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Building Technology 2

May 11, '08 2:54 AM for everyone

BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

LAYOUT AND EXCAVATION

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SPIRIT LEVEL - INSTRUMENT OR TOOL CAPABLE OF VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL LINE CHECK. PLUMB BOB - IT‟S USES FOR VERTICAL LINE CHECK. PLASTIC HOSE FILLED W/ WATER – A METHOD OF LEVELLING (HORIZONTAL) BATTERBOARDS WITHOUT TRANSIT. 3-4-5 MULTIPLES W/ THE USE OF STEEL TAPE MEASURE – A MANUAL METHOD OF SQUARING THE CORNERS OF BUILDING LINES IN BUILDING LAYOUT. SHEET PILLING – A BARRIER FORMED TO PREVENT THE MOVEMENT OF SOIL TO STABILIZE FOUNDATION.

LAYOUT AND EXCAVATIONS
LAYOUT IS SOMETIMES CALLED “ STAKING OUT” WHICH MEANS THE PROCESS OF RELOCATING THE POINT OF BOUNDARIES AND PROPERTY LINE OF THE SITE WHERE THE BUILDING IS TO BE CONSTRUCTED. IT INCLUDES CLEARING, STAKING, BATTER BOARDS AND ESTABLISHES THE EXACT LOCATION OF THE BUILDING FOUNDATION AND WALL LINE ON THE GROUND.

STAKE – ARE WOODEN STICKS USED AS POSTS SHARPENED AT ONE END DRIVEN INTO THE GROUND TO SERVE AS BOUNDARIES OR SUPPORTS OF THE BATTER BOARDS. BATTER BOARD – WOOD STICK OR BOARD NAILED HORIZONTALLY AT THE STAKE WHICH SERVE AS THE HORIZONTAL PLANE WHERE THE REFERENCE POINT OF THE BUILDING MEASUREMENTS ARE ESTABLISHED. STRING – IS EITHER PLASTIC CHORD OR GALVANIZED WIRE ACROSS THE BATTER BOARDS USED TO INDICATE THE OUTLINE OF THE BUILDING WALL AND FOUNDATION.

LAYOUT METHODS AND PROCEDURES

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BEFORE THE CONSTRUCTION BEGINS, SEE TO IT THAT A BUILDING PERMIT IS FIRST SECURED FROM THE LOCAL AUTHORITIES CONCERNED. RELOCATE THE BOUDARIES OF THE CONSTRUCTION SITE. IT IS SUGGESTED THAT THE RELOCATION OF THE PROPERTY LINE SHALL BE DONE BY GEODETIC ENGINEER SPECIALLY FOR THOSE LOTS WITHOUT EXISTING REFERENCE POINTS OR ADJOINING STRUCTURES. CLEAR THE SITE OF ANY EXISTING STRUCTURE, TREES, AND OTHER ELEMENTS THAT WILL OBSTRUCT THE CONSTRUCTION WORK. CONSTRUCT AND ALLOCATE A SPACE FOR LABORERS‟ QUARTERS, CONSTRUCTION OFFICE, BODEGA FOR THE MATERIALS AND WORKING TOOLS AND TEMPORARY WASTE DISPOSAL. APPLY FOR A TEMPORARY CONNECTIONS OF ELECTRIC AND WATER SUPPLY. ELECTRIC CURRENT IS IMPORTANT FOR THE POWER NEEDS OF THE TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT AND IS NECESSARY ON OVERTIME SCHEDULES ESPECIALLY IN THE TIME OF CONCRETING. WATER IS ALSO A PRIME NEED IN CONSTRUCTION. CONSTRUCT A TEMPORARY FENCE AROUND THE CONSTRUCTION. VERIFY THE MEASUREMENT IN THE PLAN IF THE DISTANCES INDICATED ARE FORM:

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CENTER TO CENTER OUTER TO CENTER OUTER TO OUTER INSIDE TO INSIDE

FIX THE BATTER BOARD TO ITS HORIZONTAL POSITION WITH THE AID OF LEVEL INSTRUMENT PREFERABLY PLASTIC HOSE WITH WATER. AFTER ESTABLISHING THE REFERENCE POINT AND LINE OF THE FOOTING, TRANSFER THE INTERSECTING POINTS OF THE STRING ON THE GROUND BY THE AID OF PLUMB BOB AND INDICATE THE SIZE AND WIDTH TO BE EXCAVATED.

EXCAVATION

EXCAVATION WORK IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION IS CATEGORIZED INTO TWO TYPES: THE MINOR AND MAJOR EXCAVATION DEPENDING UPON THE SIZE AND NATURE OF THE FOUNDATION TO BE CONSTRUCTED. EXCAVATION FOR A SMALL CONSTRUCTION WITH INDEPENDENT WALL, OR COMBINED FOOTING IS CLASSIFIED UNDER THE MINOR EXCAVATION, WHILE THE REST WHICH REQUIRES SIZEABLES OR TOTAL EXTRACTION OF THE EARTH FALL UNDER THE CATEGORY OF MAJOR CONSTRUCTION.

MINOR EXCAVATION

EXCAVATION UNDER THIS CATEGORY ARE THOSE CONSTRUCTION HAVING INDEPENDENT FOOTING AND HOLLOW BLOCK WALL FOOTING WHERE THE DIGGING OF THE SOIL FOR THE FOOTING EXTEND TO A DEPTH FROM 1.00 TO 1.50 METER AND ABOUT HALF A METER DEPTH FOR THE WALL FOOTING.

MAJOR EXCAVATION

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION THAT REQUIRES WIDE EXCAVATION OR TOTAL EXTRACTION OF THE SOIL ARE CLASSIFIED INTO TWO CATEGORIES DEPENDING UPON THE CONDITION OR LOCATION OF THE SITE. WHEN THE AREA OF THE CONSTRUCTION SITE IS BIG THAT THERE IS ENOUGH SPACE TO ACCOMMODATE WORKING ACTIVITIES, STORING OF MATERIALS AND DUMPING GROUND FOR THE EXCAVATED SOIL.

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION ON A BUSY COMMERCIAL CENTER WITH ADJACENT EXISTING STRUCTURE IS CONSIDERED TO THE MOST COMPLICATED AMONG THE VARIOUS CONSTRUCTION WORKS SINCE THIS REQUIRES CAREFUL STUDY AND ANALYSIS OF THE RIGHT APPROACH.

PROBLEMS MIGHT BE ENCOUNTER:

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THE MANNER OF THE EXCAVATION TO BE EMPLOYED WHICH WILL NOT AFFECT OR DAMAGED THE ADJOINING STRUCTURE. THE KIND OF EQUIPMENT TO BE USED IN THE DIGGING AND EXTRACTING THE GROUND MAY NOT BE A PROBLEM BUT THE PLACE WHERE TO STATION THE EQUIPMENT DURING THE OPERATION. HOW AND WHERE TO DISPOSE THE EXTRACTED SOIL INVOLVES THE EFFECTIVE MANNER OF MANEUVERING THE PAYLOAD AND DRUMPTRUCKS IN HAULING WITHOUT OBSTRUCTING THE PEDESTRIAN AND VEHICULAR TRAFFIC FLOW. WHERE TO DISPOSE THE UNDERGROUND WATER TO BE DRAINED BY THE WATER PUMP DURING THE PROCESS OF CONSTRUCTION WHICH MIGHT CAUSE MUDDY ROAD AND CREATE INCONVENIENCE TO TRAFFIC.

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THE KIND OF SHEETING AND BRACING TO BE USED IN SHORING OR UNDERSPINNING TO PROTECT THE ADJOINING STRUCTURE MUST BE CONSIDERED.

FOUNDATION AND FOOTING

THE FUNCTION OF A FOUNDATION IS TO TRANSFER THE STRUCTURAL LOADS FROM A BUILDING SAFELY INTO THE GROUND. ALL FOUNDATIONS SETTLE TO SOME EXTENT AS THE SOIL AROUND BENEATH THEM ADJUST ITSELF TO THESE LOADS. UNIFORM SETTLEMENT IS USUALLY OF LITTLE CONSEQUENCES IN A BUILDING, BUT A DIFFERENTIAL SETTLEMENT CAN CAUSE SEVERE STRUCTURAL DAMAGE.

3 MAJOR PARTS OF A BUILDING:    SUPERSTRUCTURE – WHICH IS THE ABOVE GROUND PORTION OF THE BUILDING. SUBSTRUCTURE – WHICH IS THE HABITABLE BELOW-GROUND PORTION. FOUNDATION – WHICH ARE THE COMPONENTS OF THE BUILDING THAT TRANSFER ITS LOAD INTO THE SOIL.

3 TYPES OF SUBSTRUCTURES:    SLAB ON FILL CRAWLSPACE BASEMENT

2 BASIC TYPES OF FOUNDATIONS:   SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS ARE THOSE THAT TRANSFER THE LOAD TO THE EARTH AT THE BASE OF THE COLUMN OR WALL OF THE SUBSTRUCTURE. DEEP FOUNDATIONS TRANSFER THE LOAD AT A POINT FAR BELOW THE SUBSTRUCTURE.

FOUNDATION IS THAT PORTION OF THE STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS THAT CARRY OR SUPPORT THE SUPERSTRUCTURE OF THE BUILDING. FOOTING IS THAT PORTION OF THE FOUNDATION OF THE STRUCTURE WHICH DIRECTLY TRANSMIT THE COLUMN LOAD TO THE UNDERLYING SOIL OR ROCK, FOOTING IS THE LOWER PORTION OF THE FOUNDATION STRUCTURE. FOUNDATION BED - REFERS TO THE SOIL OR ROCK DIRECTLY BENEATH THE FOOTING.

PILE FOUNDATION – WHEN A FOUNDATION BED IS TOO WEAK TO SUPPORT A RAFT FOOTING, THERE IS AN URGENT NEED TO PROVIDE A SUITABLE MATERIALS WHERE TO TRANSFER THE EXCESS LOAD TO A GREATER DEPTH WHEREIN PILES IS THE ANSWER. PILE – IS A STRUCTURAL MEMBER OF SMALL CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA WITH REASONABLE LENGTH DRIVEN DOWN THE GROUND BY MEANS OF HAMMERS OR VIBRATORY GENERATOR. PILE IS DISTINGUISHED FROM A CAISSON BY BEING DRIVEN INTO PLACE RATHER THAN DRILED & POURED. PILES ARE GENERALLY DRIVEN CLOSELY TOGETHER IN CLUSTERS CONTAINING FROM TWO TO TWENTY-FIVE PILES. EACH CLUSTER IS LATER JOINED AT THE TOP BY A REINFORCED CONCRETE PILE CAP. PILE CAP – DISTRIBUTES THE LOAD OF THE COLUMN OR WALL EQUALLY AMONG THE PILES. CAISSONS – IS SIMILAR TO A COLUMN FOOTING IN THAT IT SPREADS THE LOAD FROM A COLUMN OVER A LARGE ENOUGH AREA OF SOIL.

FOUNDATION WALL – THAT PART OF THE BUILDING FOUNDATION WHICH FORMS THE PERMANENT RETAINING WALL OF THE STRUCTURE BELOW GRADE. GRADE BEAM – THAT PART OF A FOUNDATION SYSTEM W/C SUPPORTS THE EXTERIOR WALL OF THE SUPERSTRUCTURE AND BEARS DIRECTLY ON THE COLUMN FOOTING. RETAINING WALL – A WALL OR LATERALLY BRACED, THAT BEARS AGAINST AN EARTH OR OTHER FILL SURFACE AND RESISTS LATERAL AND OTHER FORCES. CANTILEVER WALL – A REINFORCED CONCRETE WALL WHICH RESIST OVERTURNING BY THE USE OF CANTILEVER FOOTING. GRAVITY WALL – A MASSIVE CONCRETE WALL THAT RESIST OVERTURNING BY VIRTUE OF IT‟S OWN WEIGHT. BEARING WALL – A WALL CAPABLE OF SUPPORTING AN IMPOSED LOAD.

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FOOTING ARE CLASSIFIED INTO TWO TYPES: WALL FOOTING OR STRIP FOOTING – IS A STRIP OF REINFORCED CONCRETE WIDER THAN THE WALL WHICH DISTRIBUTES THE LOAD TO THE SOIL. A STEEL PERCENTAGE EQUALS TO 0.2 TO 0.3% OF THE CROSS SECTIONAL AREA OF CONCRETE IS SAID TO BE ADEQUATE EXCEPT ON UNUSUAL CASES.

COLUMN FOOTING – IS CLASSIFIED INTO THE FOLLOWING TYPES: 1. ISOLATED OR INDEPENDENT FOOTING – IS A KIND OF FOOTING REPRESENTS THE SIMPLEST AND MOST ECONOMICAL TYPE, IN THE FORM OF:    2. SQUARE BLOCK FOOTING SQUARE SLOPE FOOTING SQUARE STEPPED FOOTING

COMBINED FOOTING – IS USED WHEN TWO OR MORE COLUMNS ARE SPACED CLOSELY TO EACH OTHER THAT THEIR FOOTING WILL ALMOST OR COMPLETELY MERGE. IT‟S EITHER :   RECTANGULAR TRAPEZOIDAL

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CONTINUOUS FOOTING – IS SOMETIMES CLASSIFIED AS WALL FOOTING WHICH SUPPORT SEVERAL COLUMNS IN A ROW. IT‟S EITHER:   INVERTED SLAB FOOTING INVERTED TEE FOOTING

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RAFT OR MAT FOOTING – IT‟S OCCUPIES THE ENTIRE AREA BENEATH THE STRUCTURE AND CARRY THE WALL AND THE COLUMN LOADS.    UNIFORM SLAB THICKENED SLAB BEAM & GIRDER

CONCRETE

CONCRETE IS AN ARTIFICIAL STONE MADE OUT FROM THE MIXTURE OF CEMENT, SAND, GRAVEL AND WATER. THIS IS KNOWN AS SOLID MASS OR PLAIN CONCRETE. CONCRETE IN WHICH REINFORCEMENT IS EMBEDDED IN SUCH A MANNER THAT THE TWO MATERIALS ACT TOGETHER IN RESISTING FORCES IS CALLED REINFORCED CONCRETE.

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SLUMP TEST – A READY MEANS OF DETERMINING THE CONSISTENCY OF FRESHLY MIXED CONCRETE. DESIGNING OF CONCRETE MIXTURE IS BASED ON THE WATER-CEMENT RATIO.    0.68 lb. OF WATER / lb. OF CEMENT WILL PRODUCE CONCRETE CAPABLE OF DEVELOPING 2,500 PSI IN 28 DAYS. LESS WATER PRODUCE STRONGER CONCRETE. MORE WATER PRODUCE LESSER STRENGTH.

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ADMIXTURE – ACCELERATES OR RETARDS CONCRETE SETTING. SIZES OF MEASURING BOX FOR :   40 kg. CEMENT – 300mm X 300mm X 300mm 50 kg. CEMENT - 320mm X 320mm X 330mm

CONCRETE MIXTURE: MIXTURE 1:11/2: 3 1:2:4 1:21/2:5 1:3:6 7.5 6 40kg. 50kg. 12 9 6 5 SAND 9.5 7 0.5 0.5 GRAVEL 0.5 cu.m. 0.5 1.0 1.0 1.0 cu.m. 1.0

CLASS “AA” “A” “B” “C”

MORTAR MIXTURE: MIXTURE 1:2 1:3 1:4 1:5 40kg. 50kg. 18 12 9 7.5 SAND 14.5 9.5 7 6 1.0 cu.m. 1.0 1.0 1.0

CLASS “A” “B” “C” “D”

POST AND COLUMN

POST – REFERS TO A PIECE OF TIMBER OF EITHER CYLINDRICAL, SQUARE OR OTHER GEOMETRICAL CROSS SECTION PLACED VERTICALLY TO SUPPORT A BUILDING. COLUMN – REFERS TO VERTICAL STRUCTURE USE TO SUPPORT A BUILDING MADE OF STONE, CONCRETE, STEEL OR COMBINATION OF THE ABOVE MATERIALS. STOREY – IS THE SPACE IN A BUILDING BETWEEN FLOOR LEVELS OR BETWEEN A FLOOR AND A ROOF ABOVE.

NO BENT BARS – WHEN BARS ARE NOT BENT. 3. REINFORCED CONCRETE – IS A COMBINATION OF CONCRETE AND STEEL.  TYPES OF COLUMNS ARE:  TIED COLUMN – HAS REINFORCEMENT CONSISTING OF VERTICAL OR LONGITUDINAL BARS HELD IN POSITION BY LATERAL REINFORCEMENT CALLED LATERAL TIES. THE VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT IS PROVIDED WITH EVENLY SPACED CONTINUOUS SPIRAL HELD FIRMLY IN POSITION BY AT LEAST THREE VERTICAL BAR SPACERS.  COMBINED COLUMN – WITH STRUCTURAL STEEL ENCASED IN CONCRETE OF AT LEAST 7 cm. AN ADDITIONAL STRAIGHT REINFORCING BARS ARE PLACED ON THE TOP OF THE BEAM ACROSS THE SUPPORTS EXTENDED TO THE REQUIRED LENGTH. CONCRETE – IS STRONG IN SUPPORTING COMPRESSION LOAD BUT WEAK IN RESISTING TENSION FORCES.  COMPOSITE COLUMN – WHERE STRUCTURAL STEEL COLUMN IS EMBEDDED INTO THE CONCRETE CORE OF A SPIRAL COLUMN. INFLECTION POINTS – REFER TO THE PORTION OF A BEAM WHERE BENDING MOMENT CHANGES FROM POSITIVE TO NEGATIVE. STEEL – POSSESSES THE STRENGTH TO RESIST BOTH COMPRESSION AND TENSION. THE STEEL PIPE IS SOMETIMES FILLED WITH GROUT OR CONCRETE FOR CORROSION. BENT REINFORCING BARS – ARE BENT UP ON OR NEAR THE INFLECTION POINT AND ARE EXTENDED AT THE TOP OF THE BEAM ACROSS THE SUPPORT TOWARDS THE ADJACENT SPAN.REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMN ARE CLASSIFIED AS:  SHORT COLUMN – WHEN THE UNSUPPORTED HEIGHT IS NOT GREATER THAN TEN TIMES THE SHORTEST LATERAL DIMENSION OF THE CROSS SECTION.        . GIRTS OR BEAM. BALANCE BEAM – WHEN THE AREA OF THE CONCRETE AND STEEL ARE JUST ENOUGH TO CARRY THE COMPRESSION AND TENSION FORCES SIMULTANEOUSLY. THK.  LALLY COLUMN – IS A FABRICATED STEEL PIPE PROVIDED WITH A FLAT STEEL BARS OR PLATE WHICH HOLD A GIRDER.  COMPRESSION STRESS TENSION STRESS SHEAR STRESS TORSION STRESS REINFORCEMENT NEED TO PROVIDE ON BEAM TO RESPONSE TO POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE BENDING WHICH MAY CAUSE FAILURE OR COLLAPSE OF THE STRUCTURE.  SPIRAL COLUMN – IS THE TERM GIVEN WHERE A CIRCULAR CONCRETE CORE IN ENCLOSED BY SPIRALS WITH VERTICAL OR LONGITUDINAL BARS. LONG COLUMN – WHEN THE UNSUPPORTED HEIGHT IS MORE THAN TEN TIMES THE SHORTEST LATERAL DIMENSION OF THE CROSS SECTION. REINFORCED WITH WIRE MESS SURROUNDING THE COLUMN AT A DISTANCE OF 3 cm. INSIDE THE OUTER SURFACE OF THE CONCRETE COVERING. 4. METAL REINFORCEMENT THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF STRESSES THAT MAY ACT ON THE STRUCTURE ARE: 1. 2.

