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11, NOVEMBER 2012


was 50.3%. Excluding the losses external to the feed and the peak efficiency was found to be 55%, which corresponds to 65% theoretical efficiency, calculated using the feed radiation patterns. For further evaluation, a second feed for operation at 6 GHz was also designed, fabricated and used with the same reflector. The measured patterns and efficiencies were similar and omitted for brevity. As the feed produces elliptical beam shapes, it is suitable as a feed for illuminating a reflector with elliptic aperture shape. Note also that as Fig. 5 shows, the feed is more suitable for a reflector with larger f/D of 0.375. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors would like to thank C. Smit for the fabrication of the antenna and B. Tabachnick for the antenna radiation pattern measurements.

Radiation by a Slotted Conducting Elliptic Cylinder Coated by a Nonconfocal Dielectric
Biglar N. Khatir and Abdel R. Sebak

Abstract—The characteristics of a slot antenna on a perfectly conducting elliptic cylinder coated by a nonconfocal dielectric are investigated experimentally. Tow prototypes of non-coated and dielectric-coated elliptic slot antennas are designed, fabricated, and tested. The simulations and measurements results of non-coated and nonconfocal coated slot antennas are compared and discussed. It is found that the radiation patterns due to coating material become more directive. Index Terms—Elliptic cylinder, experiment, nonconfocal coated, slot antenna.

[1] A. D. Olver, P. J. B. Clarricoats, A. A. Kishk, and L. Shafai, Microwave Horns and Feeds, ser. 39. London, U.K.: Institute of Electrical Engineers, 1994. [2] P. J. B. Clarricoats and A. D. Olver, Corrugated Horns for Microwave Antennas. London, U.K.: Peter Peregrinus, 1994. [3] G. L. James and D. P. S. Malik, “Towards the theoretical design of splash-plate feeds,” Electron. Lett., vol. 11, no. 24, pp. 593–594, 1975. [4] P. Newham, “A high efficiency splash plate feed for small reflector antennas,” in Proc. IEEE Antennas Propag. Int. Symp., 1985, pp. 420–423. [5] P.-S. Kildal and S. A. Skyttemyr, “Dipole-disk antenna with beam-forming ring,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 529–534, 1982. [6] C. C. Cutler, “Parabolic-antenna design for microwaves,” Proc. IRE, vol. 35, no. 11, pp. 1284–1294, 1947. [7] G. T. Poulton and T. S. Bird, “Improved rear-radiating waveguide cup feeds,” in Proc. IEEE Antennas Propag. Int. Symp., Mill Valley, CA, 1986, vol. 1, pp. 79–82. [8] P.-S. Kildal, “The hat feed: A dual-mode rear-radiating waveguide antenna having low cross polarization,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 35, no. 9, pp. 1010–1016, 1987. [9] J. Hansen, A. A. Kishk, P.-S. Kildal, and O. Dahlsjo, “High performance reflector hat antenna with very low side lobes for radio-link applications,” in Proc. Antennas Propag. Soc. Int. Symp., 1995, vol. 2, pp. 893–896. [10] D. M. Pozar and D. Schaubert, Microstrip Antennas: The Analysis and Design of Microstrip Antennas and Arrays. London, U.K.: Institute of Electrical Engineers, 1994. [11] P. S. Hall and C. J. Prior, “Microstrip feeds for prime focus fed reflector antennas,” Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng., vol. 134, no. 2, pp. 185–193, 1987. [12] A. A. Kishk and L. Shafai, “Optimization of microstrip feed geometry for prime focus reflector antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 445–451, 1989. [13] N. Kaneda, W. R. Deal, Y. Qian, R. Waterhouse, and T. Itoh, “A broadband planar quasi-Yagi Antenna,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 50, no. 8, pp. 1158–1160, 2002. [14] G. Zheng, A. A. Kishk, A. W. Glisson, and A. B. Yakovlev, “Simplified feed for modified printed Yagi antenna,” Electron. Lett., vol. 40, no. 8, pp. 464–466, 2004. [15] G. Zheng, A. A. Kishk, A. B. Yakovlev, and A. W. Glisson, “A broad band printed bow-tie antenna with a simplified feed,” in Proc. Antennas Propag. Society Int. Symp., CA, Jun. 2004, vol. IV, pp. 4024–4027. [16] A. A. Eldek, A. Z. Elsherbeni, and C. E. Smith, “Wideband modified printed bow-tie antenna with single and dual polarization for C and X-band applications,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 53, no. 9, pp. 3067–3072, 2005. [17] Ansoft HFSS Version 12 [Online]. Available: [18] C. A. Balanis, Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design, 2nd ed. New York: Wiley, 1997. [19] S. Silver, Microwave Antenna Theory and Design. London, U.K.: Peter Peregrinus Ltd., 1984. [20] P.-S. Kildal, “Factorization of the feed efficiency of paraboloids and Cassegrain antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. AP-33, no. 8, pp. 903–908, 1985.

