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International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology ENGINEERING (IJCET), ISSN 0976INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTER 6367(Print), ISSN

0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME & TECHNOLOGY (IJCET) ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print) ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May-June (2013), pp. 220-228 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijcet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 6.1302 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com

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SIMULATIVE ANALYSIS OF POWER EFFECTS FOR 2.5×8GB/S WDM-PON SYSTEM FOR CSRZ, DRZ AND MDRZ DATA FORMATS
Malti1, Rajesh Luther2 and Rakesh Sharma3
1, 2, 3

Sri Sai Institute of Engg. & Tech., Amritsar, Punjab, India

ABSTRACT In this paper, simulative analysis of 2.5×8Gb/s WDM-PON system has been carried out for carrier suppressed return to zero (CSRZ), duobinary return to zero (DRZ) and modified return to zero (MDRZ) modulation formats by varying power effects (0-20dBm). It is observed that the system gives optimum performance at input power Pin = 20dBm. It is found that CSRZ gives more optimum performance as compared to DRZ and MDRZ when Pin = 20dBm. Further, the effect of variation in input power Pin and transmission distance up to 130km has been observed in terms of Q-value and Max. eye opening factor for CSRZ, DRZ and MDRZ modulation formats. The system performance has been also evaluated by varying bit rate at 2.5Gb/s, 5Gb/s and 10Gb/s and it is observed that the system gives best results at bit rate 2.5Gb/s. Keywords: WDM-PON, CSRZ, DRZ, MDRZ, OLT, ONU. I. INTRODUCTION To meet the bandwidth demand due to the exponential growth of broadband services, WDM-PON will be one of the most efficient way for the next generation access network. To meet the increasing demand of network bandwidth, Service Provider (SP) must provide broadband services to many subscribers. In traditional PON, the number of ONUs is limited by optical splitter attenuation in a single wavelength. However, combining WDM technology with PON architecture will provide even hundreds of wavelengths in an access network, so WDM-PON is considered an effective way to solve the bottleneck problem to have large numbers of end users [1]. Much attention has been focused on the wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) for next-generation broadband access architecture, due to its large bandwidth, upgrade flexibility and security with dedicated
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International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 09766367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME connections. A WDM-PON solution provides scalability because it can support multiple wavelengths over the same fiber infrastructure, is inherently transparent to the channel bit rate, and it does not suffer power-splitting losses. Bock et al. [2] described WDM/TDM-PON architecture by using Free Spectral Range (FSR) periodicity and AWG. In this a shared tunable laser, photo receiver, DBA and remote modulation were used for transmitter and receiver. Transmission test showed correct operation at 2.5Gb/s up to 30km. By mean of optical transmission test the authors demonstrated that this architecture was feasible and offered good performance with low optical losses as compared to other PON architectures. Yi-Hung Lin et al. [3] demonstrated AWG Channel bandwidth dependent BER power penalty of 8 dB for the 1.25Gbit/s DWDM-PON systems with channel spacing of 50 and 200 GHz using ASE injection-locked reflective SOA with 1% front-facet reflectance. Even though the color-free operation had not yet been realized due to high front facet reflectivity, they had shown that the nearly mode independent operation of such a RSOA based DWDMPON with 50-GHz AWG mode spacing is possible to achieve a better upstream transmission performance. Q.T. Nguyen et al. [4] demonstrated Error-free transmission over 20km of 8-channels for both downstream and upstream in colourless WDM-PON based on injection-locked Fabry-Perot laser experimentally at 2.5Gbit/s, using a single quantum dash mode-locked laser as multi-wavelength seeding source. Hanlin Feny et al. [5] used a scheme in which modified NRZ format to realize multicast WDM-PON by adjusting downstream extinction ratio and achieved good BER rate performance for upstream signals. Jun-Ichi Kani et al. [6] discussed the key role of WDM technologies in realizing the next generation scalable and flexible PONs. That is one was WDM-PON in which each ONU used different wavelength i.e a unique wavelength in each direction to communicate with OLT and it also combined WDM and TDM technology. Han et al. [7] proposed a WDM-PON model with multicast capability like high scalability multi-wavelength converter and single copy broadcast capability by employing multistage AWGs at remote node. The result of this architecture was evaluated in terms of cost, scalability, link capacity and bandwidth per user in both upstream and downstream signals. In this architecture, the existing passive star coupler was replaced by a special passive optical device. Gerd Keiser et al. [8] proposed and demonstrated a method for simultaneous real-time status monitoring and troubleshooting of a high-capacity single-fiber bidirectional passive optical network (PON) that is based on WDM techniques. To avoid interference between the bidirectional traffic, downstream and upstream signals were assigned in different spectral bands. The two main parts of the monitoring and fault-diagnosis functions were a trafficdirecting and amplification module and a signal-selection switch module. Using an optical time-domain reflectometer, the fault-diagnosis test path can be greater than 50 km. Tests results were presented for 10-Gb/s upstream and downstream links over 35-km distances. Zhixin Liu et al. [9] proposed and demonstrated an optical multicast overlay scheme on a wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network, employing bandwidth efficient inverse return-to-zero duobinary signals. Multicast control was realized by tuning the voltage bias at the point-to-point downstream modulator at the optical line terminal. The 10Gb/s downstream operation of the proposed optical multicast overlay scheme and 2.5-Gb/s carrier distributed upstream transmission had been experimentally demonstrated.
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International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 09766367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME
Rajniti et al. [10] compared the performance of two modulation formats non return to zero (NRZ), return to zero (RZ) for 2.5Gb/s bidirectional WDM/TDM-PON using narrowband AWG. They investigated the impact of extinction ratio (ζ) of Mach-Zehnder (MZ) amplitude modulator on the performance of WDM-PON for varying optical fiber lengths. The system performance had been analyzed by varying the value of ζ from 2 to 22dB. They found that the system gave optimum performance at extinction ratio (ζ) value 20dB. Further, the effect of variation in the input power (from 0 to 20dBm) and transmission distance upto 60km was observed in terms of Q value and eye opening for NRZ and RZ data formats. They found that NRZ was superior to RZ and system gave optimum performance at input power Pin=10dBm. In this paper, we have extended the work of reference [10], they compared the performance of two modulation formats non return-to-zero (NRZ), return-to-zero (RZ) for 2.5Gb/s bidirectional WDM/TDM-PON using narrowband AWG. They evaluated the system performance by varying input power (from 0 to 20dBm) and transmission distance up to 60km. We have evaluated the system performance by using advanced modulation formats and transmission distance upto 130km has been observed in terms of Q value and eye opening factor. Here, in section 2, the system description and simulation parameters have been described. In section 3, the results of the simulated system have been reported for different modulation data formats, signal input power, bit rate and distance. Finally in section 4, conclusions are made. II. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION AND SIMULATION The Schematic of optical communication system simulation setup is shown in Fig.1. An externally modulated CW DFB Laser Array having eight number of output ports, having frequency of 1550nm, having channel spacing of 100GHz with variable input power (from 0 to 20dBm) is used. The WDM multiplexer also operates at the frequency of 1550nm with the bandwidth 10GHz and channel spacing of 100Ghz.

