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International Journal of Research in Fisheries and Aquaculture
Universal Research Publications. All rights reserved

SOLOMON S.G. AND OKOMODA V.T. Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, University of Agriculture Makurdi, Nigeria *Tel: +2347037275891 E-mail:, okomodavictor@yahoo.com2 Received 17 October 2012; accepted 02 December 2012 Abstract This study was designed to evaluate the growth performance of Tilapia, ( Oreochromis niloticus) fed diets with various inclusion levels of Duckweed (Lemna minor). Five isonitrogenous (20% CP) diets containing 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% of Duckweed representing diets 1 to 5 respectively were prepared. The fish were fed 5% of their body weight for 56 days. O. niloticus fingerlings with mean initial weight (MIW) of 1.45g±0.00was used for the experiment and the fingerlings were procured from a homogenous source through natural breeding. The result showed that fish fed 5% Duckweed inclusion (diet 1) gave the best value for mean weight gain (MWG = 1.92g±0.001), specific growth rate (SGR = 1.41±0.01), Food Conversion Ratio (FCR = 1.94±0.01) and Apparent Net Protein Utilization (ANPU = 57.47±1.24). Fish fed Diet 2 (10% Duckweed) however followed closely with MWG of 1.85g±0.00; FCR 2.37±0.00 and ANPU 48.34 ± 0.02. This trend of decrease however continued till Diet 5 suggesting that as Duckweed inclusion increases, MWG, SGR, PER and ANPU decreases across the five treatments while FCR increased. 5% level of inclusion of Duck weed is advised for inclusion in the Diet of O. niloticus © 2012 Universal Research Publications. All rights reserved Keywords: Anti-nutritional factor, Duck weed, Unconventional feedstuffs. INTRODUCTION Feeding constitute a major factor in intensive rearing of fin fishes and their fry. This is because growth of fish depends strongly on the quality of feeds provided. Depending on the culture system adopted, feed can represent 40 to 70% of the total production costs (1). Fishmeal is the major source of protein for farmed fish worldwide and is in limited supply (2). However, nearly all researchers agree that an alternative ingredient should be used in the aquafeed industry in place of fish meal, whose supplies are limited although demand for it is expected to rise. For this reason, many studies have been conducted on the replacement of expensive animal proteins with lower cost ingredients. Considerable attention has been devoted to the replacement of fish meal with plant protein sources such as soybean meal (3, 4), mucuna seed meal (5, 6), winged bean (7), and various legumes (8, 9). The macrophytes of the Lemnaceae family, known as duckweeds, are the smallest flowering plants in the world. With a high protein content and fairly full spectrum of amino acids, duckweed would appear to have the capacity to replace expensive fish and soya bean meal in aquaculture diet formulations. Duckweed, as a natural protein source, has a better array of essential amino acids than most other vegetable proteins and more closely resembles animal protein (10). Newly harvested duckweed plants contain up to 18-43% protein by dry weight and can be used without further processing as a complete feed for fish. Compared with most other plants, duckweed leaves contain little fiber and little to no indigestible material even for monogastric animals (11). This contrasts with the compositions of many crops such as soy beans, rice, and maize, approximately 50% of whose biomass comprises residues high in fiber and low in digestibility. Duckweed meal has been used for cattle, poultry, swine and fish feeding, showing favorable results (12). Due to the omnivorous feeding habit of tilapia which enable them tolerate the inclusion of plant protein sources in their diet, and thus reducing feed expenses, the present study was therefore designed to formulate cost effective fish feed using locally available fish feed of plant origin to replace fish meal and to explore the nutritive potential of


