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Traffic congestion is a severe problem in many modern cities around the world Traffic congestion has been causing many critical problems and challenges in the major and most populated cities. To travel to different places within the city is becoming more difficult for the travelers in traffic. Due to this congestion problems, people lose time, miss opportunities, and get frustrated. There are chances that people lose their lives in the ambulance itself, as it is stuck in a traffic jam. The fire brigade may not reach in time, thus leading in damage to life and property. The traffic congestion directly impacts the companies. Due to traffic congestions there is a loss in productivity from workers, trade opportunities are lost, delivery gets delayed, and there by the costs goes on increasing. To solve these congestion problems, we have to build new facilities and infrastructure but at the same time make it smart. The only disadvantage of making new roads on facilities is that it makes the surroundings more congested. So for that reason we need to change the system rather than making new infrastructure twice. Thus there is a need for an intelligent traffic light system.

Many traffic light systems operate on a timing mechanism that changes the lights after a given interval. An intelligent traffic light system senses the presence or absence of vehicles and reacts accordingly. The idea behind intelligent traffic systems is that drivers will not spend unnecessary time waiting for the traffic lights to change.

variable message signs. or 3G. Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM). and to more advanced applications that integrate live data and feedback from a number of other sources.11 protocols. Short-range communications (less than 500 yards) can be accomplished using IEEE 802. and the like. bridge deicing systems. unlike the short-range protocols. traffic signal control systems. such as security CCTV . from basic management systems such as car navigation.Intelligent transport technologies: Intelligent transport systems vary in technologies applied. Additionally. these methods require extensive and very expensive infrastructure deployment. specifically WAVE or the Dedicated Short Range Communications standard being promoted by the Intelligent Transportation Society of America and the United States Department of Transportation. Long-range communications using these methods are well established. but. weather information. Some of the constituent technologies typically implemented in ITS are described in the following sections: Wireless communications: Various forms of wireless communications technologies have been proposed for intelligent transportation systems. automatic number plate recognition or speed cameras to monitor applications. predictive techniques are being developed in order to allow advanced modeling and comparison with historical baseline data. There is lack of consensus as to what business model should support this infrastructure. Longer range communications have been proposed using infrastructure networks such as WiMAX (IEEE 802. the range of these protocols can be extended using Mobile ad-hoc networks or Mesh networking. SeminarsTopics. Radio modem communication on UHF and VHF frequencies are widely used for short and long range communication within ITS. Theoretically. container management systems. such as parking guidance and information systems.16).

Faster to set up (no work zones) and less maintenance 4. Works in all weather conditions. artificial intelligence. more capable computer processors on a vehicle. more costly microprocessor modules with hardware memory management and Real-Time Operating Systems. there are more cars. the distance between antennas is shorter and. e. No infrastructure needs to be built along the road. posts. These mobile phones routinely transmit their location information to the network – even when no voice connection is established. using triangulation. more probes. Infrastructure sensors are indestructible (such as in-road reflectors) devices that are installed or embedded on the road. The new embedded system platforms allow for more sophisticated software applications to be implemented. Floating car data technology provides great advantages over existing methods of traffic measurement: 1. Much less expensive than sensors or cameras 2. The current trend is toward fewer. pattern matching or cell-sector statistics – in an anonymous format – the data is converted into accurate traffic flow information. By measuring and analyzing network data. thus. and signs for example) as required and may be manually disseminated during preventive road construction maintenance or by sensor injection machinery for rapid . including heavy rain Travel time data on freeways and arterial roadways is also being collected using sensors based on Bluetooth technology..Computational technologies: Recent advances in vehicle electronics have led to a move toward fewer. or surrounding the road (buildings. Travel times and speed are calculated by comparing the time at which a specific device signal is recorded by pairs of sensors. Floating car data/floating cellular data: Virtually every car contains one or more mobile phones. and inexpensive intelligent beacon sensing technologies have enhanced the technical capabilities that will facilitate motorist safety benefits for intelligent transportation systems globally. more phones. RFID signals from ETC transponders are used. As the car moves. Intelligent vehicle technologies. In metropolitan areas. A typical vehicle in the early 2000s would have between 20 and 100 individual networked microcontroller/Programmable logic controller modules with non-real-time operating systems. This allows them to be used as anonymous traffic probes.g. Sensing systems for ITS are vehicle and infrastructure based networked systems. so does the signal of the mobile phone. In some metropolitan areas. Sensing technologies: Technological advances in telecommunications and information technology coupled with state-of-the-art microchip. With more congestion. including model-based process control. More coverage: all locations and streets 3. and ubiquitous computing. RFID (Radio Frequency Identification). and thus. only the mobile phone network is leveraged. accuracy increases.

