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HIGHLIGHTS OF PHILIPPINE LITERATURE ESSENTIAL FEATURES OF PRE-COLONIAL LITERATURES • • • • • • • • • Early Filipino literature represents ethnic groups’ heritage

. Early literature is created by ordinary folks to express tradition, belief, and custom of those times. Folk literature has a religious or sacred character. Early literature is classified as oral and written. The ancient folks used native syllabary and wrote on fragile materials. Songs and dances were part of their religious and social rituals. Musical bells and gongs were used for the rituals. Mimetic dances often accompanied the songs and rituals and were used for the rituals. Riddles, proverbs, aphorism, maxims, ballads, folk lyrics, myths, legends and the like were literary types of the period.

MAXIM- epigrammatic verses which are usually written in couplets. ESSENTIAL FEATURES OF SPANISH LITERATURE • • • • • • • • • • • • Literature was used as a tool for religious conquest. Alibata- the first Filipino alphabet was replaced by Roman script. Spanish language became the literary language. The friars produced a variety of manuals, grammar books, and dictionaries in the vernacular intended for friars mission. Spanish missionaries utilized the stage to propagate the Christian religion. Literature was predominantly religious and moral in character and tone. Nationalistic Period saw the growth of reformist and revolutionary literatures. Reform movement used literature as a means to protest issues to expose and to condemn Spanish abuses and provoke the people into action. The rich young Filipinos studied liberal arts in Europe. They introduced the reformist literature. The oppressed lower classes agitated for reforms. There was a shift in the use of language from Spanish to Tagalog. Realism emerged in the Philippine writing through Noli Metangere and El Filibusterismo. Lyric narrative corridor, pasyon, duplo, karagatan, comedia, moro-moro, cenakulo,zarzuela,carillo, biographies, saints, and doctrines were some of the famous literary pieces during the period.

DRAMA 1. RELIGIOUS DRAMAS A. PANUNULUYAN- seeking entrance it dramatizes Joseph’s and Mary’s search for lodging in Bethlehem B. THE CENACULO- originally, dramatization of the passion and death of Jesus Christ presented during Maundy Thursday and Good Friday. over the years, it has expanded to an eight- day performance, the story going as far back to the creation and ending with Mary’s assumption into heaven ( from Palm Sunday- Easter Sunday) C. SALUBONG- an Easter play that dramatizes the meeting of the Risen Christ and His Mother. D. THE MORIONES- (Marinduque) refers to the participants dressed as Roman soldiers, their identities hidden behind colorful. PUGUTAN (beheading) climaxes the festival. E. THE TIBAG- also known as Santacruzan. It depicts St. Elena’s search for the Cross on which Christ died. F. THE PANGALULUWA- “for the soul”. Practice during All Saints ‘ Day. 2. SECULAR DRAMA A. KARAGATAN- “open sea” - comes from an old legendary practice of testing the mettle of young men vying for a maiden’s hand. B. DUPLO- considered as the forerunner of the balagtasan. - compose of young women called dupleras or belyakas, a young men called dupleros or belyakos, and an elderly man- the hari or punong halamanan presides over the proceedings. ESSENTIAL FEATURES OF AMERICAN LITERATURES • • • • • English, Spanish and the vernaculars flourished during the period. Public school was introduced and English became the official medium of instruction. Period of Orientation : American rule introduced significant changes such as the orientation to the democratic way of life and the new literary standards. Period of Apprenticeship: Filipino writers imitated English and American writers. Period of Emergence: a. Writings were influenced by Western literary trends such as romanticism and realism. b. Short story flourished both in quality and quantity. c. “Clash” between Salvador P. Lopez and Jose Garcia Villa over the social function of art and the art for art’s sake, respectively. d. The beginning of journalistic and critical writing. Period of Maturity and Originality:

The literary activity as publication were suspended or restricted. c. ESSENTIAL FEATURES OF CONTEMPORARY/ MODERN PERIOD LITERATURES BEFORE THE DECLARATION OF MARTIAL LAW • • • Literature was used as an expression of defiant emotion to urge for social reforms Philippine writing in the vernacular became popular. There were a strict prohibition of the Japanese regarding any writing in English The local theater became popular for entertainment and it was used by Filipino to expose the political. Through literary criticism. ESSENTIAL FEATURES OF JAPANESE LITERATURES • • • • • • • • • Japanese authorities pushed for the use of Tagalog. b.a. social and economic conditions of the times. Light slapstick comedies were staged to attack the integrity of the Japanese authorities A great period for Tagalog theater. Writers enjoyed political independence The writers have mastered English The influence of surrealism and existentialism were evident in some of the English fiction. Philippine literature in English experienced a dark period because of the strict prohibitions imposed by the Japanese in writing and publishing of work in English. the writers had the opportunity to publish their studies and literary forms. . The Japanese promoted a cultural reorientation away from American influence. Tagalog short story became popular.