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Marketing is key to success of any business and must be customer-driven in order to be effective. Make customers your prime focus and reap the rewards.

Marketing is often confused with publicity and promotion, but these are just part of the discipline. Understand all the components of marketing, particularly the central role that customers play, and you will be a step closer to business success. Defining marketing. Effective marketing is often described as “making what you can sell, not selling what you can make”. Organizations that sell what they can make are product-led: they make the product first, consider customers afterwards, and see marketing simply as a means of persuading customers to buy. The most successful organizations make what they can sell. They are customer-led, creating products and services in response to customer need. Analyzing the marketing mix. The marketing mix is a very simple and successful recipe to follow. Blend its key ingredients – product, price, place, and promotion- in the correct proportions, and you will reap the many benefits of effective, strategic marketing.

Understanding the mix. The marketing mix of product, price, place, and promotion is known as the ‘Four Ps’. Marketing involves developing the right product (one that meets customer need); setting the right price (one that delivers a profit and keeps customers happy); getting the product to the right place (where customers can buy it); and promoting it (to encourage customers to buy it). The ingredients of the mix are the same for all organizations, only quantities vary. Where customers are price-conscious, for example, price dominates the mix and setting the right prices is vital.

Examining proportions. Devise the right marketing mix and you will maximize profits. Focus on each element of the mix to determine its importance to your business. Remember that the mix is not static; the perfect proportions today may not produce the desired results next year, or even next week. From time to time, you will need to vary the recipe by reducing prices during quiet periods, for example. There is an interrelationship between the four ingredients of the mix. If a product’s price is high, customers will have high expectations. If advertising and promotional activity are significant, these costs will have to be recouped in the price.


. but its attitude will always see which way the market will go before limit achievement.For businesses that rely on passing trade. . FOSSIL Conservative. such as advertising and direct mail. A more proactive approach deciding whether to take any action. and is important to identify which ones your products and services meet. since the right location and products will ensure success.The right price for quality goods is a fair one. or other distribution system. PLACE The ‘bridge’ connecting customers and products. This type of company Dislikes taking risks. FOLLOWER Lacks pioneering spirit. are willing to travel long distances to shop. Such Has always conducted business in the same organizations need to develop a more outward way and sees no reason to change. for example.For some niche businesses. . FACTORS TO CONSIDER Products and services usually fulfill a number of needs. 2 . that informs customers what you have to offer and persuades them to buy. retail outlet. and complacent. Prefers to play it safe and might attain success. the price must be right if customers are to buy a product in sufficient quantities to ensure a profit. . promotion is less important. This type of Consistently anticipates customers’ needs and organization truly understands marketing. Activity must be driven by customer need. place is not an issueenthusiasts and collectors. invests in research and product development and devises innovative solutions. focus. . PRICE A crucial part of the mix. It gets its products to the market first.Creating the right marketing mix KEY ELEMENTS PRODUCT OR SERVICE Bought by customers to meet a need. would improve marketing success. PROMOTION Promotional activity. Price and quality must be balanced successfully.For most enterprises.Fair does not necessarily mean cheap. . Identifying marketing company types TYPE OF COMPANY FOREFRONTER CHARACTERISTICS Innovative and proactive. not company habit and tradition.set the price of a product too low and customers may assume that its quality is inferior. insular. such as a wholesaler.The Internet provides a new mechanism for bringing customers and company together. promotional activity is essential for attracting customers.