International Journal of Research in Fisheries and Aquaculture 2012; 2(4): 61-65

In table 1 crude protein value obtained of 5% .80 4.20 15. 10%. EXPERIMENTAL SET UP The feeding trial was conducted in an earthen pond measuring 25m x 25m x 1.5 30. 15%.70% Ash=24. showed that mean initial weight (MIW) and mean final also on table 1 the result of proximate analysis of the five weight (MFW) values were not statistically significant in experimental diets is shown.0 – 19. The pellets were collected in trays. The result obtained from formulation using Pearson square method.82 Maize 47. gain (MWG) value of 1. humidity-45%. The duckweed was then sundried. sundried toasted in an oven at 100oC for 15 minutes until the grain cracked. MATERIALS AND METHODS Processing of Feedstuffs Duckweed was harvested from an earthen Pond (30m x 30m x 1.40 16.85 37.this non-conventional plant sources as well as study the growth efficient of Oreochromis niloticus fed duckweed based diets. milled and packaged for use.5% each which has the least percentage inclusion of Duckweed meal for the five diets. However the highest mean weight 5%. 15%.10 15. 20% and 25% respectively. The same thing was done at the end of experiment using the method of AOAC (13). Milled and Packaged for use. Before commencement of the experiment some experimental fish were sacrificed to determine the carcass proximate composition.e 20 fingerlings per hapa.80 10.90 Duckweed H2O = 14.50 19. The fingerlings were acclimatized for one week after which they were sorted to the hapas i.80 4.the least MWG value of 1.19 39. The Growth parameter measured includes.5 39. Each treatment was triplicated and fish were fed 5% of body weight. It was then dehulled.05). The MWG value was statistically significant in the five diets (P < 0. niloticus to the experiment diets. The mineral and vitamin premix used was purchased from Agro based shop in Makurdi. 20% and 25% in diets 1-5 respectively.5m) in the month of July in Makurdi.18 Duckweed Meal 5 10 15 20 25 PROXIMATE COMPOSITION OF DIETS AND DUCKWEED Diet 1 Diet 2 Diet 3 Diet 4 Diet 5 Moisture 16.10 13. 2(4): 61-65 . Maize was cleaned.15 32. 10%.85 37.6 CP = 17.38. The experiment lasted for 56 days.80 16.30 41.80 7.Initial body Protein Gain = Final Body Protein protein. gain Wt gain Pr otein fed (iii) Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) PER = (iv) Apparent Net Protein Utilization (ANPU) ANPU = 100 x Carcass Pr otein gain Pr otein fed .38 20. The mixture was dry mixed and water added at 60 oC to form a tough dough which was then pelleted through a 3mm dice. Duckweed meal was fixed at the five diets (P>0.80 11.56 was obtained for diet from biochemical analysis showed that the value ranged 5 (25% Duckweed inclusion).05).5 35.15 42.10 44.45 CP = Crude Protein.77 36.50 19.wind speed-9kmh-1) and packaged for use.20 Crude Protein 19. Nigeria.81 45.20 9. 𝑆𝐺𝑅 = 𝐿𝑛 𝑊 2 − 𝐿 𝑛 𝑊 1 𝑇 × 100 Where W2 = Final wt of Fish W1 = Initial wt of fish T = Duration of the experiment in days Ln = natural logarithms (ii) Food Conversion Ration (FCR): FCR was calculated as follows FCR = Wt of feed fed wt.40 NFE 49.60 5. Also the proximate analysis of the experimental diets was also carried out. Vitamin and mineral premix was fixed at 5% for the five diets while duckweed inclusion in the five diets (Dt1 – Dt5) was at 5%. Nigeria.5m using 20 Hapas of 1 x 1 x 1m3. 62 International Journal of Research in Fisheries and Aquaculture 2012.20 15.40 Crude Fibre 6.80 8.92g was obtained from diet 1 While mineral and vitamin were equally fixed at 2.40 6. Table 1: Inclusion Levels of Various Feedstuffs ansd their proximate Composition DIETS Diet 1 Diet 2 Diet 3 Diet 4 Diet 5 Soybean 42. The soybean grains was cleaned.60 Ash 5. Oreochnomis niloticus used for the experiment was gotten from a homogenous source from the Fish Hatchery of University of Agriculture. The fish were weighed weekly and weight of feed adjusted as appropriate. Makurdi – Nigeria. from 20.10 19. milled and packaged for use. sundried (Average air temperature-29oC±0.98 Ether Extract 3.05. EE = Ether Extract.05% CP=35.40 7. CF = Crude Fibre Table 2 shows the parameters for assessment of growth RESULT Table 1 show the inclusion levels of the various feedstuffs response by O.60% EE = 1. Feed Formulation and Compounding Pearson square method was used to formulate five isonitrogenous (20% crude protein) diets for this experiment. The Aggregate ingredients for each diet were then weighed using a Digital weighing balance.

