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International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED RESEARCH IN 0976 – 6480

(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, May – June (2013), © IAEME ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJARET) ISSN 0976 - 6480 (Print) ISSN 0976 - 6499 (Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, May – June 2013, pp. 191-199 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijaret.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.8376 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com

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APPLICATION OF TAGUCHI METHOD IN THE OPTIMIZATION OF BORING PARAMETERS
Ajeet Kumar rai*, Shalini yadav, Richa Dubey and Vivek Sachan Mechanical Engineering Department Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Allahabad-211004, India

ABSTRACT In the present study, Taguchi method is applied to find optimum process parameters in the boring operation of a cast iron work piece. A L27 orthogonal array, signal-to-noise ratio and analysis of variances are applied to study the performance characteristics of machining parameters (cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut) with consideration of surface finish. Experimental results reveal that among the cutting parameters, the depth of cut is most significant machining parameter for surface roughness followed by feed rate and cutting speed in the specified test range. Keywords:, Optimization, Taguchi method, S/N ratio, Boring operation INTRODUCTION Taguchi parameter design offers a systematic approach for optimization of various parameters with regards to performance, quality and cost. And it is important in a sense to meet the challenge coming before the manufacturers, which are to increase the production rate, reducing operating cost and enhancing the quality of production. Taguchi primarily recommends experimental design as a tool to make products more robust- to make them less sensitive to noise factors. He views experimental design as a tool for reducing the effect of variation on product and process quality characteristics [1]. The complete procedure in Taguchi design method can be divided into three stages: system design, parameter design and tolerance design. Of the three design stages, the second stage- the parameter design –is considered to be the most important stage [2]. This stage of Taguchi parameter design requires that the factors affecting quality characteristics in the manufacturing process have to be determined. The major goal of this stage is to identify the optimal cutting conductions that
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International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, May – June (2013), © IAEME

yield the lowest surface roughness value. Few steps to be followed in the Taguchi parameter design are: selecting the proper orthogonal array (OA) according to the numbers of controllable factors, running experiments based on the OA, analyzing data, Identifying the optimum condition, and conducting confirmation runs with the optimal levels of all the parameters. Taguchi method is used by several researchers to carry out their studies in various machining operations like turning, end milling, drilling etc. Yang et al [3] used the Taguchi parameter design in order to identify optimum surface roughness performance on an aluminum material with cutting parameters of depth of cut, cutting speed, feed rate and tool diameter. It was found that tool diameter is not a significant cutting factor affecting the surface roughness. Bagci et al [4] used the Taguchi method to explore the effects of drilling parameters on the twist drill bit temperature for a design optimization of cutting parameters. Zhang et al [5] performed a study of the Taguchi Design application to optimize surface quality in a CNC face milling operation. Taguchi design was successful in optimizing milling parameters for surface roughness. Nalbant et al. [6] used Taguchi method to find optimum cutting parameters for surface roughness in turning of AISI 1030 carbon steel bars using TiN coated tools. Three cutting parameters namely, insert radius, feed rate, and depth of cut are optimized with considerations of surface roughness. In turning, use of greater insert radius, low feed rate and low depth of cut are recommended to obtain better surface roughness for the specific test range. Ghani et al. [7] applied Taguchi method to find optimum cutting parameters for surface roughness and cutting force in end milling when machining hardened steel AISI H13 with TiN coated P10 carbide insert tool under semi-finishing and finishing conditions of high speed cutting. The milling parameters evaluated is cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut. In end milling, use of high cutting speed, low feed rate and low depth of cut are recommended to obtain better surface roughness and low cutting force. Kurt et al [6] employed the Taguchi method in the optimization of cutting parameters for surface finish and hole diameter accuracy in dry drilling processes. The validity of the Taguchi approach to process optimization was well established. From the above stated literature review, it becomes clear that the Taguchi Design method has been widely applied with great success for optimizing industrial/production processes. Keeping this perspective the present work has been taken with the objective to investigate the effects of different boring parameters on surface roughness, and is to determine the optimal boring parameters using the Taguchi technique. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Table1 shows three factors and three levels used in the experiment. For selecting appropriate arrays, degree of freedom of array is calculated. There are six degrees of freedom owing to three machining parameters, so Taguchi based L27 orthogonal array is selected (Table 2). Accordingly 27 experiments were carried out to study the effect of machining input parameters. Each experiment was repeated three times in order to reduce experimental errors. Table 1: Level of process parameters Factors Level 1 Cutting Speed (m/min) 80 Feed (mm/rev.) 0.05 Depth of cut (mm) 0.3
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Symbol A B C