OR OTHER MATERIALS WHICH IS REDUCED IN CROSS SECTION. TENON – THE PROJECTING END OF A PIECE OF WOOD. SO THAT IT MAY BE INSERTED IN A CORRESPONDING CAVITY IN ANOTHER PIECE IN ORDER TO FORM A SECURE JOINT. EACH OF WHICH IS NOTCHED AT THE PLACE WHERE THEY MEET. OF THE LATERAL TIES. ITS RESIST THE DIAGONAL TENSION. BUILDING CODE REQUIRED THAT A BALANCE BEAM SHALL PROVIDE. OF THE LONGITUDINAL OR MAIN REINFORCING BARS. ADVANTAGE OF THE BEND BARS. DADO – A RECTANGULAR GROOVE CUT ACROSS THE FULL WIDTH OF A PIECE OF WOOD TO RECEIVE THE END OF ANOTHER PIECE.005 TIMES THE CROSS SECTIONAL PRODUCT OF THE WIDTH AND THE DEPTH OF THE BEAM.          FLOOR STRUCTURE WOOD FLOOR SYSTEM FLOOR FRAMING IS THAT PLATFORM STRUCTURE OF THE BUILDING SUSPENDED BY POSTS. COLUMNS. BOLIDEN SALT – TREATMENT IN WOLMANIZED LUMBER. NAILED OR SCREWED TO TWO BUTTING PIECES IN ORDER TO SPLICE THEM TOGETHER. BY CUTTING A DAP IN ONE OR BOTH PIECES. SPLICE PLATE – A METAL PLATE USED FOR FASTENING TWO OR MORE MEMBER TOGETHER. ONE FOOT WIDE AND ONE FOOT LONG. THICK. THESE TONGUES FIT INTO CORRESPONDING SLOTS IN THE MORTISED MEMBER. NOTCHING – JOINING OF TIMBERS. BRIDLE JOINT – A JOINT IN WHICH TWO TONGUES PROJECT FROM THE SIDES OF THE TENONED MEMBER. WOOD CONSTRUCTION       SCAB – A SHORT FLAT PIECE OF LUMBER WHICH IS BOLTED. SHOULD NOT BE MORE THAN 48 TIMES THE DIA. YACAL – LUMBER PREFFERED WHEN IN CONTACT WITH CONCRETE. USUALLY MEETING OR CROSSING AT RIGHT ANGLES. .   4cm. HALF THE THICKNESS OF EACH IS CUT SO THAT THE THICKNESS WILL THE SAME AS THAT OF EACH MEMBER. CROSSLAP JOINT – A JOINT CONNECTING TWO WOOD MEMBERS WHICH CROSS EACH OTHER. SOLIGNUM – TRADE NAME FOR ANTI-TERMITE SURFACE APPLICATION ON WOOD. FISH PLATE – A WOOD OR METAL PIECE USED TO FASTEN TOGETHER THE ENDS OF TWO MEMBERS WITH NAILS OR BOLTS. NOT MORE THAN THE SHORTEST DIMENSION OF THE COLUMN. SQUARE SPLICE–A TYPE OF HALF LAPPED USED TO RESIST TENSION. THAT THE CROSS SECTIONAL AREA OF STEEL REINFORCEMENT SHALL BE EQUAL TO . COGGED JOINT – A CARPENTRY JOINT BY TWO UNEVEN TIMBERS. – ALLOWANCE PROTECTIVE COVERING OF STEEL BARS FROM THE OUTSIDE OF THE MAIN REINFORCEMENT. DAP – A NOTCH IN A TIMBER FOR RECEIVING ANOTHER TIMBER. IF LONGITUDINAL BARS 36mm BIGGER   THREE FACTORS FOR SPACING OF THE LATERAL TIES:    SHOULD NOT BE MORE THAN 16 TIMES THE DIA. IF LONGITUDINAL BARS 32mm SMALLER 12mm dia. WALLS AND BEAMS. USED LATERAL TIES – 10mm dia. BOARD FOOT – THE VOLUME OF A PIECE OF WOOD ONE INCH.

DEAD LOAD – REFERS TO THE STATIC LOAD SUCH AS THE WEIGHT OF THE CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS WHICH GENERALLY CARRY THE LIVE LOAD. SILL PLATE – A HORIZONTAL TIMBER. SPAN OF THE SUPPORTS – PERTAINS TO THE DISTANCES BETWEEN THE POSTS. BALLOON FRAMING – CONSTRUCTION HAS STUDS CONTINOUS TO ROOF SUPPORTING SECOND FLOOR JOISTS. CROSS BRIDGING – DIAGONAL BRACING IN PAIRS. BETWEEN ADJACENT FLOOR JOISTS TO PREVENT THE JOISTS FROM TWISTING. SILL – THAT PART OF THE SIDE OF A HOUSE THAT RESTS HORIZONTALLY UPON THE FOUNDATION. ATTACHED TO A GIRDER TO RECEIVE AND SUPPORT A JOIST. 3. LIVE LOAD – REFERS TO THOSE MOVABLE LOADS IMPOSED ON THE FLOOR. FORMING A SEAT FOR THE JOISTS. AT THE BOTTOM OF THE FRAME OF AWOOD STRUCTURE WHICH REST ON THE FOUNDATION. SOLE PLATE – A HORIZONTAL TIMBER WHICH SERVES AS A BASE FOR THE STUDS IN A STUD PARTITION. TAIL BEAM OR TAIL PIECE – A SHORT BEAM. AS A STUD ABOVE AND BELOW OPENING. AND STEEL. HANGER OR STIRRUP – A METAL SEAT. TOP PLATE – A HORIZONTAL TIMBER AT THE UPPER PORTION OF THE STUDS IN ASTUD PARTITION. TRIMMER IS A SUPPORTING JOIST WHICH CARRIES AN END PORTION OF A HEADER. WESTERN FRAMING – THAT HAS SUBFLOOR EXTENDED TO THE OUTER EDGE OF THE FRAME AND PROVIDE A FLAT WORK SURFACE AT EACH FLOOR. TYPES OF MATERIALS TO BE USED – THE CHOICE FROM THE VARIOUS CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS SUCH AS LUMBER. A STRUCTURAL ELEMENT THAT IS SHORTER THAN USUAL. THE SIZING AND SPACING OF THE STRUCTURAL MEMBERS – DEPENDS UPON ITS STRENGTH AND CAPABILITY TO CARRY THE LOAD AT A CERTAIN SPACING. 4. 5. FLOORING – THE TONGUE AND GROOVE WHICH ARE POPULARLY KNOWN AS T & G IS GENERALLY SPECIFIED FOR WOOD FLOORING . HEADER AND TRIMMER – HEADER IS A SHORT TRANSVERSE JOISTS THAT SUPPORT THE END OF THE CUT-OFF JOIST AT A STAIR WELL HOLE. BLOCK OR SOLID BRIDGING – SHORT MEMBERS WHICH ARE FIXED VERTICALLY BETWEEN FLOOR JOISTS TO STIFFEN THE JOISTS.FLOOR FRAMING STRUCTURE IS CLASSIFIED INTO THE FOLLOWING TYPES: A.              REINFORCED CONCRETE FLOOR SYSTEM . 2. CRIPPLE STUD – IN ABUILDING FRAME. FLOOR JOISTS – ARE THOSE PARTS OF THE FLOOR SYSTEM PLACED ON THE GIRDERS WHERE THE FLOOR BOARDS ARE FASTENED. COLUMNS OR SUPPORTING WALLS. B. C.THE DESIGN OF A PLATFORM FLOOR SYSTEM DEPENDS UPON THE FOLLOWING CONSIDERATIONS: 1. THE PLANK AND BEAM FLOOR TYPE THE PANELIZED-FLOOR SYSTEM THE CONVENTIONAL FLOOR FRAMING SYSTEM THE DIFFERENT PARTS OF A PLATFORM FLOOR SYSTEM ARE:     GIRDER – IS A PRINCIPAL BEAM EXTENDING FROM WALL TO WALL OF A BUILDING SUPPORTING THE FLOOR JOISTS OF FLOOR BEAMS. CONCRETE. DRAFTSTOP PLATE – IS A PIECE OF LUMBER USES TO DRESS UP THE EDGE OF THE JOISTS. JOIST OR RAFTER WHICH IS SUPPORTED BY A HEADER JOIST AT ONE END AND A WALL AT THE OTHER. THE PLATFORM . LEDGER STRIP – A STRIP OF LUMBER WHICH IS NAILED TO THE SIDE OF THE BEAM.

3. 3. SIMPLE BEAMS IS SOMETIMES CALLED AS SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM. BEAM ARE CLASSIFIED AS : A) B) C) SIMPLE BEAM CONTINUOUS BEAM SEMI – CONTINUOUS SIMPLE BEAM – REFERS TO THE BEAM HAVING A SINGLE SPAN SUPPORTED AT ITS END WITHOUT A RESTRAIN AT THE SUPPORT. EACH TYPE OF THE FLOOR SYSTEM HAS ITS OWN ADVANTAGES IN APPLICATION DEPENDING UPON THE FOLLOWING FACTORS: 1. RIBBED FLOORS. TWOWAY SOLID SLAB BEAM. 2. 2. THE VERTICAL STIRRUPS SHOULD ENCIRCLE THE MAIN REINFORCEMENT AND HOOK BENT WITH A DIAMETER NOT LESS THAN 5 TIMES THE DIAMETER OF THE STIRRUPS AT ITS END AND SECURED PROPERLY TO PREVENT SLIPPING OF THE MAIN REINFORCEMENT IN THE CONCRETE. RESTRAINT MEANS A RIGID CONNECTION OR ANCHORAGE AT THE SUPPORT.IS A STRUCTURAL MEMBER THAT SUPPORTS THE TRANSVERSE LOAD WHICH USUALLY REST ON SUPPORTS AT ITS END. WEB REINFORCEMENT WEB REINFORCEMENT IS THE SAME AS THEIR STIRRUPS USED IN THE BEAM TO HOLD THE REINFORCEMENT IN ITS DESIGNED POSITION. REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB: REINFORCED CONCRETE FLOOR SLABS ARE CLASSIFIED INTO THE FOLLOWING TYPES: 1. FLAT SLAB OR GIRDERLESS FLOORS SOLID OR RIBBED. 4.BEAM . GIRDER – IS THE TERM APPLIED TO A BEAM THAT SUPPORTS ONE OR MORE SMALLER BEAM. THE MAGNITUDE OF THE LOADS TO BE SUPPORTED LENGTH OF THE SPAN THE COST OF THE CONSTRUCTION . ONE WAY SOLID SLAB AND BEAM. SEMI-CONTINUOUS BEAM – REFERS TO A BEAM WITH TWO SPANS WITH OR WITHOUT RESTRAINT AT THE TWO EXTREME ENDS. THE WEB REINFORCEMENT IS NOT ONLY INTENDED TO HOLD THE REINFORCEMENT AND PROVIDE LATERAL SUPPORT BUT ALSO SERVES TO RESIST DIAGONAL TENSION AND COUNTERACT THE SHEAR ACTION ON THE STRUCTURE. CONTINUOUS BEAM – IS A TERM APPLIED TO A BEAM THAT REST ON MORE THAN TWO SUPPORTS. SPACING OF THE COLUMNS. 4.

C.ONE WAY SLAB – ONE WAY SLAB IS THE COMMON TYPE OF REINFORCED CONCRETE FLOOR SYSTEM WHICH THE REINFORCEMENTS RUNS ONLY IN ONE DIRECTION. A SPACE WHERE CONCRETE IS NOT TO BE PLACED. ON THE OTHER HAND. ALTHOUGH THE REINFORCEMENTS ARE ALSO PLACED IN THE SLAB PARALLEL WITH THE BEAMS PERPENDICULAR WITH THE MAIN REINFORCEMENTS CALLED “ TEMPERATURE REINFORCEMENTS”. IT IS COMPARATIVELY ECONOMICAL FOR A MEDIUM AND HEAVY LIVE LOADS ON SHORT SPANS RANGING FROM 2. THESLAB IS EITHER UNIFORM IN THICKNESS OR PROVIDED WITH SQUARE SYMMETRICAL AREA DIRECTLY ABOVE THE COLUMN REINFORCED WITH BARS RUNNING IN TWO DIRECTIONS. CREEP – PERMANENT DEFORMATION OF A MATERIAL UNDER A SUSTAIN LOAD. CAMBER – CONVEX CURVATURE IN BEAM OR TRUSS. CONTROL JOINTS – EMPLOYED TO REDUCE RESTRAINT BY ACCOMODATING MOVEMENT OF MASONRY WALL. O. TWO WAY SLAB – SLAB WHICH ARE SUPPORTED ON FOUR SIDES WHERE THE FLOOR PANEL IS NEARLY SQUARE IS GENERALLY ECONOMICAL TO EMPLOY THE TWO DIRECTIONS OF REINFORCING BARS PLACED AT RIGHT ANGLE WITH EACH OTHER. OR WIRE MESH WHICH RUNS AT RIGHT ANGLE WITH THE RIBS. USUALLY NO. STRAIGHT BARS ARE PALCED AT THE TOP AND BOTTOM OF THE RIB. COLD JOINT – A JOINT FORMED WHEN A CONCRETE SURFACE HARDEN BEFORE THE NEXT BATCH OF CONCRETE IS PLACED AGAINST. THE CONCRETE SURFACE LAYER PLACED ON TOP OF THE TILES RANGES FROM 5 TO 6. FLAT SLAB – IS A RECTANGULAR SLAB DIRECTLY SUPPORTED BY COLUMNS WITHOUT BEAMS OR GIRDERS. O.C. LAYING OUT OF STAIRS THE METHOD OF LAYING OUT STAIRS ARE: . OR SOMETIMES. MAKING THE RIBS 10 CM. THE REINFORCEMENT OF A RIBBED FLOOR SYSTEM CONSIST OF TWO BARS PLACED AT THE LOWER PART OF THE RIB WHERE ONE IS BENT AND THE OTHER REMAINED STRAIGHT. PLACED @ 5CM.5 CM. WHICH IS CALLED FLAT PLATE CONSTRUCTION. MADE OF SOLID SLAB SUPPORTED BY TWO PARALLEL BEAMS. RIBBED FLOOR SLAB – IS AN ECONOMICAL TYPE OF FLOOR CONSTRUCTION BUT IS APPLICABLE ONLY TO MEDIUM SPAN LENGTH WITH LIGHT OR MEDIUM LOAD.        CONSTRUCTION JOINT – A JOINT WHERE TWO SUCCESSIVE PLACEMENT OF CONCRETE MEET. 2 BARS OR 6 MM. CONTRACTION JOINT OR EXPANSION JOINT – A JOINT BETWEEN ADJACENT PARTS OF A STRUCTURE WHICH PERMITS MOVEMENT BETWEEN THEM. NOR LESS THAN THE PERIMETER OF THE SLAB DIVIDED BY 180.00 TO 3. WITH DEPTH OF 10 TO 40CM. BLOCK OUT – IN CONCRETE STRUCTURES UNDER CONSTRUCTION. THICK. THE SPACING OF THE REINFORCEMENT SHALL NOT BE MORE THAN 3 TIMES THE SLAB THICKNESS. THE INCREASED AREA DIRECTLY ABOVE THE COLUMN CALLED DROP PANEL OR SIMPLY DROP. WIDE. GYPSUM TILES OR STEEL FORMS. IT ALSO DISTRIBUTES POSSIBLE CONCENTRATION OF LOADS OVER A LARGER AREA.50 METERS LONG. THIS FLOOR SYSTEM IS ECONOMICAL IN TERMS OF MATERIALS AND LABOR. TEMPERATURE BARS ARE EITHER NO. 3 STEEL BAR IS USED TO COUNTERACT THE EFFECT OF SHRINKAGE AND CHANGES IN TEMPERATURE. A FLARED HEAD IS EMPLOYED IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF A FLAT-SLAB FLOOR MAKING A CAPITAL OF THE COLUMN. A RIBBED FLOOR SLAB CONSISTS OF SMALL ADJACENT T-BEAM WHEREIN THE OPEN SPACES BETWEEN THE RIBS ARE FILLED BY CLAY TILES. WHEN THE COLUMN DESIGN IS NOT PROVIDED WITH CAPITAS. A STRAIGHT FLAT UNDERNEATH IS PROVIDED IN THE SLAB THROUGHOUT THE SYSTEM. THE CODE SPECIFIES THAT THICKNESS OF THE SLAB SHALL NOT BE LESS THAN 4 INCHES OR 10 CM. THE TILES ARE GENERALLY 30 X 90 CM.

2. DIVIDE THE RISE ( HEIGHT IN METER) BY .    CUT CLEATED BUILT-UP RABBETED (HOUSE) BALUSTER – ONE OF A NUMBER OF SHORT VERTICAL MEMBERS OFTEN CIRCULAR IN SECTION. VERTICAL MEMBERS AND BOTTOM RAIL. SHOULD THERE BE FROM THE RESULT OF STEP TWO.30m. HAVING ONE OR BOTH ENDS ROUNDED TO A SEMI-CIRCLE AND PROJECTION BEYOND THE FACE OF THE STAIR STRING/S. IT IS IMPORTANT TO MAKE A CROSS SECTIONAL SKETCH OF A STAIR BEFORE MAKING THE FINAL PLAN LAYOUT INDICATING THE NUMBER OF STEPS TO AVOID ADJUSTMENTS OF THE RUN DURING THE ACTUAL CONSTRUCTION.    TYPES OF ROOF THERE ARE SEVERAL FORMS OF ROOF AND NUMEROUS VARIETY OF SHAPES THAT ONE HAS TO BE FAMILIAR WITH: SHED OR LEAN-TO ROOF.17 OR . IF THE RESULT. KICKER PLATE – STAIR ANCHOR TO CONCRETE. 3. DIVIDE THE RUN DISTANCE IN METER BY . THE RISE PER STEP IS 17 TO 18 CM AND THE MINIMUM 2. THERE SHOULD BE NO FUNCTIONAL VALUE OF A RISER. RISER – A VERTICAL FACE OF ASTAIR. FOUND IN STEP THREE IS LESS THAN THE NUMBER FOUND IN STEP TWO. BANISTER – HANDRAIL FOR A STAIRCASE. THIS IS COMMONLY USED ON FACTORIES WHERE EXTRA LIGHT IS REQUIRED THROUGH THE WINDOW ON A VERTICAL SIDE. DETERMINE THE CLEAR HEIGHT OF THE RISE IN METER.IS CONSIDERED AS THE SIMPLEST FORM OF ROOF CONSISTING OF ONE SINGLE SLOPE.18 TO DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF STEPS. ADJUST A FUNCTIONAL VALUE IN EQUAL PROPORTION TO THE NUMBER OF RISER HEIGHT. USED TO SUPPORT A STAIR HANDRAIL. THE RUN LENGTH HAS TO BE EXTENDED. 4.IS THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SHED MADE INTO A SERIES TO LEAN-TO ROOF COVERING ONE BUILDING. 4.25 OR . BALUSTRATE – AN ENTIRE RAILING SYSTEM INCLUDING A TOP RAIL.1. GABLE OR PITCH ROOF. 3. TREAD WIDTH IS 25 CM. THE STAIRS WILL NOT BE AN IDEAL ONE. ORDINARILY. BULL-NOSED STEP – A STEP USUALLY LOWEST IN AFLIGHT. TYPE OF STRINGERS THERE ARE SEVERAL FORMS OF STRINGER CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO THE METHOD OF ATTACHIND THE RISERS AND THE TREADS. . BUT IN NO CASE SHALL THE RISE PER STEP BE GREATER THAN 19 CM OR LESS THAN 17 CM OTHERWISE. 1. SAW TOOTH ROOF.THE MOST COMMON TYPE AND ECONOMICAL FORM OF ROOF MADE OF TRIANGULAR SECTIONS CONSISTING OF TWO SLOPES MEETING AT THE CENTER OF THE RIDGE FORMING A GABLE. 5.

