx
23
_
=
_
k
sx
31
_
=
_
k
sx
32
_
= 0.
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d
b
y
[
N
a
t
i
o
n
a
l
I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e
o
f
T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y

R
o
u
r
k
e
l
a
]
a
t
0
4
:
4
6
2
1
J
u
n
e
2
0
1
3
Nonlinear Vibration Analysis of Stiffened Plates 379
The form of [K
sy
] is given by:
[K
sy
] =
⎡
⎢
⎣
k
sy
11
k
sy
12
k
sy
13
k
sy
21
k
sy
22
k
sy
23
k
sy
31
k
sy
32
k
sy
33
⎤
⎥
⎦,
where
_
k
sy
11
_
=
ns
y
q=1
⎡
⎣
E
s
b
2
nw
j =1
nw
i =1
_
1
0
⎧
⎨
⎩
I
q
x
2
b
4
∂
2
i
∂
2
∂
2
j
∂
2
−Q
q
x
2
b
4
_
nw
i =1
d
i
∂
i
∂
_
2
∂
2
i
∂
2
∂
j
∂
− Q
q
x
1
b
4
_
nw
i =1
d
i
∂
i
∂
_
∂
i
∂
∂
2
j
∂
2
+ A
q
x
1
b
4
_
nw
i =1
d
i
∂
i
∂
_
2
∂
i
∂
∂
j
∂
+ A
q
x
2
b
3
_
nw+nu+nv
i =nw+nu+1
d
i
∂
i −nw−nu
∂
_
2
∂
i
∂
∂
j
∂
⎫
⎬
⎭
d
⎤
⎦
,
_
k
sy
22
_
=
ns
y
q=1
⎡
⎣
E
s
b
2
nw+nu
j =nw+1
nw+nu
i =nw+1
_
1
0
_
I
q
xz
2
b
4
∂
2
␣
i −nw
∂
2
∂␣
2
j −nw
∂
2
_
d
⎤
⎦
,
_
k
sy
33
_
=
ns
y
q=1
⎡
⎣
E
s
b
2
nw+nu+nv
j =nw+nu+1
nw+nu+nv
i =nw+nu+1
×
_
1
0
_
A
q
x
2
b
2
∂
i −nw−nu
∂
∂
i −nw−nu
∂
_
d
⎤
⎦
,
_
k
sy
31
_
=
ns
y
q=1
⎡
⎣
E
s
b
2
nw+nu+nv
j =nw+nu+1
nw
i =1
_
1
0
_
−Q
q
x
2
b
3
∂
2
i
∂
2
∂
j −nw−nu
∂
+ A
q
x
1
b
3
_
nw
i =1
d
i
∂
i
∂
_
∂
i
∂
∂
j −nw−nu
∂
_
d
⎤
⎦
,
Fig. 2. Flowchart of solution methodology.
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d
b
y
[
N
a
t
i
o
n
a
l
I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e
o
f
T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y

R
o
u
r
k
e
l
a
]
a
t
0
4
:
4
6
2
1
J
u
n
e
2
0
1
3
380 A. Mitra et al.
_
k
sy
13
_
=
ns
y
q=1
⎡
⎣
E
s
b
2
nw
j =1
nw+nu+nv
i =nw+nu+1
×
_
1
0
_
−Q
q
x
2
b
3
∂
i −nw−nu
∂
∂
2
j
∂
2
_
d
⎤
⎦
,
_
k
sy
12
_
= [k
sy
21
] = [k
sy
23
] = [k
sy
32
] = 0.
The load vector { f } is of the form:
{ f } = { f
11
f
12
f
13
}
T
,
where
{ f
11
} =
nw
j =1
P
j

,
+ p(ab)
×
nw
j =1
_
1
0
_
1
0
j
dd and { f
12
} = { f
13
} = 0,
as inplane loading is absent. In the present analysis, re
sults are individually generated for a single concentrated
load ({ f
11
} =
nw
j =1
P
j