Identifying sources of information SOURCE COMPANY RESOURCES FACTORS TO CONSIDER Existing information can often provide Includes invoices. A good image is a prerequisite for successful marketing. Meet identified customer need and you will sell more products and lose fewer customers. A better understanding of your customers will also enable you to target publicity more accurately. These might include your premises. Public relations (PR) is often regarded as the fifth ‘P’ of the marketing mix. CUSTOMER INTERRACTION A good way of eliciting qualitative Includes face-to-face surveys and focus information about your customers’ groups. CUSTOMER FEEDBACK Create as many channels as possible for Includes comment cards and feedback via customers to give you their views. Look at the various aspects of your business that customers use to form their view of you. draw up a plan of action for bringing your desired image into line with your actual image. you can tailor-make products and services for particular groups of key customers. but it is those who respond to customers’ needs to be treated as individuals who are most likely to succeed. such as lists. Collecting data. Explain that their insights will help you to develop products and services to meet their needs. Consider ways of boosting your image: perhaps your organization could support or sponsor a charity. An attractive product at the right price will not guarantee a sale. and your publicity materials. what they think about your products and services. motivations. or local venture. size of purchase. Is that the image you want to put across? If not. for example. By collecting and processing customer data to produce a customer profile and identify customer segments. Ask your Web site. and geographic location of customers. Customers do not like to buy from companies with poor reputations. Examine each of them in detail and work out what kind of image is being conveyed to your customers. Fitting PR into the mix. mailing valuable marketing intelligence. a worthwhile cause. standing for perception. Use statutory sources of information to on build a company profile of your typical 3 . Use PR techniques to enhance your image and shape positive customer perceptions. date of last purchase. STATUTORY BODIES Regulatory bodies holding data company performance and finances.Creating the right image. dispatch notes. and sales statistics. Many organizations have huge customer bases. the telephone manner of staff.

to die of. late for. rich in 4 . to confide in. to deal with. to confess to. to consist of. sorry for different from. to comply with. safe from experienced in. to expel from. to be crammed with. Use this data to target similar companies. anxious about. to laugh about to insure against. to remind of. interested in. to boast about. to delight in. to result in. to be faced with b) Prepositions following adjectives: About At By For From In annoyed about. to result from. to differ from. bored by. excited about. upset about angry at.customer based on factors such as size or turnover. surprised at accompanied by. to boast of. annoyed at. to congratulate on. to rely on to be acquainted with. to blame somebody for something. II. to concentrate on. shocked by. to contribute to. to beg for. to mistake for. to refrain from. to charge with. famous for. certain about. to date back to. to be bad/ good at. Prepositions in Combinations There are a number of words (verbs. to derive from. to suspect of to attribute to. surprised by early for. to depend on. to charge for. to believe in. to stare at. to care for. nouns. to hear of. to blame something on somebody. to pay for. to listen to. sorry about. and adjectives) which are normally accompanied by certain prepositions. to dispose of. to commit (oneself) to. to be resigned to to base on. to laugh at. to protest against to glance at. to hint at. to insist on. to translate from to accuse of. to lean against. to involve in. to be concerned with. to pride oneself on. to die from. to prefer to. to react to. to specialise in. to guess at. to throw at. to marvel at. right about. What follows is a short list of some of the most useful of these. to apologise for. to decide on. to succeed in. to hear from. to coincide with. as well as some of the most useful prepositional phrases: a) Prepositions following verbs: About Against At In For From Of To On With to be concerned about. responsible for. to comment on. to benefit from. to operate on. to suffer from.

at first sight. out of fashion. by mistake. in doubt. in answer to. irrespective of. emphasis on. in the meantime. bored with. at least. in good condition. by heart. effect on. at first. conscious of. in charge of. in debt. within reach without delay. solution to. in the end. on a farm. under stress with the exception of. on the verge of. in reply to. witness to contrast with. in recognition of. on behalf of. out of the question. busy with. by the time. aware of. impact on. in conclusion (to). by surprise. on the radio. in theory. exception to. pleased with c) Prepositions following nouns: At In On Over For To With amazement at. in no time (at all). on purpose. addicted to. in fact. responsibility for. immune to. fond of. out of focus. obsessed with. at the end. surprise at interest in comment on. on a regular basis. in earnest. in short. indifferent to. at a loss. capable of. in time. for one’s sake. at a profit beyond belief by accident. annoyed with. attentive to. under pressure. at the moment. on the whole out of breath. out of danger. out of reach. under repair. married to angry with. quarrel with. at the first attempt. on the phone. kind to. familiar with. influence on in disagreement over. out of all proportion. allergic to. under arrest. in jeopardy. for the sake of. in the dark. on loan. out of control. delighted with. relationship with d) Prepositional phrases After At Beyond By For In On Out of Under With Within Without after all at all costs. at hand. under the circumstances. at any rate. in trouble on average. on the contrary. out of date. grateful to. worthy of keen on accustomed to. jealous of. in danger. characteristic of. full of. sympathy for attitude to. at fault. out of work under age. on condition. in harmony. without exception. at large. good of. for the time being. in difficulty. room for. for granted. without fail. under the impression. in advance. on television. with a view to within minutes. in honour of. respect for. out of practice. on offer. by the way for fear of. ashamed of. at last. in blossom. in practice. damage to. under the influence of.Of On To With afraid of. cute for. out of time. in comparison with. on time. in fashion. without warning 5 . dispute with. in dispute over admiration for. in any case.

