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PREFACE

This workbook is for the purpose of testing the user's knowledge of geometric dimensioning
and tolerancing as part of an educational or training progr¿rm. The workbook may also be used as an independent reference, thus providing a learning mechanism for review of the

subject matter o¡ to extend existing knowledge.

The author ¿ìssumes the user has some familiarity with basic engineering drawing practices.
This workbook builds upon such knowledge and extends the learning experience into detailed study of geometric dimensioning and tolerancing as based upon the national standard Aì{SI/ASME Y14.5M-1994. This workbook, and its associated answe¡book, are designed as companion materials for the author's full text'Geo-Metrics

III."

The workbook contains avariety of materialwhich can be used in a number of ways

appropriate to both the academic classroom and the in-industry training progam. Contained

within the workbook is a series of questions and exercises, and some problem examples. The
problern example pages are found at the rear of the workbook as indicated in the appropriate questions as the user proceeds. The answer to the questions and problems are contained in a separate answer bookwhich
may be dist¡ibuted to the at his discretion.

particþant alongwith this workbook or retained by the instructor

(

Fundamentals.................
FortR, Orientation,

.......................

1

Runout

Tolerances

hofile, and
.,......... 10

Location

Tolerances.

....,...25

Figures

..........65

QTIESTIONS .

- FOR NOTES OR CALCULATIONS - .

¡L'¡wDvr-------5-r. beside each one- Ci¡cularrunout Total rutout ProfiIe of a sr¡rface Profrle of a line Position ConcentricitY Symmetry ..?þ F key words toåäemUerfor guiOance le r.Furdcnrentqls GENERAI AI'FSTTOI{S provides numerous advantages' List foru of them' 1. the National Standard AI'{SI Y14'5' is: and efñciency -¿ is ¡ecãmmended by the (Check one. 3 requirements and applicatioq^ù...:ryo In deærmining geometric dimensioning and tolerancing and ll Êc4'.ï'*niãJq** 4.. Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (1) (2) (3) (4) 2. þlerances. Place the correct symbol desigoæion Here are ttre fonræen variedes of geometric cha¡acæ¡istics...r¡.rv¿rg¿J ' .or_rtolerancgsargused .r ce^/s ê. Where The fi¡st magninrde of conuol on any pan is its of fea't¡¡res. method tt¡al provides best uniformiry For delineating tlrese requirements on a drawing.) symbolicallY by noæ GEOIYÍEIRIC CHARÀCIERXSflC SYI{BOIS 5. to control part configuration or specific relationships ullùe.

COI¡DITIONS
6.

-

MODIFIERS

In using certain geomeuic rclerance characæristics, as applied to size featues, the "marerial condition" under which the tolerance applies must be considered. The th¡ee "marerial conditions" h^(also loown as modifiers where applicable) are , r\C-. L .a¡d

R.rs

7.

The symbols rsed to indicate two of these maærial conditions or modifte¡s are:

is impted by Rule lt2 on all size feæues The third material condition, where the other maærial condition (modifien) symbols ¿ìre not specified-

IYÍ¡üKIMITM I\TÍAIERIAI COI{DITION

8. 9.

In the case of a hole, the MA)ilMUM IvIAIERIAL CONDHON MMC) is its (which: size? In the case of a pin, ttre MMC size is its minimum or maximum) 'w c^,r -r u,n u^ (minimum or maximum) r-' + --= ,-n ' sizg?
The MMC size of the pins below is

ó, Ld o

Ø.zoo 1:838

size of the pins above is two opposiæ points of ø.198 size be The MMC size of the holes below The

IÀfC

o.lq) . What would a distance measured between calleÜ! *c 1¿4L ( oc Ì'¿ 5.7 tE ts 0 . zo 5
2x ø.2o5 ::333

The LMC size of the holes above is IVhat would a disunce meæued between two opposite poina of Ø.206 size be calleüt +<:Tt/K\ Loc¡-L lr?t. What would a maximum cylinder of Ø.207 size be gt Vr-'c cP C ' ¡r q'r Y¡V called? Sct- u

o.zoE

rrr

tr

2

10.
11.

When MMC is used as a design basis for functional inærrelationship of featrues of size of inærchangeability, the form, orientadon or position tolerance (increæes/decreases) with the fea¡ure acftal mating size deparnue from MMC' Where the MMC condition is not desirable to the design requirement and size of the conposition cemed features is to remain independent of any affect on the form, orientation or aPPliedtolerance, the condition

BASIC OR EKACT DIMEI{SION
12.

A basic (or exact) dimension speciñed on adrawing

¡

value used to describe the exact size, shape, or location of a feature. 13.

^

T Ll t:¿kLT

-is r<-ru?- € É+<-T'

A basic or exact dimension (e.g. .750) is shown symbolicalty. Show the .750 basic dimension
below.

14. Where numefous basic or exact dimensions are required' a general on the drawing maY be used-

il e-lc-

15. 16.

associæed with the Use of a bæic or exact dimension requires also a or feau¡es involved stating the permissible variæion from the basic or exact orientation,lnofile position dimensions.

or Circte the associaæd tolerances which provide ttre permissible variation from the basic exact orientation or position dimensions.

ø .25O t.005

+lø.019

A

qrl,rE, r1,?r,.ú tsl, Ç7,1L
t7. A datum is a theoretically exact P,t' ..derived from the tn¡e geometric counæ¡part of a specrfi
datum fearu¡e.

18.

Dæums on parrs are idendfied by letæn of the alphabet (do not use I, 0, or Q) and placed in a squarc frame wittrg leade¡ and triangle direcæd to the fean¡re. This is known as a symbot. 1p-ø>,,,<- $

t*--+

19.

*A ";identify ttre hole as dæum "D." (IJse datum Identify the lower single edge as datum fean¡re synbols here and in questions 20 nd2L.)

20. Identify ttre outside ç{dth featu¡e as datum "A."

2l.Identify the small diameær

as datum

"A."

22. Adanrm

is an acn¡al feær¡¡e of a part which is used to establish a daurm-

4

FENfl RE CONTROT FRÀtYfE

23.

List the fou¡ elements of geometric control ttrat may be used in making up a compleæ
Featr¡re Control Frame.

(1) (2) (3) (4)

24.

at feanue conuol frame which indicaæs 'þrpendicularity" of a hole wittún Ø.005' ûximum material condition, relative to daum plâne "B.''

