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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION, VOL. 60, NO.

11, NOVEMBER 2012

5419

Communications
Equivalent Circuit With Frequency-Independent Lumped Elements for Coated Wire Antennas
Yi Liao, Todd H. Hubing, and Donglin Su

Abstract—A 7-element lumped-parameter equivalent circuit is derived for wire antennas coated with a thin dielectric and/or magnetic material. The derivation is based on a method for transforming any coating to an equivalent magnetic coating on a wire with a different radius. The derived circuit is composed of a five-element sub-circuit for bare wire antennas plus a two-element parallel circuit for modeling magnetic coatings. Compared to full-wave simulations and measurements, this equivalent circuit provides reasonably accurate results over a broad frequency range that includes the first resonance. It can be used to estimate the input impedance of a coated antenna without requiring an EM solver. It can also be used to model coated antennas in circuit simulations. Index Terms—Dielectric coating, equivalent circuit, magnetic coating, wire antennas.

Fig. 1. The cross-sections of the coated wire antennas: (a) dielectric or mixed coated antenna, (b) equivalent magnetic coated antenna.

a five-element circuit for bare wire antennas and a two-element circuit related to magnetic coating. The values of all the elements are related only to the physical dimensions of the antenna and the properties of the materials, hence, independent of the frequency of operation. II. THEORETICAL BASIS

I. INTRODUCTION The wire antenna has many applications in radio frequency communication and is often coated for protection against corrosion. Antenna properties, such as input impedance, radiation efficiency and resonant length can be influenced by dielectric or magnetic coatings. The finite dielectric coated antenna was first discussed by Wu [1], and considerable theoretical and experimental investigations of coated antennas have been performed in the past several decades. Lamensdorf [2] carried out an important experimental investigation on a monopole antenna embedded in a cylinder of low-loss dielectric. Several theoretical analysis methods such as the moment method, the modal expansion method, and the Wiener-Hopf technique have been employed to analyze these antennas in the literature [3]–[7]. The coated antennas can also be analyzed using full-wave numerical modeling tools. However, the methods mentioned above are complicated and time-consuming. When only the feed point impedance is needed, and especially for designers who have a circuit simulator at hand, a lumped-parameter equivalent circuit is convenient and welcome. Several researchers have developed equivalent circuits for wire antennas in free space or in infinite media [8]–[13]. The purpose of this communication is to derive a lumped-element equivalent circuit to represent the input impedance of a wire antenna with a thin dielectric and/or magnetic coating. Based on a quasistatic approximation, any wire antenna with a dielectric or mixed coating can be modeled by an equivalent wire antenna with a magnetic coating that can be treated as an appropriate impedance per unit length along the wire antenna [14]. This enables the equivalent circuit to be divided into two parts,
Manuscript received March 31, 2012; revised May 13, 2012; accepted June 25, 2012. Date of publication July 10, 2012; date of current version October 26, 2012. This work was supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 60831001). Y. Liao and D. Su are with the School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, China (e-mail: lycle21@ee.buaa. edu.cn; sdl@buaa.edu.cn). T. H. Hubing is with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 USA (e-mail: hubing@clemson.edu). Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TAP.2012.2207697

A. Concept of Equivalent Coated Wire Antennas A thin coated wire antenna consists of a metal wire and a cylindrical coating composed of a dielectric and/or magnetic material. The cross section is shown in Fig. 1(a). The metal wire is highly conductive with radius, , and the outer radius of the cylindrical coating is . and are the relative permittivity and relative permeability, respectively. The materials considered in this communication are homogenous, isotropic, and low-loss. Hallen’s integral equation can be used for analysis of cylindrical antennas with thin coaxial coatings, but the terms required to account for dielectric coatings are complicated. The form of Hallen’s equation for antennas with purely magnetic coatings is much simpler [15]. Hence it is desirable to transform wire antennas with any type of coating (dielectric or mixed) to an equivalent wire antenna with a purely magnetic coating. This has been demonstrated by Popovic [14], using a quasistatic approximation. Fig. 1(b) is the equivalent antenna to that of Fig. 1(a). The outer radius of the coating is unchanged. The inner radius is changed to (1) becomes and becomes (2) Fig. 2 shows the center-driven coated wire antenna geometry and coordinate system. If the wire antennas are thin, and have a magnetic coating only, the rewritten electric-field integro-differential equation for the unknown current on the inner perfectly conducting wire is [16],