People who are absent-minded………………………………………………. your nephew couldn’t have painted this since he’s just five. The company has offered its collaborators a ten-day holiday in a five-star hotel in Orlando. 9. they fully deserve it. You can never rely on people who are absent-minded.You may not remove any tools from the archaelogical site. 4. With all due respect.With all due respect. A lot of their friends……………………behind when they are forced to abandon the territory. they fully deserve it. 5.I’m going to congratulate the winners. 6 .by the the owners. The company’s collaborators…………………a ten-day holiday in a five-star hotel in Orlando. The insurance company…………………………………. They are leaving a lot of their friends behind when they are forced to abandon the territory. The fragmented parchments……………………to Rome to be studied by the Vatican’s scholars. 8.III. They had collected all the fragmented parchments and had taken them to Rome to be studied by the Vatican’s scholars. Next week a new trade union leader …………………………………………. 2. 1.. The owners must urgently notify the insurance company. this………………………………by your nephew since he’s just five. The winners……………………………………………. The following pairs of sentences are synonymous in meaning. 11. The judge made the thief think about the deed before he cleared him of attempting to steal the money. 10. 3. No tools ……………………………………. 7. The mechanic was always giving useful instructions to the people having problems with their car. Next week the workers will elect a new trade union leader. The thief………………about his deed before he…………………of attempting to steal the money. 6. The people having problems with their car………………useful instructions by the mechanic.from the archaelogical site. Fill in the space in the second sentence.

She’s going to complete the questionnaire tonight. Hunger may have forced the settlers to withdraw to the islands on the east coast. 20. 24. 13. They ought to have promoted young people in key positions within the Government if they wanted to make substantial changes.12. 15. 17. They reported the earthquake had damaged most of the houses in the central area. If they had asked him. 26. 5. What was the idea behind painting all your walls this sparkling red that drives everybody crazy in half an hour? 19. They’d better stop all the arguments and reach an agreement. 1. I arrived very late in the afternoon because they were repairing the bridge and I had to drive an extra 30 miles. 22. 13. After they elected him vice president he put all his knowledge in the service of the company. 12. Today’s paper hasn’t commented upon the latest events. 6. They recommended the users a more attentive reading of the instructions. The editor hoped the next day’s issue……………………………. English archaeologists proved that local thieves had plundered most of the tombs before they discovered them. has he? 10. 25. 7. Statistics show that the number of the population will increase in some countries and decrease in some others. Her parents will never buy such art deco furniture. 4. Does Helen really use the book or does she just keep it on a shelf? 16. They haven’t reached the highest peak yet. Who did you say stole your flowers? 18. The settlers ……………………by hunger to withdraw to the islands on the east coast. Bob is using too much paint for the front door and there won’t be enough left for the windows. Nobody has seen Nick again since he left the country. He thinks Dave is living in Sweden. The financial manager hasn’t signed the contract. he would have taken more pictures yesterday.. Change the following sentences from the active to the passive voice. 8. Had they agreed upon the terms? 11. 7 .by midnight. 21. 23. They have only recently renovated the house and they still have to replace the old fence. Will you check the prognosis before making it public? 14. The editor hoped his staff will have proofread the next day’s issue by midnight. The baker had ordered enough flour but the driver left one sack at the mill. Under the circumstances they thought they’d better not wait any further. The professors had asked the students to read three novels every week in order to cover the compulsory readings for that term. 9. 2. 3. IV.