,
) and uniformly distributed load
({ f
11
} = p(ab)
nw
j =1
_
1
0
_
1
0
j
dd).
2.1.3. Solution Methodology for Static Displacement Field
The set of governing equations (Eq. (10)) is nonlinear as the
stiffness matrix ([K]) is a function of unknown coefﬁcients and
solved by a direct substitution technique using a successive
relaxation scheme. The solution technique for a particular
load step is elaborated through a ﬂowchart shown in Figure 2.
At the beginning of each loadstep, the values of the un
known coefﬁcients are assumed in order to evaluate the initial
stiffness matrix [K] and a set of new values of unknown co
efﬁcients are calculated from the expression {d} = [K]
−1
{ f }.
Calculated values are compared with the values obtained in
the previous iteration and if the difference is below a pre
deﬁned value of error limit (ε), it is assumed that the dis
placement ﬁeld has converged. Otherwise, the values of {d}
Fig. 3. Comparison of load deﬂection behavior of clamped stiffened plate at selective points.
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d
b
y
[
N
a
t
i
o
n
a
l
I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e
o
f
T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y

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o
u
r
k
e
l
a
]
a
t
0
4
:
4
6
2
1
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n
e
2
0
1
3
Nonlinear Vibration Analysis of Stiffened Plates 381
are modiﬁed with a relaxation parameter following a relation
given by {d} = {d}
old
+({d} −{d}
old
) and this is used as the
next approximation for the values of {d}. Once convergence is
achieved for a particular load step, an increment is given to the
load and the present solution of {d} serves as the initial guess.
2.2. Dynamic Analysis
The governing set of equations for the dynamic problem is
derived following Hamilton’s principle, which can be mathe
matically expressed as:
␦
__
2
1
(T −U − V) d
_
= ␦
__
2
1
(T −) d
_
= ␦
__
2
1
Ld
_
= 0, (11)
where L represents the Lagrangian and T, U, and V are the
total kinetic energy of the system, total strain energy stored
in the system, and work function or potential of the external
forces, respectively. For free vibration analysis, the potential
of the external forces (V) is reduced to zero. ␦ and denote
the variational operator and time coordinate, respectively. The
total kinetic energy is summation of plate kinetic energy (T
p
)
and stiffener kinetic energy (T
s
) and is expressed as T = T
p
+
T
s
, where T
s
=
ns
x
p=1
T
p
sx
+
ns
y
q=1
T
q
sy
.
T
p
=
1
2
p
t
p
(ab)
_
1
0
_
1
0
_
_
∂w
∂
_
2
+
_
∂u
∂
_
2
+
_
∂v
∂
_
2
_
dd,
(12a)
T
p
sx
=
1
2
s
t
s
(ab
s
)
_
1
0
_
_
∂w
∂
_
2
+
_
∂u
∂
_
2
+
_
∂v
∂
_
2
_
d, (12b)
T
q
sy
=
1
2
s
t
s
(bb
s
)
_
1
0
_
_
∂w
∂
_
2
+
_
∂u
∂
_
2
+
_
∂v
∂
_
2
_
d. (12c)
The dynamic displacements w(, , ), u(, , ), and
v(, , ) are assumed to be separable in space and time. They
are expressed as shown below:
w(, , ) =
nw
i =1
d
i
i
(, )␥
i
() ,
u (, , ) =
nw+nu
i =nw+1
d
i
␣
i −nw
(, )␥
i −nw
() ,
v (, , ) =
nw+nu+nv
i =nw+nu+1
d
i

i −nw−nu
(, )␥
i −nw−nu
(). (13)
Here, {d} is a new set of unknown parameters to be evaluated,
which forms the eigenvectors of the dynamic problem in
matrix form. Hence, it can be said that this vector indicates
the contribution of the individual space functions in a
particular vibration frequency mode. The space functions
are completely known from the static analysis and the set of
harmonic temporal functions is expressed by ␥
i
() = e
i
,
where is the natural frequency of the system. Substituting
the above dynamic displacements along with Eqs. (2), (3), (6),
(7), and (8) in Eq. (11), the governing differential equation of
the dynamic system can be written in matrix form:
−
2
[M] {d} +[K]{d} = 0, (14)
where [M] is the mass matrix made up of contributions from
the plate ([M
p
]) and the x and ydirection stiffeners ([M
sx
]
and [M
sy
]).
[M] = [M
p
] +[M
sx
] +[M
sy
].
The form of [M
p
] is given by:
[M
p
] =
⎡
⎢
⎣
M
p
11
0 0
0 M
p
22
0
0 0 M
p
33
⎤
⎥
⎦,
where
_
M
p
11
_
=
p
t
p
(ab)
nw
j =1
nw
i =1
_
1
0
_
1
0
i
j
dd,
_
M
p
22
_
=
p
t
p
(ab)
nw+nu
j =nw+1
nw+nu
i =nw+1
_
1
0
_
1
0
␣
i −nw
␣
j −nw
dd,
_
M
p
33
_
=
p
t
p
(ab)
nw+nu+nv
j =nw++nu1
nw+nu+nv
i =nw+nu+1
×
_
1
0
_
1
0