Vehicle-sensing systems include deployment of infrastructure-to-vehicle and vehicle-toinfrastructure electronic beacons for identification communications and may also employ the benefits of CCTV automatic number plate recognition technology at desired intervals in order to increase sustained monitoring of suspect vehicles operating in critical zones. and weight of vehicles and the distance between them. while more sophisticated sensors estimate the speed. Video vehicle detection: Traffic flow measurement and automatic incident detection using video cameras are another form of vehicle detection. and they work with very slow or stopped vehicles as well as vehicles moving at high-speed. SeminarsTopics. Video from black-and-white or color cameras is fed into processors that analyze the changing characteristics of the video image as vehicles pass. Since video detection systems such as those used in automatic number plate recognition do not involve installing any components directly into the road surface or roadbed. Loops can be placed in a single lane or across multiple lanes. this type of system is known as a "non-intrusive" method of traffic detection. length.deployment of the embedded radio frequency powered (or RFID) in-ground road . Inductive loop detection: Inductive loops can be placed in a roadbed to detect vehicles as they pass over the loop by measuring the vehicle's magnetic field. The simplest detectors simply count the number of vehicles during a unit of time (typically 60 seconds in the United States) that pass over the loop.

The more number of drivers who know about the operation of traffic signals. depending on the brand and . and lane occupancy readings. A single video detection processor can detect traffic simultaneously from one to eight cameras. In addition. TRAFFIC SIGNALS: A traffic signal is an electronic device that assigns right-of-way at an intersection street crossing by means of displaying the standard red. and wrong-way vehicle alarms. headway. the less frustrated they are going to be while waiting for the Lights to change. SeminarsTopics. NEED TO UNDERSTAND THE FUNCTION OF TRAFFIC: We need to understand the function of traffic signals so that we can improve driving habits by controlling the speed in order to reduce the number of associated traffic accidents. stopped-vehicle detection. Most video detection systems require some initial configuration to "teach" the processor the baseline background image. it also works in conjunction with pedestrian displays to assign pedestrian crossing right-of-way. counts. The typical output from a video detection system is lane-by-lane vehicle speeds. and green-colored indications. yellow. This usually involves inputting known measurements such as the distance between lane lines or the height of the camera above the roadway.The cameras are typically mounted on poles or structures above or adjacent to the roadway. Some systems provide additional outputs including gap.

B) Pedestrian crossing lights containing both the “WALK” and “DON’T WALK” light indications. either D) Sensors OR inductive loops. In general. And Vehicle Detection Systems. processor/controller.TRAFFIC LIGHT SIGNAL COMPNENTS: Most traffic signals will have the following components or parts: A) Main display with red. . it is comprised of detector. and green lights. C) Traffic signal cabinet containing the traffic signal controller. Or E) Video detection system TRAFFIC DETECTION SYSTEM STRUCTURE: Different types of traffic detectors have different components. and storage media: DETECTOR → PROCESSOR/CONTROLLER → STORAGE SeminarsTopics.