I. INTRODUCTION Wireless communications technology is one of the most rapidly growing fields. An antenna is a key element that makes wireless communications possible. One of the most popular antennas is the slot antenna which is widely used in many wireless systems such as radar and satellite communications, space vehicles, aircrafts, missiles, and in standard desktop microwave sources for research purposes Depending on the application, slot antennas are mounted on bodies which have different shapes. The slotted elliptic cylinder is an attractive geometry because of some advantages including extra design parameters and for some applications where the elliptic cylinder provides a useful model for the mounting body. Generally, slot antennas mounted on aircrafts, space shuttles, and missiles are coated by materials for different purposes. For example, the slot antenna on the space shuttle is covered by heat-shielding tiles. In some applications, the coated materials can protect slot antennas from the oxidations or damages. Also, the electromagnetic properties of (loaded and coated) materials can be used to further control the radiated power as an extra design parameter. Therefore, extensive investigations are reported about the characteristics of slotted antennas on elliptic [1]–[10] cylinders loaded and/or coated by confocal or nonconfocal [9], [10] materials. The number of design parameters increases when the coating is nonconfocal including uniform and non-uniform coating of the slot antenna. Some related experimental works are also reported in which the cylindrical slot antennas are fabricated and tested [11]–[15]. However, for those antennas the slots are mounted on rectangular or circular cylinders. In this communication, we introduce a slot antenna in which the slot is mounted on an elliptic cylinder with an extra degree of design parameters. In particular, design, fabrication, and testing of the non-coated and dielectric-coated elliptic cylinder slot antennas are presented. The simulations and measurements results of these antennas are compared and discussed. The proposed antennas are very useful in several aerospace and military communication systems and in fixed stations for personal and beacons communication services where, for
Manuscript received March 03, 2012; revised June 02, 2012; accepted July 02, 2012. Date of publication July 11, 2012; date of current version October 26, 2012. The authors are with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Concordia University, Montreal QC, Canada (e-mail:; Color versions of one or more of the figures in this communication are available online at Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TAP.2012.2207938