i −nw−nu

j −nw−nu
dd.
Fig. 4. Comparison of deﬂected proﬁle of simply supported
square stiffened plate under UDL.
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d
b
y
[
N
a
t
i
o
n
a
l
I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e
o
f
T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y

R
o
u
r
k
e
l
a
]
a
t
0
4
:
4
6
2
1
J
u
n
e
2
0
1
3
382 A. Mitra et al.
Fig. 5. Backbone curves for the SSSS stiffened plate under UDL for different stiffener position: (a)
stf
= 0.5, (b)
stf
= 0.4,
(c)
stf
= 0.3, and (d)
stf
= 0.25.
The form of [M
sx
] is given by:
[M
sx
] =
⎡
⎢
⎣
M
sx
11
0 0
0 M
sx
22
0
0 0 M
sx
33
⎤
⎥
⎦,
where
_
M
sx
11
_
=
ns
x
p=1
⎡
⎣
s
t
s
(ab
s
)
nw
j =1
nw
i =1
_
1
0
i
j
d
⎤
⎦
,
_
M
sx
22
_
=
ns
x
p=1
⎡
⎣
s
t
s
(ab
s
)
nw+nu
j =nw+1
nw+nu
i =nw+1
_
1
0
␣
i −nw
␣
j −nw
d
⎤
⎦
,
_
M
sx
33
_
=
ns
x
p=1
⎡
⎣
s
t
s
(ab
s
)
nw+nu+nv
j =nw+nu+1
nw+nu+nv
i =nw+nu+1
×
_
1
0

i −nw−nu

j −nw−nu
d
⎤
⎦
.
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d
b
y
[
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a
t
i
o
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a
l
I
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s
t
i
t
u
t
e
o
f
T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y

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o
u
r
k
e
l
a
]
a
t
0
4
:
4
6
2
1
J
u
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2
0
1
3
Nonlinear Vibration Analysis of Stiffened Plates 383
Fig. 6. Backbone curves for the SSSS stiffened plate under concentrated load for different stiffener position: (a)
stf
= 0.5, (b)
stf
= 0.4,
(c)
stf
= 0.3, and (d)
stf
= 0.25.
The form of [M
sy
] is given by:
[M
sy
] =
⎡
⎢
⎣
M
sy
11
0 0
0 M
sy
22
0
0 0 M
sy
33
⎤
⎥
⎦,
where
_
M
sy
11
_
=
ns
y
q=1
⎡
⎣
s
t
s
(bb
s
)
nw
j =1
nw
i =1
_
1
0
i
j
d
⎤
⎦
,
_
M
sy
22
_
=
ns
y
q=1
⎡
⎣
s
t
s
(bb
s
)
nw+nu
j =nw+1
nw+nu
i =nw+1
_
1
0
␣
i −nw
␣
j −nw
d
⎤
⎦
,
D
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n
l
o
a
d
e
d
b
y
[
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a
t
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o
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a
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s
t
i
t
u
t
e
o
f
T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y

R
o
u
r
k
e
l
a
]
a
t
0
4
:
4
6
2
1
J
u
n
e
2
0
1
3
384 A. Mitra et al.
_
M
sy
33
_
=
ns
y
q=1
⎡
⎣
s
t
s
(bb
s
)
nw+nu+nv
j =nw+nu+1
nw+nu+nv
i =nw+nu+1
×
_
1
0