EDFA DFB Laser Array AWG 1*8 WDM Multiplexer CSRZ/DRZ or MDRZ Modulator AWG 8*8 PIN Detector Optical Transmitter Low Pass Bessel Filter Circulators Power Splitter

Circulators

BER Analyser 3RRegenerator

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Fig.1: Schematic of Simulation Setup

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International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 09766367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME Three different types of modulation formats carrier suppressed return to zero (CSRZ), duobinary return to zero (DRZ) and modified return to zero (MDRZ) has been used. An Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier with gain 17dB and noise figure 6dB is used in the transmitter to boost the optical signal to the desired power level. The EDFA is followed by power splitter and upstream circulator with return loss and isolation of 60dB Array waveguide grating AWG (8×8) with frequency of 193.4THz and bandwidth 10GHz is used for upstream and AWG(1×8) with frequency of 1550 nm and bandwidth of 10GHz is used for downstream. A bidirectional Single Mode Fiber SMF fiber with parameters attenuation of 0.24dB/km, dispersion slope of 0.075 ps/km-nm2 and dispersion at 1550nm is 16.75ps/km-nm has been used and the length of fiber has been varied up to 130km. III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Three modulation formats have been compared by varying input power Pin (0-20dBm) and transmission distance up to 130 km for 2.5×8Gb/s WDM-PON system in terms of Q value [dB] and eye opening factor. To estimate the performance, the Q value [dB] and maximum eye opening factor for the eye diagram of electrical scope have been considered for channel 1 and channel 4. We have evaluated the system performance by varying bit rate at 2.5Gb/s, 5Gb/s and 10Gb/s and it is observed that the system gives optimal transmission when the data is transmitted at the bit rate of 2.5Gb/s. The Fig. 2(a), 2(b) and 2(c) shows the graphical representation of Q value as a function of signal input power for CSRZ, DRZ and MDRZ data formats for downstream data respectively.