WHERE THE SIDES OF THE ROOF SLOPE STEEPLY FROM EACH SIDE OF THE BUILDING TOWARDS THE CENTER FORMING A FLAT DECK ON TOP.ANY RAFTER WHICH DOES NOT EXTEND FROM THE PLATE OR GIRTS TO THE RIDGE. THIS TYPE OF ROOF FORM HOWEVER.IS ALSO A COMMON FORM USED IN MODERN HOUSES HAVING STRAIGHT SIDES ALL SLOPING TOWARD THE CENTER OF THE BUILDING TERMINATING AT THE RIDGE. RAFTERS TYPE TRUSS TYPE LAMINATED TYPE THE VARIOUS KINDS OF RAFTERS FOR ROOF CONSTRUCTIONS ARE:      COMMON RAFTERS.ARE RAFTERS EXTENDED AT RIGHT ANGLES FROM THE PLATE OR GIRTS T THE RIDGE. FRENCH OR CONCAVE MANSARD ROOF. HIP ROOF.IS A HEMISPHERICAL FORM OF ROOF USUALLY USED ON OBNSERVATORIES. VALLEY RAFTERS.IS A MODIFICATIN OF THE GABLE ROOF WITH EACH SIDE HAVING TWO SLOPES. CONICAL ROOF OR SPHIRE. MANSARD ROOF. HIP AND VALLEY ROOF.IS A STEEP ROOF OF CIRCULAR SECTION THAT TAPERS UNIFORMLY FROM THE CIRCULAR BASE TO A CENTRAL POINT.DOUBLE GABLE ROOF.IS A COMBINATION OF THE HIP ROOF AND AN INTERESTING GABLE ROOF FORMING A T OR L SHAPED BUILDING.ARE RAFTERS LAID DIAGONALLY FROM THE CORNER OF A PLATE OR GIRTS TO THE RIDGE. HIP RAFTERS. DOME. JACK RAFTERS. JACK RAFTERS ARE CLASSIFIED INTO: . OCTAGONAL RAFTERS. TYPES OF ROOF FRAME THE THREE TYPES OF ROOF FRAME COMMONLY USED ARE: 1.RAFTERS PLACED DIAGONALLY FROM THE PLATE OR GIRTS AT THE INTERSECTION OF GABLE EXTENSION WITH THE MAIN ROOF.IS A MODIFICATION OF THE HIP ROOF WHEREIN THE FOUR STAIGHT SIDES ARE SLOPING TOWARDS THE CENTER TERMINATING AT A POINT. GAMBREL ROOF.IS A MODIFICATION OF A GABLE OR A HIP AND VALLEY ROOF. HAS A VARIETY OF MODIFICATION WHICH ARE NOT ILLUSTRATED.IS A TWO SHED ROOF WHERE THE SLOPE MEET AT THE CENTER OF THE BUILDING. 3. BUTTERFLY ROOF. 2.IS A MODIFICATION OF THE MANZARD ROOF WHERE THE SIDES ARE CONCAVE.ARE RAFTERS PLACED ON AN OCTAGONAL SHAPED PLATE AT THE CENTRAL APEX OR RIDGE POLE. PYRAMID ROOF.

THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF TRUSSES ARE: LIGHT TRUSSES: PITCHED HOWE SCISSORS RAISED CHORD SAWTOOTH 1 ½ STORY FRAME FLAT UTILITY BOWSTRING HEAVY TRUSSES: HOWE TRUSS BELGIAN FINK PRATT SCISSORS CAMBERED FINK WARREN FLAT HOWE . TRUSS IS A DESIGN OF A SERIES OF TRIANGLES USED TO DISTRIBUTE LOAD.1. HIT JACKS VALLEY JACKS CRIPLE JACKS JACK RAFTERS FRAMED BATWEEN HIP RAFTERS AND GITS ARE CALLED HIP JACKS. 2. WHILE THOSE FRAMES BETWEEN THE HIP AND THE VALLEY RAFTERS ARE CALLED CRIPPLE JACKS. STIFFEN THE STRUCTURE AND FLEXIBILITY FOR THE INTERIOR SPACING AS WELL AS STRENGTH AND RIGIDITY. 3. THE FRAME BETWEEN THE RIDGE AND VALLEY RAFTERS ARE CALLED VALLEY JACKS. TRUSS – IS A BUILT-UP FRAME COMMONLY EMPLOYED ON A LONG SPAN ROOF UNSUPPORTED BY INTERMEDIATE COLUMNS OR PARTITIONS.

ROOFING CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO THE MATERIALS USED:         FIBER WOOD METAL SLATE TILES REINFORCED CONCRETE PLASTICS FIBERGLASS METAL ROOFING – IS THE MOST COMMON MATERIALS IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.00 3. THIS ARE CLASSIFIED AS FOLLOWS:       GALVANIZED IRON ALUMINUM TIN TITANIUM COPPER ZINC COPPER STAINLESS STEEL .00 3. PURLINS SIZE AND SPACING: SPAN: 2.50 SIZE: 50mm X 75mm 50mm X 100mm 50mm X 150mm 50mm X 200mm ROOF AND ROOFING MATERIALS THE TERM ROOF USED HERE MEANS THE TOP COVERING OF A BUILDING THAT SERVES AS A PROTECTIVE COVERING FROM THE WEATHER.50 4.SAW TOOTH FLAT PRATT PURLINS – THE STRUCTURAL MEMBER PLACED ON TOP OF A RAFTER OR TOP CHORD OF A TRUSS THAT SUPPORTS THE ROOF SHEATING.

GALVANIZED – ZINC COATED MATERIALS. SINGLE LAP ROOPING TILE. IT‟S ALSO USED FOR ROOFING.80 m.90m.50 TO 3. TAPERED. FACTORS CONSIDERED IN THE SELECTION OF FORMS ARE:     COST OF MATERIALS THE CONSTRUCTION AND ASSEMBLING COST THE NUMBER OF TIMES IT COULD BE USED STRENGTH AND RESISTANCE TO PRESSURE AND THE TEAR & WEAR WOOD BOARD AND PLYWOOD FORMS .FLASHING. ROMAN TILE – A CHANNEL SHAPED. SPLIT RING – CHORD SPLICE CONNECTORS FOR TRUSSES.       FORM. X 2.60 m. FORMS ARE USED IN CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION. LEAD AMONG THE METAL ROOFING ENUMERATED. STRUCTURAL MEMBERS OF A BUILDING ARE BUILT-UP INTO ITS SPECIFIED DIMENSIONS BY THE USE OF FORMS THAT SERVES AS MOULD FOR THE MIXED CONCRETE. SEMI-CYLINDRICAL IN SHAPE LAID IN COURSES WITH THE UNIT HAVING THEIR CONVEX SIDE ALTERNATELY UP AND DOWN. GUTTERS.ROOFING FASTENERS:   NAILING RIVETING   PANTILE – A ROOFING TILE WHICH HAS THE SHAPE OF “S” LAID ON IT‟S SIDE. CHORD – A PRINCIPAL MEMBER OF A TRUSS. WITH LENGTH THAT RANGES FROM 1. THE THICKNESS ARE MEASURED IN TERMS OF “GAUGE” FROM ga. MISSION TILE – A CLAY ROOFING TILE. SCAFFOLDING AND STAGING FORM IS A TEMPORARY BOARDING.I. APPROX. AND STRAP FOR RIVETING. A FRAME – A 3-PIECE RIGID STRUCTURAL FRAME IN THE SHAPE OF THE UPRIGHT CAPITAL “A”. SHEET COMMERCIAL STANDARD SIZE IS 0. IT SHOULD BE SIMPLE AND ECONOMICALLY DESIGNED TO BE REMOVE EASILY AND REASSEMBLED WITHOUT DAMAGE TO THEMSELVES OR TO THE CONCRETE.I.40m. DOWNSPOUT. FORMS SHOULD BE WATERTIGHT. Gauge 26 IS THE MOST COMMONLY USED FOR ROOFING. PLAIN G.RIDGE. G. THE STANDARD COMMERCIAL SIZE WIDTH IS 0. GALVANIZED IRON ROOFING IS EITHER PLAIN OR CORRUGATED. 30.HIP AND VALLEY ROLLS. SHEATING OR PANS USED TO PRODUCE THE DESIRED SHAPE AND SIZE OF CONCRETE. 14 TO ga. CORR. GALVANIZED IRON SHEET IS THE MOST COMMONLY SPECIFIED CONSIDERING THE ADVANTAGES THAT IT OFFER. BATTEN – WOOD STRIPS TO SUPPORT ROOF TILES. RIGID AND STRONG ENOUGH TO SUSTAIN THE WEIGHT OF CONCRETE.

FORMS SHALL BE GUARDED AGAINST BULGING AND SAGGING FAILURE THAT OCCUR DUR ING THE PROCESS OF POURING. SHEET. IT OFFERS FITTED JOINTS. METAL FORM ARE SELDOM USED IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION BECAUSE OF THE VARIED DESIGNS AND SHAPES OF THE STRUCTURES. BEAMS. BOLTS AND NUTS.WOOD FORM IS THE MOST COMMON AND WIDELY USED FORMS IN MINOR OR MAJOR CONSTRUCTION. ALTHOUGH METAL FORMS ARE EXTENSIVELY USED ON ROAD CONSTRUCTION. PRODUCE SMOOTH FINISHES OF CONCRETE THAT SOMETIMES NEED LITTLE OR NO PLASTERING AT ALL. SUPPORTED BY FLAT AND ANGLE BARS DESIGNED TO BE ASSEMBLED AND LOCKED BE MEANS OF CLAMP. AND CONCRETE FLOOR SLAB GENERALLY OF 2 TO 3 STOREY HIGH. ELIMINATE DRESSING. MEDIUM STRUCTURE ARE THOSE HAVING CONCRETE COLUMNS. THK. PLYWOOOD IS SATIFACTORILY USED SUPPORTED BY 50mm X 50mm WOOD FRAME AND RIBS.200 TO 2.       PLYWOOD AS FORM IS GENERALLY ECONOMICAL BOTH IN LABOR AND MATERIALS. METAL FORMS ARE GENERALLY MADE OUT OF G. PLANING OF THE SURFACE WHICH IS NORMAL TO WOODEN BOARDS FORMS. OR BLACK IRON SHEET.I. COLUMNS AND BEAM FOR ONE OR TWO STOREY BUILDING WHEREIN 6mm.400 kg.m.   TWO TYPES OF FRAMING:   LONGITUDINAL RIB TYPE PERPENDICULAR RIB TYPE TYPES OF COLUMN FORMS:    SQUARE RECTANGULAR CIRCULAR BEAM FORMS CONSIST OF ONE BOTTOM FORM AND A PAIR OF SIDE FORMS. CONSTRUCTION OF FORMS CONCRETE WEIGHS ABOUT 2. PLYWOOD HAS PLAIN EVEN SURFACE WITH UNIFORM THICKNESS. MEDIUM AND MASSIVE STRUCTURE./cu. PLYWOOD IS USED AS FORM SUPPPORTED BY 50mm X 50mm OR 50mm X 75mm WOOD FRAME AND RIBS.  SMALL STRUCTURE CONSISTING OF SMALL FOOTINGS. THE THICKNESS OF THE FORM AND THE SIZES OF THE FRAME AND RIBS DEPENDS UPON THE NATURE OF THE STRUCTURE TO BE SUPPORTED CLASSIFIED AS SMALL. PLYWOOD IS LIGHT-WEIGHT. HANDY AND FAST TO WORK ON. MASSIVE STRUCTURE ARE THOSE HAVING HEAVY LOADS USES FORMS OF VARIOUS THICKNESS THAT RANGE FROM 6mm TO 19mm THK. THE LAMINATED CROSS-GRAINED OF PLYWOOD HAS MADE THE BOARD STRONGER AND FREE FROM WARPING. WHEREIN 6mm OR 12mm THK. TYPES OF WALL FORMS:    CONTINUOUS FULL UNIT LAYER UNIT . PLYWOOD SUPPORTED BY 50mm X 50mm TO 50mm X 100mm WOOD FRAME AND RIBS.

Estunyo Flush ---------------------- Alahado Brace ------------------------------- Pie de Gallo Foundation or Footings- Pundasyon Brick ------------------------------- Landrillo Foreman ------------------ Kapatas.Barandilla Feet ------------------------ Piye Beam -------------------------------- Biga Fill ------------------------- Tambak Banisters ---------------------------- Barandil Filler ----------------------- Tapal.Barakilan. YOKE – IS A HORIZONTAL FRAMEWORK AROUND THE FORMWORK FOR A COLUMN.GREASING OF FORMS THE PURPOSE OF GREASING THE FORM IS TO MAKE THE WOOD WATER PROOF. MaestroDe Obra Canopy ---------------------------- Media Agua Framework --------------- Balangkas Cabinet Hinge -------------------- Espolon Gable Roof -------------- Dos Aguas Carpenter ------------------------- Karpintero Girder --------------------- Guililan Carpentry ------------------------- Karpinteria Girts or Girder ----------- Sepo Cast Iron -------------------------- Pundido Gravel --------------------- Graba . THUS PREVENTING ABSORPTION OF WATER IN THE CONCRETE WHICH CAUSES SWELLING AND WARPING. IT‟S ALSO PREVENTS ADHERENCE OF CONCRETE TO THE PORES OF THE WOOD. Dagdag Barrel Bolt -------------------------- Trankilya Floor Joist ----------------- Soleras Baseboard -------------------------- Rodapis Fillet ----------------------- Batidura Bath tub ---------------------------- Baniera Flooring ------------------- Sahig. SCAFFOLDING – WORKER‟S PLATFORM BUILDING CONSTRUCTION TERMS ENGLISH VERNACULAR ENGLISH VERNACULAR Adobe Anchor --------------------- Liyabe Earth Fill------------------- Escombro Aligned ----------------------------- Kaliniya Eave ------------------------ Alero. Suelo Bolt --------------------------------- Pierno Floor sill ------------------ Guililan Bottom Chord --------------------- Tirante. Sopo Alignment -------------------------- Asintada Electrician ----------------- Elektrista Alternate or staggered ------------ Uno Sinotra Engineer ------------------- Inhenyero Anchor ------------------------------ Liyabe Exterior Siding ----------- Tabike Architect ---------------------------- Arkitekto Faucet ---------------------- Gripo Astragal ----------------------------- Batidura Fascia Board -------------- Senepa Balusters ---------------------------- Balustre.

I.Haligue Inch ----------------------- Pulgada Concrete -------------------------- Konkreto Jamb ---------------------- Hamba Concrete Slab -------------------- Larga Masa Joist ----------------------- Suleras Concrete Beam ------------------ Biga Kingpost ----------------- Pendolum Conductor ------------------------ Alulod Laborer ------------------- Piyon Contractor ------------------------ Kontratista Landing ------------------ Mesa Pahingahan Corr.Ceiling ---------------------------- Kisame Good Grain --------------- Haspe Ceiling Board -------------------- Groobe -------------------- Canal Ceiling Joist ---------------------- Kostil Yahe Gutter --------------------- Alulod. G. sheets ----------------- Yiero Canalado Lavatory ----------------- Lababo Galbanisado Closed Stringer ------------------ Escalera Laying of CHB orAdobe Stone -----------Asinta Crushed Stone ------------------- Eskombro Lean to roof ------------- Sibe Diagonal Brace ------------------ Sinturon Level --------------------- Lebel Door ------------------------------- Pinto Machine Bolt ----------- Peirno Pasante Door Fillet ------------------------ Batidora Mason ------------------- Kantero Door Head ------------------------ Sombrero (Pintuan) Masonry ----------------- Kanteria Door Jamb ------------------------ Hamba Pintuan Masonry Fill ------------ Lastilyas Drawbore Pin or Drawpin ------ Punsol Meter --------------------- Metro Mitre or Miter -------------------- Canto Mesa Septic Tank ------------- Poso Negro Mixture of Sand & Gravel ------ Lastilyas Shape -------------------- Korte Mortar ----------------------------- Paupo Sheet --------------------- Plantsa Mortar Joists ---------------------- Kostura Shower ------------------- Dutsha Moulding -------------------------- Moldura Sidings ------------------- Tabika Nailers ----------------------------- Pamakuan Sink ----------------------- Prigadero Nail -------------------------------- Pako Sketch Plan -------------- Krokis Nail Setter ------------------------ Punsol Slab (rough) -------------- Larga Masa Newel Post ----------------------- Tukod Slope ---------------------- Bahada Nut --------------------------------- Tuerka Solder --------------------- Hinang . canal Cement --------------------------- Semento Hand rail ----------------- Gabay Cement Brick -------------------- Ladrilyo Head ---------------------- Sombrero Cement Tiles --------------------- Baldosa Hinge --------------------- Bisagra Chain bolt ------------------------ Baral de Kadena Hip roof ------------------ Kuatro Aguas Collar ----------------------------- Sinturon Horizontal Stud -------- Trabe-Anzo Column --------------------------- Kolumna.

Tsapa Purlins ------------------------------- Reostra Water Closet -------------- Inidoro Putty --------------------------------- Masilya Window ------------------- Bintana Quarter Round ---------------------- Mediacana Window Grille ----------- Rehas Rabbet ------------------------------- Vaciada Window Head ------------ Sombrero Bintana Rafters ------------------------------- Kilo Window Jamb ------------ Hamba Bintana Reinforcing Bar -------------------- Cabilla. sheet -------------------- Yiero Liso Galbanisado Tinsmith ------------------- Latero Plain G. Strap ----------------- Planchuela Riser --------------------------------- Senepa. Perdano Plug ---------------------------------- Tapon Trellise -------------------- Pergola Plumb Bob -------------------------- Hulog Truss ----------------------- Truss.I. Kilo Plumber ----------------------------- Tubero Varnished ----------------- Varnisado Plumb Line ------------------------- Hulog Vertical Stud -------------- Pilarete Post ---------------------------------- Poste. Estopa Thread --------------------- Roskas Plain G. Strap -------------------- Lingueta Tinsmithing --------------- Lateria Plank Board ------------------------ Senepa Top Chord ---------------- Kilo.I. Takip Wiring Knob ------------- Poleya Silipan Rivets ------------------------------- Rimatse Wood Grain -------------- Haspe Roof -------------------------------- Atip. Bakal Window Sill -------------- Pasamano Ridgeroll ---------------------------- Caballete W. Madrina Pattern ------------------------------ Plantilya Stucco --------------------- Palitada Pea Gravel ------------------------- Grabita Stud (vertical)------------- Pilarete Pendulum (King Post) ------------ Pendulon Stud (horizontal) --------- Pabalagbag Pickwork --------------------------- Piketa Temper (metal work)----- Suban.I. Haligue Wainscoating Tiles ------- Asolehos Projection --------------------------- Bolada Washer --------------------- Pitsa. Bubong Wood Plank -------------- Tabla . Subuhan Piglead ------------------------------ Tingga.Nicolite Bar ----------------------- Estanyo Solder Bar ---------------- Estaniyo Oakum ----------------------------- Estopa Spacing ------------------- Biento Open Stringer --------------------- Hardinera Split Knob ---------------- Poleya Over Hand or Projector ---------- Bolada Stairs ---------------------- Hagdanan Painter ------------------------------ Pintor Stake ----------------------- Staka Panel -------------------------------- Bandeha Stringer (open) ----------- Hardinera Panellee Door ---------------------- De Bandeha Stringer -------------------- Madre. Tahilan Plaster ------------------------------- Palitada Transom ------------------ Espeho Plastered Course ------------------- Kusturada Tread ---------------------- Baytang.

THE COMMON SHAPES PRODUCED FOR ONE TO FOUR STOREY HIGH STRUCTURES ARE SECTIONS HAVING A WIDTH UP TO 2. THEY ARE USED AS CURTAIN WALLS ATTACHED TO COLUMNS AND BEAMS OR SOMETIMES AS BEARING WALLS. GLASS-FIBER-REINFORCED PLASTIC. 3.000 PSI FOR STRENGTH OF STEEL. CONCRETE. FORMS ARE CALLED CASTING BEDS. PRECAST CONCRETE ELEMENTS ARE USUALLY STEAM CURED WITH THE USE OF HIGH EARLY STRENGTH CEMENT TO ENABLE A PRECAST TO REMOVE IN FORM IN 24 HOURS. CONCRETE STRENGTH IN PRECAST IS USUALLY 5000 PSI. Plancha Scratch Coat ----------------------- Rebokada Screw ------------------------------- Turnilyo PRECAST AND PRESTRESSED CONSTRUCTION INTRODUCTION THE INTRODUCTION OF PRECAST-CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION WAS BROUGHT ABOUT BY BUILDING COSTS THAT HAS CONSIDERABLY INCREASED FASTER THAT MOST INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS THAT ARE AFFECTED BY THE LARGE AMOUNT OF ON-SITE LABOR INVOLVED IN THE TRADITIONAL METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION. THE WET CONCRETE IS VIBRATED MECHANICALLY IN THE FORMS TO ACHIEVE MAXIMUM DENSITY AND HIGHEST SURFACE QUALITY. THE DEMAND FOR SKILLED WORKERS ON ON-SITE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION IS INCREASINGLY OUTRUNNING THE SUPPLY. 4. TYPES OF PRECAST STRUCTURE WALL PANELS – THIS TYPE OF PRECAST STRUCTURE HAS NUMEROUS DESIGNS DEPENDING UPON THE ARCHITECTURAL REQUIREMENTS.Sand -------------------------------- Buhangin Wrought Iron Strap ------ Plantsuela Scaffolding ------------------------ Andamiyo. THE ANSWER TO THERE PROBLEMS WERE BROUGHT ABOUT BY THE INDUSTRIALIZATION OF CONSTRUCITON AND SUBSTITUTION OF SITE LABOR BY FACTORY PRODUCED PRECAST CONCRETE STRUCTURE WHICH HAS RAPIDLY DEVELOPED AND GAINED IMPORTANCE. THE CONCRETE IS CAST IN PERMANENT FORMS OF STEEL. THE CASTING BEDS AVERAGE 125 METERS TO EXTEND 250 METERS IN LENGTH. 2. FLAT TYPE DOUBLE TEE TYPE RIBBED TYPE WINDOW OR MULLION TYPE . WHILE 270. THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF WALL PANELS ARE: 1.40 m.

