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Simple Fire Alarm Circuit

Here is a simple fire alarm circuit based on a LDR and lamp pair for sensing the fire.The alarm works by sensing the smoke produced during fire.The circuit produces an audible alarm when the fire breaks out with smoke. When there is no smoke the light from the bulb will be directly falling on the LDR.The LDR resistance will be low and so the voltage across it (below .6V).The transistor will be OFF and nothing happens.When there is sufficient smoke to mask the light from falling on LDR, the LDR resistance increases and so do the voltage across it.Now the transistor will switch to ON.This gives power to the IC1 and it outputs 5V.This powers the tone generator IC UM66 (IC2) to play a music.This music will be amplified by IC3 (TDA 2002) to drive the speaker.

The diode D1 and D2 in combination drops 1.4 V to give the rated voltage (3.5V ) to UM66 .UM 66 cannot withstand more than 4V.

Notes:  The speaker can be a 8Ω tweeter.  POT R4 can be used to adjust the sensitivity of the alarm.  POT R3 can be used for varying the volume of the alarm.  Any general purpose NPN transistor(like BC548,BC148,2N222) can be used for Q1.  The circuit can be powered from a 9V battery or a 9V DC power supply.  Instead of bulb you can use a bright LED with a 1K resistor series to it.

sensing. the circuit is ready to use. Power supply terminal Vcc is at the bottom of the tank. and grasping—is also discussed.Simple Automatic Water Level Controller (ECE/EEE Project) Water-level controllers are common nowadays. Climbing Robots in Natural Terrain This paper presents a general framework for planning the quasi-static motion of climbing robots. control. and is easy to build and install on the over-head tank (OHT) to prevent wastage of water. The framework is instantiated to compute climbing motions of a three-limbed robot in vertical natural terrain. The LDR converts the light energy into electrical energy and this variable electrical energy was converted into digital signal (0 or 1) by using the timer IC555. An example resulting path through a largesimulated environment is presented. 1) at appropriate terminals. . It is the Heart of the system. The Timer IC output goes low when light falls on the LDR and the timer IC output goes high when the LDR was placed in dark. Each of the four other areas —hardware design. The circuit works off a 12V battery or 230V AC mains using a 12V adaptor. It uses readily-available. After you have properly installed the sensors in the OHT and connected the power supply. The one described here is built around timer NE555 and inverter buffer CMOS IC CD4049. 2 and connected to the circuit (Fig. low-cost components. The planning problem is one of five fundamental challenges to the development of real robotic systems able to climb real natural terrain. whose Resistance is inversely proportional to the Light falling on it. sensor terminal L is just above the bottom of the tank and sensor terminal H is at the top of the tank. The three sensors built from noncorrosive metal are fitted to the OHT as shown in Fig. The sensors are made with help of LDR which are Light Dependent Resistors. Automatic Night Lamp with Morning Alarm using Microprocessor This Project “Automatic Night Lamp with Morning Alarm” was developed using Microprocessor.