0018-926X/$31.00 © 2012 IEEE

The open-ended inner conductor of a coaxial line is located inside the cylinder as a monopole. We use these parameters and some simple tools to fabricate this antenna. The feed point and monopole locations are optimized after many simulations to find the minimum reflection power (or S11). dielectric covered slot and extended almost Fig. the main lobe of measurement result is in very good agreement with the main lobe of simulation result. A hole is made in this sheet which is located at the width center and 10 mm to the length end. Therefore. the coaxial line is located at distance 10 mm from the bottom of cylinder and the monopole is placed on minor axis parallel to the cylinder at distance 2 mm of its inner surface. Fig. FABRICATION AND TESTING In analytical solutions for the axial slot antennas. NO.575 mm and dielectric constant. 2 shows photographs of the fabricated non-coated elliptic slot antenna. 1 shows the simulated geometry of a non-coated elliptic slot antenna fed by a coaxial line. VOL. The simulation and measurement results of non-coated elliptic slot antenna. By comparison of the results in Figs. As shown in this figure reasonable agreement is obtained with a slight shift in the resonance frequency and both Fig. However in practice. This shift for simulation result is more than the shift for measurement result. It is observable that the minimum values of the results due to coated elliptic slot antenna occur at lower frequencies. 5) where Rogers’ standard RT/duroid 5880 high frequency laminate is used. Fig. 4 shows the simulation and measurement radiation patterns of the non-coated elliptic slot antenna. DESIGN. The connector is placed at the same hole location. and there are some disagreements for side lobes and back lobe. it is generally assumed that the line source and cylinders have infinite length and they are uniform along the length [7]–[10]. Geometry of a non-coated elliptic cylinder slot antenna. 3. A piece of this laminate is installed on elliptic slot antenna by tape. so that. Fig. Then. simulation techniques are used to have the accurate designs and optimize the antennas performances. to reduce the fabrication costs. 3 and 6. The geometrical parameters for this design are given in Table I. . Again. A 90-degrees connector is used and its inner conductor connected to the monopole and outer one connected to the cylinder. However. 11. Using Ansoft’s HFSS Software [16]. after removing the copper from both sides. The effect of coating material on radiation pattern is measured using partial coating geometry (same as Fig. 6 shows the simulation and measurement results for S11 of the partial coated elliptic slot antenna. At 10 GHz. there are some disagreements for side lobes and back lobe. 4 and 7. NOVEMBER 2012 Fig. Fig. Photographs of fabricated non-coated elliptic slot antenna. it is observable that the radiation patterns due to partial coating become . That is a double-side copper clad laminate with thickness 1. this sheet is carefully bended to make a slotted elliptic cylinder. The main lobe of measurement result is in very good agreement with the main lobe of simulation result. dimensions of geometries are estimated in theory. The coated both sides of slot. 3 shows the simulated and measured results for S11 of the noncoated elliptic slot antenna. its inner conductor passed from the hole. A rectangular copper sheet with thickness 0.25 mm is used to make an elliptic cylinder. 7 shows the corresponding simulation and measurement radiation patterns of the partial coated elliptic slot antenna. Fig. results have almost the same 10 dB bandwidth. we deal with the limited dimensions and the infinite length can be reduced to a few times of . Fig.5434 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION. and the outer conductor is connected to the cylinder. TABLE I DESIGN PARAMETERS FOR A NON-COATED ELLIPTIC SLOT ANTENNA at 10 GHz example. II. After fabrication of slot antenna some measurements are done and compared to the simulation results. We can see the effect of coating material on S11 by comparison of the simulations and measurements results due to non-coated and partial coated elliptic slot antenna as shown in Figs. 60. power handling capability and rugged construction are preferred requirements. 2. Then. 1.

