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Presented by Dr. Sharika .K.

U 1st MD


It is a long cylibndrical greyish white structure covered by meninges and lies in vertebral canal.  It extends from Foramen magnum above to lower border of L1 in adults ad upper border of L3 in children.  It is the least modified portion of embryonic neural tube and only part of adult NS in wh primitive segmental arngt is clearly preserved.  LENGTH—45 cm in male  43 cm female.


The spinal cord functions primarily in the transmission of neural signals between the brain and the rest of the body but also contains neural circuits that can independently control numerous reflexes and central pattern generators. The spinal cord has three major functions: A. Serve as a conduit for motor information, which travels down the spinal cord. B. Serve as a conduit for sensory information, which travels up the spinal cord. C. Serve as a center for coordinating certain reflexes 3 4 .similima.

c stops at L1 level .com 5   . Pia that extend down as connective tissue filament calld ‘FILUM TERMINALE’. Though s.C tapers as ‘CONUS MEDULLARIS www.meningeal layer conts down. S.Pia ad arachenoid extend down to S2 ad dura extend furthr down.similima.

C is shorter than spinal canal. www.C.similima.c occupies the entire length of vertebral canal bt after that v .com 6 ..C ad V.c.c exceeds s .  S. There is disproportionate growth of S.  Upto 3rd month of fetal life s. vertebral bodies ad spinal cord segments donot currespond wth vertebral bodies.

com 7 . S C has 2 enlargements -----cervical ad lumbar - give rise to brachial ad lumbosacral plexus respectvly. www.similima.  It posses an ANTERIOR MEDIAN FISSURE ad POSTERIOR MEDIAN SULCUS.

similima.S .com 8 .  And surrounding white matter composed of bundls of myelinated fibres. www. T. s.c consist of a butterfly shaped or H shaped grey substance composed of collection of all cellbodies ad their processes. 9 .

similima.each half of s .c has POSTERIOR GRAY COLOUMN or POSERIOR HORN wh extends posterolaterally to surface. www. The grey matter consist of CELL COLOUMNS.  At thorasic spinal segment a small pointed LATERAL HORN is evident near the base of antr 10 .  An ANTERIOR GRAY COLOUMN or ANTERIOR HORN extends anteriorly bt doesn’t reach surface.

Spinal cord levels  31 Spinal segments  Different levels of sc varies in Size n shape In d relative amt of grey n white matter Disposition n configuratoion of grey 11 . www.

Cervical spinal segments contains d largest no: of fibres in white matter. Grey coloumns r maximal at cervical n lumbar enlargements which r associated wit larger nerves that innervate d extremities: 12 .similima.

relatvly lge amt of white matter ad an oval shape. Transverse dia > ant dia www.   Posterior columns r large in cervical 13 .similima.cervical segments  They r chara by their relatively large size .

 The ant n post horns r relatively small except for 14 .THORACIC SEGMENTS  The small dia of thoracic segments is due primarily to a marked reduction in grey matter.similima. www.  A small lateral horns is present at all thoracic segments.

similima.  Upper lumbar resemble lower thoracic segment.LUMBAR SEGMENTS  These segments r nearly circular in transverse section.  Relatively less white matter than cervical segments.  Have massive ant n post horns. 15 . 16 .  Large grey matter small amt of white matter www.SACRAL SEGMENTS  These r char by their small size. 17 .similima. 18 . Spinal nerves : 31 pairs  A part of PNS  They r made up of bundles of nerve fibers(axons)  Attached to d spinal cord by ANT or MOTOR ROOTS n POST or SENSORY ROOTS. www.  Each root attached to d cord by series of rootlets which extend whole length of cord.

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but there s a lengtheng of root filaments bn ivf n sc which is most marked lumbar n sacral 20 . www. 31 pairs of SN leave d SC n pass laterally from each spinal segment to d level of their respective intervertebral foramina  A spinal nerve s a mixture of both sensory n motor nerves  Dispropotionate growth-----length of root increases progressively from above downwards  The site of emergence of SN do not change.similima.

com 21 .similima.The spinal nerve emerges from the spinal column through an opening (intervertebral foramen) between adjacent vertebrae. This is true for all spinal nerves except for the first spinal nerve pair. which emerges between the occiput ad atlas. www.

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com 23 .but d roots of lumbar n sacral nerves below d termination of sc form a vertebral leash of nerves around filum terminale resemble horse tail called CAUDA EQUINA www.similima.In d upper cervical region d SN root run almost horizontally. 24 .  POST RAMI supplies post part.  ANT RAMUS supplies muscle n skin of anterolateral wall n all limbs.DIVISIONS OF SN  Ant n post rami: each contain both motor n sensory fibers.



abnormal sensation. The muscles that one particular spinal root supplies are that nerve's 27 . and the dermatomes are the areas of sensory innervation on the skin for each spinal nerve. Lesions of one or more nerve roots result in typical patterns of neurologic defects (muscle weakness. changes in reflexes) that allow localization of the causeating lesion. www.

LEVEL OF EXIT  First seven arise above corresponding cervical vertebra n 8th below C7  Other spinal roots exit below their corresponding vertebral bodies .com 28 . www.similima.  Lumbar n sacral roots r very long since they descend from their respective cord segment to their exit points. 29 .SPINAL NERVES(31)  8 CERVICAL  12 THORACIC  5 LUMBAR  5 SACRAL  1 COCCYGEAL VERTEBRA(33)  7 CERVICAL  12 THORACIC  5 LUMBAR  5 SACRAL  4 COCCYX www. . Wit emergence of a pair of spinal nerve.SPINAL SEGMENT N V C  Region of spinal cord asso.  Spinal segment underline each vertebra r determined as below UPTO C7 ADD ONE T1-T6 ADD TWO T7 –T9 ADD THREE 10-L1 & L2 11---L3 & L4 12---L5 30 www.

com 31 .Lies loosely in VC & separated from wall by EXTRA DURAL OR EPIDURAL SPACE.  PIA—closely covers sc below it fuses wth f terminale.  ARACHENOID—do-.similima. magnum wit that of brain n inferly ends on filum terminale at S2. www.MENINGES OF SC  DURA—continuous above thru F.b/w conus medullaris ad lowerend of subarachd space lie cauda equina bathed in csf.

 Antr spinal A ---ANT 2/3rd of sc.postr spinal A –postr 1/3rd  One radicular A in lumbar region s longer thn all other---ARTERY OF ADAMKIEWICZ. 32 .ARTERIAL SUPPLY  Branchs of 1)vertebral arteries  2)radicularA  One antr ad 2 postr spinal A.

SPINAL CORD DISEASE  MOTOR DISTURBNCE.similima.partial or complete sensory loss below lesion.exaggeratd below lesn.  REFLEX CHANGE.  SENSORY 33 .A period of areflexia ad flaccidity SPINAL SHOCK.aftr that spasticity develops over extensrs of LL ad flexors of UL. www.UMN paralysis below ad LMN at the level.

 BLADDER DISTRNCE. SEXUAL REFLEXES---psychogenic erectn-T12.sympath-L1 & L2 para-L3 &L4 www.similima.L3 reflex erectn S2 – 34 .

L5 refer to the location of a specific vertebra in either the cervical. C7. L1. The two areas of the spinal cord most commonly injured are the cervical spine (C1C7) and the lumbar spine (L1-L5). or lumbar region of the 35 . thoracic. (The notation C1.similima.) www.

neurologic elements (nerve roots) of the spinal canal below the termination (conus) of the spinal cord. 36 .Cauda equina syndrome (CES) is a serious neurologic condition in which there is acute loss of function of the lumbar plexus.similima. 37 .www.