Level 2 100 0.1 0.4

Level 3 120 0.15 0.5

International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, May – June (2013), © IAEME

Table 2: Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal array Factor Standard order 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The Taguchi method employs a generic signal- to–noise (S/N) ratio to quantify the present variation. These S/N ratios are meant to be used as measures of the effect of noise factors on performance characteristics. S/N ratios take into account both amount of variability in the response data and closeness of the average response to target. There are several S/N ratios available depending on type of characteristics: smaller is better, nominal is better and larger is better. Twenty-seven experiments were performed using the design parameter
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A 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.15 0.15 0.15

B 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.5

C

International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, May – June (2013), © IAEME

combinations in the specified orthogonal array table. Nine specimens were fabricated for each of the parameter combinations. The complete response table for these data appears in Table 3. In order to estimate the effect of factor A (Cutting Speed) on average value of response variables, were summed together nine observed response at level 1 of factor A. Then the sum was divided by nine to obtain the average response. Average responses at level 2 and level 3 were obtained in the similar manner. The estimated effects are presented graphically in fig. 2. The range of average responses over the three levels of each experimental factor is: For Cutting speed = 72.5 For Feed rate = 41.6666 For Depth of cut = 31.3889 In particular, factor A, B and C should be set at level 2, level 3 and level 1 respectively.

350 300 250 Average 200 150 100 50 0 A1 A2 A3 B1 B2 B3 C1 C2 C3

Level of factor

Figure 2: Estimated factor effects The sample standard deviation is generally accepted measure of variability in statistical data analysis and experimental design. This statistics is somewhat more difficult to calculate than the sample range, but it has desirable properties which make its use worth the added effort. The standard deviation was calculated for each tube in five steps. First, y was subtracted from each measurement in the sample (sample mean), then the square differences obtained prior were calculated. Next, the squared obtained differences were and was divided the sum by the sample size minus one (s2). Finally obtain the square root of s2. The sample variance is written as s2 = ∑(y-y)2 /(n-1) s = √s2 (1) (2)

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, May – June (2013), © IAEME

Table 3: Experimental data sample statistics Experiment Number
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

Observed response values of Surface Roughness (µm)
10 280 340 400 450 440 345 290 300 320 335 300 230 145 250 240 280 115 275 210 290 250 290 275 230 275 215 15 300 360 425 425 415 375 320 335 340 350 315 245 165 225 220 305 140 285 225 300 280 315 250 210 300 230

Mean

Standard Deviation
3.5355 14.1421 14.1421 17.6776 17.6776 17.6776 21.2132 21.2132 24.7487 14.1421 10.6066 10.6066 10.6066 14.1421 17.6776 14.1421 17.6776 17.6776 7.0710 10.6066 7.0710 21.2132 17.6776 17.6776 14.1421 17.6776 10.6066

Log of S.D.
0.5484 1.1505 1.1505 1.2474 1.2474 1.2474 1.3266 1.3266 1.3935 1.1505 1.0255 1.0255 1.0255 1.1505 1.2474 1.1505 1.2474 1.2474 0.8494 1.0255 0.8494 1.3266 1.2474 1.2474 1.1505 1.2474 1.0255

S/N Ratio

12.5 290 350 412.5 437.5 427.5 360 305 317.5 330 342.5 307.5 237.5 155 237.5 230 292.5 127.5 280 217.5 295 265 302.52 262.5 220 287.5 222.5

-21.9382 -49.2479 -50.8813 -52.3084 -52.8195 -52.6187 -51.1260 -49.685 -50.0348 -50.3702 -50.6932 -49.756 -47.5132 -43.8066 -47.5132 -47.2345 -49.3225 -42.1102 -48.9431 -46.7491 -49.3964 -48.4649 -49.6145 -48.3825 -46.8484 -49.1727 -46.9466

The estimated log s effects from Table 3 are plotted in Fig.3.In order to minimize the variability the following optimum results were obtained. Factor A, Cutting Speed at level 3 Factor B, feed rate at level 1 Factor C, Depth of cut at level 1

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, May – June (2013), © IAEME

1.4 1.2 1 Log (s) 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 A1 A2 A3 B1 B2 B3 C1 C2 C3

Level of Factor

Figure 3: Estimated factor effects on log(s) In this work, the minimum surface roughness is the indication of better performance. Therefore, the smaller-is-better for the surface roughness was selected for obtaining optimum result. The following S/N ratios for the lower-is-better case could be calculated:S/NLB = −10 ଵ 2 Log (௥ ∑௥ ௜ୀଵ yi )

