Unit 13 A Brief History of London London is in fact two cities - "The City of London" usually just called "The

City", and "Westminster", which lies to its west. For all intents and purposes the West End (everything to the immediate West of the City) is now the centre of London - the East End (home of Cockney culture) is traditionally a poor working class and industrial area, currently undergoing something of a renaissance. There are slums (poor areas( within half a mile of the biggest concentration of financial power in the world - largely due to an invisible barrier between the City and the East End. Londinium was founded by the Romans at a convenient crossing of the Thames, though it had been convenient for the local inhabitants too. Tacitus describes a flourishing trading city existing in AD 67. The area was marshy but there was a low hill, roughly where the Bank of England now stands and it was here that the Romans chose to build a typical Roman city, primarily for military reasons. Their forum was where Leadenhall market now stands. They believed that Britain was a kind of El Dorado, and that they'd make their fortune here, as previous legions had grown rich off the Amber that Germans didn't seem to value. The river was navigable a long way inland, and tidal, which made it easy to get boats in and out. There's a great amount of Roman archeology about - the Museum of London leads digs

until 1769. Food and wine came in. They hated living in the old walled Roman city and established their own city of long huts. When the Romans pulled out. By the time the Normans took over from the Saxons. France and Germany lived around the river . the Netherlands.London was for a time . now quite deserted.the Old London Bridge. When new invaders swept the country the Saxons and their kin moved back into the safety of the old Roman City. England at that time was inhabited by a hodgepodge of tribes and small kingdoms. roughly where Covent Garden is today. pressured by frontier wars. the Saxons took over. the basis of the mercantile (((((((((((( relating to merchants or trading) capital was already laid: a charter of citizens rights and a confederation of tradesmen. wool and leather went out. we know a great deal about the Roman period. and it was here that London originated. and the Romans had little difficulty subduing them despite some noble efforts at defence. and after a couple of hundred years were more Roman than the Romans. Due to the wool trade's centre in East Anglia near the old Boston . providing a counterweight to the aristocracy. The locals assimilated Roman culture.which had only one crossing . London was a leading trading port of western Europe merchants from Italy. and "Westminster" is the Saxon add-on. and as that's often. This duality still persists .the "City" is essentially Roman Londinium.whenever any building is erected.

Napleon's jibe that Britain was a nation of shopkeepers is true: with a living to protect from invaders. However the establishment of merchant's guilds with the mayor at their head re-established London's place as capital. (the "Mystery Plays". They grew up as "misteries" or trades during the medieval period. as the French leaned to their cost at Crecy and Agincourt. The black death and other plagues decimated the population. and terrible religious persecution (the country went from catholic to protestant. back to catholic and Henry VIII's need for a divorce saw the final breach with Rome) led to poverty and mass unemployment. However by the late 16th century. though the Launderers' guild was formed as late as 1960. are religious plays which were enacted by guildsmen). The Muscovy Company .the Weavers' company dates back to 1130.after years wasted in wars of succession (which explains Henry VIII's desperate and bloody attempts to secure a male heir) the dissolution of the monasteries.The East India Company.England's second city. it was unsurprising that they made doughty fighters. still performed. and trading routes and privileges to protect overseas. These medieval guilds and livery companies exist today. Wax Chandlers' Company to 1358. In Tudor times . the seeds of England's future as a world trading power were sown with the formation of the Trading Companies . the saddlers' company goes back to 1272. and preserve fine buildings across the City .

most notably by an American Millionaire. saw management techniques still venerated by world corporations. conquer the world. and the port of London enjoyed a final flowering. only finding out on delivery he hadn't bought Tower Bridge) was opened in 1894. England was also at the forefront of the arts with a lively theatre and music scene (the latter eclipsed by one European nation after another. sewers and underground railways (1863) tunneled beneath the clay of the world's capital. Hawksmoor and a whole crew of architectural geniuses) dominating the city skylines. seeing buildings like The Bank of England and most of the Bridges across the Thames springing up. This redevelopment went on into the 18th Century. . that saw the forerunners of Sir Richard Rogers (Wren. which along with Britain's naval prowess. who transplanted the old London Bridge to Arizona. its pre-eminence was not regained until after the first world war).the Levant Company. The Plague in 1665 and the fire in 1666 shook London out of its complacency (there are spectacular accounts of both these in Defoe and Pepys' journals) but also lead to a wave of property development (which is still going on). Tower Bridge (often mistaken for London Bridge. and the Turkey Company. The Victorians supervised the transformation of London into a modern city. while overground railways (1836) and omnibuses (1855) opened up across the city.