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Fig. 2(a) Pin (dBm) Vs Q factor(dB) for CSRZ data format at distance 20km It can be seen that all the formats that as the signal input power increases from 0 to 15dBm, Q value increases after which it starts falling. From this it is observed that for low powers the performance of WDM-PON system increases with the increase in input power.

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International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 09766367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME
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Fig. 2(b) Pin (dBm) Vs Q factor(dB) for DRZ data format at distance 20km
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Fig. 2(c) Pin (dBm) Vs Q factor(dB) for MDRZ data format at distance 20km However, with increases in power, the wavelength tend to overlap each other causing more dominance of non linear effects like Cross Phase Modulation (XPM) and Four Wave Mixing (FWM) and thus reducing the Q value after 15dBm. It is also been observed that by using variable bit rate the system gives best performance at bit rate 2.5Gb/s. The graph clearly shows that end channels are more affected by inter-channel FWM and noise as compared to middle channel. The Fig. 3(a), 3(b) and 3(c) shows the graphical representation of Q value as a function of transmission distance at varied input power and bit rate of 2.5Gb/s WDM-PON system for CSRZ, DRZ and MDRZ data formats for downstream signals respectively. The graph shows that as the distance increases Q value deteriorates due to FWM effect and ASE noise.
Power = 10dBm & Bit rate = 2.5Gb/s 180 160 140 120 Q.factor(dB) 100 80 60 40 20 0 10 CSRZ DRZ MDRZ

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Fig.3 (a) Length(km) Vs Q.factor(dB) for CSRZ, DRZ and MDRZ modulation formats at input power Pin = 10dBm and bit rate = 2.5Gb/s
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International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 09766367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME
Power = 15dBm & Bit rate = 2.5Gb/s 150 CSRZ DRZ MDRZ

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Fig.3(b) Length(km) Vs Q.factor(dB) for CSRZ, DRZ and MDRZ modulation formats at input power Pin = 15dBm and bit rate = 2.5Gb/s It can also be seen from the graphs that for the input power Pin=10dBm and transmission distance more than 90km, the Q value drops below the minimum required value of 6dB for CSRZ, DRZ and MDRZ formats, due to ASE noise of EDFA’s. When bit rate for WDM-PON system is 2.5Gb/s, the CSRZ gives better performance as compared to DRZ and MDRZ modulation data formats.
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Fig.3(c) Length(km) Vs Q.factor(dB) for CSRZ, DRZ and MDRZ modulation formats at input power Pin = 20dBm and bit rate = 2.5Gb/s

Fig. 4(a) Eye Diagram at Pin=15dbm for CSRZ data format at distance 40km

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International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 09766367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME Figure 4(a), 4(b) and 4(c) shows the eye diagrams for downstream data respectively for CSRZ, DRZ and MDRZ modulation formats at distance 40km. These results further endorse the results of earlier discussion. The results obtained are also consistent with the results reported in [2].

Fig. 4(b) Eye Diagram at Pin=15dbm for DRZ data format at distance 40km

Fig. 4(c) Eye Diagram at Pin=15dbm for MDRZ data format at distance 40km Similarly, Figure 5 shows the optical spectrums for CSRZ, DRZ and MDRZ modulation formats with input power Pin=15dBm and at the distance of 40km having bit rate of 2.5Gb/s. These results further endorse the results of earlier discussion.

