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This special, shown in Japan at the Jump Festa 2004 Anime Tour, is a pilot episo de for the series

. It focuses more on Ichigo's feelings regarding his mother's d eath. Tite Kubo, the creator of Bleach, voices Kon in this special instead of Mi tsuaki Madono, the original voice actor of Kon. The closing theme used for the e pisode is "Memories in the Rain" by Morita Masakazu, the voice actor of Ichigo K urosaki, and Orikasa Fumiko, the voice actress of Rukia Kuchiki. (Alternative ve rsion of episodes 8 and 9; watched best after episode 7) 2 "BLEACH Jump Festa 2005 Anime Tour: The Sealed Sword Frenzy" This special, shown in Japan at the Jump Festa 2005 Anime Tour, is set after the events of season three (after episode 63). Baishin, a Soul Reaper sealed by Sou l Society four hundred years before the start of the series, escapes his confine ment. He battles Ichigo and drains half of his spiritual energy. To aid Ichigo, Rukia, Renji and several other Soul Reaper captains travel to the world of the l iving. After using his bankai, Baishin is able to fend off the various Soul Reap ers, and is defeated by Ichigo Kurosaki after Ichigo uses his own bankai. Afterw ards, Ichigo reveals that Baishin had fused with his zanpakuto and was seeking a way to free himself from his sword. The This special, shown in Japan at the Jum p Festa 2004 Anime Tour, is a pilot episode for the series. It focuses more on I chigo's feelings regarding his mother's death. Tite Kubo, the creator of Bleach, voices Kon in this special instead of Mitsuaki Madono, the original voice actor of Kon. The closing theme used for the episode is "Memories in the Rain" by Mor ita Masakazu, the voice actor of Ichigo Kurosaki, and Orikasa Fumiko, the voice actress of Rukia Kuchiki. (Alternative version of episodes 8 and 9; watched best after episode 7) 2 "BLEACH Jump Festa 2005 Anime Tour: The Sealed Sword Frenzy" This special, shown in Japan at the Jump Festa 2005 Anime Tour, is set after the events of season three (after episode 63). Baishin, a Soul Reaper sealed by Sou l Society four hundred years before the start of the series, escapes his confine ment. He battles Ichigo and drains half of his spiritual energy. To aid Ichigo, Rukia, Renji and several other Soul Reaper captains travel to the world of the l iving. After using his bankai, Baishin is able to fend off the various Soul Reap ers, and is defeated by Ichigo Kurosaki after Ichigo uses his own bankai. Afterw ards, Ichigo reveals that Baishin had fused with his zanpakuto and was seeking a way to free himself from his sword. The closing theme for the episode is "Ditty For Daddy" by Shiro Sagisu. theme for the episode is "Ditty For Daddy" by Shiro Sagisu.

Maximum transmission unit From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search In computer networking, the maximum transmission unit (MTU) of a communications protocol of a layer is the size (in bytes) of the largest protocol data unit tha t the layer can pass onwards. MTU parameters usually appear in association with a communications interface (NIC, serial port, etc.). Standards (Ethernet, for ex ample) can fix the size of an MTU; or systems (such as point-to-point serial lin ks) may decide MTU at connect time. A larger MTU brings greater efficiency because each packet carries more user dat a while protocol overheads, such as headers or underlying per-packet delays, rem ain fixed; the resulting higher efficiency means a slight improvement in bulk pr otocol throughput. A larger MTU also means processing of fewer packets for the s ame amount of data. In some systems, per-packet-processing can be a critical per formance limitation. However, this gain is not without some downside. Large packets can occupy a slow