London's architectural revival started with the completion of the Lloyd's building by Sir Richard . while the City remained the financial heart of Europe. Prostitution and Crime were the twin blights of this area right up until the end of the war. It's said that the GLC did more damage to London than the Luftwaffe. with its own mayor in 1900. The West End was to Shaw's London what Southwark was to Shakespeare's . Westminster Abbey (a place of pilgrimage) and the country's first printing presses. Until the 1850s it was the haunt of criminals who used the sanctuary laws to hide in the precincts of Westminster Abbey .the pleasure district. with little real conservation work . theatres. with hotels. when the Greater London Council changed the face of the old city forever.there are still roads such as "Little Sanctuary" and "Thieving Lane" which testify to its past. The two World Wars saw huge destruction. The redesigning of the area under Barry put paid to this unsavoury aspect and saw an expansion which coincided with the arrival of the railways. and the banking and share trading capital of the world.many of the city's worst buildings date from this time. and was granted the title of a City. to both the populace and the city and some terrible rebuilding followed. Westminster really only came into its own in the 19th century. restaurants and shops.Despite the presence of the Royal Palaces. Victoria Station occupying the site of several private railway stations which were amalgamated in 1899.

and despite some terrible blunders (the most of them under Margaret Thatcher . such titles and degrees may be written on stationery and business cards). it should be used while addressing him or her. Ph. Honorifics for Men. the term Ms is very so slowly gathering common usage (please note that in written form. ( Greetings and Introductions in Britain 1. "Mr. Women. If someone holds a degree or title (e. whether much of the old London will remain as developers pry on the greed of local and city councils remains in question.. even though the holder of such a title never uses it when referring to him or herself (however. by developers too close to the Corporation (Sir Peter Palumbo's destruction of the old Mappin and Webb building to erect one of London's most hideous monstrosities above Bank station..g. Doctor. the destruction of Spitalfields market) London is beginning to rival Paris in its Grand Projects.D.the destruction of Battersea Power Station being the most obvious) and some corporate vandalism mostly committed in the City."and "Ms" do not have periods – "full stops" in British English – after them: they are words in and of themselves and not abbreviations). However." Occasionally. and Children Mr/Mrs/Miss is preferred for the overwhelmingly (95 percent by some estimates) middle-class Briton today. Please note: surgeons are referred to as "Mr. Lord.Rogers in 1979 . ." not "Doctor. or Lady)." "Mrs.

and How of Introducing People ( Always wait to be introduced to strangers before taking that responsibility upon yourself. and can be researched in books specifically addressing this issue). and children are endured. are still another matter: they are adored. it may not be appropriate to introduce yourself. Britons are most comfortable with a . the British childhood is often suffered. and referred to endearingly with the most amazing names (by the way. use whatever name or honorific used by the adult. Pets. in England. when being addressed (the correct form for addressing peerage is complex. If introduced to a child. however (especially dogs). Depending upon your familiarity with the situation or others. Children in Britain. perhaps because there is no risk of heir talking back. black cats are considered lucky).The What. in turn. Children in Britain are another matter: they have been traditionally viewed as incomplete adults. ( 2. not family name. are expected to be respectful and not overly conversational when speaking with adults. When. as such.titled aristocracy might present a card with a line hand-drawn across their title: it is an indication that you may refer to them without their title in casual conversation. and must always use honorifics when referring to adults. Nobility use their title plus first name.

A man should wait until the woman extends her hand before reaching for it. Avoid ending the conversation with the American expression "Have a nice day": it sounds controlling and insincere to the English. "How do you do?") does not require an answer: merely repeat the phrase back. when..third-party introduction whenever possible. Pay close attention. With whom. and a woman may take the lead in extending her hand or not. Smiling and other nonverbal forms of communication need not accompany the handshake. but a woman need not remove her gloves when shaking hands with a . A man must remove his gloves when shaking hands with a woman. Try to ensure that for yourself ahead of time. any introductory phrase that is posed in question format (e. wait to be told where to sit. Shake hands with everyone individually in a group before departing: the American group wave is not appreciated. 3. Introductions such as "Pleased to meet you "and "How do you do" are most common. but perhaps not as "gripping and pumping" as the American version (the spoken introduction is the cue to let go). Do not presume to seat yourself at a gathering: if possible.g. and how you are introduced is a key to understanding how you are perceived and how the British are going to "fit you in" within their world. This is especially important if you believe you will be interacting with individuals from a different strata or class. Physical Greeting Styles The handshake is common.