a traffic light. How it Works: The preformed or saw-cut loop is buried in the traffic . and turn it perpendicular to the loop and it becomes impossible to detect. Detection is based on metal surface area. The two ends of the loop wire are connected to the loop extension cable. SeminarsTopics. Another way to illustrate the point is to take the same one square foot piece of sheet metal. such as a vehicle. There is a misconception that inductive loop vehicle detection is based on metal mass. attention to detail when installing or troubleshooting an inductive loop vehicle detection system is absolutely critical. When a large metal object. The relay can trigger any number of devices such as an audio intercom system. a gate. The detector powers the loop causing a magnetic field in the loop area. moves over the loop. forces a normally open relay to close. the resonate frequency increases. The loop resonates at a constant frequency that the detector monitors. This is simply not true. When installing or repairing an inductive loop system the smallest detail can mean the difference between reliable detection and an intermittent detection of vehicles. The relay will remain closed until the vehicle leaves the loop and the frequency returns to the base level. For example. A base frequency is established when there is no vehicle over the loop. which is easily detected when held in the same plane as the loop. which in turn connects to the vehicle detector. depending on the design of the detector. loop extension cable and a detector. Therefore. otherwise known as skin effect. Keep this principle in mind when dealing with inductive loop detectors. a one square foot piece of sheet metal positioned in the same plane of the loop has the same affect as a hunk of metal one foot square and one foot thick. the greater the increase in frequency. etc. The greater the surface area of metal in the same planes as the loop.The Vehicle Detection using inductive loops: An inductive loop vehicle detector system consists of three components: a loop (preformed or saw-cut). The loop is a continuous run of wire that enters and exits from the same point. This increase in frequency is sensed and.

particularly in the drive-thru environments. car timing. In other words. need to be triggered by vehicle detection. such as audio communication. the relay output is closed the entire time that a vehicle is present over the loop. electronic menu boards. It is the number of outputs provided that may be important and how they can be configured. etc. gates. The following features need special consideration Vehicle detector features differ between manufacturers. loop vehicle detectors from all manufacturers work under the same principle and will all work reliably if the installation is done properly and the correct materials are used. however check with the vehicle detector manufacturer for confirmation. and most are straight forward. The extension cable connections to the loop wire and the vehicle detector wires must be soldered. The following features need special consideration Number of Outputs: Most detectors provide a switch closure via a relay. Use only 14. Most devices require this style of output signal. Determine the number of devices that will be used now and in the future with the vehicle detector and match or exceed that number with the number of available relay outputs. 16. however some devices require a pulse style. The characteristics of the extension cable are just as important as the characteristics of the loop wire. shielded cable with a polyethylene insulation . which is typically configured as normally open. and does not open again until the vehicle drives away. Vehicle detector features differ between manufacturers.Loop Extension Cable Loop extension cable is used to extend the distance from the preformed or saw-cut loop to the vehicle detector. message greeting. The distance between the loop and the detector can safely be extended to 300 feet with proper extension cable. Signal Type: All detectors provide a constant presence style of signal output. Loop Vehicle Detector: The proper installation and material is critical! In general. or 18 awg stranded 2 conductor twisted. which is usually located indoors or in a weatherproof enclosure. Do not use any other method for connection. and most are straight forward. which will only momentarily SeminarsTopics. More and more devices.

Check the requirements of the devices that you are connecting to the detector. Diagnostics: Some detectors provide PC diagnostics via a communication port on the detector. make sure that the detector can provide the required signal types at the same time. Location! The position of the loop relative to the vehicles you are trying to detect is extremely important. The proper installation and location of the loop are the most important aspects of reliable vehicle detection. Because of this . the loop should be positioned 1 ½ to 2 feet ahead of the speaker post. is that the metal surface area of the taller vehicles is farther away from the loop which makes the vehicle more difficult to detect. the vehicle detector is designed to pick up the front axle. First.close the relay at the time when the vehicle is detected. Detectors with this feature are usually in the same price range as other detectors and can help you save time solving a detection problem. The PC software and cable is usually additional. Vehicles entering a fast food restaurant drive-thru lane will stop at the menu board with the driver’s window positioned in line with the speaker post. The missed detections can be attributed to two factors. and less obvious. Therefore. with the long axis of the loop running perpendicular to the traffic lane. Diagnostics software can also help determine the depth and position of the loop in the pavement. however keep in mind that if you have multiple installations you need only buy the software and cable setup once. Second. is that larger vehicles have a SeminarsTopics. If you are connecting more than one device to the detector. This positions the axle of the vehicle directly over the loop in the same direction as the loop. Diagnostic software gives you a visual picture of what is happening at the loop. The front axle is the only metal surface whose relative position to the driver is consistent from vehicle to vehicle. not the vehicle’s engine. and most obvious. Location. Location of Loop: Location. there has been an increase in the number of missed and false detections due to the popularity of SUVs. Some detectors can only provide one or the other style of signal output at a time. In recent years. and will help you troubleshoot any problems you may experience during installation or in the future.