i −nw−nu

j −nw−nu
d
⎤
⎦
.
The standard eigenvalue problem of Eq. (14) is solved numer
ically to calculate the natural frequencies (
i
) by using Inter
national Mathematics and Statistics Library (IMSL) routines.
3. Results and Discussion
The inﬂuence of stiffener position, plate aspect ratio (a/b),
and stiffener to plate thickness ratio (t
s
/t
p
) on the large deﬂec
tion dynamic behavior of stiffened plates is investigated in the
present study. The analysis is based on solving the static dis
placement of the stiffened plate and subsequently evaluating
the eigenvalues of the corresponding dynamic problem on the
basis of the known static displacement ﬁeld. The square roots
of these eigenvalues represent the free vibration frequencies
of the stiffened plate at that statically deﬂected conﬁguration.
The amplitude of free vibration is provided by the displace
ment ﬁelds associated with each of the eigenvalues. The eigen
vectors corresponding to the eigenvalues are also calculated
and through themthe mode shapes of the vibrating systemare
generated.
In order to keep the volume of the article within reasonable
limit, the results are generated for a plate stiffened with a single
stiffener and simply supported at all the boundaries (SSSS).
A centrally stiffened rectangular plate (Figure 3a) clamped
on all the edges is also analyzed for validation purpose. It
should be mentioned here that the formulation and solution
methodology are general in nature and can be applied for
any classical boundary condition. The start functions for the
deﬁnition of transverse deﬂection (w) come from the simply
supported ends and are given by
1
(, ) = sin(). sin().
The start functions for the stretching (u and v) come from
the membrane boundary conditions and they are modeled as
immovable by imposing zero inplane displacements. These
selected start functions are used to generate the higher order
functions with the help of twodimensional GramSchmidt
orthogonalization principle. The number of functions for
each of the plate displacements (u, v, and w) is taken as 25
(5 × 5), where numbers in the parentheses provide a break up
for the order of the functions corresponding totwoorthogonal
directions.
The solution methodology, especially adopted in the
present study for the nonlinear system, employs an iterative
numerical scheme using the technique of successive relaxation.
The tolerance value of the error limit (ε) for the numerical it
eration scheme is taken as 0.50%and the relaxation parameter
() is ﬁxed at 0.50. Two types of transverse loading condition,
namely, uniformly distributed load (UDL) and concentrated
load at the plate center ( = 0.5, = 0.5) have been consid
ered. The changes in dynamic behavior of the system due
to these two different types of loading are also noted. The
results are generated for the following material properties:
E
p
= E
s
=211 GPa,
p
=
s
=7830 kg/m
3
, and =0.30 (for
both plate and stiffener).
3.1. Validation Study
The results of the present analysis are validated through
comparison with those of various researchers covering dif
ferent aspects of the study. The results of the static analysis
(load–deﬂection curve) incorporating geometric nonlinearity
are compared with those of Sheikh and Mukhopadhyay [19],
Rao (taken from [19]), and Koko and Olson [10]. The de
tails of the geometry and dimensions (in mm) of the clamped
stiffened plate under transverse pressure loading are shown in
Figure 3a. The comparison plots for two different locations,
Aand B, on the plate (as shown by Figure 3a) are presented in
Figures 3b and 3c and a fairly good agreement is observed for
both of the cases. The deﬂected shape of a simply supported
square plate with one stiffener under uniformly distributed
load, given by Bedair [27], is compared with the same gener
ated by the present method and presented in Figure 4. The
nature of the deﬂected proﬁles is found to be identical and the
matching between the two sets of results is excellent.
The validation of the dynamic problemis provided by com
paring the free vibration frequencies of different modes at
no loading condition, i.e., linear case. First, the dimension
less free vibration frequency parameters (a
2
_
t
p
/D) of an
unstiffened square plate corresponding to linear analysis are
compared with Leissa [28]. For this particular case, the stiff
ener dimensions are taken as zero. The results for the ﬁrst
six modes are tabulated in Table 1 and fairly good agreement
is observed for all the cases. Second, in order to validate the
present formulation, the ﬁrst three linear frequencies (Hz) for
Fig. 7. Variation of dimensionless free vibration frequency pa
rameter for the ﬁrst mode with change in stiffener position.
D
o
w
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l
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a
d
e
d
b
y
[
N
a
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a
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s
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i
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u
t
e
o
f
T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y

R
o
u
r
k
e
l
a
]
a
t
0
4
:
4
6
2
1
J
u
n
e
2
0
1
3
Nonlinear Vibration Analysis of Stiffened Plates 385
Fig. 8. Mode shape plots for SSSS stiffened rectangular plate with stiffener position
stf
= 0.30 (corresponding to backbone curves in
Figure 5c) under UDL: (a) Mode 1, (b) Mode 2, (c) Mode 3, (d) Mode 4, (e) Mode 5, and (f) Mode 6.
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d
b
y
[
N
a
t
i
o
n
a
l
I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e
o
f
T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y