A 250mm. CONTROL OF CRACKING IS OF GREAT IMPORTANCE. COLUMN FOR 240 sq.0M.m. DEPTH TYPICALLY RANGE FROM 90-200mm.4 TO 3.610. TO 2. 250mm SLAB APPROX.0M.60M. ESTIMATE THE DEPTH OF PRECAST CONCRETE BEAMS AND GIRDERS AT 1/16 OF THEIR SPAN FOR LIGHT LOADINGS AND 1/12 OF THEIR SPAN FOR HEAVY LOADINGS.m.0M. PRECAST BEAMS THE SHAPE OF PRECAST BEAMS DEPENDS UPON THE MANNER OF FRAMING.60m.4M.60M. PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF A PECAST CONCRETE STRUCTURE    ESTIMATE THE DEPTH OF A PRECAST SOLID SLAB AT 1/40 OF ITS SPAN. COLUMN FOR 370 sq.60 x . AN 200mm PRECAST HOLLOW-CORE SLAB CAN SPAN APPROXIMATELY 7. INVERTED TEE AND L-SHAPED BEAMS. IN A MULTI-STOREY CONSTRUCTION.    .. FOAM GLASS.400.0M. DOUBLE TEE – WIDE RANGES FROM 2. A 500mm. SPAN. HOLLOW CORE SLAB – WIDE RANGES FROM 0.510. AND 1142mm TEE FOR 32. COLUMN FOR 740 sq.0M. TO 2. PRECAST COLUMN PRECAST COLUMN SIZES ARE FROM . ESTIMATE THE DEPTH OF PRECAST CONCRETE DOUBLE TEES AT 1/28 OF THEIR SPAN. THE VARIOUS SHAPES ARE:     RECTANGULAR BEAM INVERTED TEE BEAM L –SHAPED BEAM AASHTO BRIDGE GIRDER – AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF STATE HIGHWAY AND TRANSPORTATION OFFICIALS. THE WIDTH OF A BEAM OR GIRDER IS USUALLY ABOUT ½ ITS DEPTH.30 x . SINGLE TEE – WIDE RANGES FROM 2. ADD UP THE TOTAL ROOF AND FLOOR AREA SUPPORTED BY THE COLUMN. TEE COLUMN IS SOMETIMES USED TO SUPPORT DIRECTLY DOUBLE TEE FLOOR MEMBERS WITHOUT THE USE OF INTERMEDIATE MEMBERS.4 TO 3.m.30m. AND A 300mm SLAB APPROX. AREA. A 400mm. AREA. A PRECAST CONCRETE SINGLE TEE 928mm DEEP SPANS APPROXIMATELY 26. OF AREA. HENCE.4M.350. THE PROJECTING LEDGERS ON INVERTED TEE AND L-SHAPED BEAMS ARE USUALLY 150mm WIDE AND 300mm DEEP. COLUMN FOR 560 sq. COLUMN CAN SUPPORT UP TO ABOUT 185 sq. THE MOST COMMON DEPTHS OF DOUBLE TEES ARE 300. AND815mm. TO ESTIMATE THE SIZE OF A PRECAST CONCRETE COLUMN.80M.450. 12. A 300mm. ROOF AND FLOOR MEMBERS     SOLID FLAT SLAB – WIDE RANGES FROM 0. AREA.60M.m. THESE RATIOS APPLY TO RECTANGULAR. GLASS FIBER OR EXPANDED PLASTIC IS INSERTED BETWEEN TWO LAYERS OF LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE ADEQUATELY BONDED INTERCONNECTING THE TWO LAYERS TO ACT AS ONE UNIT. AREA. A 600MM. SPAN. STRESSES IN HANDLING AND ERECTION OF THE MEMBER IS MORE THAN THAT OF THE FINISHED FILLED STRUCTURE. to .m. THE COLUMNS ARE MADE CONTINUOUS UP TO FOUR STORIES WHEREIN CORBELS ARE USED TO PROVIDE BEARING FOR THE BEAM. 9..TO IMPROVE THE THERMAL INSULATION OF THE PANEL.

THE SELF CONTAINED AND THE BOND AND FRICTION METHODS CAN GENERALLY BE CLASSIFIED AS PRE-TENSIONING OR POST-TENSIONING SYSTEM.JOINING PRECAST CONCRETE ELEMENTS BOLTING. WELDING. SLIP AT ANCHORAGE ELASTIC SHORTENING OF CONCRETE CREEP OF CONCRETE SHRINKAGE OF CONCRETE RELAXATION OF STEEL STRESS FRICTIONAL LOSS DUE TO INTENDED OR UNINTENDED CURVATURE IN THE TENDONS. THE JACKS ARE THEN RELEASED TRANSFERRING THE PRESTRESSED FORCE TO THE CONCRETE BY BOND AND FRICTION ALONG THE STRANDS. THE COOLING PROCESS PRODUCES PRESTRESS FORCE THROUGH RESTRAINED CONTRACTION. THESE METHODS CAN BE APPLIED TO MASS PRODUCTION OF CASTING SEVERAL METERS LONG OF STRUCTURE AND CUTTING THE INDIVIDUAL BEAM OR POST TO THE DESIRED LENGTH OUT FROM THE LONG CASTING. THE TENDON IS THEN WEDGED AGAINST THE CONCRETE. BEARING PADS ARE USUALLY INSERTED BETWEEN THE CONCRETE MEMBERS AT BEARING POINTS TO AVOID THE CONCRETE-TO-CONCRETE CONTACT THAT MIGHT CREATE POINTS OF HIGH STRESS. AFTER THE CONCRETE HAS GAINED SUFFICIENT STRENGTH. CONCRETE FOR PRESTRESSING .  BOND FRICTION – THE PRESTRESSING STRANDS ARE STRETCHED BETWEEN MASSIVE ABUTMENT PRIOR TO CASTING OF CONCRETE IN THE BEAM FORMS. USUALLY THE WIRES AND CABLES ARE PRESSED THROUGH A HOLLOW CONDUIT EMBEDDED IN THE CONCRETE BEAM. BEARING PADS ALSO ALLOW FOR EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION IN THE MEMBERS. TO PROTECT THEM FROM FIRE AND CORROSION. 2. THE CAUSES OF PRESTRESS LOSSES ARE: 1. FOR SOLID AND HOLLOW-CORE SLABS THESE PADS ARE STRIPS OF HIGH-DENSITY PLASTIC. PADS OF SYNTHETIC RUBBER AREUSED.  SELF-CONTAINED METHOD – THE PROCESS IS DONE BY TYING THE JACK BASE TOGETHER WITH WIRES OR CABLES LOCATED ON EACH SIDE OF THE BEAM.  THERMAL PRESTRESSING – THE STEEL IS PREHEATED BY MEANS OF ELECTRIC POWER WHICH ARE ANCHORED AGAINST THE OPPOSITE END OF THE CONCRETE BEAM. 6. REMOVING THE JACK EQUIPMENT. 4. THE SIMPLEST JOINTS IN PRECAST CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION ARE THOSE THAT RELY UPON GRAVITY BY PLACING ONE ELEMENT ON TOP OF ANOTHER. PRESTRESSING OF CONCRETE THERE ARE SEVERAL METHODS EMPLOYED IN APPLYING PRESTRESSED FORCE TO A CONCRETE BEAM:  PRECOMPRESSING METHOD – IS A PROCESS OF USING JACKS REACTING AGAINST ABUTMENT. AS IS DONE WHERE SLAB ELEMENTS REST ON A BEARING WALL OR BEAM. AND GROUTING ARE ALL COMMONLY EMPLOYED IN THESE CONNECTIONS. EXPOSED METAL CONNECTORS NOT COVERED BY TOPPING ARE USUALLY DRY PACKED WITH STIFF GROUT AFTER BEING JOINED. UNDER ELEMENTS WITH HIGHER POINT LOADING SUCH AS TEES AND BEAMS. 5. AFTER ATTAINING THE DESIRED PRESTRESS FORCE. OR WHERE A BEAM RESTS ON THE CORBEL OF A COLUMN. ONE END OF THE TENDON IS ANCHORED AND FORCES ARE APPLIED AT THE OTHER END. 3.

C) D) MEASUREMENT OF PRESTRESSING FORCE PRESTRESSING FORCE COULD BE DETERMINED BY: 1. DEFECTS OF LUMBER: . A) B) HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETE HAS A HIGHER MODULUS OF ELASTICITY. WHICH A PIECE UNDERGOES WHEN A WEIGHT IS APPLIED. STRENGTH – TO THE GRAIN. PROPERTIES OF WOOD:     HARDNESS – MEASURED BY THE COMPRESSION. MEASURING THE TENDON ELONGATION. IT MINIMIZE THE REDUCTION OF PRESTRESS LOSS. BUILDING MATERIALS WOOD MATERIALS WOOD HAS DURABILITY AND BEAUTY. IT HAS GREAT ABILITY TO ABSORB SHOCKS FROM SUDDEN LOAD AND LIGHT IN WEIGHT WHICH ADAPTABLE IN A COUNTLESS VARIETY OF PURPOSES. EITHER BY CHECKING JACK PRESSURE ON A CALIBRATED GAGE OR LOAD CELL OR BY THE USED OF CALIBRATED DYNAMOMETER.CONCRETE OF HIGHER COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH IS USED FOR PRESTRESSED STRUCTURES. INCREASING THE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF THE CONCRETE MEETS THE PROBLEM OF HIGH BEARING STRESSES AT THE ENDS OF POST AND BEAM WHERE THE PRESTRESSING FORCE IS TRANSFERRED FROM THE TENDON TO THE ANCHORAGE DOWELS WHICH DIRECTLY BEARS AGAINST THE CONCRETE. FLEXIBILITY – THE AMOUNT A PIECE WILL BEND BEFORE BREAKING. TWO MAJOR CLASSIFICATION OF WOOD:   SOFTWOOD – THESE ARE USED FOR GENERAL CONSTRUCTION.000 psi) 280-422 kg/cm2 BECAUSE OF THE FOLLOWING ADVANTAGES THAT IT OFFERS. PANELLING. 2. FURNITURES AND INTERIOR TRIM. MOST OF THE PRESTRESSED CONSTRUCTION SPECIFY A COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE BETWEEN (4. HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETE GIVES HIGHER STRENGTH TO PRECAST CONSTRUCTION WHEN CURING IS CAREFULLY CONTROLLED.000 to 6.  POST TENSIONING – THE STRESSING OF UNBONDED TENDONS AFTER CONCRETE HAS CURED. DURABILITY – THE RELATIVE VALUE / LIFESPAN OF WOOD. HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETE DEVELOPS STRONGER BOND PRESTRESSES TO PRETENSIONING CONSTRUCTION. STAIRS. HARDWOOD – THESE ARE USED FOR FLOORING.

KNOTS – IRREGULAR GROWTHS IN THE BODY WHICH INTERRUPS SMOOTH CURVE. DEFINITION OF TERMS:      STRIPS – PIECES LESS THAN 2” THICK AND LESS THAN 8” WIDE. THREE CATEGORIES OF LUMBER:  YARD LUMBER – USED FOR ORDINARY LIGHT CONSTRUCTION AND FINISHING WORK. ANGLE GRAIN – WHEN THE ANNUAL RINGS ARE AT ABOUT 45 DEG. DIMENSION LUMBER – PIECES MORE THAN 2” THICK AND LESS THAN 5” IN ANY DIMENSION. SHOP LUMBER – IT IS INTENDED FOR USE IN SHOPS OR IN MILLS MAKING SASH. AT RIGHT ANGLE TO THE FACE. BOARDS – PIECES LESS THAN 2” THICK AND AT LEAST 8” WIDE. LOG – PIECES 12” OR MORE ON THE SMALLEST DIMENSION. TYPES OF WARPING:    CUPPING – IS A DISTORTION OF THE BOARD IN WHICH THE FACE IS CONVEX/CONCAVE ACROSS THE BOARD.     DECAY – CAUSED BY THE ATTACKED OF FUNGI. FLAT GRAIN – WHEN THE ANNUAL RINGS RUN MORE OR LESS PARALLEL TO THE SURFACE. COMMONLY USED FOR FLOORING. AND CABINETS. PITCH POCKETS – WELL REFINED OPENINGS BETWEEN ANNUAL RINGS CONTAINING SOLID OR LIQUID PITCH. DOORS. TO THE FACE. STRUCTURAL LUMBER – IS INTENDED FOR USE IN HEAVY CONSTRUCTION FOR LOAD-BEARING PURPOSES AND IS CUT INTO TIMBERS OF LARGER SIZE. SEASONING OF LUMBER: . TRIM AND MOULDING. WANE – IS THE LACK OF WOOD ON THE EDGE OR CORNER OF A PIECE. CHECKS – CRACKS OR LENGTH WISE SEPARATION ACROSS THE ANNUAL RINGS OF GROWTH.   WOOD GRAIN:    EDGE GRAIN – ANNUAL RINGS RUN APPROX. PLANK SIDING. BOWING – IS A DISTORTION OF THE BOARD IN WHICH THE FACE IS CONVEX/CONCAVE LONGITUDINALLY. TWISTING – IS A DISTORTION OF THE BOARD IN WHICH ONE CORNER IS RAISED. TIMBER – PIECES 4” OR MORE ON THE SMALLEST DIMENSION.

 MANUFACTURE BOARDS: MANUFACTURED BOARDS ARE MADE OF WOOD BUT DOES NOT APPEAR IN THEIR NATURAL STATE. WYTHE – IS A VERTICAL LAYER OF MASONRY UNITS. BED JOINT – IS THE HORIZONTAL MORTAR IN EVERY COURSE.THE MOST COMMON FOR STRUCTURAL USE HARDWOOD PLYWOOD – ARE USED FOR PANELLING AND FINSHING WHERE USUALLY ON ONE FACE IS HARD FINISHED. HEADER – IS A BRICK LAID SO AS TO BOND TWO WYTHES TOGETHER. PARTICLE BOARD HAS EQUAL STRENGTH IN ALL DIRECTION OF A GIVEN CROSS SECTIONAL AREA. IT MUST BE DRIED TO A MOISTURE CONTENT OF NOT MORE THAN 5 TO 10 PERCENT. FLAKES. BASIC BRICKWORK TERMINOLOGY:         COURSE – IS A HORIZONTAL LAYER OF BRICKS OR OTHER MASONRY UNITS. THIS TYPE OF BUILDING MATERIALS CAN BE CLASSIFIED AS A TYPE OF LUMBER AS THEY ARE THE BY-PRODUCT IN THE MANUFACTURE OF LUMBER. CURLS. TYPES OF BOARDS:  PLYWOOD – IS MADE OF AN ODD NUMBER VENEER SHEETS GLUED TOGETHER WITH THE GRAINS RUNNING AT RIGHT ANGLE TO EACH OTHER. PRESSED WOOD IS EQUALLY STRONG IN ALL DIRECTIONS BUT VERY BRITTLE. PARTICLE BOARD – IS MANUFACTURES FROM WOOD CHIPS. SHAVING. . THE COMPLETE UTILIZATION OF WOOD HAS LEAD TO AN EXPANDED FIELD OF MANUFACTURED BOARDS . KILN-DRYING – MORE EXPENSIVE LUMBER WHICH IS REQUIRED FOR MORE REFINED USES SO AS WOOD WILL NOT MOVE. BOUND TOGETHER AND PRESSED INTO SHEETS AND OTHER MOLDED SHAPED. IT IS LIGHT IN WEIGHT AND STRONG THAT SCREW OR NAIL CAN BE DRIVEN CLOSE TO THE EDGES WITHOUT DANGER OF SPLITTING. TYPES OF PLYWOOD:     SOFT PLYWOOD . STRANDS. THE DIFF. SOLDIER – IS A BRICK LAID ON ITS END WITH ITS FACE PARALLEL TO THE WALL. EXTERIOR OR MARINE PLYWOOD – IS MADE FOR EXTERNAL USE. STRETCHER IS A BRICK LAID WITH ITS FACE PARALLEL TO THE WALL AND ITS LONG DIMENSION HORIZONTAL. FIBERS. ONE UNIT THICK. IT IS NOT BRITTLE AND CAN RESIST WARPING. THIS IS DONE IN AN AIRTIGHT STRUCTURE SCIENTIFICALLY HEATED BY STEAM PIPES IN WHICH THE LUMBER IS ARTIFICIALLY DRIED TO THE CORRECT MOISTURE CONTENT.  MASONRY MASONRY REFERS TO A MAN-MADE UNITS WHICH ARE FORMED AND HARDENED INTO MODULAR BUILDING UNITS. AIR DRYING – LUMBER IS STRIP-PILED AT ASLOPE ON ASOLID FOUNDATION. ROWLOCK – IS A BRICK LAID ON ITS FACE WITH ITS END VISIBLE IN THE WALL FACE. SLIVERS ETC. THE LINING IN THE WOOD ITSELF BINDS PRESSED WOOD TOGETHER WITH NO FILLERS OR ARTIFICIAL ADHESIVES APPLIED. THIS ALLOWS AIR TO CIRCULATE AROUND EVERY PIECE WHILE THE SLOPING ALOOWS WATER TO RUN OFF QUICKLY. HARDBOARD – IS MADE FROM WOOD CHIPS WHICH ARE EXPLODED INTO FIBERS UNDER STREAM OF HIGH PRESSURE. HEAD JOINT – IS THE VERTICAL MORTAR IN EVERY MASONRY UNIT. ITS COLOR VARIES FROM LIGHT TO DARK BROWN.

AND WATER. ARE BLOCKS WHICH ARE INTENDED FOR WALLS.STRUCTURAL BONDS FOR BRICKWORK:     RUNNING BOND CONSISTS ENTIRELY OF STRETCHERS. AND FILLING CAVITY WITH GROUT. CONCRETE CEMENTS .5 CM. TO 20 CM. GROUT IS A MIXTURE OF CEMENT. TO 10 CM.  THE ADHESION OF MORTAR TO BRICKS OR TO STEEL REINFORCEMENT USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH THEM IS CALLED THE MORTAR BOND. AGGREGATES.  THE METHOD BY WHICH THE INDIVIDUAL UNITS IN A BRICK STRUCTURE ARE TIED TOGETHER EITHER BY OVERLAPPING OR BY METAL TIES IS KNOWN AS THE STRUCTURAL BOND. BRICK BOUNDS  THE METHOD OF LAYING BRICKS IN A WALL IN ORDER TO FORM SOME DISTINCTIVE PATTERN OR DESIGN IS REFERRED TO AS THE PATTERN BOND. FENCES OR DIVIDERS CARRYING ITS OWN WEIGHT WHOSE THICKNESS RANGES FROM 7. FLEMISH BOND ALTERNATES HEADERS AND STRETCHERS IN EACH COURSE. AND ARE USED TO CARRY LOAD ASIDE FROM ITS OWN WEIGHT. PLACING THE REINFORCING STEEL IN THE CAVITY. LOAD BEARING BLOCKS ARE THOSE WHOSE THICKNESS RANGES FROM 15 CM. JOINT TOOLING PROFILES FOR BRICKWORK: WEATHERED JOINT CONCAVE JOINT VEE JOINT FLUCH JOINT RAKED JOINT STRIPPED JOINT STRUCK JOINT REINFORCED BRICK MASONRY A REINFORCED BRICK WALL IS CREATED BY CONSTRUCTING TWO WYTHES OF BRICK 50 –100mm APART. CONCRETE HOLLOW BLOCKS HAS THREE CELLS AND TWO ONE HALF CELLS AT BOTH ENDS HAVING A TOTAL OF FOUR. NON-BEARING BLOCKS ON THE OTHER HAND. CONCRETE HOLLOW BLOCKS : CONCRETE HOLLOW BLOCKS ARE CLASSIFIED AS BEARING AND NON-BEARING BLOCKS. PARTITIONS. COMMON BOND HAS A HEADER COURSE EVERY SIXTH COURSE ENGLISH BOND ALTERNATES COURSES OF HEADERS AND STRETCHERS.