Draw

a

CoMBINED TEATTTRE CONIROT TRAME ÀI.TD DÀfl'M TE¡III'RE STMBOT
25.
a dan¡m Duplicaæ the feature control frame dr¿wn for the preceding question and add fearu¡e symbol ("C") to make a combined symbol'

26.

Which of ttrese nr¡mbered sÉæmenß is correct? In the combined symbol shown in answer to question 25:

l.

Danrm

*C. is a part of the datum reference fo¡

the perpendicularity requiremenr

2. Danrm..C- is compleæly
identifies the featr¡re for

separate from the perpendicutarity requirement and only othe¡ relationships.

DÀn'MREFERENCEFRAME.oRDERoFPRECEDENCE
27. established In these feature control frames th¡ee datum references are used- According to n¡les, which a¡e the primary, secondary, afid tertiary datusts?

a)

(

Ø

.oto 6D

A B G

b)

Ø.oro

€D F

DIM

28.

l\l 0 In the preceding symbols is the atphabetic order signiñcant? leuen reading Dan¡m order otþcedence is established by placing the danrm reference (1T G inttrefeatruecontrolframe' LE

-

É-

@

üt

002 tolerance. datum r.E.ES À¡{D PRINCIPLES 35. Form tolerances rela¡e to the following characæristics. 32. 3L. 33.tq Illustraæ how datum idenrification letters are shown in the fean¡re control frame when no danm (Use the runout characteristic (or equal danrm) precedence is desiredsymUóf.) p¡oñle tolerances relaæ to the following characæristics: (Show their symbols below-) Runout tolerances relaæ to the foltowing cha¡acæristics: (Show their symbols below-) Locarion tolerances relare to the following characærisircs: (Show their symbols below.) FORM. No element of rhe acgal featu¡e shall exænd beyond the specified higb or low limis of size or the boundary of perfect form at MMC.0O2 (l) Ø 36. .n . . Fea¡r¡re sizes shall not exceed 500 diameær and 1. which statement below most correctly describes the geometic conuoi on the part? ----.ERANCE 30.IDARD RII.510 lengtþ- What is the basis for the corect answer in question 35? L Lf^^€f5 óF õs?8. and place them in a fea¡ure conuol frame below. 34. (form) For this illustration. (Show their symbols below.) STÀ¡. lerers A and B.i. RI'NOUT AI{D IOCAÍION TOI.r. ORIENTArION.) Orienation tolerances relaæs to the following characæristics: (Show their symbols below. PROFII. The toleranced dimensions for the size of a featrue conuols the form as well as size.

fgan¡rgsandnot¡9¡þg r^ w+ offeanues. Whæ common qpe of geomeric relæionship of feanues ß not controlled by ttre condidons of Rule 1? 4I. 3?. sheets.'-tt Lf1.i . and nrbing? Rule 1 may be removed from the application by anoæ such as placed on the drawing.L... such as bars.. ^'¡-. Rule 2 applies in conjunction with the fearu¡e control f¡ame and can be applied only 45. . Where size control gives inadequaæ control of part tolerances are sPecified- 3g. Which of these would be a feanue of "size'?' (1) A hole (2) A flat sr¡rface ..'/¿t. draw a representation of the "boundary of perfectform æ MMC" of the Parr o' Soo l+--. 42.\ ¿5lþ !i 39.geometry. The inærpretation prescribiirg a boundary of perfect forrr at MMC applies only tl LL\-¡ !iê''''"-'"J''. ( [' ("'' :14'r¿(' 'r i!' 40. Refeaing to the illustræion in question 35. Does the interpnetation of Rule I apply to commercial stock. Rule# to fea¡r¡¡es of 44.

or location tolerance. Whæ is the virn¡al condition of the shaft and hole below? Sh.S LS . of size is controlled by is ttre collecúve effect of the sta¡ed separa¡e olerance of form. Lqo . pirch diameter would be Show on these symbols how a gear or spline geomeric relæionship to ttre specified- Ø.&fr¡. add ttre notadon ¡o indicaæ that Ûre dailm feæure basis is an exception to the Søew Th¡ead Rule and applies at the major dianeær.hoie 0. geometric tolerance and On the symbols shown below. orientation.l¿ryc' tTè{6Ío wt'. or a datum feature.^ <-ífeæures a¡¡d in ttre clearance or worst case condition between mating part sidered in deærmining establishing gage feanue sizes- 50. dæum reference The Pirch Diameter Rute: Each tolerance of orientation or position a¡d qpecified for a screw thead applies to the 47.oos@lB trJ 48.aft o .ooz @lc H 49. It Of the feanue COnand the ¡wq'U ot.46. 0lø. a A virn¡al condition exists where a featue. K¡ c TòL(.

) True or False? Where rhe fean¡re is non+ylindrical and its center plane or axis is to be controlled within a total wide tolerance zone. (1) It is required- (2) Staæs the condition under which the design requirement applies. . the sYmbol is sPecified' b.51. (3) Is universally understood through ISO inæmational standards and practices. a-) Whe¡e the fean¡¡e Ðds is to be controlled and the desired tolerance zone shape is cylin- drical..AI{CE ZONE SHAPE 53.302? TOIER. Place a check mark beside the most significant reasons for stating the maærial conditions (modiñen) under Rule 2. 52. no shape of olerance zone is designaæd .3001:38ånof" under question 50 if the hole is produced to the acn¡al mating envelope size of Ø.. Whæ is the resultant condition of ttre Ø.

57. The nex¡ series of questions and examples æe designed to exercise yor:r knowledge of proper FORM.610 dimension) to allow a total (ma. ORIENTATION. Suppoæ the lower part surface of Figure 1 was produced as shown here. ORIENTAIION. Geometric tolerances should be specified for all feanues criticat to function and interchangeability and whe¡e: (1) (2) Established practices c¿ìnnot be relied upon to provide the required accurÍrcy.610 dimension) is required in the pan functiot¡" o be in a parallel orientation of . The upper surface (upper exuemiry of the 1. Documents establishing suitable are either not specified or are (3) (4) do not provide the necessary control. speafy the accuracy of the lower surface (lower extremity of 1. sþrch in the tolerance zone applicable. PROFILE AND RUNOIJT TOLERANCE contols. 55.rimum) tolerance for bow and other surface inaccuracies of . Use letter "A" for the datum. are not to be depended upon. Using the form tolerance control selecæd in question 55. It is time to test your ability to apply these principles in actual application. nomenclan¡re. rules. and inærpretation. 54. l0 .FORM. Referring to Figrue 1 (found at rear of book). Add this requirement to Figure 1.002 total (maximum) tolerance to the lower surface. PROFIIÆ AI{D RI'NOITT TOLERÀI{CING You have now progressed ttrough the steps necessary to learn the fundamenmls. a¡d nomenclan¡¡e of geometric dimensioning and tolerancing.002.