V. Form the lexical family of the following words: high aware deep power energy explain entertain pursuit understand competition rely apologize hinder inhabit reason redeem threat breath account persuade 8 .

We want our work to demonstrate our individuality. supplanting the three traditional indicators of our uniqueness – place.VI. can I have a word with you? 7. Work has become an important personal identity tag. security now comes from an ability to move with the times. In the US. They have bought a holiday house and a man is now planting trees in the garden. rather than having it laid out for us by a corporate parent-replacement is another reason for our renewed interest in work. In the UK. our families. After you finish digging up the garden. the average 32-year-old has had nine jobs. It is line 20 exhausting – but it can be liberating.or requirement. We’ll ask somebody to change the lock of the office door so nobody could get in without our permission. line 8 As geographical roots have weakened. all of which push work more deeply into our individual lives. Has your dark suit arrived from the dry-cleaner? 5. answer with a word or short phrase. or celebrating its new-found flexibility. too. I won’t allow you to turn my room into a create our own working life. faith and blood. VII. You are going to read two texts on work. The young are in the vanguard of the do-it-yourself career-makers. not box us into a stereotype. 2. write a summary according to the instructions given. 3. 10. The ability . This work fixation springs from a series of profound changes in the nature of employment. A Whether we are damning the impact of work on our health. 9 . This trend reflects and reinforces a desire for work which brings personal fulfilment for work we are proud of. While job security was once based on one employer. our time. Do you think she had found somebody to paint the house before she sold it? 8. The editor-in-chief told his men to print the newspaper before the news of the explosion reached the office. This generation has line 19 seen for itself that a clever and skillful employee can call the shots. one in four youngsters want to work for themselves. My uncle found that his house had been broken into while he was out last night. You do not need to write complete sentences. It won’t take us more than a day to finish clearing out the mess in the garage. 6. 9. For questions 1-4. our families and our communities. religious affiliations have diminished and the extended family has dispersed. By the time I got to the shop they had closed so I couldn’t give them the film to develop. people are talking. or at east one set of skills. rewards and opportunities. For question 5. writing and thinking about work like never before. how we spend our labouring hours has become a window into our souls. Rephrase the sentences below to include have/ get (have/ get something done): 1. 4.

What reflects ‘the influence of women’ (lines 16-17)? 5. There are currently more women than men studying to be doctors and lawyers. What importance does the author attach to ‘the three traditional indicators of our uniqueness’ (line 8)? 2. 10 . The arrival of women has coincided with an increase in the levels of personal interaction at work. In 1911. the ways in which the role and nature of work has changed. Explain in your own words what is meant by the phrase ‘are in the vanguard of the do-ityourself career-makers’ (lines 19-20). The real impact of this seismic social and economic shift has been to increase the importance of work in all line 3 our lives.which inevitably makes it more valuable. away from manufacturing and towards services that need a line 17 human touch and where communication skills are far more highly valued than they were in previous generations. summarise in your own words as far as possible. This reflects not only the influence of women. B Women will shortly outnumber men in the UK labour force. and have been flooding into work for the past few decades. work is better now. excluded from conversations about work – that was ‘men’s talk’. In a paragraph of between 50 and 70 words. So. now they are knocking at the boardroom door. but also a shift in the line 16 nature of work. the female half of the population was. Now women talk and care about work as much as men. What phrase later in paragraph 1 echoes the mention in lines 3 to 4 of this text of the increasing importance of work? 4. The nature of the jobs now done by women has also pushed work up the agenda. while the working day is not filled with enjoyable interaction for everyone. 3.1. When the roles of breadwinner or homemaker were segregated by line 4 gender. by and large. The increase in the numbers of women at work has also changed the atmosphere of the workplace and helped to create a more natural and sociable environment than the offices and factories of the past. most of the time. 39 per cent of Britain’s working women were domestic servants. there is no questioning the fact that for most people.