R
o
u
r
k
e
l
a
]
a
t
0
4
:
4
6
2
1
J
u
n
e
2
0
1
3
386 A. Mitra et al.
Fig. 8. (Continued).
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d
b
y
[
N
a
t
i
o
n
a
l
I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e
o
f
T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y

R
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r
k
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a
]
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0
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:
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1
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u
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e
2
0
1
3
Nonlinear Vibration Analysis of Stiffened Plates 387
Fig. 9. Backbone curves for the SSSS stiffened plate under UDL for different plate aspect ratio: (a) a/b = 0.75, (b) a/b = 1.0,
(c) a/b = 1.5, and (d) a/b = 2.0.
Table 1. Validation of the results for the ﬁrst six linear dimen
sionless frequency parameters for an unstiffened square plate
with all edges simply supported
Boundary Present Leissa Saha et al.
condition Mode study [28] [26]
SSSS 1 19.7387 19.743 19.743
2 49.3568 49.344 49.369
3 49.3570 49.344 49.369
4 78.9664 78.944 78.996
5 99.1518 98.687 99.282
6 99.1518 98.687 99.282
a simply supported rectangular plate with a centrally placed
eccentric stiffener have been compared with the corresponding
results presented by various authors in Table 2. It is observed
that the results of different researchers are at variance to some
extent. However, it is found that the present results are very
close to some of themand the slight variations may be ascribed
to the difference in the solution methodologies adopted.
3.2. LargeDeﬂection Dynamic Behavior: Stiffener Position
The large amplitude dynamic behavior of stiffened plates is
shown graphically as the backbone curves in the dimensionless
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d
b
y
[
N
a
t
i
o
n
a
l
I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e
o
f
T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y

R
o
u
r
k
e
l
a
]
a
t
0
4
:
4
6
2
1
J
u
n
e
2
0
1
3
388 A. Mitra et al.
Fig. 10. Backbone curves for the SSSS stiffened plate under concentrated load for different plate aspect ratio: (a) a/b = 0.75,
(b) a/b = 1.0, (c) a/b = 1.5, and (d) a/b = 2.0.
Table 2. Validation of the results for the ﬁrst three linear dimensional frequencies (in Hz) for a centrally stiffened rectangular plate
with all edges simply supported (plate dimensions: a = 0.60 m, b = 0.41 m, t
p
= 0.00633 m; stiffener dimensions: b
s
= 0.0127 m,
t
s
= 0.02222 m; stiffener position: x
stf
= 0.3 m, parallel to yaxis)
Mode Present study Aksu [9] Harik and Guo [12] Mukherjee and Mukhopadhyay [16] Bedair [18]
1 256.9694 254.94 253.59 257.05 256.20
2 266.3567 269.46 282.02 272.10 —
3 529.5827 511.64 513.50 524.70 —
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d
b
y
[
N
a
t
i
o
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a
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s
t
i
t
u
t
e
o
f
T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y