(3) is the permeability in free space, where is the angular frequency, is the free space wave number, and is the wave velocity in free

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like that of a thin wire dipole in air. is a distributed parameter. order of magnitude as In the quasistatic case. EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS The derivation of an equivalent circuit for thin coated wire antennas is divided into two parts. space. and . is conin order to obtain more accurate results. The wave number for the thin coating.5420 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION. a special case is discussed in [17] and the magnetically coated wire antenna can be replaced by the same bare antenna plus one lumped inductor with reasonably accurate results. alence can be made assuming [16]. is equivalent to a wire antenna of radius and impedance per distributed along the wire antenna. the wave number when the frequency is below the second resonant frequency [because the current would be misrepresented when in (7)]. Five-element equivalent circuit of antennas in free space. a wire antenna of radius with a coating of relative di. be the first and second resonant anLet gular frequencies at which the reactance of the antenna vanishes. is assumed coated wire [18] for the dielectric (7) is the approximate current distribution along the dielectric coated is unknown. the inductance per unit length along the wire antenna. . . 2. sidered instead of and we get (11) in (11) is a frequency dependent parameter. The second term in (3) is the magnetic material contribution and can be approximated using a quasistatic approximation by [16] (4) . where is the half-length of the ments plus inductors wire antenna. but it can be represented by two frequency independent parameters over a wide frequency range. B. it should satisfy (10) Fig. For the dielectric coating and substituting the transformed quantities in (1) and (2). is the externally impressed electric field. Coated wire antenna and the coordinate system. 3 shows the five-element equivalent circuit for an antenna operated below the second resonant frequency in free space. Accurate results can be obtained as long as the number of segments is sufficiently large. . 3. can be approximated by Therefore. and are unit vectors along the wire at and . this quantity can be approximated by keeping the permittivity. below the first resonant frequency. This will be further discussed in a later section. Five-Element Circuit for Bare Antennas Fig. NO. . respectively. NOVEMBER 2012 Fig. The assumption made is that the shape of the current distribution on the dipole remains in the form of a sinusoid with a free space is larger than wave number. the additional inductance per unit length is (6) Generally. which was presented and discussed in [12] and [13]. This equivunit length . electric constant. 11. for electrically small antennas. A. for the mixed coating. by using (4) magnetic coating. and . relative magnetic constant. However. In this communication. In practice the wire antenna is usually operated at or near its first resonance or. respectively. time-average stored electric energy of the original thin coated antenna unchanged [19] (8) Similarly. if we remove the coating and fill the whole space except for the wire with a homogeneous material with relative . VOL. the can be easily obtained using the quasistatic approximation for thin magnetically coated antennas (9) where is the additional inductance per unit length due to the . . in the feed point of the wire antenna If one lumped inductor is selected for approximating the effects of the distributed inductance . III. one for the bare wire antenna and the other for the magnetic coating. but it is of the same conductor. and are the Green’s functions defined for the inner and outer radii. In a moment method code. the additional inductance per unit length due to the equivalent magnetic coating is (5) Similarly. thus higher-order resonant modes can be ignored. satisfy: . 60. A sinusoidal current. wire sega magnetically coated wire antenna is often modeled by . and thickness. Single Sinusoidal Method In the preceding section. But the actual wave number due to the effects of the coating.