610 surface is required to be 1. on the produced Show below (sþrch) how the tolerance zone and rhe dan¡m are established as part (Figrue l) for ttre requiremenr of question 57.003. Sg.002 flamess þlerance. Add this requirement to requirement of quesdon Show below (skercÐ how rhe tolerance zone is established for the 60. Assume ttre produced Pan surfaces irregutu. Figue orientæion ro ttre lower surfacó wfthin . as in question 56. lt . 1-6101'005 Assuming rhe . in a squarc In Figrue 1 (lower figrue). 61.002 parallelism tolerance. suppose the vertical 1. ttre . what is the boundary of perfect form at MMC size 60. and the Rule 1)? (remember size rcle¡ance.5g.

Specify on Figrre 1 that *4" is Ø. (2) Perpendicularity controls form as most ctearly showing is well a-s orientæion.376hole musr be maintained to a finer degree than the position tolerance. Use letter "B" for the datum. but the orientation of the Ø. Add this requirement to Figrue 1. Suppose that in Figure 1 (upper view). Assume thar in Figure theØ.62.376 hole has been located witÌt position dimensions and tolerance (do nor yer concern yoruself wittr ttre method). In questions 60 and 62the 1.) (1) Perpendiculariry of a sr¡rface should be specified in the view reladonship with iu specific datum. 63. Why are two seParaæ qpecifications required? (Choose most significantteasons from below statements.003 total' RFS.610 by 1. 64. the vertical 1.500 dimension) within.003.500 sr¡rface is required to be in a squarc orientæion to the lowe¡ surface (of the 1. this orientation control with reqpect to datum l t2 .500 end face surface was conEolled in its perpetOcutarity (squareness) in ¡vo directions from separaæ dæums.

) (1) Ø 68.376 (MMC). what is the total AtØ-3782 tolerance permissible wittr hole size produced atØ3767 The answers to question 66 a¡e de¡ived because: (Selea the moæ conect answer. If the hole is produced arØ.378.65. Show below (skerch) how the tolerance zone is established for ttre requirement of quemion &. what is the ma¡rimum permissible perpendiculariry tolerance? If the hole is produced atø. How would the fea¡¡¡re control fras¡e be shown? ø376!'ffilot. 67. of Figure I (referSuppose the perpendiculariry tolerance of Ø. The tolerance is implied or staæd as RFS r¡nder Rule 2AIl tolera¡rces smred a¡e totals. Referring to tbe perpendiculariry tolerance used in question 65 on Figrne 1.003 on the ence also question 64) was required by the pan ñrnction to be on an MMC basis. 66. whæ is the maximum perpendicularity olerance? t3 .

In the lower space on the Figrue sheeL skerch an end view and sþsw this requiremenr In Figure I 72. 71. In Figure 1. 1." Show these requiremens on Figrre 1. (gains/loses) production tolerance yet assur€s fi¡nction and inærchangeabitity. From the response to question 68.002 to dan¡m "4. \ile mr¡st consider whether the or . the surface identified as datum'B" (in quesion 62) is to be square in orientation within . t4 . when appropriare to the desig requirement." ttle base sr¡rface. tbe 25" and 30o angles æe critical o úe extent of a. are desired as a designrequirement conditions 70. From questions 64 tbrough 68 we see thæ whenever a fea¡rue of size such as a hole is involved.69. we see that use of the MMC principle.010 maximr¡m olerance as they relaæ to tbeirrespective danms'4" and'8.

acÍ¡al PaÍ comef Referring to the 30" angle requirement of Figrue 1 (see question 12)'the and tolerance. for exarnple as seen in the Figure is essensurface tion. 75. it can be noæd that of the geometric form and orientation characæristics used' th¡ee require a datum reference. Also. show how the anguiar tolerance zone reliaæs to the '500 '005 t dimension. and 76. dimension at the veflex end must þ within the 74. for¡r types of Reviewing the Figure 1 questions and applications. requirement of question Show below (skeæh) how the tolerance zone is established for the 72 onthe 30o angle.73. Dæusr references a¡e used wherever a specific I applicaof one fearr¡re to another is required. does not re4vre a datum because the 'telationship" of the specified tially to a perfect counterPart of itself. t-" l5 .Flutn ss.

Whæ is the ma.77. and also that the straighmess of the longinrdinal elements of the cylindrical surface is critical to the design requirements and musr þ wirhin . 81. sraightness of the pan is conrolled tq maximum. ló . and that the "boundary of perfect form æ MMC" (Rule 1) does rct apply.0003 total as a refinement of ttre size control (see questions 77 and 78). ^/V ( 1 78. What is the bæis for this answer? Assume on Figrue 2b ttræ ttre pan is to mount into bearings.ffi paÍ at each end- Specified as shown in Figrue 2a. 79. Spectfy this requirement on Figure 2c. to a maximum of Ø. :r0 *\t) U ^ Referring to Figure 2a(atb longinrdinal elements of the and the "boundary of perfectform at which will represent a critical size control for bearing mounting of the M t. 80. Specfy this requirement on Figure 2b).0L5 rclaL RFS.rimum permissible snaighmess tolerance of Figue 2b? Assume on Figure 2c ¡ha¡ the part is to mount into bearings on the ends but staightness of tlre longitudinal axis of the cylindrical surface is less critical.

Show this requirement on Figue 2d.0L5 æ MMC exceeding the boundary of perfect form æ MMC.82.6A0? 11æØ. 85. Where interchangeabiüty of parts of this tpe is required. we will assume P{t2d can be perrrined a straighmess tolerance of Ø. rwhæ is the virrual condition of part 2dandthus the minimum (also perrrissible boundary of clea¡ance of the hole of part 2e? virual condition) What is the straightness tolerance permissible with ttre pin (pan 2d) size æ Ø. what is Ø. With less critical assembly as the criterion. the condition often desirable. Since the ø. Assume the pin shown in Figure 2d is to æsemble with the hole shown in Figure 2e.0L5 straightness olerance of question 81 was speciñed on an RFS basis.6t0? ttre suaightness tolerance permissibte if the pan size is at atØ599? 84.597?- t7 . The collective effect ofthe size and form error on Figure 2c (question 81) results in a size of possible Il 83.