05 19. SGR = Specific Growth Rate.24b 98. Ether extract and crude fibre.75 3.006c 0.76 ± 0. ANPU value of 57.10 Moisture (%) 73.10 67. and it may be that as the protein component of duckweed material decreases. compared to the control group.650 ±0.01 4.70 3.03% and 16.4% for Lemna gibba.46 ± 0.40 69. CP of 28.29 ± 0. the increase in fibre content as well as anti-nutritional factor in poor quality duckweed may be responsible for this reduced growth observed. and cited reduced growth as level of inclusion increased as well as mortality rates in excess of 80% at the highest feeding rates.11 3. 2(4): 61-65 .45 + 0.45 + 0. reported a crude protein and fiber content of 38.00a 0.63 ±0.38% CP for Lemna minor. Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) and Apparent Net Protein Utilization (ANPU) values obtained in this study showed similar trend with the MWG. From table 2 the SGR value shows that Diet 1 with FCR value of 1.305 ± 0.34 ± 0. Flavia.45. Similarly Erdal et al (14) reported 18.20 2.92 ± 0.65 ± 0.96 reported that the protein content of duckweed ranged from 30 to 40%.004 3.1%.35 70.028 ± 0.410 ± 0. Before Diet 1 Diet 2 Diet 3 a c Crude Protein (%) 15.005 1. MWG. These growth parameters showed that as the inclusions level of Duckweed meal increased these growth parameters measured decreased while Food Conversion Ratio (FCR) in contrast increased as the level of inclusion of duckweed increased.005c 1.05 3. PER = Protein Efficiency Ratio. when the duckweed are cultivated in a nutrient rich media.01c 0.94 was the best while the poorest value of FCR was obtained for Diet – 5.005 ± 0. the proximate composition of four different species of duckweed was determined by Rusoff et al (16) and reported CP of 25.11 3. The difference between the result of the present study and those of these referenced authors is likely due to differences in the Duckweed species as well as nutrient availability of the area where they are cultured.59b Ash (%) 2. the Specific Growth Rate (SGR).3 Ether Extract (%) 3. niloticus Before and after the Experiment. MFW= Mean Final Wt. CF of 9.002a 42.05 3.94 ± 0.31 ± 0.37 Diet 5 17.79 ± 0.03 3. CP of 29.60% while crude fibre was estimated to be 35.52c 26.005d 6. SGR. (6.00a 1. niloticus fed the five diets. FCR = Feed Conversion Ratio.195 ± 0.005 3.24 NFE 3.29).00 a b b 25% Diet 5 1. the exposure per unit dry matter to these anti-nutritional elements in the feed increase and thus elicit negative growth responses.405 ± 0. Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) and Apparent Net Protein Utilization (ANPU).30 3. The present study showed that Duckweed inclusion at 5% had the best growth and as the level of inclusion increased reduced growth of O.44 ± 0.70 4.25 3.50 18.22 ± 0. In contrast to this Fasakin et al (19) used better quality material (cited 50% CP) and recorded improved growth with no significant increase in mortality.10 d 1. In line with this claim Gijzen and Khondker (17).23 3.010a 1.035 ± 0.70 2.10 a 10% Diet 2 1.3 66.00e 6.905 ± 0.37 ± 0.69 17.005e 1.001c 1. niloticus.37 ± 0. Ash.005b 4.05d ANPU 57.29 ± 0.68c Values on the same row carrying the same superscripts are not statistically significant (P > 0.01 3.855 ± 0. Though mortality was not recorded in the present study despite using poorer quality duckweed 63 International Journal of Research in Fisheries and Aquaculture 2012.51b 27.05) MIW = Mean Initial wt. CF of 9.21 Nutrient utilization by the experiment fish was assessed by calculating the Specific Growth Rate (SGR).005b 0.015 ± 0.90 3. There was increase in body protein.145 ± 0.010 b 20% Diet 4 1.455 ± 0.Table 2: Parameters for Assessment of Growth Response of Oreochromis niloticus to the experimental diets DIETS AND PERCENTAGE OF DUCKWEED INCLUSION 5% Parameter MIW (g) MFW (g) MWG (g) SGR FCR PER Diet 1 1.095 ± 0. Refstie and Storebakken (2) have cited the sensitivity of fish to such factors as non-starch polysaccharides and phytates.47 ± 1.005 a 15% Diet 3 1.90 2. Also. Diet 4 19. and the fiber content from 5 to 15%.2%.7%.63a 3.005 c 1. Similar to the result of the present study Hassan and Edwards (18) used duckweed of relatively poor quality (23% CP).01 2.12c 3.005 1.010 3.46 ± 0.20 68.56 ± 0. even with 100% substitution.01a 1. while moisture content values reduced compared to the start of the experiment.005c 2. Table 3 shows the proximate Analysis of the carcass of O.65 Crude Fibre (%) 2. Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR).2% for Spirodella punctate.8% Spirodella polyrhiza and CP of 36.01a 1. PER and ANPU values decrease as duckweed meal inclusion increases. was observed from 10% up to 30%.02b 1. FCR.17% respectively of for dried duckweed (Lemna valdiviana). CF of 8. et al (15).47 obtained for Diet 1 was the best while Diet 5 was the poorest for the same parameter.20 3.76 ± 0. CF of 11% for Wolffia Columbiana. DISCUSSION The protein content of duckweed Lemna minor in this study was analyzed to be 17. MWG = Mean Weight Gain ANPU = Apparent Net Protein Utilization Table 3 Proximate Analysis of the Carcass of O.51 4.5%.

F. Chaturvedi. and D. K. setembro de ISSN 0103 – 1643. In contrast to the result of the present study. Aquaculture. Solomon S. cultivation and applications of duckweed.. and Davies.. 198: 129-140.G. (2001). W. except for 15% duckweed group. Duckweed Research Project (DWRP). 8. L. P. (2011). W. Cyprinus carpio.compared to those used in Hassan and Edwards (18) experiment. The World Bank.. Duckweed aquaculture: a new aquatic farming system for developing countries. Spira. K. (2008). utilis) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. however the unconformity of the present study findings to Lim’s hypothesis may be based on different level of protein in the experimental diet.079X 4. Storebakken. Fagbenro. (Accepted on 16th August. References 1. Solomon.G. (1993). Tiamiyu.A. 166: 311-320. Blakney and D.13:195-203. Aquaculture. Agric. other dietary inclusions and ingredients as well as processing method of various feed stuff used. According to Lim (20). 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