respecis selected to resonate with at . (19) These empirical equations require only the physical dimensions of and radius expressed in meters]. This is similar to the monopole antenna anadius lyzed by Lamensdorf [2]. namely. VOL. (8). and (25)–(26). and radius in (25) and (26) are exquantities of half-length pressed in meters. can be approximated by a constant of 1. 11. and After an extensive examination for the different values of . whose feed point impedance is separated into the sum of two components. any thin dielectric or mixed coated wire antenna can be treated as a magnetically coated wire antenna with a changed radius. the bare wire component and the compo. . According to (1) and (2). Two-Element Circuit for Magnetic Coating In the preceding section. well below the first resonance and given by [20] (12) [21]. The pendent parameter. . Considering (12)–(19). the half-length B. COMPARISON OF THE RESULTS In this section. we get (23) One notices that is related only to and in the range . For the sake of representing the frequency dependent parameter. covered with dius a dielectric material of relative permittivity and outer ra. is chosen to restively. and are estimated at the resonant onate with at which the reactance of the antenna vanishes and the frequency . and (22) to (20) and using . and (9). 4 can be obtained and are indicated in Table I. NOVEMBER 2012 5421 and denote the resistances of the antenna at and . where is an unknown factor. .IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION. 4. Equivalent circuit with seven frequency independent elements. the antenna [i. we must find a parallel circuit consisting of an inductor and a that satisfy capacitor (20) Consider that is a function of (21) . nent due to the additional inductance.5. the equivalent antenna with a purely magnetic coating is defined by the following data: . The inductance . two sample geometries are analyzed to compare the results calculated from the equivalent circuit with the results obtained using a full-wave numerical modeling tool [22] and experimental data. 4. resistance is is the antenna capacitance at a frequency. the seven circuit elements in Fig. .e. and expressed as can be (25) (18) can be obtained from (22) (26) This parallel circuit with and synthesizes the frequency de. . (20) when can then be calculated according to (22) Substituting (11). it only varies slightly according to where (17) and (23) (24) Therefore. (21). The first sample geometry is a center-driven wire antenna with raand half-length . the effective relative permittivity and the per unit length relative permeability are estimated by (6). NO. at also. respectively. well for the range . IV. The complete seven-element equivalent circuit with frequency independent parameters is shown in Fig. . empirical formulas for the elements were obtained as [13] (13) (14) (15) (16) Fig. 60.

Input conductance antenna in Geometry 1. The equivalent circuit emulates the actual input impedance of the antenna from very low frequencies up to the first resonant frequency and beyond. permittivity. Input conductance tenna in Geometry 2. . NO. has the following parameters: . the results calculated from the antenna is relatively short equivalent circuit compare well with the experimental data. Fig. Input conductance and susceptance antenna in Geometry 1 with various loss tangents. Fig. VOL. 5. 6 for Geometry 2. The discrepancies between the actual admittance and tangents. Input conductance and susceptance of the dielectric coated antenna in Geometry 1 but with varying length at 600 MHz.5422 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION. Slight discrepancies near the resonant frequency are observed. 11. The value of each element is determined from the physical dimensions of the antenna and the properties of the materials. NOVEMBER 2012 TABLE I ELEMENT VALUES OF EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT FOR COATED WIRE ANTENNAS Fig. of the dielectric coated For the sake of comparing the results with the experimental data in [2]. adjustment to the parameter Lamensdorf experimented with the configuration in Geometry 1 by varying the length of the monopole at a set frequency of 600 MHz [2]. The equivalent antenna with a purely magnetic coating . Using this model. Since it is an extension of the bare thin-wire antenna model. 8. and susceptance of the dielectric coated Fig. is plotted in Fig. It can be used by designers without requiring EM solvers and can be included in circuit simulators to analyze systems with antennas. . the equivalent circuit is expected to be valid within the limits Fig. it can also be used to model low-loss coatings with an acceptable accuracy. The second sample geometry is a wire antenna of radius and half-length . CONCLUSION An equivalent circuit consisting of seven frequency independent elements has been derived to simulate the feed point impedance of wire antennas coated with dielectric and/or magnetic materials. V. 7. 8 shows the antenna input conductance and susceptance versus frequency for Geometry 1 with coatings that have various loss . and a minor can be made to get a better fit. Reasonable agreement can be observed between results obtained from the full-wave model and those obtained from the equivalent circuits. The antenna input conductance and susceptance versus frequency are plotted in Fig. and with the limits of the quasistatic approximation considered. and susceptance of the mixed coated an- (27) Although the equivalent circuit is derived for a lossless coating. 5 for Geometry 1 and Fig. 6. relative permeability. and outer radius. that of the equivalent circuit are quite small. it takes only seconds to evaluate an antenna’s impedance with various coatings. The seven equivalent circuit element values for this geometry are also listed in Table I. 60. The differences become more pronounced for larger loss tangents. Even when the the input admittance versus . . . covered with a mixed material of relative . . . 7.

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