Show below (sketch) how a tolerance zone would appea¡ if the maximum dia¡neær at ùat ctoss-section was Ø. gL. upon which a straightness of surface . True- False Name one rype of surface. l8 . æ rear of book) are critical to a finer degree ttran the size tolerance would control. (added/less) 8i. 88. 89. andthe responses to quesúons 84 and 85. elemens could be applied 90. In Figrge ?Å. other than cylindrical.002.502.86. it is seen that the deviation from tolerance equal to the deparure MMC size resulted in from MMC. Sraighmess tolerance is applicable only to cylindrical parts. Suppose the circular cross sections of a cylindrical part (Figrue 3a. Wh¿t type of form control Show the proper symbolic conuol on Figure 3 a using would be used? a total olerance of . Tnre False A straighmess rolerance is normally specified in the drawing view in which the tolerance applies.

001 totat.92. on the Figrue 3b and 3c parts' Show below (sketches) how the tolerance zones would appeü 95. add to the parr illustrations the requirement wfthin. 94. Is adarum reference used with circularity olerarrcing? rer¡son fs¡ this Erplain Your l9 . which circularity olerancing can be qpecified on any part configruation (other than cylindricar) upon which circuin cross section. T\oofoical part conngruations lariry tolerurce may be specified are of circularity is 93. Refening to Figures 3b and 3c.

96.(Assume the ma:rimum produced size is-ø502 ) 98.Add to Figure 3d ttre proper speciñcæion to control the cylindrical surface within . Assume rtrat composiæ surface control of the entire cylindrical surface of the part shown in Figure 3d is required. Is a da¡um ¡eference required with cylin&icity tolerancing? \ilhich th¡ee form tolerurce controls are included in composiæ in cylindricity olerancing? 99. of ttrem each force necessary to 20 . Parts which distort due to their weight or flexibility or due to intemal stesses released in parts and are subject fabricæion are known as Where contol of this kind is necessary. Vee block analysis of critical circularity or cylindricity requirements must be wary of the and vee block angle effect of pafi 100.001 total. such as methods. any daturr and the features in control may require specifiorthe naximum cation of their allowable to drawing Olerance. 101. More r¡ccruaæ analysis methods for deæcting circularity or cylindriciry requirements utilize techniquæ which simulæe pan æris criteria. Show below (sþrch) how the tolerance zone is developed. 9'1.

attd 105. 106. The surface profile on Figure 4 (at rear of book) is to be connolled to a total of . of ttre drawing in which the desired 104.010 A. or other unusual pan surface contour Where total surface control conuol is used.t02. Show this on the drawing. profile of a control is used. tolerancing is an effective method of controlling an irregular curve' is desi¡ed" profrle of a ¿1¡c. Profile of a line control is normally used as a refinement of other controls. The desired profile is dimensioned by dimensions. A profile toleiance is shown in the profile appears. of LO7. 2L . 103. and equalty dþosed about the basic profile berween X and Y and relative þ datums C. where line element conuol is desired. B. Profrle of a surface conuol is normally a combination control.

ia form variation is affecæd- (2) Accuracy of the surface profile and its desi¡ed shape is normally not affected by Pan size va¡iation. Add to Figure 4 rh¿t the profile line elements shown in the plan (left) view a¡e to be maintained m a fine¡ tolerance (of . 110. The profile of any line toleranæ zone must be contained within the profite of any surface control shown in Figure 4. 111. Tn¡e False 22 .003) than the total surface profile. Can aprofile of surface tolerance be modified to MMC? Which of these statements suPPorts your answer? (1) As the pan size varies.108. Show by hand skerch below how the tolerance zone is deærmined in the preceding example. 109.

and Runout tolerance is considered as a unique category of geometrical dimensioning md tolerance but is u. b.xis for siderable lengfh. part diameærs o1:a9h end are to Referring to Figrue 5 (æ rear of book). -' l 15. ör . A n¡nout tolerance establishes ef ss¡trslling the funcdonal relationship of two r ryPe urd may be applied (complex/composite) is a tolerance of type This part more fea¡¡res of a æ one of ¡vo different t1ryes of nrnoul These two tyPes nrnouL n¡nout..tuJrv ã-ðótnui*tion tolerance controls. assume ttrat the within . 116.xial separæion' or a diameter and a which is at of con- a angle to it 23 .) Circula¡ nrnout includes such form errors at of the sr¡rface when applied to surfaces consm¡cæd and as ' circular right angles to a daom æris.002 total (FM) relæive to mounr into bealngs and the other diamerers arc to be the part axis of rotationregardless of feanne size' tolerancingshouldbeused. A darum a. and a means or a-) Total runout includes such form errors Also. tolerance relaæs sr¡rfaces surfaces may be or (perpendicular/tadiat) 113. (cylinder) a nrnout tolerance may be established by a diameær wo diameters having a.ShowtherequirementsonFigure5.tLz. when applied to surfaces constn¡cted at right ¡ngles (or other) rc a danrm a¡ris. A nrnout of (cenraVcoaxial) The condition (RFS/ÀÆvf C) These to a th the datum datum the to is always used in runout tolerancing' - lL4.

to Figue 6 (at rear of book). how would this be indicaæd by for symbology? Add to figure 6. 119.376 hole of Figure t held in perpendiculariry of Ø. 118.003 to danrm A (see question 65).150 from the right face of the Ø1.001 total runout on the Ø.4995 rli¡mgþ¡ is to be the secondary datum and provide the a. whatis the virrual condition of the hole? The virn¡al condition of a fean¡¡e is the size of the boundary that must be considered in deærmining clearance between mæing parß or features. Size + form.0300 diameær.890 diameær wæ required only . Assume ttræ ttre circular elements of the 45o angular surface of Figure 6 are required to be contolled in rotation within . The pan mounts into a bearing. orientation or location error = (shafrThole) (shaffiole) vimral condition virrual condition size - form. If it was desired that the.L77.0005 total. Referring to ttre ø. Add ttris requirement to Figure 6. L20. Referring assume ttrat the left face of rhe part (left end of .030diameærswirhintotalrunoutof .ris of rotation. orientation or locaúon error = 24 .700 dim) is to be the primary datum and the Ø.890 andØ1.001 with rcspect to the darum axis. Specfy the datums with properprecedenceandthe Ø.