FOUND IN RIVERBEDS. FREE OF SALT AND MUST BE WASHED.BIGGER THAN ¼” DIAMETER STONES. SAND . AGGREGATES USED ARE SAND. PORTLAND CEMENT IS SOLD EITHER IN CEMENT BAGS OF 40 & 50 KILOS WEIGHT OR IN BULK INTO CEMENT TRUCKS. COLUMNS BEAMS. NON-STAINING CEMENT. SILICA. IT IS USED PRIMARILY FOR ARCHITECTURAL PURPOSES SUCH AS CURTAIN WALL AND FACING PANELS. NON BEARING WALLS CONCRETE PLANT BOXES. AND PERLITE. GOOD ADHESION AND BOND. BURNED CLAY.   TYPES OF AGGREGATES USED IN CONCRETE CONCRETE CAN BE CONSIDERED TO BE AN ARTIFICIAL STONE MADE BY BINDING TOGETHER PARTICLES OF SOME INERT MATERIAL WITH A PASTE MADE OF CEMENT AND WATER. GRAVEL CRUSHED STONE. . DECORATIVE CONCRETE STUCCO AND TILE GROUT. MASONRY CEMENT OR TILE ADHESIVES – HAS BEEN SPECIALLY DESIGNED TO PRODUCE BETTER MORTAR THAN THAT MADE WITH NORMAL PORTLAND CEMENT OR WITH A LIME-CEMENT HAS PARTICULARLY GOOD PLASTICITY AND WORKABILITY. CONTROL OF CONCRETE MIXES . OR WHEREVER WHITE OR COLORED CONCRETE OR MORTAR IS SPECIFIED. FINE AGGREGATE COARSE AGGREGATE . ETC. BURNED THEN PULVERIZED. USUALLY CALCIUM OR ALUMINUM TO THE CEMENT CLINKER DURING THE FINAL GRINDING. SPECIAL CEMENTS  WHITE PORTLAND CEMENT – SAME MATERIALS AS NORMAL PORTLAND EXCEPT IN COLOR. ALUMINA AND IRON COMPONENTS. FOUR PARTS OF LIMESTONE TO ONE PART CLAY ARE BASIC INGREDIENTS. SLABS CLASS B CLASS C .C. R.¼” AND SMALLER DIAMETER STONES. THESE ARE MIXED. CINDER.1: 1 ½: 3 - CONCRETE UNDER WATER. THE MANUFACTURING PROCESS IS CONTROLLED TO PRODUCE A PURE WHITE. WATERPROOFED PORTLAND CEMENT – NORMALLY PRODUCED BY ADDING A SMALL AMOUNT OF STEARATE.1: 3: 6 - SLAB ON FILL.PORTLAND CEMENT MADE FROM MATERIALS WHICH MUST CONTAIN IN THE PROPER PROPORTIONS OF LIME. CONCRETE MIXES CLASS “AA” . RETAINING WALLS CLASS A . THESE INERT MATERIAL ARE THE AGGREGATE.1:2:4 - FOOTINGS. CRUSHED FURNACE SLAG. EXPANDED VERMICULITE.1: 2 1/ 2:5.

20) IN DIAMETER AT THE BOTTOM AND 4 INCHES (O. 3. FILLING IS DONE THE SAME WAY AS THE SLUMP TEST BUT TAKEN OUT FROM THE MOLD IN 24 HOURS. SOME OF THE BRANDS OF PORTLAND CEMENT           ISLAND CEMENT CONTINENTAL CEMENT HI. STANDARD SIZE IS 12 INCH. (.5 cm. THE CONE IS FILLED IN THREE EQUAL LAYERS.0 cm. DIAMETER. A STANDARD SLUMP CONE IS 12 INCHES HIGH (0.5 cm.000 psi. EACH BEING TAMPED OR RODDED 25 TIMES WITH A STANDARD 5/8” BULLET NOSED ROD. SPECIMENS ARE USUALLY CYLINDRICAL WITH A LENGHT EQUAL TO TWICE THE DIAMETER.COMMON QUALITY-CONTROL TEST OF CONCRETE.075) 3” SLABS AND TUNNEL INVERTS TOPS AND WALL.SLUMP TEST. (. 2. WHEN THE CONE HAS BEEN FILLED AND LEVELED OFF. BY MAKING THE CYLINDER WHILE STILL WET.0 cm.50) 2” COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TEST .10) ON TOP WHICH IS OPEN ON BOTH ENDS. PIERS.10) 4” 7. PARAPET & CURBS SIDE WALLS AND ARCH IN TUNNEL LINING CANAL LINING HEAVY MASS CONSTRUCTION 5. (. (.075) 3” 5. IT IS LIFTED CAREFULLY AND THE AMOUNT OF SLUMP IS MEASURED.WHEN FRESHLY MIXED CONCRETE IS CHECKED TO ENSURE THAT THE SPECIFIED SLUMP IS BEING ATTAINED CONSISTENTLY.50) 2” 5.50) 2” 10. (.000 psi. IT IS THEN SENT TO A COMPRESSION TESTING LABORATORY. (. BASED ON 7 AND 28 DAYS CURING PERIODS.0 cm.500 psi. SOME COMPRESSIVE STRESSES ARE 2. ALLOWABLE DEFLECTION „X‟ BEAMS AND COLUMNS 7. HIGH AND 6 INCH.CEMENT UNION CEMENT RIZAL CEMENT FILIPINAS CEMENT PACIFIC CEMENT FORTUNE CEMENT REPUBLIC CEMENT NORTHERN CEMENT BRANDS OF WHITE CEMENT    PRIME WHITE CEMENT KEENE TRINITY .30) AND 8 INCHES (O.0 cm.

FOR 4” CHB. THESE ARE CALLED SINTER.m. THEY INCLUDED: . CONCRETE – CEMENT.003 cu. FERROUS METAL: STEEL. MORTAR FILLER FOR HOLLOW CELL 0.GRADE BLAST-FURNANCE CHARGE MATERIAL. PLASTERING THICKNESS IS 0.A MALLEABLE ALLOY OF IRON AND CARBON PRODUCED BY MELTING AND REFINING PIG IRON AND/ OR SCRAP STEEL.00075 X 4 = 0. GRADED ACCORDING TO THE CARBON CONTENT.016 m. SAND & WATER. RETARDER – AN ADMIXTURE WHICH DELAY THE SETTING OF CEMENT PASTE OR MIXTURES/ AN ADDITIVE MIXED WITH PLASTER TO CONTROL THE RATE OF HARDENING. ADOBE BRICK – LARGE ROUGHLY MOULDED SUN DRIED CLAY BRICKS OF VARYING SIZES. SCRATCH COAT – INITIAL SCORED LAYER OF PLASTER WORK. A GRAT VARIETY OF PRODUCTS USED IN CONSTRUCTION ARE MADE. ARE BLENDED AND BURNED ON A MOVING GATE TO CAUSE THE FORMATION OF CLINKERS. FROM THESE. A HARD STONE OR BRICK USED TO REINFORCE AN EXTERNAL CORNER OF A WALL. FORTIFICATION – THA WALL OF INTRAMUROS. WHICH OTHERWISE WOULD BE WASTE. RAW MATERIALS WHICH IS MELTED INTO INGOTS PLACE IN MOLDS. QUOIN / COIN – IN MASONRY. MORTAR FOR BLOCK LAYING IS 0.METAL IN WHICH IRON IS THE PRINCIPAL ELEMENT. FIVE PARTICLES OF ALL THREE BASIC INGREDIENTS OF STEEL. ADIABATIC CURING .THE CURING OF CONCRETE OR MORTAR W/O THE GAIN OR LOSS OF HEAT DURING THE CURING PERIOD. IRON ORE. ASHLAR BRICK – A BRICK WHOSE FACE HAS BEEN HACKED TO RESEMBLE ROUGHLY HACKED STONE.05 X 0.m.               FERROUS AND NONFERROUS METALS FERROUS.CONTAINING NO. ZOCALO – LOW WALL AROUND A CHALET-TYPE HOUSE.0125 m. NONFERROUS. CINDER BLOCK – A LIGHT WEIGHT MASONRY UNIT MADE OF CINDER CONCRETE.00075 cu.20 = 0.      SNOWCRETE MORTAR – CEMENT. GRAVEL & WATER. A HIGH. WHEATHERED – MOST WATERPROOFED TYPE OF MORTAR JOINTS FOR WALLS. AND LIMESTONE. FOR 4 CELL/BLOCK = 0. SAND. PRODUCE BY THREE BASIC RAW MATERIALS. STEAM CURING – THE CURING OF CONCRETE OR MORTAR IN WATER VAPOR AT AN ELEVATED TEMPERATURE AT EITHER ATMOSPHERIC OR HIGH PRESSURE. OR VERY LITTLE IRON.075 X 0. EFFLORESCENCE – AN ENCRUSTATION OF SOLUBLE SALTS CAUSED BY FREE ALKALIES LEACHED FROM MORTAR OR ADJACENT CONCRETE AS MOISTURE MOVE THROUGH IT. GROUT – CEMENT AND WATER MIXTURE. TYROLEAN FINISH – ROUGH PLASTER FINISH OBTAINED BY FLINGING PLASTER ON A WALL W/ A HAND OPERATED MACHINE.

STEEL PIPE. AND HAS LITTLE USE FOR CONSTRUCTION.  REINFORCING STEEL. POINTS.   . THAT IS. 7= No.SECTIONS ARE MADE TO INTERLOCK AND ARE AVAILABLE IN SEVERAL SHAPE. PIG IRON IS USED TO MAKE CAST IRON WHICH IS HIGH IN COMPRESSIVE STRENGHT BUT LOW IN TENSILE STRENGHT. 9= ¼“ 3/8” ½” 5/8” ¾” 7/8” 1” 1 1/8 = 6 mm. NAILS. LONGITUDINAL WIRES WELDED TO TRANSVERSE WIRES AT REGULAR INTERVALS.  WELDED WIRE FABRIC. (DIVIDE A NUMBER OF BAR BY 8 TO GET THE EQUIVALENT IN inch DIAMETER) No.MADE FROM NEW STEEL OR FROM DISCARDED RAILWAY. AND IN MANY ROLLS THE THREAD. 4= No. = 25mm.  WROUGHT IRON IS PRODUCED WHEN PIG IRON IS MELTED IN SUCH A WAY AS TO REMOVE NEARLY ALL OF THE CARBON AND OTHER IMPURITIES. PIANO WIRE. TRIMS. = 20mm. MOTORS. 5= No.  COPPER. CABLES. 3= No.BEARING STEEL HAS HIGH RESISTANCE TO CORROSION AND IS USED FOR MAKING SHEET STEEL AND METAL LATH.CAR AXLES OR RAILS. = 30mm. STEEL WIRE – OVER 150. FASCIA AND GRAVEL STOPS.2 OR ¼ in.ANOTHER TYPE OF REINFORCING MATERIAL. NEEDLES. = 16mm. ENGINES AND BECAUSE OF ITS CORROSION RESISTANCE IT IS USED FOR PIPES TO SOME EXTENT. = 22mm. REINFORCING STEEL COMES IN PLAIN OR DEFORMED BARS. FOR BOLTS. = 12mm. FLASHING. IT‟S MAIN USES ARE FOR WIRE AND METAL ORNAMENTS. 2= No.000 USES FOR WIRE INCLUDING PINS. WIRE IS FED INTO AN AUTOMATIC BOLT-MAKING MACHINE WHICH CUTS TO LENGTH HEADS. FRAMES FOR DOORS EXPANSION JOINTS. 8= No.  STAINLESS STEELS ARE MADE WITH CHROMIUM OR A COMBINATION OF NICKEL AND CHROMIUM USED IN BUILDINGS OF EXTERIOR WALLS PANELS. = 10 mm. 6= No. HOWEVER SINCE IT IS CHEAP AND EASY TO CAST. FENCES. BOLTS. COPINGS. SIZES-START WITH NO. STEEL PRODUCTS    ROLLED STRUCTURAL SHAPES SHEET PILING. COLD-ROLLED SHEETS ARE GALVANIZED (GIVEN A ZINC COATING). BOLTS AND NUTS – (EITHER HOT FORGED OR COLD-FORMED FROM WIRE OF THE APPROPRIATE DIAMETER). IT IS USED FOR PUMPS. IT IS EASILY WORKED AND IS TOUGH AND DUCTILE.SEAMLESS OR WELDED SMALL DIAMETER PIPE AND ELECTRICALLY WELDED LARGE DIAMETER PIPE. IT CONSISTS OF PARALLEL. BARS WHICH HAVE LUGS OR DEFORMATIONS ROLLED ON THE SURFACE TO PROVIDE ARCHORAGE IN CONCRETE.

BRASSES ARE USED IN ARCHITECTURAL AND HARDWARE APPLICTIONS. VERY EASY TO CUT AND WORK. 2 ½ AND 3 5/8 INCHES.     NONFERROUS METALS: ALUMINUM – ITS ORE. COPPER – A LUSTROUS REDDISH METAL. ELECTRICAL CONDUCTORS. ETC. STRUCTURAL SHAPES THE MOST COMMON SHAPES OF STRUCTURAL STEEL USED IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION ARE THE AMERICAN STANDARD FORMS SUCH AS: 1. 4. AND BRONZES WHICH CONTAIN PRIMARILY ZINC AND TIN. TIN – A LUSTROUS WHITE. SOFT AND MALLEABLE METAL HAVING A LOW MELTING POINT. 7. 5. THE REDDISH BROWN ORE IS WASHED AND TREATED IN A SODA SOLUTION TO YIELD A CHALKY-WHITE POWDER CALLED ALUMNA. I-BEAM TEE BEAM H-COLUMN WIDE FLANGES ZEE . CONTAINING A HIGH CONCENTRATION OF ALUMINUM. USED FOR MAKING ALLOYS AND SOLDER AND IN COATING SHEET METAL. FLASHING AND SPANDREL WALL PANELS. ENABLING IT TO BE FITTED OVER UNEVEN SURFACES. BAUXITE. 2. FASTENERS DO NOT POP. HAS LOW MELTING POINT AND A HIGH COEFFICIENT OF THERMAL EXPANSION. SHEET STEEL – BLACK AND GALVANIZED. COPPER ALLOYS ARE BRASSES. HAS HIGH TENSILE STRENGTH. 3. AVAILABLE IN 1 5/8. 8. SQUARE BARS ROUND BARS PLATE BARS ANGLE BARS CHANNELS 6. 9. STEEL STUDS – LIGHTWEIGHT. RELATIVELY UNAFFECTED BY EXPOSURE TO AIR. MUCH FASTER TO INSTALL THAN WOOD STUD INSTALLATION. OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS – LIGHTWEIGHT WARREN-TYPE TRUSSES MADE IN SEVERAL DIFFERENT STYLES. MALLEABLE. BRONZES ARE USED IN THE PRODUCTION OF SPRINGS. LEAD – A SOFT. ALUMINUM FOIL – USED AS A VAPOR BARRIER ON WALLS AND CEILINGS AND AS REFLECTIVE INSULATION . CAN BE USED TO MANUFACTURE CORRUGATED ROOFING AND SIDING AND FORMED STEEL DECKING. HIGHLY DUCTILE AND MALLEABLE. RESPECTIVELY. IS AN EXCELLENT ELECTRICAL AND THERMAL CONDUCTOR. AND JOINTS STAY CLOSED. STEEL STRAPPING – MADE FROM HIGH-TENSILE FLAT WIRE IN A NUMBER OF SIZES. A TIGHTERNER TIGHTENS IT AND THE TWO LAPPED ENDS IS SEALED. PLUMBING STACKS AND ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS FIT EASILY INTO A STEEL-FRAMEWALL. FLASHINGS GUTTERS. 10. AND THE ALLOYS CONTAINING NICKEL. WIDELY USED FOR DOWNSPOUTS. HEAVY METAL. IS AVAILABLE IN A WIDE VARIETY OF SHAPES. USED FOR ROOFING. REQUIRING MINIMUM STORAGE SPACE AND DOES NOT WARP OR SHRINK. USED FOR BANDING COLUMN FORMS TO KEEP THEM FROM BULGING UNDER THE PRESSURE OF FRESHLY POURED CONCRETE. PANS AND DONES – MANUFACTURED FOR USE IN FORMING ONE-WAY AND TWO-WAY RIBBED CONCRETE FLOOR SYSTEMS. REQUIRES 10 KILOWATT HOURS FOR EACH POUND OF METAL ALUMINUM EXTRACTED. ROOFING.

SPANDRELS. . ZEE SECTIONS THE ZEE SECTION IS ANOTHER STRUCTURAL FORM IN A LETTER Z WHICH IS NOT FREQUENTLY USED IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION EXEPT ON THE FABRICATION OF STEEL WINDOWS AND OTHER FRAMES. AND WEIGHTS 15 kg. EXTRUSION – THE PROCESS OF PRODUCING METAL SHAPES OF A CONSTANT CROSS SECTION BY FORCING THE HOT METAL THROUGH AN ORFICE IN A DIE BY MEANS OF A PRESSURE RAM. PER METER LENGTH. STANDARD I-BEAM THE USE OF I-BEAM AS A COLUMN IS UNECONOMICAL. CAST IRON – AN IRON ALLOY USUALLY INCLUDING CARBON AND SILICON WHICH HAS HIGH COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH BUT LOW TENSILE STRENGTH. RED OXIDE – PROTECTIVE COAT FOR IRON. LAP SEAM – A JOINT FORMED BY OVERLAPPING THE EDGES OF METAL SHEET OR PLATES AND JOINING THEM BY RIVETING OR SOLDERING OR BRACING. VALUED FOR ITS CORROSION RESISTANCE AND DUCTILITY. WELDING – IS THE PROCESS BY WHICH TWO METALS ARE SO JOINT THAT THERE IS AN ACTUAL UNION OF THE INTERATOMIC BONDS. WIDE FLANGE SECTIONS ARE MORE EFFICIENT THAN STANDARD I BEAM WITH RESPECT TO BENDING RESISTANCE. WIDE FLANGE WIDE FLANGE SECTIONS ARE DESIGNATED AS W 12 x 24 WHICH MEANS THAT THE FLANGE HAS A DEPTH OF 24 cm. PER METER LENGTH. COMPARATIVELY. AND LINTELS ATTRIBUTED TO THE ABSENC E OF FLANGE ON THE OTHER SIDE. IT THEREFORE REQUIRES LATERAL SUPPORT TO PREVENT ITS TENDENCY TO BUCKLE. AND IT WEIGHS 12 kg. THE CHANNEL SECTION IS IDENTIFIRD AS C 15 x 20 WHICH MEANS THAT THE CHANNEL HAS A DEPTH OF 20 cm.   JOINING STEEL MEMBERS STEEL SHAPES CAN BE JOINED INTO A BUILDING FRAME WITH ANY OF THREE FASTENING TECHNIQUES.     WROUGHT IRON – A COMMERCIALLY PURE IRON OF FIBROUS NATURE. H-BEARING PILES H-BEARING PILES ALTHOUGH SUITABLE FOR PILE DRIVING ON DEEP EXCAVATIONS IS MUCH MORE SUITABLE THAN THE I-BEAM FOR COLUMNS.STANDARD CHANNEL THE STANDARD CHANNEL HAS THE SHAPE OF UNSYMMETRICAL BALANCE CONSISTING OF TWO FLANGES ON ONE SIDE. ALL WIDE FLANGE SECTIONS ARE GENERALLY WITH PARALLEL FACE FLANGE EXCEPT THOSE WITH 5% SLOPE INSIDE FACE PRODUCED BY BETLEHEM STEEL COMPANY. THE STANDARD CHANNELS ARE GENERALLY USED AS ELEMENTS OF BUILT-UP SECTIONS FOR COLUMNS AND ARE ALSO SUITABLE FOR FRAMING AROUND FLOOR OPENINGS. BECAUSE THE WHIRL OR REVOLVING ACTION OF THE STRUCTURE ABOUT AN AXIS THROUGH THE CENTROID PARALLEL TO THE WAB OF THE I-BEAM IS COMPARATIVELY SMALL.