R
o
u
r
k
e
l
a
]
a
t
0
4
:
4
6
2
1
J
u
n
e
2
0
1
3
Nonlinear Vibration Analysis of Stiffened Plates 389
Fig. 11. Largedeﬂection dynamic behavior of SSSS stiffened plate (a/b = 1.0, t
s
/t
p
= 3.5, and
stf
= 0.50) for the two types of loading:
(a) Mode 1 and (b) Mode 2.
amplitudefrequency plane. The ratio of the maximum plate
deﬂection to plate thickness is taken as the dimensionless am
plitude (w
max
/t
p
), while the dimensionless frequency (
nl
/
1
)
is obtained by normalizing the nonlinear frequency (
nl
) with
the corresponding fundamental linear frequency (
1
). The
backbone curves are furnished for the ﬁrst six modes and the
maximumvalue of dimensionless amplitude (w
max
/t
p
) is taken
as 2.0 for all of the cases. The backbone curves for different
stiffener positions are shown in Figures 5a–5d and 6a–6d for
stiffener positions
stf
= 0.50, 0.40, 0.30, and 0.25 with a ﬁxed
value of aspect ratio (a/b) and thickness ratio (t
s
/t
p
). The
plate and stiffener dimensions are taken identical to the case
as mentioned in the caption of Table 2. Figures 5 and 6 cor
respond to uniformly distributed and concentrated loading,
respectively.
The general trend that can be obtained from any of the
backbone curves is that the free vibration frequency increases
as the deﬂection of the stiffened plate increases. The speciﬁc
reason for this trend can be attributed to the fact that
the plate stiffens with an increase in deﬂection due to the
effect of geometric nonlinearity, resulting in the increase in
nonlinear frequency. The phenomenon of mode switching
has been observed for stiffener position
stf
= 0.30 and 0.25
for uniformly distributed loading. It can be further seen from
Figures 5c and 5d that the mode switching occurs between
3
and
4
. In Figure 5d, it is also apparent that switching takes
place between
6
and
7
giving the sixth backbone curve a
broken appearance in absence of the seventh mode. Similar
trends are observed for backbone curves corresponding to
stiffener position
stf
= 0.30 in the case of concentrated
loading (Figure 6c). But the switching between
3
and
4
for
stf
= 0.25 is absent in Figure 6d. It is understood that
the occurrence of mode switching and the modes between
which switching occurs are entirely dependent on the system
parameters.
As the stiffener position shifts, the system stiffness changes
causing the ﬁrst linear natural frequency to change as well.
Thus, the normalizing parameter (
1
) for the cases of various
stiffener positions shown in Figures 5 and 6 are different. The
values of
1
for the stiffener positions 0.25, 0.30, 0.40, and 0.50
are 175.204, 189.119, 224.163, and 256.969 Hz, respectively.
The inﬂuence of stiffener position on the dynamic behavior of
the systemis elaborated through Figure 7, where the variation
of dimensionless free vibration frequency parameter for the
ﬁrst mode with change in stiffener position is plotted. It is ev
ident from the ﬁgure that the shift in position of the stiffener
towards the boundary of the plate causes the frequency
parameter to decrease. The speciﬁc reason for this is that
the system stiffness decreases due to the offset position
of the stiffener and when a system becomes less stiff its
natural frequency decreases. Thus, it can be concluded that
maximum stiffness corresponds to a central stiffener position
(
stf
= 0.50).
Mode shape plots for the ﬁrst six vibration modes of SSSS
stiffened plate under uniform transverse pressure have been
presented for the case
stf
= 0.30 (Figure 5c) in Figures 8a–8f.
This particular geometry is chosen in order to elaborate the
mode switching phenomenon through the mode shapes. For
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d
b
y
[
N
a
t
i
o
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a
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i
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u
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e
o
f
T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y

