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Body’s Defense SystemPart II: Specific (Immune) Responses Overview: Specific Body Defenses (Immune System) • Antibody-mediated (humoral

) • Defends against free bacteria and viruses in body fluids • Cell-mediated • Defends against abnormal cells (i.e., cells transformed by cancer, viral infections; foreign cells [transplant cells]) Both categories have three stages: • (1) Antigen encounter and recognition (binding to receptor) by lymphocyte • (2) Lymphocyte activation and clonal expansion
 to get from encounter to activation, must have activation of specific helper T cells • (3) Attack

 Both categories require activation of specific helper T cells Forms of Immunity • Innate • Genetic immunocompetent (able to recognize specific antigen); born with them
• Also used to refer to nonspecific defenses (also born with that) • • •

Acquired Active (vaccinations) Passive (get antibodies from someone else)

Properties of Immunity • Specificity – each lymphocyte programmed for one specific antigen

Versatility – due to genetic reshuffling before born, preprogrammed to recognize specific antigens Memory – set memory by either getting vaccinations or diseases Tolerance -

• •

Types of Lymphocytes (Table 18.12 V) NK cells also derive from lymphocytes (lymphoid stem cell) • T lymphocytes • Mature (acquire receptors) in thymus
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cancer) • CD8 receptors • • Helper T (TH) cells Regulatory function in both cell-mediated and antibodymediated (humoral) immunity • CD4 (T4) receptors – look for amount of receptors is way to tell if have Helper T cells • • • • • Suppressor T cells Inhibit B and T cells CD8 receptors B cells Carry out antibody-mediated (humoral) immunity Lymphocyte Receptors: How Lymphocytes “Recognize” Antigens (Ags) • T cell Receptors • Two-chained proteins. which cannot bind (“see”) antigen unless Ag is complexed to MHC “self” proteins (“processing” of Ag) • Cytotoxic T cells – CD8 receptors • Helper T cells – CD4 receptors • B cell Receptors 2 .• • Three types Cytotoxic T cells – effectors of cell mediated defense (capable of recognizing cells that have been transformed and killing them) • Helper T cells • Suppressor T cells • B lymphocytes • Mature (acquire receptors) in bone marrow • Give rise to antibody-secreting plasma cells Types of Lymphocytes • Cytotoxic T (TC) cells • Effectors for cell-mediated immunity • Attack infected/transformed cells (i.e.

3 .• • Immunoglobulin (Ig) attached to B cell • Immunoglobulins includes B cell receptors and antibodies Ig is a copy of antibody that cell can produce.

• This process is genetically and randomly determined! • Confers specificity + versatility to specific immune system • • • Antigen Any foreign molecule that can trigger specific immune response Also known as antigenic determinants (epitopes.Definitions • Immunocompetence (Maturation) • Lymphocytes acquire ability to “recognize” Ag when they acquire receptors specific to Ag. bind specific epitope) regions binds Ag • Constant region involved in effector mechanism.real antigenic site) • • • • Antibody Specific defense protein secreted by specific B lymphocytes • Immunoglobulin (Ig) “Y” shape Variable (specific receptor regions. including complement Classes of Antibodies • IgG • “Typical” Ab (80%) • Can cross placenta (passive immunity) • IgE • Allergic responses • IgD • Functions unclear • IgM • First to appear after Ag • IgA • Colostrum. breast milk (passive immunity) 4 .

• • • • • • • Histocompatibility Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Proteins identify “self” MHC Class I: On all nucleated cells (not RBC) Recognized by Cytotoxic T cells (CD8 receptors) MHC Class II: On (1) macrophages.11V) • – Where are Class II MHC proteins located? APCs What are APCs? Macrophages. Leukotrienes. (2) B cells and (3) dendritic cells  able to do Antigen Processing • “Antigen Presenting Cells” (APCs) for helper T cells • Recognized by helper T cells (CD4 receptors) • • • Antigen Processing Necessary for T cells to recognize Ag (activate T cell) Ag must be taken into cell and complexed with MHC protein – then cell “presents” processed Ag (with MHC protein) on surface. • Which MHC protein is recognized depends on type of CD marker is in T cell membrane • CD8: Cytotoxic (and Suppressor T cells) • CD4: Helper T cells • • • • Antigen Presentation Infected cells present antigen to cytotoxic T cells APCs present antigen to helper T cells (3 cells) Cytokines: Cell chemicals that mediate immune response – see Table 18. IL-2 and more • TNF • Lymphotoxins • Perforins Antigen Processing and Presentation to Helper T Cells (Fig. along with copy of self. B cells. CSFs • Interleukins • IL-1.2V • Already mentioned: Interferons. 18. and dendritic cells 5 .