HIGH-STRENGTH BOLTS – ARE HEAT TREATED DURING MANUFACTURE TO DEVELOP THE NECESSARY STRENGTH. AND TURNS THEM AGAINST ONE ANOTHER TO TIGHTEN THE BOLT. 2) A MAJOR PROBLEM IN HIGH-STRENGTH BOLTING OR FRICTION-TYPE CONNECTIONS IS HOW TO VERIFY THE NECESSARY TENSION HAS BEEN ACHIEVED IN ALL THE BOLTS IN A CONNECTION. IT IS USUALLY TIGHTENED USING PNEUMATIC OR ELECTRIC IMPACT WRENCH. RIVETS A RIVETS IS A FASTENER CONSISTING OF A CYLINDRICAL BODY AND A FORMED HEAD WHICH IS BROUGHT TO A WHITE HEAT. DRAWING MEMBERS TIGHTLY TOGETHER. SEVERAL WAY TO ACHIEVED PROPER TIGHTENING:    TURN-OF-NUT METHOD LOAD INDICATOR WASHER TENSION CONTROL BOLTS PROCESS OF TIGHTENING A TENSION CONTROL BOLT: A) B) C) THE WRENCH HOLDS BOTH THE NUT AND THE SPLINED BODY OF THE BOLT. THE RIVET SHRINKS AS IT COOLS.  BOLTS THE BOLTS COMMONLY USED IN STEEL FRAME CONSTRUCTION FALL INTO TWO GENERAL CATEGORIES: 1) CARBON STEEL BOLTS – OR COMMON BOLTS ARE SIMILAR TO THE ORDINARY MACHINE BOLTS THAT CAN BE PURCHASED IN HARDWARE STORES. WHEN THE REQUIRED TORQUE IS ACHIEVED. ITS HEAD IS THEN HELD WITH HAND HAMMER WITH A CUP-SHAPED DEPRESSION. WHILE A PNEUMATIC HAMMER DRIVES A RIVET SET REPEATEDLY AGAINST THE BODY OF THE RIVET TO FORM THE SECOND HEAD. AND HOT-WORKED WITH A PNEUMATIC HAMMER TO PRODUCED A SECOND HEAD OPPOSITE THE FIRSTHEAD. PROCESS OF RIVETING: A) B) C) D) A HOT STEEL RIVET IS INSERTED IN HOLES THROUGH THE TWO MEMBERS TO BE JOINED. THE SPLINED END TWISTS OFF IN THE WRENCH.  WELDING . A PLUNGER INSIDE THE WRENCH DISCHARGES THE SPLINED END INTO A CONTAINER. INSERTED THROUGH HOLES IN THE MEMBERS TO BE JOINED.

WELDING CAN JOIN THE MEMBERS OF A STEEL FRAME AS IF THEY WERE A MONOLITHIC WHOLE. TYPICAL WELDS USED IN STEEL FRAME CONSTRUCTION:  FILLET WELD        DOUBLE FILLET WELD DOUBLE-BEVEL GROOVE WELD SINGLE-BEVEL GROOVE WELD WITH BACKUP BAR V-GROOVE WELD V-GROOVE WELD WITH BACKUP BAR PUDDLE WELD PARTIAL-PENETRATION SINGLE-BEVEL GROOVE WELD THE BASIC SYBOLS ARE: BACK GROOVE OR BUTT SQUARE V BEVEL U J FLARE V FLARE BEVEL FILLET PLUG OR SLOT THE ARROW THE REFERENCE LINE CARRIES THE DESCRIPTIVE SYMBOLS THE ARROW POINTS TO THE WELD THE BASIC SYMBOLS THE BASIC WELD SYMBOL IS LOCATED ON EITHER SIDE OF THE REFERENCE LINE AS FOLLOWS: SYMBOLS ON THE TOP OF THE REFERENCE LINE REFER TO WELDS ON THE SIDE OF THE JOINT OPPOSITE THE . WELDED ARE STRONGER THAN THE MEMBERS THEY JOIN IN RESISTING BOTH SHEAR AND MOMENT FORCES.

ORDINARY WINDOW GLASS IS ANNEALED.ARROW SYMBOLS ON THE BOTTOM OF THE REFERENCE LINE REFER TO WELDS ON THE SAME SIDE OF THE JOINT AS AS THE ARROW SUPPLEMENTARY SYMBOLS FIELD WELD – THIS WELD BE DONE IN THE FIELD DURING ERECTION. PRIOR TO WELDING. A SHARP BEND NEAR THE END OF THE ARROW INDICATES THAT THE ARROWHEAD IS POINTING TOWARD THE GROOVED SIDE OF THE BEVEL OR JGROOVED JOINT GLASS THE MAJOR INGREDIENT OF GLASS IS SAND (SILICON DIOXIDE). 25mm IS AVAILABLE. OR 6mm TO 22mm. BACKUP BAR – AS INDICATED IN THIS EXAMPLE. AND ON SPECIAL ORDER. COOLED SLOWLY UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITION. ORDINARILY TRANSPARENT OR TRANSLUCENT. WELD ALL AROUND – THIS INDICATES THAT THE WELD SHOULD BE CARRIED FULLY AROUND THE PERIMETER OF THE JOINING PIECES. OTHER WELDS ARE DONE EARLIER IN THE FABRICATOR‟S SHOP. PRESSED OR CAST TO A VARIETY OF SHAPES. PRODUCED BY MELTING A MIXTURE OF SILICA. DURING ITS MANUFACTURED. WHILE MOLTEN MAYBE BLOWN. A FLUX AND A STABILIZER. SPACER – SMALL METAL SPACERS ARE USED TO MAINTAIN A GAP BETWEEN THE PIECS TO BE JOINED. A HARD BRITTLE INORGANIC SUBSTANCE.5mm. TO AVOID LOCKEDIN THERMAL STRESSES THAT MIGHT CAUSE IT TO BEHAVE UNPREDICTABLY IN USE. ROLLED. TYPES OF CLEAR GLASS . THROUGH 3mm. A BACKUP BAR TO SUPPORT THE FIRST PASS OF THE WELD MUST BE PLACED ON THE SIDE OF THE JOINT OPPOSITE THE ARROW. THICKNESSES OF GLASS GLASS IS TYPICALLY MANUFACTURED IN A SERIES OF THICKNESSES RANGING FROM APPROXIMATELY 2. DRAWN. IS CALLED DOUBLE-STRENGTH. IS CALLED SINGLE-STRENGTH.

PATTERNED OR ROLLED AND ROUGH CAST GLASS HOT GLASS CAN BE ROLLED INTO SHEETS WITH MANY DIFFERENT SURFACE PATTERNS FOR USE WHERE LIGHT TRANSMISSION IS DESIRED BUT VISION MUST BE OBSCURED FOR PRIVACY. IT IS USUALLY TEMPERED OR HEAT-STRENGTHENED TO RESIST THE THERMAL STRESSES THAT CAN CAUSED BY ACCUMULATIONS OF SOLAR HEAT BEHIND THE SPANDREL. BRONZES. THIS IS USE TO REDUCE GLARE AND CUT DOWN ON SOLAR HEAT GAIN. WITH LIGHTS ON INSIDE THE BUILDING. BLUES. THE SOFT VINYL HOLDS THE SHARDS OF GLASS IN PLACE RATHER THAN ALLOWING THEM TO FALL OUT OF THE FRAME. ABOUT ONE-THIRD AS HIGH AS TEMPERED GLASS IN TERMS OF BENDING AND STRENGTH. COOLING BOTH ITS SURFACES RAPIDLY WITH A BLAST OF AIR WHILE ITS CORE COOLS MUCH MORE SLOWLY. 2. 1) TINTED GLASS TINTED GLASS IS MADE BY ADDING SMALL AMOUNTS OF SELECTED CHEMICAL ELEMENTS TO THE MOLTEN GLASS MIXTURE TO PRODUCE THE DESIRED HUE AND INTENSITY OF COLOR IN GRAYS. THE WIRE GREATLY INCREASES THE RESISTANCE TO SHATTERING THROUGH IMPACT. 5. TINTED AND REFLECTIVE COATED GLASS SOLAR HEAT BUILDUP CAN BE PROBLEMATIC IN THE INHABITED SPACES OF BUILDINGS WITH LARGE AREAS OF GLASS. 3. . THE WIRES HOLD THE SHEET OF GLASS TOGETHER. ESPECIALLY DURING THE WARM PART OF THE YEAR. 4. HEAT-STRENGTHENED GLASS THE HEAT STRENGTHENED PROCESS IS SIMILAR TO TEMPERING. AND GOLDS. THEY APPEAR AS DARK BUT TRANSPARENT GLASS. SPANDREL GLASS SPECIAL OPAQUE GLASSES ARE PRODUCED FOR COVERING THE SPANDREL AREA (THE BANDS OF WALL AROUND THE EDGES OF FLOORS) IN GLASS CURTAIN. TEMPERED GLASS TEMPERED GLASS IS PRODUCED BY CUTTING ANNEALED GLASS TO THE REQUIRED SIZES FOR USE. WHEN ITS BREAKS. BUT ITS. ITS FOUR TIMES AS STRONG IN BENDING AND MORE RESISTANT TO THERMAL STRESS AND IMPACT. ITS USE FOR SAFETY GLAZING. 2) REFLECTIVE COATED GLASS REFLECTIVE COATED GLASS APPEAR AS MIRROR FROM THE OUTSIDE ON A BRIGHT DAY AND AT NIGHT.1. WIRED GLASS SIMPLY A ROLLED GLASS INTO WHICH WIRE MESH IS INSERTED DURING THE PROCESS OF MANUFACTURE. LAMINATED GLASS ITS MADE BY SANDWICHING A TRANSPARENT VINYL INTERLAER BETWEEN SHEETS OF GLASS AND BONDING THE THREE LAYERS TOGETHER UNDER HEAT AND PRESSURE. 6. WHEN ITS BREAKS FROM THERMAL STRESS. GREEN. REHEATING IT TO APPROXIMATELY 1200 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT.

. THESE GLASS MASONRY UNITS PROVIDE ALMOST UNLIMITED DESIGN VERSATILITY WHEN USED IN WINDOW. PAINT GENERALLY REFERS TO OPAQUE OR CLEAR FILM-FORMING MATERIAL THAT ACTS AS A SHIELD OR BARRIER BETWEEN THE BUILDING MATERIAL AND THOSE ELEMENTS OR CONDITIONS THAT MAY ADVERSELY AFFECTS OR DETERIORATE. C. TWO TYPES: 1. WHITE AND LIGHT COLORS REFLECT SIZE OF FORM AND SPACE. A LIGHT DIFFUSING BLOCK – DIFFUSES INCOMING LIGHT EVENLY THROUGHOUT THE INTERIOR OF THE ROOM. TEMPERATURE VARIATIONS. THEY ARE MADE INTO TWO SEPARATE HALVES. WHEN USING PAINT. THE PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF COLOR AND SURFACE TEXTURE MUST BE CONSIDERED. GLASS BLOCKS COMPARABLE IN MANY WAYS TO UNIT MASONRY BUT HAVE THE ADDED FEATURE OF TRANSMITTING LIGHT. DARK COLOR CAN INHIBIT THE PERCEPTION OF FORM AND MAY BE USED FOR CONTRAST. MILDEW AND DECAY CHEMICALS AND PHYSICAL ABRASION. ILLUMINATION EVENLY. PRESERVE OR VISUALLY ENHANCE THE SURFACE TO WHICH IT IS APPLIED. B. WHICH ARE HEAT-SEALED TOGETHER TO FORM A HOLLOW UNIT WITH REASONBLY HIGH THERMAL EFFICIENCY AND SOUND INSULATION. EASILY CLEANED. FUNCTIONAL BLOCKS – DIRECT OR DIFFUSE THE DAYLIGHT WHICH PASSES THEOUGH THEM TO IMPROVE THE ILLUMINATION OF THE BUILDING INTERIOR. GENERAL PURPOSES BLOCK 2. FINISHES INCLUDE PLASTIC LAMINATED SURFACE COVERINGS SUCH AS PLASTIC LAMINATED AND VINYL OF FABRIC WALL COVERING. AS INTERIOR WALLS AND DIVIDER PANELING. GLASS PRODUCTS I. OPENINGS AND FACADES. NON-ABSORPTIVE SURFACES. THE EDGE SURFACES OF THE BLOCK ARE COATED WITH A GRITTY MORTAR BOND. GLOSSY FINISHES REFLECT LIGHT AND CAN CAUSE GLARE. AND PROMOTE HUMAN COMFORT AND SAFETY. USED ALWAYS ABOVE EYE LEVEL. PAINT FINISHES THE PURPOSE OF A FINISH IS TO PROTECT. BUT THEY ALSO PROVIDE SMOOTH. WATER OR MOISTURE VAPOR. DECORATIVELY OR ARCHITECTURAL GLASS – AVAILABLE IN A WIDE RANGE OF STYLES AND PATTERNS. IMPROVE HEATING AND LIGHTING EFFECTS. A LIGHT DIRECTING BLOCK – DIRECTS INCOMING LIGHT UPWARD TOWARD THE CEILING. CERTAIN COLORS MAY BE STIMULATING WHILE OTHERS ARE RELAXING. THE PAINT FILM MUST RESIST DETERIORATION DUE TO SUNLIGHT HEAT. TWO KINDS OF EDGES SEALS ARE FUSED GLASS EDGES AND A METAL SPLINE AND ORGANIC SEALANT. PAINT MAY ALSO SERVE TO MAKE SURFACES MORE SANITARY.3) INSULATING GLASS A SECOND SHEET OF GLASS APPLIED TO A WINDOW WITH AN AIRSPACE BETWEEN THE SHEETS CUTS THIS RATE OF HEAT LOSS IN HALF. THREE STYLES OF FUNCTIONAL BLOCKS: A. FLAT PAINT FINISHES SOFTEN AND DISTRIBUTE.

PAINT WITH 100% VOLUME SOLIDS: (NO THINNER) 1 GAL 1600 SF (149 m2) 800 SF ( 74 m2) 400 SF ( 37 m2) COVERS @ 1 MIL DFT @ 2 MIL DFT @ 4 MIL DFT . EGG SHELL. ROLLED OR SPRAYED ON. COATINGS MAY BE BRUSHED. A MINIMUM OF 2 COATS IS REQUIRED TO PRODUCE 5 MIL DFT. IT IS ALWAYS ADVISABLE THEREFORE TO FOLLOW THE PAINT MANUFACTURERS RECOMMENDATIONS IN THE APPLICATION AND USE OF A PAINT OR OTHER PROTECTIVE COATING.& VARNISH. FLAT. SURFACE FINISH TEXTURE  GLOSS. DRYING THE TIME AND CONDITIONS NECESSARY FOR A PAINT TO DRY MUST BE CHECKED. ETC.. FINISH COLOR. PAINTS MAY BE CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO: MATERIAL TO WHICH IT IS APPLIED  WOOD. EXPOSURE. COVERAGE A PAINT‟S COVERAGE CAN BE ESTIMATED BY ITS PERCENTAGE OF VOLUME SOLIDS: ie. PLASTIC. METHOD DEPENDING ON THE TYPE OF PAINT AND THE MATERIAL TO WHICH IT IS BEING APPLIED.MOST PAINTS ARE CAREFULLY FORMULATED TO MEET SPECIFIC APPLICATION THAT USE REQUIREMENTS AND ARE READY-MIXED FOR APPLICATION EXCEPT FOR THINNING. AND MANUFACTURER AND/OR TRADE NAME. TYPE OF PAINT PAINT MUST BE COMPATIBLE WITH THE MATERIAL TO WHICH IT IS APPLIED. STIRRING. SEMI-GLOSS. CONCRETE. SPECIFICATIONS INCLUDE THE PAINT VEHICLE. METAL MASONRY. MULTIPLE THIN COATS ARE GENERALLY MORE EFFECTIVE THAN A SINGLE THICK COAT. CONSIDERATIONS IN THE SELECTION AND USE OF A PAINT INCLUDE : SURFACE PREPARATION THE FOUNDATION OF ANY PAINT SYSTEM MUST BE PROPERLY PREPARED TO ENSURE PROPER ADHESION OF THE PAINT FILM TO ITS SURFACE. OR THE ADDITION OF AN ACTIVATOR OR CATALYST. SATIN. FILM THICKNESS THE DRY FILM THICKNESS (DFT) IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN THE NUMBER OF COATS.

ALKYD.-PAINT WITH 50% VOLUME SOLIDS (50% THINNER) 1 GAL 800 SF (74 m2) 400 SF (37 m2) COVERS @ 1 MIL DFT @ 2 MIL DFT PAINT GENERALLY CONSIST OF: PIGMENT – FINELY GROUND SOLIDS THAT PROVIDE THE PAINTS COVERINGS OR HIDING POWER OR ITS COLOR. SOLVENTS OR THINNERS ACTS DRYING AGENTS. SHEELAC. COLOR  DEPENDS ON THE TYPE OF PAINT AND THE MANUFACTURER. CHEMICAL ACTION. AND CONSISTS OF BINDERS AND SOLVENTS. DEPENDING ON THE TYPE OF SOLVENT USED. A PAINT MAY DRY OR HARDEN BY OXIDATION. LACQUERS. VEHICLE – LIQUID MEDIUM TO CARRY THE PIGMENT IN SUSPENSION DURING APPLICATION.     BINDER SERVE TO FORM THE PAINT FILM AND CAUSE IT TO ADHERE THE SURFACE BEING PAINTED. OR BY THERMOSETTING ACTION AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES. OR ASPHALT OR BASE COATINGS ASPHALT OR TAR COATINGS THAT FORM NON-PEMEABLE BARRIERS AGAINST WATER AND OXYGEN TO PROTECT SUBMERGED FERROUS METAL AND TO WATERPROOF MASONRY SURFACES. BINDERS ARE LARGELY RESPONSIBLE FOR THE PROTECTIVE QUALITY AND DURABILITY OF THE PAINT FIL OR PROTECTIVE COATING. . SILICONS. EVAPORATION. EXPOSURE  EXTERIOR OR INTERIOR CHARACTERISTICS: PIGMENTED COATING  LACQUER AND ENAMEL PAINTS CLEAR COATINGS  VARNISHES. SEALERS RUST INHIBITIVE COATINGS    ZINC-PIGMENTED COATINGS ZINC.

