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  The educational system in the European countries (*)

The characteristics of the educational systems in the European countries are the results of a cultural combination of their classic roots, Christianity, Renaissance, Enlightenment, Romanticism, Liberalism, Socialism, and the three great industrial revolutions. It is reasonable to think that the European Union, with its rich cultural background, is in a condition to maintain a high level of civilization. Italy’s precious source of values lies today within the Constitution that, through the past years, has shown its ethic, civil and political relevance. In particular, paragraph 2 of Art 3, which gives the school community the duty to contribute to the realization of equality in the learning chances of the students, by activating integration strategies and personalized teaching methods. In the nineties two European political leaders, Edith Cresson and Jacques Delors, have played a leading role in orienting Europe towards a more modern sensitivity as regards education and teaching training. They underlined the concept that Education is fundamental, not only for the development of a person, but also for the entire productivity. It’s senseless to separate intellectual from manual work since there is no manual activity not requiring advanced professional levels. The 1999 Amsterdam Treaty gives specific indications on the subject of school and education. Among the EU rules on cultural and education politics we find the one in which the EU recognizes to all EU citizens the right to study in any other member State of the EU, at the same conditions enjoyed in the State of origin, with the aim to develop the European dimension of education particularly, the learning of the EU languages; favour the mobility of students and teachers through the validation of diplomas and other degrees; promote cooperation among schools; develop communication regarding educational systems. In 2009 the Lisbon Strategy was revised and new objectives were determined to meet the 2020 European Strategy on education and training. Some of the common trends in the European school systems envisioned the empowerment of the pre-school services, the expansion of compulsory education, the organization of the secondary post-compulsory education paths, the territorial decentralization of the school systems, the school autonomy, and the overall evaluation system including the professional advancement of the teachers.

(*) © Copyright Edizioni Simone S.p.A. Il brano è tratto dal volume 526/4, Competenze linguistiche (Inglese) - Concorso a Cattedre 2012.