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ISSN 0971-6610

Journal of Projective Psychology & Mental Health
Volume 18 Number 1 January, 2011
01-03 Editorial:Changing Personal and Professional SIS Perspectives Wilfred A. Cassell Childhood PTSD Roots of Borderline Personality Disorder- Emotionally Unstable Personality Disorder Walter M. Case and Bankey L. Dubey Gender Differences in SIS-I Profile of Normal Population S. Kandhari, J. Sharma, R. Kumar and D. Kumar In Pursuit of the Aboriginal Child’s Perspective via a Culture– free Task and Clinical Interview Robert B. Williams, Laurence A. French, Nancy Picthall-French and Joan B. Flagg-Williams ‘It might be what I am’: Looking at the use of Rorschach in Psychological Assessment Rui C. Campos Poly-trauma Survivors: Assessment using Rating Scales and SIS - II Suprakash Chaudhury, P.S. Murthy, Amitav Banerjee, Dolly Kumari, Sarika Alreja Human Figure Drawings of Normal Indian Adults Nawab Akhtar Khan, Amrita Kanchan, Masroor Jahan, Amool R. Singh SIS-I Profile of Psychosexual Dysfunction Daniel Saldanha, L. Bhattacharya, Kalpana Srivastava and Bankey L. Dubey Evaluating Ego-Strength in Depression on SIS-I Indices J. Mahapatra, D. Sahoo, P.K. Mishra and R. Kumar Oedipus: The Deep Rooted Reality to Homosexuality Jhelum Podder and Sonali De Impact of Meaning in Life and Reasons for Living to Hope and Suicidal Ideation: A Study among College Students Atanu K. Dogra, Saugata Basu and Sanjukta Das Membership Directory

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Official Publication of the Somatic Inkblot Society

Somatic Inkblot Society
OFFICE BEARERS
President : B. L. Dubey (USA) Vice President : Brig. D.Saldanha (India) Gen. Secretary : Masroor Jahan (India) Joint Secretary : P.K.Singh (India) Treasurer : Padma Dwivedi (USA)

SIS JOURNAL OF PROJECTIVE PSYCHOLOGY AND MENTAL HEALTH is a refereed journal and published twice a year (January, July) by the SOMATIC INKBLOT SOCIETY and is devoted to the advancement of research in the areas of projective psychology, personality assessment, psychotherapy and mental health. The journal is broadly concerned with the development of inkblot tests and personality assessment in clinical, counseling, crosscultural, organizational and health psychology settings. It aims to reach clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychiatrists, social workers, medical professionals and professional managers interested in the understanding and modification of human behavior. The journal includes (a) research articles (b) book reviews (c) brief reports (d) news about conferences etc. and letters to the editor. MANUSCRIPTS PREPARATION : Manuscripts should be typewritten (single-spaced throughout) submitted through E-mail or in CD to B.L. Dubey, Ph.D. Editor Emeritus, SIS Journal, E-mail:bldubey@gmail.com with a copy to Amool Ranjan Singh, Ph.D. Editor In Chief, Director, RINPAS & Head, Dept. of Clinical Psychology, RINPAS, Kanke, Ranchi-834006. E-mail:sisamool@ yahoo.com, Cell Phone: 91-9431592734. The Editors reserve the right to refuse manuscript submitted and to make minor additions/deletions. Authors should prepare their manuscripts according to the Journal of Personality Assessment/ SIS Journal of Projective Psychology & Mental Health. SUBSCRIPTION: The journal is free to members of the Society, Annual membership fees are US $50 for foreign members and Rs. 300, for Indian members, Institutional subscriptions are US $100. for Foreign institutions and Rs.1000 for Indian institutions. Life membership is US $400 for foreign members and Rs. 2500/- for Indian members. Indian institutional life membership is Rs. 10,000/-. Non-members may subscribe for $60 or Rs. 250 per issue. Cheques should be made payable to “SIS Journal of Projective Psychology and Mental Health” at Ranchi and should reach Amool R.Singh, Ph.D. Editor In Chief, Director, RINPAS & Head, Dept. of Clinical Psychology, RINPAS, Kanke, Ranchi-834006. Members in foreign countries should send the cheque to B.L. Dubey, Ph.D. Editor Emeritus, 4406 Forest Road, Anchorage, AK99517 (USA) Please add $10/Rs.50/- if you are sending subscription through cheque. CHANGE OF ADDRESS. Society/Journal members should inform B.L. Dubey, Ph.D, Director SIS Centre, Email: bldubey@gmail.com of any change of mailing address. Copyright @1994. SOMATIC INKBLOT CENTRE, India/ Anchorage U.S.A.Website: http://www.somaticinkblots.com Online Testing: http://psyche.dubay.bz/http://122.160.96.85:1001/ SISTest

Executive Members : Wilfred A. Cassell (USA) Nalinini Mishra (India) Mridula Mishra (India) Arcahna Singh (India) K. S. Sengar (India) Manisha Kiran (India) Mary Cassell (USA) Asheem Dubey (USA) George Savage (S.Africa) Silvia Daini (Italy)