Fig 4 photograph showing experimentation

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, May – June (2013), © IAEME
-44.5 -45 -45.5 -46 S/N Ratio -46.5 -47 -47.5 -48 -48.5 -49 -49.5 Level of Factor A1 A2 A3 B1 B2 B3 C1 C2 C3

Figure 4: Plot of factor effects on S/N Ratio Table 4: Overall mean S/N Ratio Average S/N Ratio by factor level A B C -47.8510 -46.4417 -46.0829 -47.5910 -49.2268 -49.0123 -48.2798 -48.0534 -48.6266

Level 1 2 3

Overall mean S/N Ratio -47.9072

In order to maximize the S/N ratio the following assignments were done: factor A (Cutting speed) – level 2, factor B (Feed rate) – level 1, factor C (Depth of cut) – level 1. Figure 4 shows that factor C have a strong effect on S/N ratio response. Factor B is the next most significant. The above analyses of table 3 and table 4 are summarized in table 5. In that table the levels of key factors which are optimizing the response are listed. Some significant levels are shown in fig. 2, 3 and 4. Keep in mind that the objective is to minimize the response average, minimize log s, and maximize the S/N Ratio. Table 5. Summary of analyses of factor effects Level which was optimized y Log s 2 3 3 1 1 1

Factor A B C

S/N Ratio 2 1 1

In this study factor A and B were dominant. For parameter C, reducing log s will have little effect on the performance than the S/N ratio. So level 1 is optimized. The final optimized values are:1) Cutting speed: - Level 2 – 100 m/min. 2) Feed rate: - Level 1 - 0.15 mm/rev. 3) Depth of cut: - Level 1 - 0.3 mm.
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International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, May – June (2013), © IAEME

CONCLUSIONS In this study, the Taguchi optimization method was applied to find the optimal process parameters, which minimizes the surface roughness during the boring of cast iron. A Taguchi orthogonal array, the signal to noise(S/N) ratio and the analysis of variance (ANOVA), were used for the optimization of cutting parameters. Results show that depth of cut will have great influence on the surface roughness followed by feed and cutting speed. REFERENCES [1] ] Lochner R.H. Matar J.E.,(1990) Design for quality- An introduction to the best of Taguchi and western methods of statistical experimental design. New York. [2] Taguchi G., Sayed M.Ei., and Hsaing C., (1989) Quality engineering and quality systems. McGraw-Hill NY. [3]Yang , J. L., Chen J.C. (2001) A systematic approach for identifying optimum surface roughness performance in end-milling operations. Journal of Industrial Technology, vol 17, No 2, P1-8. [4] Bagci E., Ozcelik B. (2006) Analysis of temperature changes on the twist drill under different drilling conditions based on Taguchi method during dry drilling of AI 7075-T65. International JOUrnal of Advanced manufacturing Technology, vol 29,no 7-8, p 629-636. [5] Zhang, J.Z.; Chen, J.C.; and Kirby, E.D. (2007). Surface roughness optimization in an end-milling operation using the Taguchi design method. Journal of Material Processing Technology, 184(1-3), 233-239. [6] Nalbant, M.; Gokkaya, H.; and Sur, G. (2007). Application of Taguchi method in the optimization of cutting parameters for surface roughness in turning. Materials & Design, 28(4), 1379-1385. [7] Ghani, J.A.; Chodhury, I.A.; and Hassan, H.H. (2004). Application of Taguchi method in the optimization of end milling parameters. Journal of Material Processing Technology, 145(1), 84-92. [8] Kurt M, Bagci E., Kaynak Y., (2009) Application of Taguchi methods in the optimization of cutting parameters for surface finish and hole diameter accuracy in dry drilling processes. T. Childs, K. Maekawa, T. Obikawa and Y. Yamane, metal cutting theory and application, New York, USA (2000). [9] Ajeet Kumar Rai, Vivek Sachan and Maheep Kumar, “Experimental Investigation of a Double Slope Solar Still with a Latent Heat Storage Medium”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 22 - 29, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359. [10] Ajeet Kumar Rai and Ashish Kumar, “A Review on Phase Change Materials & Their Applications”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering & Technology (IJARET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 214 - 225, ISSN Print: 0976-6480, ISSN Online: 0976-6499 [11] Ajeet Kumar Rai, Richa Dubey, Shalini Yadav and Vivek Sachan, “Turning Parameters Optimization for Surface Roughness by Taguchi Method”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 4, Issue 3, 2013, pp. 203 - 211, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359.

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, May – June (2013), © IAEME

APPENDIX

Fig A photograph showing machined parts

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