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TYROSAFE 1st workshop Portorož

Task 1.2 Rolling resistance Dipl.-Ing. Gernot Schwalbe M. Sc. Federal Highway Research Institute Vehicle/Pavement Interaction

Content

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Rolling resistance as a part of total energy loss Rolling resistance and energy consumption Influence of road surface on rolling resistance Results of literature survey References

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Rolling resistance as a part of total energy loss flexing resistance deflection of pavement resistance of tyre/wheel damping of unevenness bearing friction aerodynamic resistance driving resistance aerodynamic resistance climbing resistance resistance of acceleration friction and adhesion 3 .

Rolling resistance and energy consumption Proportion of energy consumption of rolling resistance depends on driving condition: •driving in urban area with constant speed in lowlands the RR needs app. 20% of the total energy consumption Rolling resistance needs app. 50% •driving at high speeds the share of RR is only app. 75% of total energy consumption. 25% of total energy consumption 4 . at 100km/h it spends app.

Influence of road surface on rolling resistance • Characteristics of road surface have an influence on road’s rolling resistance – – – – unevenness megatexture macrotexture microtexture • Question: What influences road surface’s rolling resistance the most? • Literature survey of measurement results 5 .

stop & go) 6 .Results of literature survey • Increasing rolling resistance results in increasing of fuel consumption and CO2-emission • Rolling resistance increases marginal but almost linear with velocity • Rolling resistance has only marginal influence on fuel consumption while driving with an uneven driving pattern (e. urban traffic. g.

15 m) influences RR the most • influence of macrotexture increases with velocity 7 .Results of literature survey • Research of VTI (Influence of macro-/megatexture on fuel consumption): – tests have been performed with a passenger car. 20 different road surfaces • unevenness (wavelength 0.63 – 3.

Results of literature survey • Research of VTI/TUG (Tests of 100 different passenger car tyres on laboratory drum / test track) – rolling resistance was measured on laboratory drum (TUG) – noise/skid resistance measurements took place at test track (VTI CPX) – unknown if texture measurements took place • low correlation between rolling noise and rolling resistance • low correlation between skid resistance and rolling resistance • no conflict of goals detectable 8 .

Results of literature survey • Research of LCPC (The influence of pavement evenness and macrotexture on fuel consumption) – tests have been performed with actual vehicles on French highways and test track in Nantes • influence of unevenness and influence of macrotexture may combine but influences are not linear • evenness is as important as macrotexture and both are influencing fuel consumption • but driving habbits and road alignment have bigger influence on fuel consumption/CO2-emission 9 .

Results of literature survey • Research of BASt (Tests at vehicle/pavement test facility) – measurement of 12 different surfaces with 4 different tyres • a correlation between rolling resistance and noise emission was not detectable • best correlation between RR and texture was found at microtexturerange • megatexture had lowest correlation 10 .

Results of literature survey • Research of BASt (Rolling resistance round robin test) – rolling resistance measurements of two different tyres on 12 different pavements with BASt’s rolling resistance trailer – texture measurements have been conducted a long time after rolling resistance measurements • results show up to about 40% difference from minimal value to maximum value of rolling resistance of different pavements tested • no correlation between low-noise pavement and low rolling resistance 11 .

Conclusion • Road surface characteristics have an influence on rolling resistance and therefore on fuel consumption and CO2emission • Until now it is not sure which road characteristics are influencing pavements’ rolling resistance at the most • A conflict between good skid resistance. low rolling noise and low rolling resistance [13] could not be detected in the literature survey 12 .

Fortschritt-Berichte VDI Reihe 12 Nr. report .References [1] Bendtsen H: Rolling resistance. Berichte der BASt Heft S11 [6] Round Robin Test Rolling Resistance/Fuel Consumption. SILVIA Project Report [9] Sandberg U. industry report [8] Ejsmont J et al. report DWW-2005-046 [7] Environmental Impacts and Fuel Efficiency of Road Pavements. Zöller M: Der Rollwiderstand von Reifen auf Fahrbahnen. proceedings of 2000 National Conference on Noise Control Engineering [10] Glaeser K-P.: Laboratory Measurement of Rolling Resistance in Truck Tyres under Dynamic Vertical Load.: Rolling Resistance Results.TÜV Automotive.and Megatexture Influence on Fuel Consumption [4] du Plessis H et al. Umwelt Bundesamt 13 . Ejsmont J: Noise emission. eurobitume. fuel consumption.: Fuel Consumption of Vehicles as Affected by Road-Surface Characteristics [5] Ullrich S et al. 603 [11] Beuving E et al.: Der Einfluss der Textur auf Reifen/Fahrbahngeräusch und Rollwiderstand. symposium on surface characteristics 1988: [2] Laganier R. Lucas J: The Influence of Pavement Evenness and Macrotexture on Fuel Consumption [3] Sandberg U: Road Macro.: Fuel Efficiency of Road Pavements. friction and rolling resistance of car tires – Summary of an experimental study. paper 2002 [13] Ermittlung des aktuellen Standes der Technik im Hinblick auf Abrollgeräusch. paper 3rd Eurasphalt & Eurobitume Congress 2004 [12] Popov A at al. DRI 2003 Proceedings of 1st int. Rollwiderstand sowie Sicherheitseigenschaften moderner Pkw-Reifen.

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passenger car tyres and rims – pt. commercial vehicle tyres and rims – pt. passenger car. 1: tyres •ISO 4209-1. 1: tyres •DIN ISO 8767: passenger car tyres – methods of measuring RR •ISO 18164: passenger car. truck and bus tyres – methods of measuring rolling resistance (voting ends on 2008-10-23) •SAE J2452. stepwise coastdown methodology for measuring tyre RR 15 . truck and motorcycle tyres – methods of measuring rolling resistance ISO/DIS 28580.Standards: measurement methodologies of RR •ISO 4000-1.

Suggestion of reduction possibilities of RR Pavement Tyres texture characteristics: •micro-texture •macro-texture •mega-texture •road-surface roughness •longitudinal eveness •grip surface temperature •Temperature •Geometry •Size •speed index •height-to-width ratio •rim size/-width •material: •rubber compound •carcass •belt 16 .

Methodology of measuring rolling resistance test set-up test methods exterior drum deceleration method test facility interior drum flat track reaction force method vehicle power/torque method road trailer tractive force method 17 .

Vehicle/Pavement interaction test facility at BASt 18 .

Vehicle/Pavement interaction test facility at BASt • Measurement of RR and tyre/road noise on real pavements • 18 caskets can be mounted in the inner drum. filled with real pavements • maxiumum speed: up to 280 km/h possible 19 .

RR-trailer of BASt •tyre/wheel load •reaction force •temperature •velocity 20 .