profiIe and Rrurout torerance controls. At least one of the featu¡es feature. tolerances relaæ to of 25 .-:**ples of time to . Ir is now bæic fundamentals as exænded to Location tolerance' ise yoru knowtedge in selection of In addition.IOCANON TOI.. Tolerances of locæion involve the use of geometric characæristics and and 122. I-ocation featu¡es. an emPhasis lzl. Locadon tolerances involve feanues a be must between two or more features.ERÀNCING Form' you have now successfully progressed ttEough the series of questions -9.sr your ability in using these orientation. of L23.

principle ensures interchangeabiJity and provides gea. The of the tolerance zone within which the shape of the tolerance zone is specified wittl the symbol (e. the position tolerance is the of the feanue must lie. For noncylindrical features in the desired direction. Where function The tages.test tolerance advan- L25.L24. A position tolerurce is the the location of an of a featue in relationship to a dan¡m reference or other feature. Position tolerance is a cumulæive/non-cumulæive (which?) of control in which each feanne relæes to its own desired exrict (m¡e) position method 130. 129.. perrrissible variation in the locæion of a feature about its desired or ex¿rct (tue) posiúon.and or inærchangeability of mæing part features is involve4 the principles of tolerancing may be ued.g. size of the mating 26 . holes and bosses). The shape of the tolerance zone is implied as lotal wide in the absence of the symbot and by the placement of the dimension line and 128. Ln. Position olerancing is a method used to sPecify L26. For cylindrical fean¡res (e. A position tolerance is based on the as it relaæs to the size of the concerned fea¡ure part feature.g. . sloa and tabs) the position tolerance is the of the tolerance zone within which the center plane of the feature must lie.

2t . (at MMC) is ideally suiæd to multiple muing pan cylindrical fearu¡es False mosr support the answer to question 132. Posirion rolerance apanern. mat- L32.250 holes are to be locæed within a positional tolerance of .131. 134. The position tolerance is developed directly from the relationship of the mating feanue MMC sizes. the tolerance on the as the acftal actually produced fearure (increases/deøeases) ing size depans from MMC size. what is the MMC Specify on size of tlßØ. True in 133.250 holes? the drawing that ttre four Ø.010 diameter at MMC. Which rwo of the th¡ee staæments below (1) (2) (3) Position tolerancing recognizes the permissible va¡iæion of a cylindrical fean¡¡e locæion in 360o of movemenl Position tolerurcing is a more convenient way þ relaæ mating feanres than plus and minus coordinaæ tolerancing. In this drawing. When position tolerance on an MMC basis is applied to a feæue.

135. skerch in the position MMC size of the hole and at IÀ{C size of the hole.tso 1. On this layout of the part under question 134. 137.oto @ 28 . 138. Ø .247? question 134. what is the position tolerurce of the hole if it is atø. add three datums with precedence indicated. suppose that the upper surface on the front view is the mounting surface and the other two surfaces are important to ttre hole patærn positional tolerance. On the below part.005 Ø. On the figr¡re shown under produced atØ.253? tolerance zones at L36. Dæum fearures or surfaces æ the basis for position relationships should be- on the drawing.

139. preceding question as Make a skerch below showing the inærpretation of the paft under the bæed uPon Your answer. Now ren'n hole to show to Figure 1 and revise ttre specifications on the Ø.376 it located at (venic¿l) and -940 (horizontal) basic dimensions' 29 . 140.

However. select appropriaæ prima¡y (orientation) datum feærues æ the Part's correqponding inærface sr¡rfaces. Assume thæ these rwo parts are mæing paru with the fou¡ holes in each to coincide so that fou.003 30 . Calculaæ the position olerances and compleæ the position dimensioning and tolerancing on the npo pars.l4l. 4X ø.138 screws (floæing fasæners) will assemble. t5 I 1. Disregard hole Pauern locæion with reqpect to ouaide surfaces for this example. this will be taken up in succeeding exanples.

003 ø. I¿ I ' -6q lltRË. t30 I I I I .3 00 2X ø.416 (3t .400 r.33? --:. in toCing establishing th¡ee n the be- the danrms' ï ---------) .oo¿ G) .with ¡vo '1 142. 138 -32 UNC-28 r.600 . r48:'3? .?Jã--'ì --=Jt ___J -.3501 . These two pafs are mæing P¿¡fts.-J I t. Calculaæ position dimensioning aûd tolerancing.fi' i''ã@l{ßE] 2X .¡zg!'ononï þ ø .250 . to be assembled fastenef" two dowel bosses and mating holes.#!) ?'15 ?5 1 P rnlS ù< øJ25 :. This is a "fxed positio ttre come fixed in their location æ æsembly.

make an analysis of the part shown on the given nextpage.whæis ttre position tole¡ance of the Ø. the position tolerance zone exænds to thq I44.749 .138 thrcaded hole different in this regard? Select most appropriaæ answer: a) 146. an exercise Measurement X Direction Hole #1 Hole #2 Hole #3 Hole #4 . could the distribution of the position tolerance To suppon your a$¡wer.001 inch. Make the necessary calculations and plot (use doa) the results on the graph using the zero (0) point as ttre rr¡e (exact) posiúon and origin for the X and Y differentials. #3 (upper right).fit2 (lower þft). b. Imagine the concentric circles as a transparcnt overlay chart of the sane scale as the graph and as applied after plouing the hole centers or shown as concentic circles on the FaptL.752 2. In the exarrple shown unde¡ question 142. 148 hole if produced ar Ø. and #4 Qower righÐ. Referring to the "answer" illustration of question L42. Tbe cenæring effect of the inseræd screw may negarc added tolerance due to size deviation from MMC. the following measurements from the specified dan¡m surfaces and the hole sizes. in position tolerance principles. Unless otherwise specifie{ of the fean¡re. The graph scale is I square = .) 145.L51? Why is the position rolerance of the . which on each part have been different? of the below staæments is most appropriaæ? a-) Position tolerance is calculæed on the basis of relationship of size of the corresponding mating paft feat¡res.L43.L235? The Ø. Number the holes #1 (upper lefr).7454 32 . The total position tolerance calculaæd may be distributed as desired be¡veen the corresponding mæing part featues.) Tæped holes usually have close size tolerances.L25 boss if produced at actual mating size of Ø. As b.746 2.