R
o
u
r
k
e
l
a
]
a
t
0
4
:
4
6
2
1
J
u
n
e
2
0
1
3
390 A. Mitra et al.
Fig. 12. Backbone curves for the SSSS stiffened plate under UDL for different thickness ratio: (a) t
s
/t
p
= 0.0, (b) t
s
/t
p
= 1.0,
(c) t
s
/t
p
= 2.0, and (d) t
s
/t
p
= 3.5.
each mode of vibration, two mode shape plots corresponding
to linear (w
max
/t
p
= 0) and nonlinear (w
max
/t
p
= 2.00)
frequencies are given. In each plot, the surface plot and its
corresponding contour plot for the vibrating plate have been
presented. It is also noted that the amplitude of vibration
for all the surface plots is normalized by the corresponding
maximum transverse displacement amplitude. Interchange of
linear and nonlinear mode shapes depicted in Figures 8c and
8d appropriately support the case of mode switching between
the third and fourth mode.
3.3. LargeDeﬂection Dynamic Behavior: Plate Aspect
Ratio (a/b)
Figures 9a–9d and 10a–10d show the backbone curves for
variation in plate aspect ratio (a/b) for uniformly distributed
D
o
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n
l
o
a
d
e
d
b
y
[
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a
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i
o
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Nonlinear Vibration Analysis of Stiffened Plates 391
Fig. 13. Backbone curves for the SSSS stiffened plate under concentrated load for different thickness ratio: (a) t
s
/t
p
= 0.0,
(b) t
s
/t
p
= 1.0, (c) t
s
/t
p
= 2.0, and (d) t
s
/t
p
= 3.5.
and concentrated loading, respectively. Corresponding to
each loading condition, the variations in the dynamic be
havior is shown for aspect ratios a/b = 0.75, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0
with a ﬁxed value of thickness ratio (t
s
/t
p
= 3.5) and position
of the stiffener (
stf
= 0.50). The details of the geometry of the
stiffened plate are as follows: b = 0.40 m, t
p
= 0.006 m, b
s
=
0.012 m, t
s
=0.021 m. It should be mentioned here that varia
tion of the aspect ratio is achieved by varying the length (a) of
the plate while keeping the width (b) constant. This is done to
keep the length of the stiffener spanning the width constant.
Normalization of the nonlinear frequency is obtained by
dividing with the fundamental frequency of the system and
the corresponding values for the aspect ratios 0.75, 1.00,
1.50, and 2.00 are as follows: 407.814, 338.934, 252.357, and
184.678 Hz, respectively. Figures 9 and 10 exhibit that, with
the increase in deﬂection, the natural frequencies increase
for all the cases. As in the previous case, for some speciﬁc
geometry the phenomenon of mode switching is observed. In
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392 A. Mitra et al.
the case of a/b = 0.75 and 1.0 for pressure loading (Figures 9a
and 9b) and a/b = 0.75 for concentrated loading (Figure 10a)
switching occurs between
3
and
4
, whereas for a/b = 2.0
(Figure 10d) it occurs between
4
and
5
.
In order to see the effect of nature of loading on the
dynamic behavior, the backbone curves corresponding to
UDL and point loading are reproduced in a single plot.
The largedeﬂection dynamic behavior of SSSS stiffened plate
(a/b = 1.0, t
s
/t
p
= 3.5, and
stf
= 0.50) for the two types of
loading are presented as backbone curves in Figures 11a and
11b for the ﬁrst two vibration modes, respectively. The ﬁgures
show that a particular value of nondimensional amplitude
corresponds to a higher normalized nonlinear frequency for
pressure loading than point load. This can be attributed to
the difference in deﬂected proﬁle and, hence, the stored strain
energy between the two types of loading.
3.4. LargeDeﬂection Dynamic Behavior: Thickness
Ratio (t
s
/t
p
)
The backbone curves for variation in thickness ratio (t
s
/t
p
) for
uniformly distributed and concentrated loading are presented
in Figures 12a–12d and 13a–13d, respectively. Corresponding
to each loading condition, the variations in the dynamic be
havior is shown for thickness ratios t
s
/t
p
= 0.0, 1.0, 2.0, and
3.5 with a ﬁxed value of thickness ratio (a/b = 1.5) and posi
tionof the stiffener (
stf
= 0.50). The geometry witht
s
/t
p
= 0.0
actually represents an unstiffened plate. The details of the ge
ometry of the stiffened plate are as follows: a = 0.60 m, b =
0.40 m, t
p
=0.006 m. The variation of the thickness ratio is ef
fected by changing the stiffener thickness (t
s
) keeping the plate
thickness (t
p
) ﬁxed. From Figures 12a–12d and 13a–13d it is
noted that the natural frequencies increase with an increase
in deﬂection for all the cases, which indicates hard spring be
havior. Mode switching between
4
and
5
takes place for
the particular case of t
s
/t
p
= 2.0 as shown by Figures 12c
and 13c.
It is also observed that increase in thickness ratio causes the
backbone curves for different modes to come closer together
and this trend is observed for both types of loading. How
ever, the plots in Figures 12 and 13 are in a nondimensional
plane and the normalizing parameters (ﬁrst linear natural fre
quency,
1
) for the thickness ratios 0.0, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.5 are
133.657, 145.125, 181.282, and 252.357 Hz, respectively. The
trend indicates that the fundamental frequency increases with
increase in thickness ratio and this is supported by Figure 14,
which presents the variation of dimensionless free vibration
frequency parameter for the ﬁrst mode with change in stiffener