AND GOOD COLOR RETENTION. WATER TREATMENT PLANTS EPOXY CATALYZED – USED FOR DUCO FINISH. HARD FILM SIMILAR TO BAKED ENAMEL. THE MOST COMMON PAINT VEHICLE FAST DRYING A HARDER THAN ORDINARY TIME. AND WATER MAY BE REMOVED BY COAL TAR SOLVENTS HAS LIMITED RESISTANCE TO PROLONGED HEAT EXPOSURE USED IN SWIMMING POOLS.METAL PRODUCTS USED IN CONSTRUCTION. SUCH AS BOLTS.       TWO COMPONENT COATINGS CONSISTING OF A PIGMENTED PRIMER OR ENAMEL AND AN ACTIVATOR OR CATALYST. AND IMPROVES THE PAINTS WETTING PROPERTIES. TOOLS. FUMES. ACIDS. COLOR RETENTION AND STAIN RESISTANCE. HAS GOOD DURABILITY FOR EXTERIOR EXPOSURE BUT MAY CHALK.     USED IN COATINGS HIGHLY RESISTANT TO ALKALIES. LIME AND WATER USED TO DAMPPROOF MASONRY MATERIALS AND PROTECT EXPOSED STEEL PLASTIC AND SYNTHETIC RUBBER COATINGS  COATING RESISTANT TO MILDEW. MASONRY. A CLEANING MATERIALS HAS GOOD ADHESION PROPERTIES. HAS EXCELLENT RESISTANT TO SOLVENTS. TRAFFIC WEAR. LOCKS. HARDWARE HARDWARE .. ADDITION OF EPOXY RESINS MINIMIZES THE COLD FLOW AND MAXIMIZES THE CHEMICAL-RESISTANCE OF ASPHALT. DURABILITY AND ELASTICITY TO RESIST BLISTERING. CHEMICALS. ETC. HAVE GOOD DRYING PROPERTIES. CHEMICALS.  ASPHALT – USED FOR WATERPROOFING AT FIREWALL AND ROOF DECKING. MOLD. DURABILITY AND WATER RESISTANCE FOR EXTERIOR EXPOSURES. LOWERS THE GLOSS. ADDITION OF ALUMINUM GLAKES HELPS TO REFLECT THE SUN‟S RAYS. MIXED JUST PRIOR TO USE – HAS LIMITED “POT LIFE” PRODUCES BY CHEMICAL ACTION A DENSE. HINGES.  COATINGS WITH A VEHICLE OF BOTH PETROLEUM AND NATURAL ASPHALTS ARE USED TO PROTECT WOOD.    OIL MODIFIED RESINS THAT HARDEN BY OXIDATION AND EVAPORATION. MARINE ENVIRONMENTS ETC.CEMENT MORTAR COATINGS  MIXTURE OF PORTLAND CEMENT.    CHLORINATED RUBBER – USED FOR INDUSTRIAL FLOORING. PAINTS MAY BE CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO ITS VEHICLE OR BINDER: ALKYDS – USED FOR EXTERIOR PAINTS. CONCRETE AND AS ROOF COATING. HAVE GOOD WATER RESISTANCES BUT THERMOPLASTIC IN NATURE. THEY ARE CLASSIFIED AS: . PHYSICAL ABRASION.

ESP.A SLIDING DOOR WHICH SLIDES TO COVER A FIXED DOOR OF THE SAME WIDTH OR ANOTHER SLIDING DOOR. ACCORDION DOOR – A HINGED DOOR CONSISTING OF A SYSTEM OF PANELS WHICH ARE HUNG FROM AN OVERHEAD TRACK.  KINDS OF DOORS:    SWINGING DOOR OVERHEAD SWING-UP GARAGE DOOR – A RIGID OVERHEAD DOOR WHICH OPENS AS AN ENTIRE UNIT. THEREBY ELIMINATING DRAFTS FROM OUTSIDE. IT IS OF HOLLOW CORE. THE EDGES OF ADJACENT PANELS BUTT AGAINST (OR INTERLOCK) EACH OTHER TO FORM A SOLID BARRIER. EITHER MANUAL OR MOTOR . BY-PASSING SLIDING DOOR . RODS. WHEN THE DOOR IS CLOSED. AND OTHER METAL FITTINGS. 4. SLIDING POCKET DOOR . ROLL-UP DOOR (SOLID OR SEE-THROUGH ALUMINUM SHUTTERS) A DOOR MADE UP OF SMALL HORIZONTAL INTERLOCKING METAL SLATS WHICH ARE GUIDED IN A TRACK: THE CONFIGURATION COILS ABOUT AN OVERHEAD DRUM WHICH IS HOUSED AT THE HEAD OF THE OPENING. SUCH AS BOLTS. ASSUMES A HORIZONTAL POSITION ABOVE THE DOOR OPENING. SCREWS. 2. THAT HAS A FINISHED APPEARANCE AS WELL AS FUNCTION. SPIKES. WHEN OPEN.        . MASTER ALPHA YETI EAGLE DOORS – AN ENTRANCE WAY TYPES OF DOOR:  FLUSH – A SMOOTH-SURFACED DOOR HAVING FACES WHICH ARE PLANE WHICH CONCEAL ITS RAILS AND STILES OR OTHER STRUCTURE WHEN USED INSIDE. 11. ETC. 6. RAILS AND SOMETIMES MUNTINS. 8. WINDOWS.AN EXTERIOR DOOR CONSISTING OF FOUR LEAVES (AT 900 TO EACH OTHER) WHICH PIVOT ABOUT A COMMON VERTICAL AXIS WITHIN A CYLINDRICALLY SHAPED VESTIBULE. WHICH FORM ONE OR MORE FRAMES AROUND RECESSED THINNER PANELS. SUCH AS HINGES LOCKS.ONE OF TWO OR MORE DOORS WHICH ARE HINGED TOGETHER SO THAT THEY CAN OPEN AND FOLD IN A CONFINED SPACE. REVOLVING DOOR . THE FACES OF THE PANELS CLOSE FLAT AGAINST EACH OTHER.A DOOR MOUNTED ON TRACK WHICH SLIDES IN A HORIZONTAL DIRECTION USUALLY PARALLEL TO ONE WALL. WHEN THE DOOR IS OPEN. AND CABINETS. CATCHES. PANEL DOOR – A DOOR HAVING STILES. OVERHEAD ROLL-UP GARAGE DOOR – A DOOR WHICH.DRIVEN. MADE OF SEVERAL LEAVES. 5. SARGENT STANLEY YALE CORBIN SCHLAGE KWIKSET 10. WHEN USED FOR EXTERIOR IT IS OF SOLID CORE. PREVENTS THE DIRECT PASSAGE OF AIR THROUGH THE VESTIBULE. NAILS. SLIDING DOOR . 7. 12.FINISHING HARDWARE – HARDWARE.A DOOR WHICH SLIDES INSIDE A HOLLOW OF THE WALL. 3. HARDWARE MEANT TO BE CONCEALED. BI-FOLDING DOOR . RABBIT UNIVERSAL 9. ROUGH HARDWARE – IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION. SOME FINISHING HARDWARE BRANDS: 1. MAYBE CONSIDERED PART OF THE DECORATIVE TREATMENT OF A ROOM OR BUILDING. THAT USED WITH DOORS.

THE UPPER PART CAN BE OPENED WHILE THE LOWER PORTION IS CLOSED.EXCELLENT FOR USE IN RESTAURANTS.  DUTCH DOOR . FULL SURFACE HINGE . OR IN BOTH DIRECTIONS.    FAST PIN HINGE . LOOSE PIN HINGE . PIVOT HINGE .A MOVABLE JOINT USED TO ATTACH SUPPORT AND TURN A DOOR ABOUT A PIVOT.A HINGED DOOR WHICH IS DIVIDED TO TWO. THE DOOR MAY BE REMOVED WITH UNSCREWING THE HINGED. CONSISTS OF TWO PLATES JOINED TOGETHER BY A PIN WHICH SUPPORT THE DOOR AND CONNECT IT TO ITS FRAME. B. THE PIN IS REMOVABLE.A HINGED DESIGNED FOR ATTACHMENT ON THE SURFACE OF THE DOOR AND JAMB WITHOUT MORTISING. KITCHENS. IT IS FIXED. IN LARGE HINGE.A DOOR HINGED HAVING TWO KNUCKLES. IN SMALL HINGES.A HINGE HAVING A REMOVABLE PIN WHICH PERMITS ITS TWO PARTS TO BE SEPARATED. BY LIFTING THE DOOR UP. OFF THE VERTICAL PIN. BUTT HINGE . SINGLE ACTION  3. THE HINGE RETURNS IT TO OPEN POSITION AUTOMATICALLY. THE DOOR OPENS BY JUST PUSHING IT WITH THE SHOULDER OR FEET. USUALLY OF MODERN DESIGN.A TYPE OF DOOR HINGE HAVING A SINGLE JOINT OF THE PIVOT TYPE. ENABLING IT TO SWING OPEN OR CLOSED. TO FIX ONE SASH TYPES OF BOLT AND FASTENER:     CHAIN HEAD AND FOOT BOLT DOOR OR BARREL BOLT FLUSH BOLT CHAIN DOOR FASTENER .A HINGE CONTAINING ONE OR MORE SPRINGS.THE AXLE OR PIN ABOUT WHICH A WINDOW OR DOOR ROTATES.A HINGE IN WHICH THE PIN IS FASTENED PERMANENTLY IN PLACE. THE DOOR IS FASTENED TO THE FLOOR AND DOOR HEAD WITH PIVOTS. ONE OF WHICH HAS VERTICAL PIN THAT FITS IN A CORRESPONDING HOLE IN THE OTHER. HOSPITALS. OLIVE KNUCKLE HINGE . TYPES OF HINGES: 1.  DOUBLE ACTION . SPRING HINGES .CONSISTS OF TWO RECTANGULAR METAL PLATES WHICH ARE JOINED WITH A PIN. PAUMELLE HINGED . FRENCH DOOR FINISHING HARDWARES: A. WHEN A DOOR IS OPENED. LOOSE JOINT HINGE .A PAUMELLE HINGE WITH KNUCKLES FORMING AN OVAL SHAPE.    2.  VERTICAL SPRING PIVOT HINGE.A SPRING HINGE FOR A DOOR WHICH IS MORTISTED INTO THE HEEL OF THE DOOR. TO HUNG A DOOR HINGE. MAY ACT IN ONE DIRECTION ONLY.

SOMETIMES EQUIPPED WITH A DEAD BOLT. HASP – A FASTENING DEVICE CONSISTING OF A LOOP OR STAPLE AND A SLOTTED HINGE PLATE NORMALLY SECURED WITH A PADLOCK. RABBETED LOCK – A LOCK OR LATCH IN WHICH THE FACE IS FLUSH WITH THE RABBET ON A RABBETED DOOR JAMB. KIND OF LOCKSET:   INTEGRAL LOCK – A TYPE OF MORTISE LOCK HAVING ITS CYLINDER IN THE KNOB. HAVING A RECESS FORMED TO RECEIVE. SUCH AS KNOBS ESCUTCHEONS. PROJECTS OUT FROM THE SIDE OF THE STRIKE PLATE TO PROTECT THE FRAME.C.  USE A DIFFERENT LOCKSET FOR EACH ROOM :    ENTRANCE LOCKSET – WITH A KEY AND UNIVERSAL BUTTON WHICH WHEN PUSHED STAYS PUT AND LOCKS THE DOOR. TO LOCK THE DOOR LOCKSET – A COMPLETE LOCK SYSTEM INCLUDING THE BASIC LOCKING MECHANISMS AND ALL THE ACCESSORIES. KNOB – A HANDLE. BUT NOT A DEAD BOLT CONTAINS NO PROVISIONS FOR LOCKING WITH A KEY. ESCUTCHEON – A PROTECTIVE PLATE SURROUNDING THE KEYHOLE OF A DOOR. BEDROOM LOCKSET – SAME AS THE ENTRANCE LOCKSET BUT SIMPLER IN DESIGN. PLATES – A THIN FLAT SHEET OF MATERIAL. STRIKES – A METAL PLATE OR BOX WHICH IS SET IN A DOORJAMB AND IS EITHER PLACED OR RECESSED TO RECEIVE THE BOLT OR LATCH OF A LOCK.      BUTTON – A SMALL REJECTING MEMBER USED TO FASTEN THE FRAME OF A DOOR OR WINDOW. THE ROLLER ENGAGES A STRIKE PLATE. LIFT LATCH – A TYPE OF DOOR LATCH WHICH FASTENS A DOOR BY MEANS OF A PIVOTED BAR THAT ENGAGES A HOOK ON THE DOOR JAMB. CYLINDER LOCK – A BORED LOCK WHICH HAS A CYLINDRICAL CASE INTO WHICH A SEPARATE LATCH CASE FITS. NIGHT LATCH – KEY OPERATED LATCH WITH SAFETY PIN. KEY-PADLOCK – A DEVICE WHICH FASTENS IN POSITION MAYBE OPERATED BY A KEY. PLATES. SCREEN DOOR LATCH – A SMALL LOCKING OR LATCHING DEVICE USED ON SCREEN DOORS AND GENERATED BY A KNOB OR LEVER HANDLE. WHEN A DOOR IS CLOSED. FIXED ON DOOR. MORE OR LESS SPHERICAL USUALLY FOR OPERATING A LOCK. ROLLER LATCH – A TYPE OF DOOR LATCH HAS A ROLLER UNDER SPRING TENSION INSTEAD OF A BEVELED SPRING BOLT. LATCH – A SIMPLE FASTENING DEVISE HAVING A LATCH BOLT. TOILET LOCKSET – WITHOUT A KEY HAS A BUTTON THAT IS PUSHED TO LOCK INSIDE. A LEVER WHICH LIFTS THE PIVOTED BAR USED TO UNFASTEN THE DOOR. ETC. LIP STRIKE – THE PROJECTION FROM THE SIDE OF A TRIKE PLATE WHICH THE BOLT OF A LOCK STRIKES FIRST. .

THEY CAN BE USED FOR BOTH FLUSH AND OVERLAPPING DOOR. WHICH IS SQUARE IN SECTION IS OPERATED BY THE DOOR KEY OR A TURN PIECE.   . TYPES OF AUTOMATIC DOOR CLOSER:     PNEUMATIC TYPE SEMI-CONCEALED OVERHEAD TYPE CONCEALED TYPE OVERHEAD LIQUID TYPE TYPES OF CABINET HINGED DOOR :    FLUSH OVERLAPPING OFFSET TYPES OF CABINET HINGES:  BUTT HINGES       COMMON BUTT LOOSE PIN T-HINGE PIANO HINGE DECORATIVE HINGE OFFSET HINGES – USED FOR HANGING LIPPED OR OVERLAPPING DOORS. AVAILABLE IN SEMI-CONCEALED AND SURFACE-MOUNTED STYLES. INVISIBLE HINGES – DON‟T SHOW FROM THE FRONT AND IS EXPENSIVE. BORED LOCK – A LOCK INTENDED FOR INSTALLATION IN A CIRCULAR HOLE IN A DOOR. DEAD BOLT – A TYPE OF DOOR LOCK. PIVOT HINGES – MADE FOR BOTH FLUSH AND OVERLAPPING DOORS.MAGNETIC PADLOCK – A KIND OF LOCK WHICH OPENS BY USING THE CORRESPONDING MAGNET WHICH GOES WITH IT. HASPLOCK – A KIND OF HASP THAT HAS A BUILT-IN LOCKING DEVICE WHICH CAN BE OPENED ONLY WITH A KEY. CREMONE BOLT – USED TO FASTEN UPPER AND LOWER DOOR. THE BOLT.

SELF BRACKET – ANY OVER HANGING MEMBER PROJECTING FROM A WALL OR OTHER BODY TO SUPPORT A WEIGHT. ROUGH HARDWARES: NAILS  COMMON WIRE NAIL WITH HEAD AND FOR STRENGTH. MORTISE THEM INTO BOTH SURFACES. 6” OTHER COMMON HAMMER DRIVEN FASTENER SCOTCH NAILS BRADS . 3 ½”. WHICH MAY BE USED FOR STEADYING ARE SELF. MAGNETIC CATCH – A DOOR CATCH FLAT THAT USES A MAGNET TO HOLD THE DOOR IN A CLOSED POSITION. 2 ½”. DOOR STOPPER – TO PREVENT THE DOOR WITH ITS LOCKSET FROM HARMING THE WALL OR TILES. CATCHES FOR CLOSING OF CABINET DOORS IN PLACE KINDS OF CATCHES:    FRICTION CATCH – ANY CATCH WHICH WHEN IT ENGAGES A STRIKE. BULLET CATCH – A FASTENER WHICH HOLDS A DOOR IN PLACE BY MEANS OF A PROJECTING SPRING ARCTUATED STEEL HALL WHICH IS DEPRESSED WHEN THE DOOR IS CLOSED. 1 ½”. 1”. SPRING DOOR CLOSER – ATTACHED ABOVE A SCREEN DOOR TO AUTOMATICALLY CLOSE IT.   FINISHING NAIL WITHOUT HEAD AND FOR BETTER APPEARANCE MASONRY OR CONCRETE NAIL USED FOR CONCRETE. A DROPDOWN DOOR ALSO REQUIRES A CHAIN OR STAY SUPPORT TO HOLD THE DOOR‟S WEIGHT WHEN IT‟S OPEN. TYPES OF KNOBS:      SCREW-IN KNOB BOLT-ON KNOB FLUSH KNOB FLUSH RING PULL OTHER FINISHING ACCESSORIES:      GRAB BAR – A HAND GRIP USUALLY INSTALLED IN SHOWER. 2 “. IS HELD IN THE ENGAGED POSITION BY FRICTION. MORTAR AND BRICK SURFACE SIZES. THEY DON‟T SHOW WHEN THE DOOR IS CLOSED. 3”. FLUSH COUNTER HINGE – FOR A DROP DOWN DOOR THAT CAN BE LOWERED TO SERVE AS WORK SURFACES REQUIRE HINGES THAT LAY FLUSH IN THE SURFACE. 4”. METAL BRACKET – USED TO SUPPORT ANY CABINET OR SHELF.

STAPLES TACKS SCREWS CLASSIFIED BY GAUGE (DIAMETER). TO USE THEM. NUTS        FLAT SQUARE NUT HEX NUT SQUARE NUT ACORN NUT T – NUT KNURLED NUT WING NUT HUNGER BOLTS – FOR HANGING FIXTURES FROM WALLS. A HOLE IS DRILLED. PUSHING A BOLT THROUGH AND ADDING A NUT. TYPES OF SCREW HEAD       FLAT HEAD SCREW OVAL HEAD SCREW PHILIPPS HEAD SHEET-METAL SCREW ROUND HEAD SCREW LAG SCREW WASHERS    FLAT COUNTER SUNK FLUSH BOLTS BOLTS HAVE THREADED SHAFTS THAT RECEIVE NUTS. BOLTS TIGHTENED WITH SCREW WHILE HOLDING THE NUT WITH A WRENCH. . AND METALLIC MAKE-UP. LENGTH. HEAD TYPE.

PERFORATED TAPE – A TYPE OF TAPE USED IN FINISHING JOINTS BETWEEN GYPSUM BOARD. KERF – IN A SUSPENDED ACOUSTICAL CEILING. VINYL TILE – A FLOOR TILE COMPOSED PRINCIPALLY OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE. BATTEN DOOR . HOPPER WINDOW – A WINDOW SASH WHICH OPENS INWARD AND ITS HINGED AT THE BOTTOM. ANCHOR BOLT – A STEEL BOLT USUALLY FIXED IN ABUILDING STRUCTURE WITH ITS THREADED PORTION PROJECTING. KNOB BOLT – A DOOR LOCK WITH A SPRING BOLT CONTROLLED BY ONE OR BOTH KNOBS AND DEAD BOLT CONTROLLED BY AKEY. SAHARA – USED FOR WATERPROOFING.A DOOR W/OUT STILES WHICH IS COSTRUCTED OF VERTICAL BOARDS HELD TOGETHER BY HORIZONTAL BATTENS. ORIEL WINDOW – A PROJECTED WINDOW BEYOND BUILDING WALL CARRIED BY A CORBEL.             . DOOR JAMB – FINISHED FRAME SURROUNDING A DOOR. AGROOVE CUT INTO THE EDGES OF AN ACOUSTICAL TILES TO RECEIVE SPLINES OR SUPPORTING MEMBERS OF THE CEILING SUSPENSION SYSTEM. PLATE BOLT – A BOLT IN A BUILDING FOUNDATION WHICH SECURES THEPLATE OR SILL. BEVEL – THE ANGLE WITH ONE SURFACE OF A BODY MAKES WITH ANOTHER SURFACE WHEN THEY ARE NOT AT RIGHT ANGLE. TRANSOM – WINDOW OVER A DOOR. MACHINE BOLT – A THREADED BOLT HAVING A STRAIGHT SHANK AND A CONVENTIONAL HEAD SUCH AS A SQUARE. HEXAGONAL. GUSSET – A PLATE ATTACHED TO SIDE OF A JOINT FOR INCREASE HOLDING POWER. PARQUET – INLAID WOOD FLOORING USUALLY SET IN SIMPLE GEOMETRIC PATTERN. STILE – VERTICAL FRAMES OF PANELLED DOOR. CARRIAGE BOLT – A BOLT WITH NECK FOR NON-RATATING MOUNTING. BRAD – A THIN NAIL WITH SMALL HEAD. BUTTON OR COUNTERSANK.U-BOLTS – TO ATTACH FLAT SURFACE TO ROUND POLES AND PIPES. LAG SCREW – COMMON HARDWARE FASTENER FOR TRUSS BRACES. BAY WINDOW – A WINDOW WHICH PROJECTS OUTSIDE THE MAIN LINE OF A BUILDING. JOINERY BRACKETS     MENDING PLATE T-PLATE FLAT CORNER PLATE L-BRACKET            AWNING – AN ARCHITECTURAL PROJECTED WINDOW. BACKSET – THE HORIZONTAL DISTANCE FROM THE FACE OF A LOCK OF LATCH TO THE CENTER OF THE KNOB OR LOCK CYLINDER.