7-12 o @ *= @l (x) Õ. SIZE.f. '' .I ØiçC ? S = \gOrô/øS T"ÒL. O 1Dù --:d0 ¿ s--- Q 'aaLS .010 ) ø .soe . t oC tQ4 M\¡-t L .ú...ft C-TU !>-. TOL E aù X= o.OtZ r. 4x ø.30? + coc <L.Sçe-c¿- J.ø'.014 .7rs/ Y= ' 7fS Z srzE- o .le -O 1cco.rsrzE- S t#.ztzJ roL.u--re -. POS.so ¿:f @ \= .013 -z-' ¡{ouL a ....011 ..300:333 Fas.7 .o1o @ A B c HOLE NO.STLS-rr^.6.rC sz?Ë:. ACTUAL LOC. oo ft l:t{g --:t-) soÒ stzE- a @ X = Z.t-.7q 7 Y= Z.

has hole #1 met the requirements? Has hole #2? What consideration was given to some holes to make the determination of question 147? Which is the most appropriate answer? (1) (2) r49. 148. Under the function and advantages of position tolerancing. Is tlre part analyzed under questions 146 and 147 acceptable? (a) Using your calculator*.302 #2 #3 #4 ) .746 )\¿. xlf no calculator is available to you.) Using-ody your calculator*. deærmine from the inspection results of another part (produced to the same drawing as shown under question 146) if the part is acceptable. Hole #1 Hole #2 do the best you can with the tables. graphs.303 Ø. what further determinations could be made? (Write an answer. and calculation methods shown Hole #3 Hole #4 in your reference materials. From the analvsis made on the part shown under question 146. Ø.) 151.30t Ø. Has the part now met the position requirements in terms of the design specifications? Has it met the production requiremens within tolerance? Are the quality control or inspection requirements clearly stated? 4 .752 .Indicate at right acceptånce or rejection of each hole. (b) Measurement Hole Size Hole Hole Hole Hole #1 Y Direction 2. (yes or no) Hole #1 Hole #3 Hole Hole #4 #2- (c) Is the part acceptable? 150. All holes in the pattern may shift together within the position tolerance assigned. Fill in the derived diametical (cytindrical) values calculaæd for each hole (show at least to the fifth decimal place).248 Ø. confrm your a¡swer to question 146 mathematicatly.I47.303 FüI in the derived diametrical (cylindrical) values calculaæd for each hole (show at least to the fifth decimal place). Actual hole size deparnre from MMC adds position tolerance for that hole equal to the the departure.

382? 4x ø. refined to a þsser tolerance.01 Ø .ß2.o1o @ A D@ B 2. a) b) c) d) e) Ð s) h) Whu is the da¡un hole position tolerance æ MMC size? Whu is the datum hole position tolerance æ LMC stzÊ? Whü is the da¡um hole perpendicularity tolerance at MMC size? What is the da¡um hole perpendicularity tolera¡ce æ LMC size? Whû is the Ø. Refecing to this figure. In the prcceding figuæ.014 @ A B A c Ø.75 !. In the preceding figure.75+. 380 hole position tolerance at MMC size? Wha¡ is üe virn¡al condition of the ' Ø.380 holes? Whû is the virn¡al condition of the da¡um D hole? Whæ is the resulant condition of the Ø-380 hole if profuccd to acu¡al matine sze of Ø. if ø .5oo:.913 o I 153. The da¡un hote has been locaæd by position tolerance with its orienta¡ion.380:'m8 o 1.O1 :560 !.0æ @ D the daa¡m D fea¡ne is produced at acn¡al mating slzn. note that a featr¡re of size (a hole) has been used as a dat¡¡m.380 holes locaæ ¡ ke o¡ieutation (squareness) from? : take orienution from? 35 . which dailms does the datr¡m D hole tocaæ from? Which da¡uns does the ø. what Is this a positional tolerance strift of the hole panem (as a unit) exiss? hole-hoþ added oþrance? I54. orlrrpendiculariry.OO5 . of.Ø502.

) 159. Disregad conside¡ation of gage tolerances and the relæionship to daruÍi B for purposes of ttris question. whæ difference would exist generally in ttre gage desig¡. How derived? Gage pin size for Ø. gage were desired to evaluate the locæion of the datum D hole of the figure shown under question 152 which dan¡ms would be picked up and in what precedence? Would MMC be applicable to the dau¡ms? In the functional gage.380 holes If a functional 156. Can functional gaging of ttre variety rlisst¡ssed in questions 156 both datum and featrues in control are on an RFS basis? though l5g be used whe¡e 3ó .500 dau¡m *Do'hole =Ø How derived? 157. RfS basis? position toleranced paüern of fea¡¡res be relaæd to an RFS daarm? Show the fea¡¡re control frame stffing this requirement here: This is based upon which rule? Can position tolerancing be applied on an Can an MMC 158. Erplain how you derived the gage pin sizes. and fr¡nction? (Descdbe in words or by the dau¡m is on an RFS basis and the feau¡¡es skerch below.155. what would the size of the gage pin be? \ryha¡ would the gage pin size be for the perpendiculariry requirement? can also be used to evaluue the position of the ø. Functional gâFng = Ø. Gage pin size for Ø. Add the nominal gage pin sizes to this illustation of apin gage.380 hole patærn under question 152. If a ñ¡nctional gage similar to tbat shown under question 156 were to be use( but where in conrol remain on an MMC basis.

L20 width (at MMC) within -005 wide tolerance' 1. 37 . On this prtt. rp.160.501 slot is to be locaæd al tn¡e position (at MMC) wittr respect to the 1. position olerancing may be used on functional or assemblabiliry requirements of noncylinùical feæues.ofy thæ the .120 1. Skerch below the parr shown unde¡ question 160 (above) and show the positional tolerance mîe.003 161.