While a host will know th e MTU of its own interface and possibly that of its peers (from initial handshak es). IPv4 links must be able to forward packets of size up to 68 bytes. using the MTU parameter configured for that interface. Ethernet v2 1500[9] Nearly all IP over Ethernet implementations use the Ethernet V2 frame format. Another potential problem is that higher-level protocols may create packe ts larger than a particular link supports. Large packets are also problematic in the presence of communications errors. IP allows fragmentation: dividing the datagram into pi eces. Cor ruption of a single bit in a packet requires that the entire packet be retransmi tted. which has a value of 576 for IPv4[2] and of 1280 for IPv6. the whole Ethernet network must have the same MTU.[3] Media Maximum Transmission Unit (bytes) Notes Internet IPv4 Path MTU At least 68[4] Practical path MTUs are generally higher . large packets can still have a net positive effect on end-to-end TCP performance. For example. Despite the negative effects on retransmission duration.including IP headers but excluding hea ders from lower levels in the protocol stack. To get around this issue.4k modem for about one second. Systems may use Path MTU Discovery[5] to find the actual path MTU.1 Path MTU Discovery 3 MTU in other standards 4 Disruption 5 See also 6 References 7 External links Table of MTUs of common media Note: the MTUs in this section are given as the maximum size of IP packet that c an be transmitted without fragmentation . causing greater delays to following packets and increasing lag and minimum latency. This should not be mista ken with the packet size every host must be able to handle. WLAN (802. each small enough to pass over the single link that is being fragmented fo r. larger packets are more likely to be corrupted. a 1500-byte packet. This fragmentation pro cess takes place at the IP layer (OSI layer 3) and marks packets it fragments as such. Systems must use Path MTU Discovery[8] to find the actual path MTU. Ethernet with LLC and SNAP. it will not initially know the lowest MTU in a chain of links to any other peers. ties up a 14. so that the IP layer of the destination host knows it should reassemble t he packets into the original datagram. each of which may use packets of different size. For correct interoperation.5) 4464 FDDI 4352[5] IP (Internet protocol) DARPA designed the Internet protocol suite to work over many networking technolo gies.link for some time. At a given bit error rate. PPPoE 1492[10] Ethernet Jumbo Frames 1500-9000 The limit varies by vendor.[1] Contents 1 Table of MTUs of common media 2 IP (Internet protocol) 2. Jumbo frames are usually only seen in special purpose networks. Retransmissions of larger packets takes longer. the largest allowed by Ethernet at the network layer (and hence over most of the Internet).[6] Internet IPv6 Path MTU At least 1280[7] Practical path MTUs are generall y higher. This method implies a number of possible . which is 576. The MTU must not be confused with the minimum datagram size that all hosts must be prepared to accept.11) 7981[11] Token Ring (802.

However. a llowing for an MTU up to 9000 bytes). the entire packet is lost. The difference between the MTU seen by end-nodes (e. in resp onse to various events (load-balancing. to the IP layer. a technique f or determining the path MTU between two IP hosts. then the link layer MUST provide its own fragmentation and reassembly mec hanism. The process repeats until the MTU becomes small enough to traverse the en tire path without fragmentation. to prevent denial-of-service attacks). if a particular Dat a Link Layer physically cannot deliver an IP datagram of 1280 bytes in a single frame. almost everything has to be fragmented. For example. This information allows the source host to reduce its assumed path MTU appropri ately. which prevents path MTU discovery from working. in an IP network. The addition is small. 1500) and th e Path MTU causes Path MTU Discovery to come into effect. Unfortunately. to ensure that a 1280-by te IP datagram can be delivered. increasing numbers of networks drop ICMP traffic (e. One often detects such blocking in the cases where a connection works for low-volum e data but hangs as soon as a host sends a large block of data. but every intermediate router has to do double the work in terms of header parsing and routing decisions. Path MTU Discovery Main article: Path MTU Discovery The Internet Protocol defines the "Path MTU" of an Internet transmission path as the smallest MTU of any of the IP hops of the "path" between a source and desti nation. but get no respo nse after that. various tunneling situations cross the MTU by very little as they ad d just a header's worth of data. the path from the so urce address to the destination address often gets modified dynamically. Th e same amount of payload is being moved.this could result in the path MTU changing (sometimes repeatedly) during a transmission. outages. wit h IRC a connecting client might see the initial messages up to and including the initial ping (sent by the server as an anti spoofing measure). separate from IP's own fragmentation mechanism. etc. This is because the large set of welcome messages are sent out i n packets bigger than the real MTU. RFC 1191 (IPv4) and RFC 1981 (IPv6) describe "Path MTU Discovery". There is no simple method to discover the MTU of links beyond a node's direc t peers. the second of which carries very little payload. according to IPv6's specification. with the possible resu .drawbacks: All fragments of a packet must arrive for the packet to be considered receiv ed.) . In certain cases the overhead this causes can be considered unreasonable or unnecessary. The Internet Protocol requires that hosts must be able to process IP datagrams o f at least 576 bytes (for IPv4) or 1280 bytes (for IPv6). in general as wel l as when fragmenting. Put another way. intact. the path MTU is the largest packet size that can traver se this path without suffering fragmentation. this does not preclude Data Link Layers with an MTU smaller than IP's minimum MTU from convey ing IP data. congestion. Most Ethernet LANs use an MTU of 1500 bytes (modern LANs can use Jumbo frames. wh ich may introduce further packet drops before the host finds the new safe MTU.g. Any device along the path whose MTU is smaller than the packet will drop such packets and send back an ICMP "Destination Unreachable (Datagram Too Big)" message containing its MTU.g. but each packet now has to be sent in two fragments. border protocols like PPPoE will reduce this. F or example. It works by setting the DF (Do n't Fragment) option in the IP headers of outgoing packets. As it is normal to maximize the payload in every fragment. any further fragmentation that turns out to be necessary will increase the overhead even more. When the size of most or all packets exceed the MTU of a particular link tha t has to carry those packets. If the network drops any fragment. For example. Also. however.