unless a very specific point with a specific speaker is being made – in that case. In addition. this is too personal in England. the economy. women who know each other may kiss each other on the cheek once. Americans often begin a conversation with "So. anything that is a universal pain in the neck (griping is an apparent pastime). or ask about others. usually with royalty." the "Irish. then quickly look away: eye contact is minimal during conversation in Britain. Communication Styles 1. religion. except in formal occasions. It is a nontouching culture. eye contact is usually very direct. Do not inquire about a person's occupation in casual conversation. Not okay: politics (especially "the royals. animals and pets. avoid references to the British "setting sun" (the end of the empire). Bows and curtsies are quite old-fashioned and not common. ( . which means that men do not slap each other on the back or hug when greeting." and the associated "Troubles"). Do not volunteer your own personal family history. and British food. When being introduced. but rarely will men and women do so. unless they know each other particularly well. what do you do?". sex. and assumes that one "does" something in the first place.man. make immediate eye contact. Okay Topics/Not Okay Topics Okay: the weather.

( 3. making this sign with the palm inward is a vulgar gesture of defiance.2. Physical Gestures and Facial Expressions ( The basic rule is to minimize physicality: it is seen as childlike and representative of ill-breeding. facial expressions . Tone. and Speed In most formal situations (excluding the home and family-style restaurants). Use of Silence ( The need to avoid confrontation is so strong at times that silence or withdrawal may occasionally be employed to avoid a direct battle. almost to mumbling. Touching one's nose indicates "keep this a secret" or "this is between us". ( 4. depending upon the situation (class). Do not confuse avoidance of confrontation with lack of directness: if no confrontation is anticipated. understatement is the driver: therefore. the tone is respectful and humbling but the speed can very. Upon first meeting. in addition. In most English-speaking countries (with the exception of the United States). Volume. Britons are usually remarkably direct (especially in business). the "V for Victory" sign must be done with palm facing outward. the volume is almost always turned down.

Remember also that you usually have the right of way as a pedestrian only in a "zebra" walkway (the stripes painted at a crosswalk): cars must stop as soon as you step into the zebra (pronounced with the "e" as in "egg"). nevertheless. People walk on the left in public. the thumb is five. no matter how long it takes. and if there is a queue. Behavior in the Market ( Store hours are typically not built around customer convenience (may stores are closed on . Walking Styles and Waiting in Lines Queuing is a national pastime: never break a queue. as well as roads and streets. drive on the left. and not with the fingers: it is considered unseemly. Pointing is usually done with the head or chin. ( 5. be careful! ( 2. Queues develop at all public facilities. and then some. therefore. and pass on the right: this is true on escalators and moving walkways. go to the back of it and wait. Protocol in Public 1. feelings may be hard to read from the face.are kept to minimum. Counting ( The index finger is one.

thank you. Bus/Metro/Taxi/Car ( Never break a queue for a bus. juice. sausages. in goods stores.weekends and most evenings – except Thursdays. when leaving eh taxi.M. parents with babies. fried . go round to the driver's window first before paying the fare. and getting served in a store or restaurant can be an exercise in patience: it's one person at time. but men need not do so for women of the approximate same age. ( 3. you buy it. usually). on public transportation. it may be difficult for you to return a product unless there is a flaw in it. or taxi. Typically. usually from 7 to 9 A. and it can be maddeningly difficult for customers to get the clerks attention at times. bacon. An authentic English breakfast consists of white toast. and can be held anytime. cereal. and you are often not acknowledged as waiting until the sales again is ready for you. Enter a taxi in the back on the opposite side of the drive. or the handicapped. important meal. Mealtimes and Typical Foods Breakfast is typically a large. the customers are invisible to the salesclerk until eye contact is made. Dining and Drinking 1. train. Smoking in public places is on the decline. if you touch the produce. it is polite to surrender your seat to the elderly. In food market.