PART #1 PART +2 .9? Total ole¡ance at LMC size of flatanddarum = Total olerance a¡ LMC size of slot and = dan¡m MMC Size SIot(Part#2) = MMC Size Flæ (Pan *t¡ = 1-¡ MMC Size Daom Slot @an#Z) = MMC Size Dan¡m Flat (Part#1) = (-) NOTE: For the pu4)oses of this example andfor simpliciry of principles. geometrical tolerance benveen the dan¡ms A and B on both parts has not been made a pan of the calculations. Posirion tolerancing may be applied to relate noncylindrical featu¡es of mating pans.L62. If you wish to corsider ttris additionally æ an optional exercise. EstaÞ lish position tolerances on the mating pans shown below. add here an explanation of the steps necess¡fy: 38 . Also calculate the ma:cimum permissible production tolerance that could be permitæd on each part if its fean¡re and datum actual mating envelope sizes were both to depan from MMC size to LMC size.503 *.

Sketch below the parrshown r¡nder quesion 163 and show the positional tolerance zone. 39 . Posirion tolerancing may be used on ñmctional or assemblability requirements of coaxial features. ø .o01 1&.500 featr¡re (at MMC) within ø.305 t.305 fea¡r¡re is to be locaæd at tn¡e position (at MMC) wittr respect to the ø.003 tolerance zone. On this parl specify that the Ø.t63.

If you wish to consider this additionally as an optional exercise.oos ø. Position olerancing may be applied to relaæ coa.75'l:33å Ø.sto1. PART f 1 PART +2 . add here an explanation of the steps necessrrry: 40 .881 ln-ø.6r4:'333 1. Establish position tolerances on the rnating parts shown below. geometrical tolerance between the dæums A and B on both parts has not been made a part of the calculations.xial features of mating parrs.r'ul:BBå ø.L65. Also calculate the ftximum perrrissible production tolerance that could be permitæd on each part if its feanlre and datum ¿rctual mating envelope sizes were bottr to depart from MMC size to LMC size.300 t .7 4s::33Î Total tolerance at LMC size of hole and = datum Total tolerance æ IÀfC size of shaftanddan¡m = MMC Size Hole (Part*t¡ = MMC Size Shaft (Pa¡f2) - (-) MMC Size Datum Hole @art #1) MMC Size Dan¡m Shaft (Part f2) = (-) NOTE: For the purposes of this example and for simplicity of principleS.

Q) 168. RFS. necessary dan¡ms and compleæ the featu¡e control frame for the ttre nvo diameærs (Ø. erc.OOl Ø. 1. which will influence the reading. but does not conclusively prove center (axis) dþlacement or eror. if the surface of rotation has been sufñciently sampled for mæcimum error.500) are to establish ttre a:cis of rotation of ttre part with ttre Ø 1. has it met the concentricity requirement? Which of the answers below is most logicat? (1) Yes.. Concentricity is a variety of locational tolerance control.ool the pan checked at . within ø. which other cha¡acæristics sidered first if possible? Which statement suppsrts your answer most appropriately? (1) Concenricity requirements ate encountered less frequently. which control is used? that part Assume below.000 diameærrelative to that atds. If ttre pan error exceeds the stated tolerance when the FIM method is use{ does this mean ttre pan has not met the concentricity requirement? Which statement supports yol¡r ânswer most appropriaæly? (1) ' Q) The surface may be out-of-circularity. 4l . Where erors of form and location are considered on the basis of displacement of axis of two Establish or more basically coaxial feaû¡¡es. No.605 t. Q) MMC methods or conventional surface criæria controls are more readily producible and economical.005 ø.003 tolerance. because the axis of the feature has not been deærmined. and the resultant error detected must þ compared to the cylindrical tolerance zone. if t.605 and Ø. Before a concentricity olerance is specifred.soo 167.003 FIM. Using conventional FIM methods of evaluæion.000 1. should be con- 169.166.

120 ! . a syrnmetry tolerance 1.170.003 42 . RFS. Specfy thæ ttre .120 widttr wirhin .501 widttr of ttris symmetrical part is to be locaæd using with reqpect to the 1.005 wide total tolerance.OO3 +. Skeæh below the part shown under question 166 and show the concentricity tolerance zone ar¡d a representation as to how an acnrally produced dia. would be deærmined if in compliance witt¡ the requirement or DoL l7l.

whæ would the difference in mean L74. Noting the feaore connol frames and their specified datums. f . If this part had been indicaæd as a positional ing be? Explain briefly. tolerance. and show ttre symmetry tolerance zone and a representation as to how an actually produced slot would be deærmined if in compliance with the requirement or not.L72- Skerch below ttre part shown under question 171. Then compleæ the danrm u¡get symbols and identify the targets according to your own selection. select ttre tagets which appropriæely oonstruct these designated datum planes. Dæum targets have been panially shown on the part on ttre followingpage. RFS. 173.

ø.C.olerance in the pattern reLacive Eo datum D is used.0I0 t.020 is used for the relar. A refinement of ø.ern relative Èo the exErernity datum references.ionship of the patt. 4 .32 UNC - 28 174.B.7X. 9u!e! A.138 .

In the space below design or sþrch t¡¡fgets.310. On the below part. add or modify with the necessary symbology to indicate that the tolerance zone is projected above the part for . 4X. Use a part similar to one from your own experience or esablish an imaginary one.190-32 45 . hole pattern) with respect to the 176.g. and show some feanre relationships (e. your own pan using datum Egets. Establish the dæum Érgets' dan¡m planes.175.

Select your own target locations as seems appropriate. Add any necessary views to show your requirements.164 . 8X .32 46 . or. Show the target locations using proper methodology but disregard determining the values.I77. establish ttre datum planes for the parallelism and positional control relationships by dahrms and datum targets from the part surfaces. insert hypothetical values. On the following casting. if you wish.

dØ. êlø. There are a frames to ties but make your choice by adding in the appropriate modifiers in the feature control best achieve the following: (virnral Add material condition modifiers to relate to the danm features D and E on a functional condition) basis on the following figure. pattems On the following part (shown twice) select the best methods to control the five hole possibiliof number (ø.17g.z}iiroles) relarive to the dan¡m feattues D and E.430 .o.oos (ù lA lB lc 47 .

ßo+'90-! 4x ø.205+'991 48 .179. also ensure closer compatibility between ethods. lition indication to relate to the datum features . 2X Ø.250+'0^0-? Ø.

010 from LMC with respect to dìn¡m A (the bottom face of the part).151 +.003 49 . Disregard the pattern location the outside edges for purposes of this example' 4X Ø. diameter at Indicaæ on the below part that the 4 holes are located at tn¡e position within .lg0.