Reject and replace any nicked wire. It is best to use the recommended 14 or 16-awg machine tool wire for loop installation. oils and gasoline. Saw-Cut Loop Installation When installing a saw-cut loop inspect the cable for any nicks in the protective jacket. It is important that when the installation is complete the loop be no more than 2” below the surface of the asphalt or concrete. never use a short cut such as wire nuts. Purchase the wire from the same source you bought the saw-cut loop sealant to be sure to get the correct wire. the vehicle becomes positioned further away from the curb and not properly positioned over the loop. When making the loop pattern with a concrete saw. The driver finds it difficult in some drive-thru lanes to round the corner prior to the loop and as a result. The loop wire is 14 or 16 awg stranded machine tool wire with an insulation of XLPE (cross-linked polyethylene) encased in PVC pipe to hold the loop’s shape and to protect the loop wire from damage while the pavement is installed. SeminarsTopics. laying the loop wire in the slot. Performed loop with extension cable saw cut loop wire and loop sealant Loop Installation: Follow closely the manufacturers installation instructions for the saw-cut or preformed loop that you purchased. Never splice the loop wire except to splice the loop extension cable to the loop lead in wires and to splice the vehicle detector lead wires to the extension cable.greater turning radius. However. Always solder the connections. there are a couple of important points to make with regard to saw-cut loop and preformed loop installation. heat. abrasions. The installation involves cutting the loop shape in the pavement with a concrete saw. It is also important that the lead-in wires from the detector to the beginning of the loop be twisted a minimum of five times per foot. This reduces stress and the possibility of nicking the wire outer jacket. Compound the poor position of the vehicle with the height of the vehicle and you have a difficult vehicle to detect. A saw-cut loop is used when the pavement is already in place. cut the corners of the rectangle at a 45-degree angle. The deeper the loop the less sensitive the loop detection system . The insulation has a high resistance to water. pressing in a polyfoam backer rod to keep the wire compacted and finishing with saw-cut loop sealant or street bondo to fill the slot and protect the wire. Preformed and Saw-Cut Loops A preformed loop is typically 3 to 5 turns of loop wire encased in PVC pipe for use in new construction before the pavement is installed.