M." High tea is really a substitute for dinner. gin. pub specials. Formal dinner is served from 7:30 to 8:30 P.: it consists of a hot dish (a savory pie. and so on. although the aristocratic tradition in England emphasizes tea with lemon and no cream). the customary time. and mainly always a roast. Lunch is serve form noon to 1 or 2 P. Wine is usually served with dinner. for example) plus all the other ingredients of regular tea.M. all washed down with many cups of tea. salads. There are two different forms: "tea" and "high tea. then cakes and sweets.M. Regular tea usually consists of savory finger sandwiches.. and tomatoes.potatoes. Drinks can be tea or coffee (tea is taken usually with milk or cream. Making a . which is usually served beginning at lunchtime. and the English have a real love for dessert wines: especially ports and liqueurs. the main meal of he day is supper. Drinks are beer or sodas. On Sunday. Dinner parties usually end at around 11:30 P. followed by fish or met and vegetables. but includes real dinner dishes. and the like. and is taken around 5 P. and can also include cheese and crackers.M. to midnight. non-dessert puddings) and trifles. Dessert includes sweet puddings (as opposed to savory. plus nuts and such. and usually consists of sandwiches. or a whiskey). It usually begins with an alcoholic drink (sherry. The appetizer is usually soup or prawns. Tea is a special tradition in England.

some dry sherry. The alcohol content of most English beers can be higher than American beers. it is merely served at room temperature. one pours the scalding water into the teapot. bitter. Less formal meals. especially at lunch. instead of mixed drinks popular in the United States. ( 2. Additional hot water may be added to the teapot as needed until the tea has given all it can. Common English beers come usually in the following varieties. a gin and tonic are very common in Britain. If you want a chilled beer. are washed down with English beer. or to your health. stout. of which there are dozens of fine examples. The most common toast is cheers. a short whisky. from the strongest on down: ales. ask for a lager.proper pot of tea is an important skill. Beer usually comes in pints (almost two full glasses) or halfpints. After "putting the kettle on". and lager. Typical Drinks and Toasting ( Before dinner. and lets the tea steep for about five minutes. so measure yourself accordingly. Sometimes there is a toast at the end of a . English beer is not warm. Be sure that the teapot is very near the teakettle when you are ready to pour in the hot water: walking too far form the stove with a hot kettle is not good for the tea. and port oar a sweet sherry at the end of the meal is perfect. Red and white wines during the meal are preferred.

The knife above the plate is use for butter. and the fork remains in the left. Tea is usually served separately at tea and for breakfast. so that food is scooped up onto the backside of the fork. and the cutlery is often substantial. the fork is often held tines down. the knife and fork are laid parallel to each other across the right side of the plate. with all other toasts. the knife remains in the right hand. otherwise. otherwise. If you put both utensils down on the plate for any real amount of time. when not holding . and your plate may be taken away from you. Table Manners and the Use of Utensils The English do not switch knives and forks. 3. coffee is the usual drink. Hands are expected. When the meal is finished. after lunch and dinner. or the royal family. When both are used.very formal meal to the queen. do this after much practice. In addition. There are often many additional pieces of cutlery. if you're unsure of which utensil to use. or with foods that can stick to the back of the fork. There is a tradition in may Commonwealth countries to order rounds (or "shouts") of drinks for friends: it is a taking of turns in the buying of drinks for all in the group. the king. course by course. it is a sign to the waitstaff that you are finished. always start from the outside and work your way in. one typically does not toast anyo9neolder or more senior than oneself.

Being a Good Guest or Host 1. When to Arrive/Chores to Do If invited to a private home. Men typically rise when women enter the room. with individuals of greatest importance seated first to the left and then the right of the head of the table. As on the Continent.utensils. the other at the opposite end. Sometimes other circumstances determine the payer (such as rank). Seating Plans The most honored position is at the head of the table. offer to help with the chores if there is no waitstaff present. 4. to be in one's lap at the dinner table. ( 2. and couples are often broken up and seated next to people they may not have previously known. and continue to hold doors for women and allow them to enter a room first. men and women are seated next to each other. Making payment arrangements ahead of time so that no exchange occurs at eh table is a very classy way to host. At the table. if there is a hosting couple. one will be at one end of the table. Paying the Bill Usually the one who issues the invitation pays the bill. pass all dishes to your left. however. although the guest is expected to make an effort to pay. This is done in the interest of conversation. .

your offer will probably be rejected. . and you should not expect to visit the kitchen. do no move form room to room unless and until the host offers to show you around. If you are at a dinner party in a private home. and you are more likely to be invited to a dinner party at home in England than you would be in any other European country. Spouses are often included in business dinners.

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