- FOR NOTES OR CALCULATIONS - 50 .

7gg 1. .ure Proper inærface.28 .550 t.190 . Make the necessary determinacalculations and complete the drawings below' 6X.OtS \f 6x ø. Ä fr.32 UNF .005 51 .33.210:'.

52 . as developed under question 181. 182. to verify the inthe-paüern location controls only.(NOTE: Question 182 is optional for those inærested in gagrng). You need only develop the nominal gage sizes. Design (skeæh) a functional gage for the small part (one with clearance holes). but show the gage constn¡ction as based upon your answer to question 181.

ooo5 1 .995 e 2 2 e e 2.4898 2. 2.004 0 1 Actual hole size T !. The remaining holes.) .183.010 at MMC requirement.0032 . the pattem has been squared-up with hole #3. (See pages 57 and 55). Is hole fr> good Is hole #6 good. the lower left hole. has been used as the origin of the X and Y meastuements.003 L. Is the part good ? 53 .ztz5 l.zt3 l.4. Hole #1.996 ( .001 equals 2 squares. are supplíed. Use the graphic analysis þaper gaging) method. . squ¿ue-uP origrn O Hole Hole 2 Hole 3 1 inX 0 inY 0 (.1+925 /.zt35 Persrissible position tol on hole /. Graph paper and tracing paper with overlay circles to the graPh Paper scale.). From the below drawing (similar to one under Questions 181. Use a scale of .5 and 6 have been measured from holes I and 3.2!z HoIe 4 íoJ. determine whether a produced part with the following measured results is acceptable to the positional Ø. 182) and given information.ztz fs hole #t Is hole #2 Yes good good Tq hole #3 good Is hole #4 good.e ) HoIe 6 .9947 No f .

-FOR NOTES OR CALCULATIONS - 54 .

55 .

- FOR NOTES OR CALCULATTONS - 56 .

3 I o.27 o.32 o.0 5 ( Datu¡n Bonus Tot Questlon 186 ) 5? .35o.2a o.25 0.@f¡l EOO'K FOi USE 0N QIJESTIONS (For use on Questlons lg3 & lg6 ) o.26 0.REH0lfB FR.30 o.29 oi.33 o.

.

.

.

optimum position of all 6 holes on all individual holes. Determine the smallest circle (tolerance zone) which will encompass all the measured hole centers (axes) simultaneously.e. Veri$ yoru answer to question 183 mathematically with a computer or Programmed calculator. Verify your answer to question 183 mathematically with a computer or programmed calculator. optimum and inY: reference to the above answer. wriæ in your own words how you deærmined the part acceptable (or not) from yotu calculated results. including the holes size departure from MMC (bonus tolerance). The result of this calculation should give a di¡ect answer as to the accePtance of all the holes or noL The smallest circle (tolerance zone) size. compensating for the MMC deparflue @onus tolerance) . is: Ø position of all 6 holes (centroid) is in X: 'With (For information. is: @ (cenæroid) is in: and X: inÏ With reference to the above answer. Determine the smallest circle (tolerance zone) which will encompass all the measured hole centers (a.184. 59 .xes). write in your own words how you deærmined the part acceptable (or not) from your calculated results. (For information. in your calculations. Disregard the hole sizes (assume them RFS) for the initial calculation but consider their sizes as necessary (i. 185. departure from MMC as bonus tolerance) in your final deærminations to verify the question 183 g¡aPhic analysisThe smallest circle (tolerance zone) sizn.

0 4 Danrm . coordinate measuring) on this part. Use scale .003 4X Ø.377r . +.3715 I 2 J Actual Hole size ø.380 hole to hole requirements relative to the tnre position of each hole? Has the ø.9945 0 Has the part met the Ø.3726 .3825 ø. supplied). Use graphic (paper gagmg) methods.376/.9948 . (Graph paper and overlay ø. From the below data given from an inspection process (i.382 ø.500+'991 Hole inX .9953 inY . determine if it has met the positional tolerance requirements on the ø.e.502 .010 6iù A D ú\il) B 1.75 t.380 four-hole pattern met its requirement relative to the datum D ø.380 holes and the pattern relationship to the ø.010.75 t.ooo e Ø. etc.O1 ø. (Use page 57 overlay).560 +.383 ø.994 .382s ø.5N da¡¡m hole.001=2 squares.500 hole? 60 .38O _.01 .005 2.186.

_--r--_1--iF----t__- +-++-+'-:-r-l ri I t ì I i' 1.---:.. ..... .-:-..:l-.......-i-r-: J-. i---r._ :.: _:_ .:'-*i.:f-r _-.:_..---.:_l . :-f-.r_i_r:i__:_i Ì-__..:.-rr-t_l_i.--l--l- r-ri. I _.. .. ...: : : l-:+-i..--i:-j-+-i -.' !....i-l -r.J+_.ri.-----] -a-j-t--.i--l -'i--i-..t.l:: I::: _:_. .1 - j.--.-¡¡¡i *i--.t9 i-'r..-+-.__'_ ._-... .--:-lLl ll_.i..:-!:-..---:*--.1_ -r-i ..:.-:-. -..-L. :.::':::l.i-.

FOR NOTES OR CALCTILATTONS - 62 ..

tg?. verify your answer to question 186 mathematically with a computer or programmed calculator. 63 . From ttre data given under question 186.

.FOR NOTES OR CALCULATIONS - 64 .

65 .FIGURES Figures 1 through 6 may be removed for convenience in doing the workshop exercises.

66 .

500 +. ø.nt W.*zW .rre I 67 .376 +.500 r.002 ñññ t'(ÎL h-4-t /- Þ //- ( + \ 1.005 Fig.bt ^ t.005 / .005 tr@ t B tæFt 1. ùoilí 2 ræ.r¡r -i-o .FIGITRES in doing work on the related Figrues 1 through 6 may be removed if desired for convenience quesdons.610 ^(r\-r E ù.

68 .

.eoo_'.oool'!fo. . \ Figun 2 (VIRTUAL CONDITION)-) 69 .goo3 /.ø.. org ø.

'10 .

005 Ø.oo3 (dl Figurc 3 7l ..soo t.500 t .

1a .

0005 ø.0300 t .Asss rää Flgure 6 73 .ø 1.