The simulation and measurement results of partial coated elliptic slot antenna. Therefore. [7] B. NO. K. Ragheb. 2004. vol. no. CONCLUSION Prototypes of non-coated and dielectric-coated elliptic slot antennas are designed. 1989. pp.. 11. PIER 93. I. 2003. Sebak. Khatir and A. pp. A. 522–540. 146–149.” IEEE Trans. The main lobes of measured radiation patterns are in very good agreement with the main lobes of simulated radiation patterns. The monopole is installed by a 90-degree connector. no. I. Microw. Since the surface of cylinder is not flat. VOL. 5. Also.. Apr. 1996. vol. By many simulations it is found that the results are very sensitive to the location of monopole. Fig.” Electromagnetics. “Radiation characteristics of axial slot antenna on a lossy dielectric-coated elliptic cylinder. One reason for these disagreements is the shape of elliptic cylinder. Fig. Sebak. Khatir and A. 7.” presented at the URSI GA08. The elliptic cylinder is hand made using copper sheet and some simple tools trying to make an exact shape. Elect. the cylinder is very important. Antennas Propag. 4. and M. The location of monopole inside . Hamid. 485–490. the location and orientation of monopole were not easily controllable. A. “Radiation by axial slot elliptical antenna coated by a lossy dielectric material. 152. Dec. Hamid. no. 7. there are some disagreements for side lobes and back lobes which may be due to the imperfect fabrication of slot antennas. [2] T. As shown in the results. and tested. The simulations results show that the coated dielectric more affects on side lobes. 10. “Scattering of electromagnetic waves by an axially slotted conducting elliptic cylinder.. “Slot antenna on a conducting elliptic cylinder coated by nonconfocal chiral media. 36. 28–31. K. 6. [9] H. 7–16. IEEE EMC’03. 37. The coating dielectric is installed by a tape which may result in a small gap between the cylinder and dielectric. Hamid. [4] M. Hussein and A. Compat. Progr. “Coupling properties of slotted elliptic cylinder coated by dielectric/metamaterials.. 125–143. Richmond. NOVEMBER 2012 5435 Fig.” IEE Proc. vol. vol. Ukraine. N. N. 1996. 2005. R. Antennas Propag. Hinata and H. IL. Res. Hamid. May 16–16. Khatir and A. Phys. REFERENCES [1] M. Hussein and A. Electromagn.IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION. Oct. “Scattering and coupling properties of a slotted elliptic cylinder. it must be exactly parallel to the cylinder. pp. more directed to desire angle. Sebak. “Axial slot antenna on dielectric-coated elliptic cylinder. Aug. vol. vol. Fig..” Can. A. IEEE MMET’96. The third reason which may applicable for dielectric-coated antenna is the installation of coating material. and L. there are some disagreements between the simulations and measurements results. 2009. J. installation of connector was not an easy task. Hussein.. Hosono. Sep.” in Proc. A second reason is the installation of monopole. pp. no. Feb. Chicago. [6] A. N. Sebak. However.” IEEE Trans. 2. “Slot antenna on a conducting elliptic cylinder coated by chiral media. Istanbul. no. Radiation patterns of partial coated elliptic slot antenna. Geometry of an elliptic cylinder slot antenna partial coated by dielectric. 143. 6. 141–149. “Radiation by axial slots on a dielectric-coated nonconfocal conducting elliptic cylinder. 2009. 10–13. pp. it is not made as a perfect elliptic cylinder. fabricated. H. Sebak. pp. [8] B. 1994. 82. K. 2008. while the measurements results show it more affects on back lobe. 1. 60. Antennas Propag. Lviv. However.” in Proc. III. [10] B. Shafai. Radiation patterns of non-coated elliptic slot antenna. “Study of lossy effects on the characteristics of axially slotted circular or elliptical cylindrical antennas coated with metamaterials. Microw. R. [5] M.” in Proc. 29.” IEE Proc. [3] J.

