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COMMUNICATION    Process of transferring information from one source to another Two-way process Social cement (w/o it, social groups


KEY ELEMENTS 1. 2. 3. 4. SENDER-communicator’s attitude (positive); communicator’s selection of meaningful symbols MESSAGE RECIEVER FEEDBACK- reaction (verbal or nonverbal; external or internal)

IMPORTANCE 1. 2. 3. 4. PHYSICAL NEEDS- satisfaction of personal relationships IDENTITY NEEDS- development of the unique “I” SOCIAL NEEDS- satisfies our social need “to belong” (fills in t he social vacuum within..) PRACTICAL NEEDS- needed in all facets of life (change, energy, challenge)

TYPES OF COMMUNICATION 1. VERBAL- reciprocal conversation; of or concerned with words (oral and written). 2. NONVERBAL- wordless message 3. PROXEMICS- the study of how people use and perceive the physical space around them. -categories: intimate, social, personal, public 4. CHRONEMICS- the study of the use of time in non-verbal communication TIME PERCEPTIONS- punctuality, willingness to wait, speed of speech, how long people are willing to listen A. MONOCHROMATIC TIME SCHEDULE - time is very important; can be controlled or wasted -characterized by a linear pattern -emphasis is on the use of time schedules and appointments B. POLYCHRONIC TIME SCHEDULE - personal movement more important - emphasis lies on personal relationships rather than keeping appointments on Time

MOVEMENT AND BODY POSITION KINESICS- study of body movements, facial expressions, gestures A. POSTURE- can be used to determine a participant’s degree of attention and involvement, different in status, level of fondness; direction of lean, body orientation, arm position, body openness B. GESTURE- non-vocal bodily movement intended to express meaning; articulated with the hands, arms or body, head movement, face and eyes (winking), nodding, rolling one’s eyes. 5 TYPES: 1. EMBLEMS- gesture w/ direct verbal translations (eg. Goodbye wave) 2. ILLUSTRATORS- gestures that depict what is said verbally (eg. Turning an imaginary steering wheel while talking about driving) 3. AFFECT DISPLAY- gestures that convey emotions (eg. Smile) 4. REGULATORS- gestures that control interactions 5. ADAPTOR- gestures that facilitate the release of bodily tension (eg. Quickly moving one’s leg)

HAPTICS- the study of touching as non-verbal communication Eg. Handshakes, holding hands, kissing, backslapping, high fives, pat on the shoulder, brushing an arm..; self touching (eg. Licking, picking, holding, scratching)

pupil dilation. rate . 5. gestures)  Nonverbal behavior.accentuated by shaking a fist ORAL COMMUNICATION  Sound representation of a language (speaking/listening) in delivering a message (eg.) Voice Segregates. 3. attention and involvement Gaze.non-verbal behavior regulates conversations (eg.distinctive characteristics of voice that makes it pleasant to hear -timbre/”tone color” . talk next/ to interrupt) 6. Conflicting. of speech (tone. Touch.the study of the role of the yes in non-verbal communication Eye contact. Substituting. Express emotions Express interpersonal attitudes Used to accompany speech in managing the cues of interaction between speakers and listeners Self. great attention is placed on bodily movement and positioning to clarify situation. Accenting/ Moderating. PARALANGUAGE (vocalics).actions of looking while talking. frustration. ambivalence. pitch.determined by the combination of resonances (richness and volume) of sound    Change in voice quality: Emotions Good voice. pleasant. relationship between communicators.the study of non-verbal cues of the voice PROSODY.non-verbal signals affirm the verbal exchange 4. 4. Yelling “hey stop that” vs whispering “hey stop that”. EYE GAZE “OCULESICS”.non-verbal signals are used w/o verbal communication to convey messages 5. Repeating – consists of using gestures to strengthen a verbal message 2. manner of touch.notify that the speaker is listening (eg.indicates interest.can be used to moderate or tone down aspects of verbal messages Eg. force/intensity. Complementing. “Uh-huh”) FUNCTIONS OF NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION  Used to establish and maintain interpersonal relationships  Avoids embarrassing situations  Conceals deception 5 PRIMARY FUNSTIONS (Argyle.Nonverbal signals are used to alter the interpretation of verbal messages (eg. looking while listening.presentation of one’s personality Rituals (greetings) INTERACTION OF VERBAL and NONVERBAL COMMUNICATIONS 6 WAYS: 1. accent) -may change the meaning of words Voice Qualifiers. 1998) 1. Regulating. pitch. amount of gaze.production of sound SPEECH. blink rate. frequency of glances. 3. pitch.clear.Meaning conveyed: dependent upon the context of the situation. and understandable Elements of voice w/c reflect mood: quality. 2. Anger.may occur because of uncertainty. Touching someone’s arm .combination of sounds so that they become symbols that represent meanings to both speaker and listener VOICE QUALITY. patterns of fixation.

creates mood of reverence. CHESTY VOICE. FULL VOICE. BREATHY VOICE. NORMAL VOICE. deep quality of voice. the result of proper distribution between the oral and nasal resonance 2. “aspirate” quality of voice in w/c sound of rushing air present in the real whisper is sustained by partial vibration of vocal chords.VOICE QUALITIES 1. weakening. solemnity.with little or no emotion. old age. extreme excitement . stirring appeal for justice. 5. THIN VOICE. “falsetto”. “pectoral quality”.deep hollow voice as if coming from a deep and empty cave. occurs in extreme fatigue.whispered type of tone. 3.“orotund” quality. effective in speaking the part of a spirit or ghost.high-pitched. 4. ill -health. melancholy.