p. David. "Every internet destination must be able to receive a data gram of 576 octets either in one piece or in fragments to be reassembled. This is almost always caused by faulty devi ces. RFC 894: A Standard for the Transmissio n of IP Datagrams over Ethernet Networks. 13 ^ RFC 791.hn standard. describes a Path MTU Discovery technique which responds more robustly to ICMP filtering. RFC 4821." ^ RFC 2460 ^ RFC 6145 ^ Network Working Group of the IETF. The G. Ret rieved 2007-09-02. thus the maximum lengt h of an IP datagram sent over an Ethernet is 1500 octets. Page 1. Many network switches have a built-in capability to detect when a device is jabbering and block it until it resumes proper operation. p. "The maximum length of the dat a field of a packet sent over an Ethernet is 1500 octets. 24. One can p ossibly work around this.rfc-editor. p. Kevin Lee and Michael Dixon (2012). 13th IEEE Conference on High Performance Switchi ng and Routing (HPSR 2012).hn defines a procedure for segmentation that div ides the data frame into smaller segments.htm 3Com SuperStack Switch Management Guide][dead link] Marc Slemko (January 18. Terry Koziniec.com/infodeli/tools/switches/ss3/management/ug/cli_mg6a . p. "Path MTU Discovery and Filtering ICMP".hn Data Link Layer accepts data frames of up to 214 bytes (1 6384 bytes). 24. f or example one can change the MSS (maximum segment size) in the initial packet t hat sets up the TCP connection at one's firewall. developed by ITU-T. Packetization Layer Path MTU Discovery.". phone lines and coa xial cables). http://tools.org/errata_search. provides a high-speed (up to 1 Gigabit/s) local area network using existing home wiring (power lines.3com. Disruption The transmission of a packet on a physical network segment that is larger than t he segment's MTU is known as jabber." ^ a b RFC 1191 ^ RFC 791. G. ^ RFC 791. Page 413 ^ http://support. "Large MTUs and internet performance". depending on which part of the network one controls.ietf. "Every internet module must be able to forward a datagram of 68 octets without further fragmentation.lt of making some sites behind badly configured firewalls unreachable.or g/html/rfc894 / ERRATA: http://www.php?rfc=894 ^ RFC 1042 ^ IEEE Standard for Information technology Telecommunications and information exchange between systems Local and metropolitan area networks Specific requireme nts Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) S pecifications.[12] See also Computer networking Ethernet References ^ Murray. 13 ^ RFC 2460. In order to avoid the problem of long data-frames taking up the med ium for long periods of time. External links Tweaking your MTU / RWin for Orange Broadband Users How to set the TCP MSS value using iptables . MTU in other standards The G. 1998).

.Discovering of MTU value via ping and setting it in Microsoft Windows DrTCP a utility for optimizing MTU under Microsoft Windows mturoute a console utility for debugging mtu problems MSS Initiative MTU Path MTU discovery tool for IPv4 and IPv6 networks Categories: Packets (information technology) Navigation menu Create account Log in Article Talk Read Edit View history Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Interaction Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact Wikipedia Toolbox Print/export Languages Cesky Dansk Deutsch Español Français Bahasa Indonesia Italiano ????? Bahasa Melayu ??? Polski Português ??????? Svenska ?????????? ?? Edit links This page was last modified on 24 May 2013 at 22:23.

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