and the opposite is true of the detector. so take the time now to avoid a problem later. If you take an 18” x 60” loop and increase the short side to 24”. but rebar will decrease the sensitivity. inductive loops and detectors are sensitive to temperature. For example. the frequency will decrease. If backer rod is not used the loop wire will float in the saw-cut slot while the street sealer is curing. Rebar will reduce the sensitivity of the detector. Most drive-thru loops are 18 to 24 inches wide. Most manufacturers have managed to push the height of detection to the full length of the short side. The detector’s purpose is to detect rapid changes in frequency. The most effective way to increase sensitivity is to lengthen the short side of the loop. it may be set too sensitive. and bumper to bumper. however mounting the detector in the wrong place can cause such a problem. If the detector is missing vehicles then the sensitivity is set too low. However. If the temperature of either the loop or the detector increases or decreases too fast. if you have a loop that is 18” x 60”. When the temperature of the inductive loop increases. making the loop too wide can cause a different problem. If the detector is jumpy or is creating false detections. For example. mounting the detector directly in line with a window where it can get a cold blast of air whenever the window is open. Three to five turns is ideal for maintaining the proper stability and sensitivity combination. the loop wire will move whenever the pavement vibrates and false detections will occur. Most detectors are designed to tune out rebar. Increasing the number of turns increases stability. a system that is too sensitive may not be able to identify the gap between vehicles causing a missed detection. When the temperature of the detector increases the frequency will increase. However. the maximum height of detection is 12” from the loop. you have increased the height of detection by 4”.Always use backer rod pressed into the saw-cuts to secure the loop wire before using the street sealer. Another misconception about loop sensitivity is that increasing the number of turns in the loop will increase sensitivity. Troubleshooting . The frequency of the loop will change as the environment changes. false detections will occur. can result in problems. Sensitivity Most vehicle detectors have adjustable settings for sensitivity. Start by cutting back any and all concrete reinforcement such as rebars at least 2’ from the outer parameter of the loop. resulting in air pockets. however keep in mind this is not as reliable. In the drive-thru scenario where vehicles move slowly. as a result most detectors are designed to constantly adjust to this slow change in frequency over time. Increasing or decreasing the number of turns does not affect sensitivity. If air pockets exist. Preformed Loop Installation Preparation of the loop area prior to placing the loop is important. all inductive loop detectors are dealing with the same physical characteristics of a magnetic field in a loop. The maximum height of detection is roughly 2/3 the length of the short side of the loop. However. buried in the pavement is not likely to change temperature rapidly. The loop.

SeminarsTopics. ♦ Loops should be no less than three turns and no greater than five. In addition to using diagnostics software to capture or see a problem as it occurs it can often be used to help locate the loop in the pavement in order to determine if it’s been properly positioned and buried at the right depth. If a communications port is not available. beg. ♦ Loop wire should be 14 or 16 awg machine tool wire with XLPE insulation. After disconnecting the loop from the detector. If the resistance is between 50 and 100 megaohms then it is possible that the loop wire is nicked or the extension cable has been damaged. such as a short or an open. If the resistance is less than 50 megaohms. ♦ Replace any loop wire that has nicks or splices in the insulation. Electrical storms can cause havoc with equipment. ♦ Extension cable should be 14. a copy of the software and cabling needed to utilize this feature. This is especially useful if you have an intermittent problem. ♦ The maximum height of detection is roughly 2/3 the length of the short side of the loop. the loop is shorted to ground. ♦ The number of turns does not affect sensitivity. but if you break it down to basics it can be solved more efficiently.Most detectors provide LEDs that will indicate a problem with the loop. Bad connections are a very common problem with inductive loops. 16. There is no question that a problematic installation can be extremely frustrating. place one lead of the meter to one of the lead wires of theloop and the other to earth ground. Some diagnostics software will even capture the data to disk. ♦ The number of turns increases stability of the signal over long runs between the loop and detector. If problems persist. borrow or steal. ♦ The wires that lead into the loop must be twisted a minimum of five turns per foot. Summary Inductive loop detection is relatively simple as a system. check the connections to the extension cable and to the loop lead-in wires. but it is important to arm yourself with the knowledge of how it works and how the pieces interrelate. especially vehicle detectors because the loop is outside. If the installed detector has a communications port for diagnostics. The resistance should be greater than 100 megaohms. or 18 awg twisted/shielded 2-conductor cable with polyethylene jacket. Lightning can cause such a problem. ♦ The loop should be buried no more than 2” below the asphalt or concrete surface. It is possible for a problem to occur that will cause the error indicating LED to stay on and yet the installation is ok. In either case the loop or the extension cable must be replaced. Notes: ♦ Use a preformed loop before pavement is installed. but simply needs a reset. is less expensive than the test equipment needed to do the same job and will provide more information. Diagnostics software is an amazingly powerful tool for diagnostics. ♦ Use a saw-cut loop when pavement has already been installed. the next best thing is a megaohm meter. You can leave the computer running for days in order to capture the .

♦ Connections to the detector. the loop and the extension cable should ♦ The frequency decreases as the temperature of the loop increases ♦ The frequency increases as the temperature of the detector increases be soldered. .