Tetenbaum. II. H. Hirokawa. accepted June 18. Fullerton. and C. date of current version October 26. reliability. THE GRAPH MODELING OF ARRAYS RECONFIGURABLE ANTENNAS OF I. A two element reconfigurable antenna array. [13] J. The array is composed of three layers. Lebanon (e-mail: ytawk@ndu. and J. NOVEMBER 2012 [11] S.. A. Kraus and R. 1974. graph models. EE. The graph modeling of reconfigurable antenna arrays is presented in Section II. Louaize. 2 1993. Bhurban Conf. reconfigurable antenna arrays. Jan.1109/TAP. G. In a switch reconfigurable antenna. Int.” IEEE Trans. They are mathematical tools used to model complex systems in order to organize them and improve their status. Two switches are placed in each element to bridge over the upper and lower part of the slots. Index Terms—Complexity. 2006. A graph can be either directed or undirected. Color versions of one or more of the figures in this communication are available online at http://ieeexplore. 8–11. Tawk. Thus graph models are utilized to formulate a reconfigurable antenna’s complexity [4]. The overall complexity of an antenna system increases with the number of p-i-n diodes [5]–[7]. 1.5436 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION.. Nov. “Analysis and design of a circumferential wide slot cut on a thin cylinder for mobile base station antennas. Tawk is with the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department. The improvement that such rearrangement introduces to the design efficiency and operation is discussed. 2012. The edges in a directed graph have a certain determined direction. IEEE AP-S. In this communication we expand previous formulations done on single element reconfigurable antenna [4] to evaluate the complexity Manuscript received August 04. Antennas for All Applications. “Design. S. pp.” in Proc. Antennas Propag. RF MEMS [8]–[10].2012. G. Costantine is with the California State University Fullerton. Wasim. The practicality and design aspects are discussed in Section IV while Section V presents concluding remarks. Bhatti. The TLX with a dielectric constant upper layer constitutes the different element patches as well as the corporate feeding network. Sumikawa. Version 10. Ando.1. 3rd ed. Eom. [16] Ansoft’s HFSS.2 Ansoft Corporation. Different examples are given to validate the formulations and prove the concept.2207665 Graphs are symbolic representations of relationships between different components of a system.unm. Kayani. J. 2005. Islamabad. 2012. 835–837. 55–57.9 mm. Pakistan. 60. Albuquerque. 11. Ann Arbor. R. This technique is based on rearranging antenna configurations to ensure a higher reliability. Christodoulou Abstract—This communication discusses the complexity and reliability of switch reconfigurable antenna arrays using frequency-dependent graph models. PA. Notre Dame University. fabrication and testing of a millimeter wave slotted waveguide antenna. [15] employed. CA 92831 USA (e-mail: jcostantine@fullerton. [14] J. Vertices may represent physical entities while the edges between them in the graph represent the presence of a function resulting from connecting these entities. D.00 © 2012 IEEE . A graph is defined as a collection of vertices that are connected by lines called edges [1]. on Applied Sciences & Technology. 6. J. As an example. [17]. 2007. pp. Jun. Edges may have weights associated with them. J. no. control and automate. Marhefka. NM 87106 USA (e-mail: christos@ece. Section III discusses the use of graph models to formulate the arrays’ complexity. Y. C. Digital Object Identifier 10. New York: McGraw-Hill. Build 28. I. . Goto. the impact of the complexity on the reliability of switch reconfigurable antenna arrays and the configuration complexity. “Experimental VSWR’s and radiation patterns of an axial rectangular slot on conducting cylinders of varying curvature. Costantine. varactors [11]–[13] or optical switches [14]. 2011. K. The bottom layer constitutes a common ground plane for the different elements. VOL. A process for prioritizing the various antenna configurations to improve the overall array performance is also discussed. NO.” in Proc. J. Jun. 53. [12] Z. Each element is a rectangular patch with 2 rectangular slots dividing it into 2 sections connected constantly.” IEEE Trans. Date of publication July 10. [15] D. pp. The correlation and the inverse proportionality between the arrays’ complexity and reliability are derived and proven. [3] that are easy to optimize. MI. let us consider the antenna array shown in Fig. This is essential to address the continuous functioning of these arrays in unknown conditions and environments. vol. For example represent the end-points 0018-926X/$31. The middle layer constitutes the substrate Taconic and height 2. These weights represent costs or benefits that are to be minimized or maximized [1]. University of New Mexico. an edge represents the connection that occurs once a switch is activated. INTRODUCTION A graph is used as an abstract model to represent physical structures [1].edu). A technique is proposed in Section III-C to improve the performance of reconfigurable antenna arrays. The end-points of each switch are indicated by the ((1)) where i refers to the element number and j refers nodes to the switch position. revised December 09. In addition to these functionalities the modeling of reconfigurable antennas using graphs leads to a redundancy reduction approach that eliminates unnecessary components from the antenna structure. while this is not the case in an undirected graph. “Radiation from narrow circumferential slots on a conducting circular cylinder. and N. Complexity Versus Reliability in Arrays of Reconfigurable Antennas J. 28–Jul. A graph model of an array of reconfigurable antennas is very different than that of a single reconfigurable element. Several graph models represent array configurations at various frequencies. Y. Fig. Christodoulou is with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. Sep. Graph modeling reconfigurable antennas transform them into software accessible devices [2]. Pittsburg. In an antenna array all elements are fed through a feeding network and are placed at certain spacings from each other [16]. Shin and H. and reliability of reconfigurable antenna arrays using graphs. Antennas Propag. 1842–1845.