ETC. A CHEMICAL STRIPPER OR DESCALER IS USED. PROTECT AND MANAGE – FOR BUILDINGS THAT NEED TOTAL CONTROL OF THE INCOMING AND OUTGOING INDIVIDUALS FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE BUILDING AS A WHOLE FROM ROBBERS. INVISIBLE SILICONE WATER REPELLENT SPECIALLY FORMULATED FOR APPLICATION ON MASONRY AND BRICKS (STANDARD SILICONE REPELLENT) AND FOR LIMESTONE AND CONCRETE THAT SEEPS MUCH RAINWATER (SPECIAL FORMULATED SILICONE REPELLENT). GIVES ADDED STRENGTH AND PROTECTS MATERIALS AGAINST FIRE.          THIS IS APPLIED ON THE FOLLOWING LOCATIONS :     ROOF DECKS CONCRETE TERRACES AND BALCONIES SHEATHING FOR WOOD SHINGLE AND TILE ROOFING WATER TANKS . DECAY CAUSING FUNGI. ETC. WHEN THERE IS FIRE. IT REACTS BY DISPERSING THE FLAME. PAINT AND CHEMICAL STRIPPERS – WHEN AN OLD HOUSE HAVING OLE PAINT IS IN NEED OF REPAINTING. OR FROM CHEMICAL ABRASIONS AND HEAVY USE. A SPECIAL KIND OF MATERIAL SHOULD BE USED TO PROTECT THE FLOORING. PREVENTING PROGRESSIVE BURNING.   CHASE – A CONTINOUS RECESS BUILT INTO A WALL TO RECEIVE PIPES. CONCRETE – THIS IS A CLEAR. PLOUGH – A GROOVE EXTENDED ALONG THE EDGE OR FACE OF THE WOOD MEMBER BEING CUT PARALLEL TO GRAIN. PLYWOOD. CLEAR PROTECTIVE TREATMENTS FOR MASONRY. RUSTPROOFING – A METHOD OF PROTECTING THE FERROUS MATERIALS LIKE STEEL. SUCH AS SAP STAIN AND SRYROT. INSECTS AND WARPING. THE SILICONE LIQUID IS APPLIED BY BRUSH OR LOW PRESSURE SPRAY AND DOES NOT AFFECT THE COLOR OR NATURALNESS OF THE MATERIAL. WEATHER. IT PROTECTS WOOD AGAINST POWDER POST BEATLES (BUKBOK) POWDER POET TERMITE (UNOS). STEALERS. CONTROL. PAINT REMOVER IS APPLIED TO THE SURFACE WHICH SOFTENS AND LIFTS THE PAINT. WOOD PRESERVATIVE (POWDER POST TERMITES) A CHEMICAL LIQUID PAINTED AND APPLIED TO LUMBER TO PRESERVE IT FOR YEARS. RUST. LUMBER AND OTHER BOARD THAT RETAINS THE NATURAL BEAUTY. RATPROOFING – A METHOD OF PROTECTING ROOMS AGAINST THE INTRUSION OF RATS AND OTHER SMALL DESTRUCTIVE ANIMALS FROM GNAWING THE WOODEN PARTS OF THE HOUSE. DUCTS. THE DAMPNESS THAT SOMETIMES OCCURS INSIDE THE BUILDING CAN BE CAUSED BY PENETRATION OF MOISTURE FROM THE OUTSIDE OR BY CONSIDERATION OF WATER VAPOR GENERATED ON THE INSIDE. DECAY. DESCALERS. ALGAE OR EVEN CEMENT BUILD UP FROM FORMS OR EQUIPMENT. FLOOR PROTECTION – WHEN FLOORS ARE SUBJECTED TO WEAR AND TEAR. GYPSUM BOARD – MATERIAL USED IN DRYWALL CONSTRUCTION. BUILDING PROTECTION PREVENTIONS   WATERPROOFING – A METHOD OF PROTECTING SURFACES AGAINST THE DESTRUCTIVE EFFECTS OF WATER. DAMP-PROOFING – PROTECTION FROM THE OUTSIDE IS PROVIDED BY WATER REPELLENT MATERIALS WHICH TURN WATER ASIDE AND FORCE IT TO RETURN TO THE EARTH. FOR CLEANING OF BUILDINGS FROM STAINS. ANAY (TERMITE) PROOFING BY SOIL POISONING – IT IS IMPORTANT TO POISON THE SOIL AGAINST ANAY (WHITE ANTS) IN ORDER TO STOP THE ANAY FROM INFESTING THE MAINPOSTS. WALLS AND FLOORING. ETC. THERE ARE SO MANY EQUIPMENTS WHICH CAN BE INSTALLED. FIREPROOFING – A CLEAR LIQUID APPLIED EASILY ON WOOD. SINCE THE LIQUID PENETRATED INTO THE WOOD. IRON FROM RUSTING OR CORROSION. HABITATING ON CEILINGS AND FLOORS OF HOUSES AND BUILDINGS.

IT RESISTS PUNCTURE AND TEARING ABRASIVE OVERLAYMENTS. A NON-ROTTING. AIR CON & PUMP ROOMS REFRIGERATION & COLD STORAGE ROOMS THREE TYPES OF WATERPROOFING:  INTEGRAL TYPE – MEDIUM IN POWDER FORM IS ADDED AND MIXED WITH THE AGGREGATES OF CONCRETE. LIKE CONCRETE. EXCELLENT RESISTANCE TO “BURNOUT” IN HOT CLIMATE. DIFFERENT EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION PROPERTIES FROM FINISHING PLIES. SUBJECT TO DETERIORATION BY OXIDATION AND TO WICKING. WOOD. BRUSH. THE MATERIALS USED DEPENDING ON THE MANUFACTURER IS EITHER ASPHALT PAPER LAID WITH HOT ASPHALT. THEY LOOK ALIKE. OR STANDING WATER ARE EMINENT. ORGANIC:   ORGANIC FELTS – COMPOSED OF FIBROUS ORGANIC MATERIALS. NON-WICKING INORGANIC MINERAL FIBER. RAT RESISTANT. SEAMLESS. ONE PACK OF USUALLY .   ROOFING FELTS – THE BASE FELTS USED IN BUILT-UP ROOFING ARE AVAILABLE IN TWO BASIC TYPE – ASBESTOS FELTS AND ORGANIC OR RAG FELTS. WITHSTANDS EXTREME THERMAL MOVEMENT. BUT THEY DIFFER WIDELY IN SERVICE. . THERE ARE ABOUT 14 USES. IDENTICAL EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION PROPERTIES TO FINISHING FELTS. LOSES STRENGTH SLOWLY WHILE AGING. FLEXIBLE AND ELASTIC OVER A WIDE TEMPERATURE RANGE. FLUID APPLIED – A FLUID APPLIED ELASTOMERIC COATING BASED ON HAVY SOLIDS ELASTOMER COMPOUND FORMULATED TO WATERPROOF AND PRESERVE THE SUBSTRATE. MINIMUM STRETCH AND SHRINKAGE OR WETTING OR DRYING WHICH MEANS MINIMUM DISTORTION. OTHER MATERIALS ARE PERFORMED SELF SEALING ASPHALT. ASBESTOS:       ASBESTOS FELTS – COMPOSED PRIMARILY OF ASBESTOS FIBER. THIS ELASTOMERIC FLUID CAN BE APPLIED BY ROLLER.          CONCRETE ROOF GUTTERS PLANT BOXES INSIDE KITCHEN FLOOR TOILETS CANOPIES BASEMENT FLOOR AND WALLS ELEVATOR PITS SWIMMING POOL MACHINE ROOMS. SETTLING AN D CRACKING. THE WATERPROOFING IS MONOLOTHIC. BRICKS AND STEEL. SUPERFICIALLY. IN THIS CASE. SOME OF THE KNOWN BRANDS ARE SAHARA AND SAKURA. SOMETIMES THICK POLYETHYLENE SHEETS IS ALSO USED. IMPREGNATED ASBESTOS FELT.908 KILOS IS ADDED TO ONE BAG OF KILOS CEMENT. SPRAY OR SQUEEGEE. MEMBRANE TYPE – RECOMMENDED FOR USE WHERE DIRECT RAIN.

LOSES STRENGTH RAPIDLY WHILE AGING. PAPER. LATH PLASTER. WE ARE INTERESTED IN TRANSFERRING HEAT FROM FURNACES. ALKALIS AND CAUSTICS. AT THE SAME TIME WE ARE INTERESTED IN PREVENTING THAT HEAT FROM BEING TRANSFERRED FROM THE INTERIOR OF THE BUILDING TO THE OUTSIDE. INTO VARIOUS ROOMS OF OUR BUILDINGS. FILMS ARE STAPLED TO STUDS. LAUNDERING. THIS WE CALL THERMAL INSULATION. UNAFFECTED BY ACIDS. ALTHOUGH ASPHALT PAPER IS A GOOD MOISTURE BARRIER. HUMIDIFIES. THEY CAN BE ATTACHED TO THE INSULATION AS PART OF THE MANUFACTURED PRODUCT OR INSTALLED SEPARATELY IN OR ON THE WARM SIDE OF THE WALL. THEY MUST BE CONTINUOUS AND ALLOW NO OPENINGS THROUGH WHICH VAPOR MAY PASS.001 IN. OR AS A THIN LAYER OF FOIL LAMINATED TO A HEAVY BACKING OF ASPHALT-IMPREGNATED KRAFT PAPER.    MAXIMUM STRETCH AND SHRINKAGE ON WETTING AND DRYING WHICH MEANS MAXIMUM DISTORTION. OR CEILING. WIDE STRIPS TO STUDDING ON 16 IN. AND SHOULD BE USED ON THE OUTSIDE OF A BUILDING FOR THAT PURPOSE. POOR RESISTANCE TO ROT. MOISTURE VAPOR IS PRODUCED BY COOKING OCCUPANTS. EARTH CRAWL SPACES. ANOTHER MATERIALS USED FOR DAMP-PROOFING OF CONCRETE WALLS IS “WEATHERKOTE” BITUMINOUS EMULSION. UNTREATED BRICK. ALUMINUM FOIL – USED AS VAPOR BARRIER AS A SINGLE SHEET. THIS IS ALSO DONE WITH TWO LAYERS OF FOIL LAMINATED WITH ASPHALT CEMENT. BY SHELL. HENCE. RADIATORS. FLOOR. KRAFT PAPER COATED WITH ASPHALT OR WAX. DURING THE SUMMER. POOR RESISTANCE TO “BURNOUT” IN HOT CLIMATE. THE MOISTURE VAPOR WILL CONDENSE WATER WHEN ITS TEMPERATURE IS REDUCED BY CONTACT WITH A COOL SURFACE OR COOL AIR. CEILINGS AND FLOORS BUT ALSO AS A BARRIER TO PREVENT THE PASSAGE OF MOISTURE FROM THE EARTH UPWARD THROUGH A CONCRETE SLAB LAIN ON THE GROUND. CEILING OR ROOF. WIDE. ETC. ALUMINUM. VAPOR INSULATION (DAMPROOFING) THE DAMPNESS THAT SOMETIMES OCCURS INSIDE BUILDINGS CAN BE CAUSED BY PENETRATION OF MOISTURE FROM THE OUTSIDE OR BY CONDENSATION OF WATER VAPOR GENERATED ON THE INSIDE. POLYETHYLENE FILM CAN BE APPLIED VERTICALLY IN 36 IN.3. PROTECTION FROM THE OUTSIDE IS PROVIDED BY WATER REPELLENT MATERIALS WHICH TURN ASIDE AND FORCE IT TO RETURN TO THE EARTH DONE THE OUTSIDE OF THE BUILDING. THEY SHOULD BE CONTINUOUS SURFACES OF ASPHALT OR WAX COATED PAPER. PRODUCED IN ROLLS OF 3 TO 20 FT.   THERMAL INSULATION IN COLD WEATHER. IT IS IMPORTANT THAT WE PREVENT THE TRANSFER OF HOT OUTSIDE TEMPERATURES TO THE WORKING AND LIVING SPACE WITHIN OUR BUILDINGS. VAPOR BARRIERS SHOULD BE INSTALLED ON THE WARM SIDE OF THE INSULATION. MOISTURE VAPOR ON THE OTHER HAND CAN PERMEATE MOST ORDINARY BUILDING MATERIALS SUCH AS WOOD.4 AND 6 MIL (1MIL = . BASEMENT FLOORS. OR OTHER METAL FOIL SHEETS OR POLYETHYLENE FILM. VAPOR BARRIERS (DAMPROOFING MATERIALS) THESE ARE MATERIALS WHICH EFFECTIVELY RETARD OR STOP THE FLOW OF WATER VAPOR AND NORMALLY ARE PRODUCED IN SHEETS OR THIN LAYERS. CENTERS WITH A FULL OVERLAP ON ALTERNATE STUDS. OVERLAPS AND EXTENSIONS TO FLOORS AND WALLINGS SHALL BE 6 IN. ALL OF THESE ARE DONE BY THE JUDICIOUS USE OF MATERIALS WHICH IS BEST PREVENT THE TRANSFER OF HEAT. ETC. MATERIALS USED AS VAPOR BARRIERS:  POLYETHYLENE FILM – THIS IS CHEMICALLY INERT PLASTIC. COMMON THICKNESSES ARE 2. SOMETIMES TWO LAYERS OF PAPER ARE CEMENTED WITH A CONTINOUS LAYER OF ASPHALT. IT IS NOT A VAPOR BARRIER. HEATING PANELS.) THIS FILM IS USEFUL NOT ONLY AS VAPOR BARRIER FOR WALLS. HIGH HUMIDITY IN A BUILDING MAY RESULT IN CONDENSATION OF WATER NOT ONLY ON THE INSIDE OF WALLS AND WINDOWS BUT ALSO ON THE OUTSIDE OR WITHIN THE EXTERIOR WALLS. .

WHICH ARE IMPERVOUS TO MOISTURE PENETRATION RESULTING FROM CONTINUOUS CONTACT WITH THE EARTH AND MOISTURE ARE PARTICULARLY USEFUL AS PERIMETER INSULATION. AND MIXED BY MACHINE.   APPLICATION BY POURING APPLICATION BY SPRAYING  SPRAYED-ON-INSULATIONS – MATERIALS USED ARE POLYURETHANE FOAM ASBESTOS FIBER MIXED WITH INORGANIC BINDERS.  ASBESTOS FIBER INSULATION . AS A RESULT THE SHAPE OR IRREGULARITY OF THE SURFACE BEING INSULATED IS OF LITTLE CONSEQUENCE. COTTON FIBER. WOOD FIBER. THIS TYPE OF INSULATION CAN BE APPLIED EITHER BY POURING OR BY SPRAYING.        FOAMED PLASTIC INSULATION CELLULAR GLASS INSULATION FOAMED CONCRETE CELLULAR HARD RUBBER SHREDDED WOOD OR WOOD FIBER RIGID SLAB INSULATION RIGID INSULATION. REFLECTIVE INSULATION ALUMINUM FOIL COPPER.FOIL INSULATIONS REFLECTIVE INSULATION SHEET FOIL       FOAMED-IN PLACE INSULATION – THIS IS POLYURETHANE PRODUCT MADE BY COMBINING A POLYISOCYANATE AND A POLYESTER RESIN. MEASURED. MACHINES ARE USED FOR BLOWING THESE INSULATIONS INTO PLACE.     BATTS STRUCTURAL INSULATION BOARD STRAWBOARD CORKBOARD  BLOCK OR RIGID SLAB INSULATION – THIS TYPE OF INSULATION IS SO CALLED BLOCK OR RIGID BECAUSE THE UNITS ARE RELATIVELY STIFF AND INELASTIC. OR ANIMAL HAIR.KINDS OF THERMAL INSULATION  LOOSE FILL – THIS BULKY AND DIVIDED INTO:      FIBROUS TYPE GRANULAR INSULATION FIBROUS LOOSE FILL GRANULE BLANKET INSULATION. VERMICULITE AGGREGATE WITH A BINDER SUCH AS PORTLAND CEMENT OR GYPSUM AND PERLITE AGGREGATE USING GYPSUM AS A BINDER. THE BASIC INGREDIENTS FOR BOTH ARE DRAWN FROM THEIR CONTAINERS.IS MADE FROM SOME FIBROUS MATERIAL SUCH AS MINERAL WOOL.

 CORRUGATED INSULATION SOIL TESTING LARGER THAN A SINGLE FAMILY HOUSE. ON THE OTHERHAND THE BUTT IS ALSO PROVIDED WITH AN AMPLE PROTECTION BY THE USE OF CUSHION BLOCK. TIMBER CONCRETE STEEL SILT CLAY  TIMBER – CANNOT RESIST HIGH STRESSES DUE TO HARD DRIVING THAT IS REQUIRED TO PENETRATE HIHLY RESISTANT LAYER OF SOIL. 2.      BOULDER – IF THE PARTICLE OF SOIL IS TOO LARGE TO LIFT BY HAND. CONCRETE PILES ARE CLASSIFIED INTO TWO TYPES: 1. TEST BORING – BORING WITH STANDARD PENETRATION TESTS CAN GIVE AN INDICATION OF THE BEARING CAPACITY OF THE SOIL BY THE NUMBER OF BLOWS OF A STANDARD DRIVING HAMMER REQUIRED TO ADVANCE A SAMPLING TUBE INTO THE SOIL BY A FIXED AMOUNT. 2. COBBLE – IF THE PARTICLE OF SOIL TAKES THE WHOLE HAND TO LIFT. DIGGING TEST PITS – ARE USEFUL WHEN FOUNDATION IS NOT EXPECTED TO EXTEND DEEPER THAT ABOUT 8 FEET WHICH IS THE MAXIMUM PRACTICAL REACH OF SMALL EXCAVATION MACHINE. TYPES OF SOILS:  ROCK – IS A CONTINUOUS MASS OF SOLID MINERAL MATERIALS. THE TIP OF THE TIMBER PILE WHICH COULD BE EASILY DAMAGED IS PROTECTED BY THE USE OF STEEL SHOES. SUCH AS GRANITE OR LIMESTONE. CAST-IN-PLACE   CASED – IS CAST INSIDE A METAL SHELL FORM WHICH ARE LEFT IN THE GROUND. 3. . UNCASED – ELIMINATE THE METAL CASING. IT IS NECESSARY TO DETERMINE THE SOIL AND WATER CONDITION BENEATH THE SITE. SAND – IF THE PARTICLE SEEN BUT ARE TOO SMALL TO BE PICKED UP. FINE GRAINED SOIL – IF THE PARTICLES ARE TOO SMALL TO BE SEEN.   PILE DRIVING MATERIAL USED IN PILE FOUNDATION ARE: 1. GRAVEL – IF THE PARTICLE CAN BE LIFTED EASILY WITH THUMB AND FOREFINGER. SOIL – IS A GENERAL TERM REFERRING TO EARTH MATERIAL. METHOD OF SOIL TESTING: 1. THAT CAN ONLY BE REMOVED BY DRILLING AND BLASTING.

RELATIVELY WITH SMALL MATERIAL DISPLACEMENTS.2. DIFFERENT METAL PILES:    H-BEARING PILES BOS PILES RAIL PILES . PRECAST PILES – ARE REINFORCED TO RESIST HIGH STRESS CAUSED BY THE HAMMER IN DRIVING. METAL PILE – IS AN EXCELLENT AMTERIAL FOR PILE BECAUSE OF ITS STRENGTH CHARACTERISTICS TO WITHSTAND HARD DRIVING AND RAPID PENETRATION INTO THE GROUND.