to plate thickness ratio. With an increase in stiffener thickness,
the overall stiffness of the systemincreases and, hence, the fre
quency parameter also moves towards higher values. It is seen
that as the thickness ratio tends to zero, the frequency pa
rameter value converges towards that of an unstiffened plate.
Figure 14 also indicates that the dimensionless frequency pa
rameter attains a constant value beyond a particular thickness
ratio. At this critical thickness ratio, the stiffener divides the
plate into two panels of equal width that vibrate with the same
natural frequency as the plate. In an earlier study by Bedair
Fig. 14. Variation of dimensionless free vibration frequency pa
rameter for the ﬁrst mode with change in plate to stiffener thick
ness ratio.
[18], a similar trend is observed for simply supported stiffened
plates.
To highlight the effect of vibration amplitude on the dy
namic behavior of the plate in greater detail, the mode shape
plots for all six vibration modes are presented corresponding
to thickness ratio, t
s
/t
p
= 1.00, and concentrated load
(Figure 13b) in Figures 15a–15f. As in Figure 8, two mode
shape plots corresponding to linear and nonlinear frequencies
are provided along with the corresponding contour plots
for the vibrating plate. It is expected that the degree of
nonlinearity is affected by load and is manifested through
a change in a particular mode shape. But it appears from
Figure 15 that the surface plots for a particular mode shape
for linear and nonlinear frequencies are identical in nature. In
order to establish the effect of nonlinearity on mode shapes,
the same results are presented in a different fashion in Figures
16a–16f. This ﬁgure is essentially a sectional viewof the earlier
mode shape plots at suitable locations. The centrally stiffened
plate being symmetric, the mode shapes for half of the plate
are shown in each case. For the ﬁrst three modes of vibration,
the sectional view is taken along the xaxis (orthogonal to
stiffener direction) at y = 0.5. In order to avoid the section
line passing through the nodal locations, the sectional view
for the fourth, ﬁfth, and sixth mode is obtained along xaxis
at y = 0.25. In all cases, mode shapes corresponding to two
different amplitudes of vibration (w
max
/t
p
= 0 (linear) and
2.0 (nonlinear)) are presented. For this particular case, such
a geometry is chosen for which no mode switching occurs
so as to avoid the corrective measure necessary to make the
comparisons. This study clearly reveals that nonlinear mode
shapes differ from the linear shape and there is a pronounced
effect of amplitude of vibration on mode shapes.
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Nonlinear Vibration Analysis of Stiffened Plates 393
Fig. 15. Mode shape plots for SSSS stiffened rectangular plate with thickness ratio t
s
/t
p
= 1.00 (corresponding to backbone curves
in Figure 13b) under concentrated load: (a) Mode 1, (b) Mode 2, (c) Mode 3, (d) Mode 4, (e) Mode 5, and (f) Mode 6.
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394 A. Mitra et al.
Fig. 15. (Continued).
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Nonlinear Vibration Analysis of Stiffened Plates 395
Fig. 16. A detailed study on changes in mode shapes along xaxis with deﬂection amplitude (w
max
/t
p
) taken at suitable ylocation.
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396 A. Mitra et al.
5. Conclusion
In this article, a largeamplitude free vibration analysis of
stiffened plates subjected to transverse loading with all along
simply supported ﬂexural boundary conditions and zero dis
placement inplane boundary conditions has been presented.
The mathematical formulation is based on energy method, the
underlying principle being the extremization of total energy of
the system in its equilibrium state. The analysis is carried out
in two steps. The ﬁrst step involves solving the static displace
ment of the stiffened plate and then the subsequent dynamic
study is taken up on the basis of known static displacement
ﬁeld. It can be said that static analysis yields the initial de
ﬂection proﬁle used in the subsequent free vibration analysis.
The vibration frequencies are obtained from the solution of
a standard eigenvalue problem. The results of both static and
dynamic analyses are validated with the published results of
other researchers, and fairly good agreement is observed in
almost all the cases. The dynamic behavior of stiffened plates
has been presented in the form of backbone curves in a di
mensionless frequencyamplitude plane. The backbone curves
documented may be used by the practicing engineers as design
curves. Inﬂuence of stiffener position, plate aspect ratio, and
stiffener to plate thickness ratio on the large amplitude dy
namic behavior has been studied. The phenomenon of mode
switching is observed for some speciﬁc geometries of the stiff
ened plate. Threedimensional mode shape plots along with
contour plots are provided in a few cases to get a better un
derstanding of the nature of inﬂuence of vibration amplitude
on the dynamic behavior of the system. Astudy is also carried
out to establish the effect of amplitude of vibration on mode
shapes.
Acknowledgment
The ﬁrst author acknowledges the research support re
ceived from AICTE, India, vide File No.: 110/RID/NDF/
PG/(17)200809; Dated: 13.03.2009.
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