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International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 09766367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME

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(c) Fig. 5 Showing optical spectrum with Pin=15dbm at distance 40km having bit rate of 2.5Gb/s for different modulation formats (a) CSRZ (b) DRZ (c) MDRZ No further increase in system performance could be observed after input power Pin= 20dB.The best Q value obtained is 217.63dB and 190.85dB at Pin=15dBm and Pin=10dBm at bit rate of 2.5Gb/s for CSRZ data format respectively. IV. CONCLUSION We have simulated 2.5×8Gb/s bi-directional WDM-PON system by varying input power Pin, bit rate and transmission distance. It has been observed that as the signal input power increases, Q value also increase up to 15dBm after which it starts decreasing due interchannel interference and non linear effects such as Cross Phase Modulation (XPM) and Four Wave Mixing (FWM). Further, It is concluded that system gives better performance at bit rate 2.5Gb/s for WDM-PON system as compared to 5Gb/s WDM-PON system. At bit rate 2.5Gb/s CSRZ gives better performance for WDM-PON system and at bit rate of 5Gb/s MDRZ gives better performance as compared to other formats.
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International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 09766367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME REFERENCES 1. K. Iwatsuki, "Applications and Technical Issues of Wavelength-Division Multiplexing Passive Optical Networks With Colorless Optical Network Units [Invited]," Journal of Optical Communications and Networking”, vol. 1, pp. C17-C24, 2009. Carlos Bock, Josep Prat, Stuart D. Walker “Hybrid WDM/TDM-PON using AWG FSR and featuring centralized light generation and dynamic bandwidth allocation,” Spanish ministerio technology project TIC2002-00053 (2005). Yi-Hung Lin, Tzu-Kang Cheng , Hai-Lin Wang, Gong-Cheng Lin, and Gong-Ru Lin, “Effect of AWG channel bandwidth on BER of injection-locked RSOA based ONU in WDM-PON system” , International Conference on Photonics in Switching, 2008. Q.T. Nguyen, P. Besnard, L. Bramerie, A. Shen, G.H. Duan, C. Kazmierski, J.-C. Simon, “Bidirectional Transmission in Colourless WDM-PON based on InjectionLocked Fabry-Perot Laser at 2.5 Gbit/s using Low-Cost Seeding Source” , ECOC 2009, 20-24 September, 2009, Vienna, Austria. Hanlin Feny, Fengqing Liu, “A novel scheme of multicast WDM-PON using modified NRZ signal format” , IEEE 2009. Jun-Ichi Kani, “Enabling technologies for future scalable and flexible WDM-PON system” , IEEE journal of selected topics in quantum electronics, vol. 16, no. 5, september/october 2010. Kyeong-Eun Han, Kyoung-Min Yoo, Won Hyuk Yang, Young-Chon Kim “Design of AWG based WDM-PON architecture with multicast capability,” Proceedings of the IEEE INFOCOM (2008). Gerd Keiser, Chu-Lin Chang, Zih-Rong Lin, and Cheng-Kuang, “Status Monitoring Concept for a WDM PON” , International Congress on Ultra Modern Telecommunications and Control Systems and Workshops(ICUMT),2010. Zhixin Liu, Yang Qiu, Jing Xu, and Chun-Kit Chan, “An Optical Multicast Overlay Scheme for a WDM PON Using Inverse-RZ-Duo binary Signals” , IEEE photonics technology letters, vol. 23, no. 4, february 15, 2011. Rajniti, Anu Sheetal “Comparison of RZ and NRZ Data Formats for 2.5Gb/s Bidirectional WDM/TDM-PON using Narrowband AWG” International Journal of VLSI and Signal Processing Applications, Vol. 1, Issue 2 , May 2011,(95-101) ,ISSN 2231-3133. Manish Saxena, Dr.Anubhuti Khare and Amit R.Mahire, “Comparative Analysis For Higher Channel Isolation using Single FBG Filter and Two FBG Filter Connected One After One For High Dense WDM System”, International journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering &Technology (IJECET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 497 - 503, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472. Prof. J. R. Pathan, Prof. A. R. Teke, Prof. M. A. Parjane and Prof. P.S. Togrikar, “Dropping Based Contention Resolution for Service Differentiation to Provide Qos in WDM OBS Networks”, International Journal of Computer Engineering & Technology (IJCET), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 218 - 228, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6367, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6375.

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