don’t need themrelease antibodies in blood) and memory cells  Primary Immune Response Effector Mechanisms in Antibody-Mediated Responses • Antibodies tag antigen – do not directly destroy it • • Coupled with another killing mechanism instead Antibodies link tagged microbe to one or more effector (killing) mechanisms • Fig.6 V 6 .15 V illustrates direct enhancement of phagocytosis by antibody • Fig.16 illustrates activation of the classical complement pathway • Note that both effector mechanisms are non-specific. 18.12 V) • Presentation of Ag bound to class II MHC protein on an APC • Costimulation (second binding site): The binding of matching nonantigenic proteins in membrane of APC and helper T cell • APC secretes cytokines (cell chemicals) that act on helper T cell • IL-1 (Interleukin I) – stimulate Helper T cell to start to divide • TNF (Tumor Necrosis factor) Humoral (Antibody-Mediated) Immunity • Defends against free bacteria and viruses in body fluids • Specific B lymphocytes are activated to produce specific antibodies.• Which lymphocyte has CD4 markers? (T4 Helper T cell) Three Events are Required for the Activation of Helper T Cells (Figure 18. and processed + presented by APC to specific Helper T cell (need to select B cell) • Helper T cytokines required for clonal expansion (division state) • Selected B cell proliferates and differentiates  plasma (don’t have receptors.14V***** • Ag recognized by specific B cell (selection/recognition stage). 18. which “tag” antigen antigentic determinant sites = epitopes Antibody-Mediated Immune Response – figure 18. • See also Table 18.

memory cells produce a rapid and amplified immune response Cell-Mediated Immunity • Defends against abnormal cells/transformed • Cells transformed by viral infection or cancer • Foreign cells (cause of transplant rejection) • Fungi. Giardia lamblia) Defense is carried out by Cytotoxic T cells • Specific TC cell must first recognize Ag complexed with MHCI protein • CD8 receptors • T cells respond only to antigenic determinants displayed on surfaces of body’s own cells • Infected cell processes and presents antigen to T C cell Processing and Presentation of Viral Ag to Cytotoxic T cell – Fig..g. C3B activates phagocytosis .Both nonspecific Secondary Immune Response • When challenged by same antigen. 18.18V • Similar sequence for cancer cells • Oncogenes code for proteins that act as antigens • Cytokines from Helper T cell required for clonal expansion 7 . protozoa (e. 18.13V*** • TC cells recognize Ag bound to MHC I proteins – Presented by any nucleated cell Ag Recognition / Activation of Helper T Cells – Fig.11a V • Helper T (TH) cells recognize Ag bound to MHC II proteins – APCs (what are they?) Cell-Mediated Response to Virus-Infected Cells – Fig.MAC lyses cell. 18.

then goes finds another target cell. programmed cell death) • Memory TC cells are not activated • Remain available to respond to next “challenge” by same Ag • Can produce immediate. amplified Secondary Immune Response Central Role of Helper T cells • The cytokines released by activated specific Helper T cells are required for forming a clone of activated B or Cytotoxic T cells • Without clonal expansion – immune response stops at first (recognition) stage • TH cells required for most humoral as well as cell-mediated immunity • • • • • • Cytokines include IL-2 and Gamma Interferon Roles: Stimulate T cell divisions and formation of memory cells Enhance nonspecific defenses – e.made by cytotoxic T cells. and destroy other cells displaying processed antigen • Perforin** • Lymphotoxin (cytokine) • Activate genes causing apoptosis (cell-suicide.g.• Cytotoxic T cells can directly kill infected / transformed cells (Perforin. series of proteins inserted into target cell to blow it up.can blow up several)  similar to MAC Cell-Mediated Response • Activated TC cells “roam” tissues.20 V) 8 . 18. macrophages Stimulate NK cells Activate B cells Summary of Host Responses to Viruses • Fighting a virus in the blood Systemic Responses to Infection or Injury (Fig.

Autoimmune Disease • Myesthenia Gravis • Antobodies to ACh receptors – weak skeletal muscles • • Rheumatoid Arthritis (“-itis” = inflammation) Antibodies to connective tissue of joints Allergy • Hypersensitivity • Allergens – can sensitize. basophils • Anaphylaxis (Later) Histocompatibility Problems • Transfusion reactions (IN LAB) • Rejection of tissue transplants • Erythroblastosis fetalis What is “Rhogam”? HIV / AIDS. mast cells.why Helper T cells are important • Human Immunodeficiency Virus  Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome • Retrovirus destroys Helper T cells (CD4 cells) • Anti-AIDS drugs include • Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors • Protease Inhibitors 9 .