Abstracted in “APA’s PsycINFO “ Regd. No. 71632/99, RNI Delhi

SIS JOURNAL OF PROJECTIVE PSYCHOLOGY & MENTAL HEALTH
Volume 18 Number 1 January 2011
EDITORS EMERITUS : Wilfred A. Cassell, MD, Director, SIS Center, 4501E, 104th Avenue, Anchorage, AK.99516 (USA). E-Mail: siscassell2@yahoo.com Bankey L. Dubey, Ph.D., Director SIS Centre, 4406 Forest Road, Anchorage, AK 99517 (USA) Cell : 907-250-8834 E-mail: bldubey@gmail.com EDITOR-IN-CHIEF : Amool Ranjan Singh, Ph.D., Director, RINPAS and Prof. & Head, Dept. of Clinical Psychology, RINPAS, Kanke, Ranchi-834006 (India). Tel. : 91-651-2233687(H), Mob.:91-9431592734, E-mail:sisamool@yahoo.com EDITORS : Suprakash Chaudhury, MD, Ph.D., Prof. & Head, Dept. of Psychiatry, RINPAS, Kanke, Ranchi- 834006 (India). Mob.:91-09334386496, E-mail: suprakashch@gmail.com Anand Dubey.B.E., MBA, SIS Centre, 4406 Forest Road, Anchorage, AK 99517 (USA), E-Mail: anand. dubey@gmail.com Padma Dwivedi, M.A., 4406 Forest Road, Anchorage, AK 99517 (USA), E-mail: sisdubey@yahoo.com Jai Prakash, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Clinical Psychology, Dept. of Clinical Psychology, RINPAS, Kanke, Ranchi-834006, (India). Cell: 91-9934582290, E-mail: drjaiprakashrinpas@rediffmail.com Umed Singh, Ph.D., Dept. of Psychology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Haryana, (India). Tel: 91-1744-238267(H), Cell: 91-9416511077 Email Umedsingh_78@yahoo.com. EDITORIAL CONSULTANTS : Kristian Aleman, Ph.D., Sweden Mahesh Bhargava, Ph.D., India K.R.Banerjee. MRCP India Saugata Basu, Ph.D., India Carina Coulacoglou, Ph.D., Greece N. G. Desai, M. D., India Philip Greenway, Ph.D, Australia S. Haque, M. D., India M. Jahan, Ph.D., India Arvind Keshary, Ph.D., India Anatoly B. Khromov, Ph.D., Russia H. Kumar, Ph.D., USA R. Kumar, Ph.D., India Sudhir Kumar, M. D., India A. S. Kundu, Ph.D., India Ram Jee Lal, Ph.D., lndia Anu S. Lather, Ph.D., India Lisa Milne, Ph.D., Australia Mridula Mishra, Ph.D., India Nalini Mishra, Ph.D., India Ashok Kumar Nag, M.D., India Paola Nicolini, M.A., Italy Paul E. Panek, Ph.D., U.S.A. Edward M. Petrosky, Ph.D., U.S.A. Marisa Porecca, Ph.D., Italy Kiran Rao, Ph.D., India Stefano Reschini, M.A, Italy Barry A. Ritzier, Ph.D., U.S.A. D. Saldanha, M. D., India Nilanjana Sanyal, Ph.D., India K. S. Sengar, Ph.D., India D. K. Sharma, MHA, India Radhe Shyam, Ph.D.lndia Archana Singh, Ph.D., India V. K. Sinha, M.D., India David Sperbeck, Ph.D., U.S.A. A. K. Srivastava, Ph.D., India Kalpana Srivastava, Ph.D., India Ramjee Srivastava, Ph.D., India Ailo Uhinki, Ps.D., Finland A. N. Verma, Ph.D., India Yasho V. Verma, Ph.D., India Robert B. Williams, Ph.D., Canada

K. Yale. Thai English English Spanish Spanish English English Spanish Afrikaans. ProQuest is a company in Michigan.globalforumhealth. Brazil U. Africa and Asia (Medline and PsycINFO).K. Portuguese. diagrams. Databases are used in over 20. Oxford ect. Princeton.org) is given below : Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Journal Revista de Psicoanalisis Revista de Neurologia Revista Brasileria de Psiquiatria Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria Acta Psiquiatrica y psicologica de Amercia Laina Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand British Journal of Psychiatry Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Salud Mentale Vertex Journal of Personality and Clinical Studies Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology Revista Medica de Chile South African Journal of Psychology Psychological Reports South African Medical Journal The Australian & New Zealand Jr. and other graphical elements essential to psychological research. It is a leading provider of electronic databases for academic libraries.JOURNAL OF PROJECTIVE PSYCHOLOGY AND MENTAL HEALTH : ACHIEVEMENTS Journal in WHO Listing Members of Somatic Inkblot Soceity will be glad to know that SIS Jr. Extract from table-6 of “Research Capacity for Mental Health in Low . photos. Ireland U. graphs. Denmark Mexico Argentina India Germany Chile South Africa USA South Africa Australia U.and Middle . ProQuest provides abstracts and indexing for more than 640 titles.000 academic libraries around the country and around the world including some of the most prestigious higher education institutions such as Harvard. of Projective Psychology and Mental Health Jornal Brasilerio de Psiquiatria Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences Country Argentina Spain Brazil Brazil Argentina Thailand U. . tables. K. of Projective Psychology and Mental Health has been listed by World Health Organisation (Global Forum for Health Research) among 25 indexed journals that have published the highest number of articles on mental health from LMICs in Latin America. English English English English Engish Portuguese Engish English Portuguese English Journal in ProQuest Listing We are glad to inform you that SIS Journal of Projective Psychology & Mental Health has been listed in academic research database ProQuest Psychology Journals™.. with over 540 titles available in full text. United States. of Psychiatry International Journal of Social Psychiatry Psychiatry Research Social Science & Medicine Revista De Saude Publica International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry SIS Jr.Income Countries : Results of a Mapping Project “ (www. English English Afrikaans. K. India Brazil Australia Language Spanish Spanish Eng. Users get access to charts. Spanish Portuguese Spanish English.

how could any dedicated SIS clinician/behavioral scientist not be puzzled. It remains a challenge for SIS researchers and clinicians to decipher the body-mind-spirit revealing projective data. Sadly. especially the symbols seen in the various diagnostic categories. not “curable” (i. yet intrigued. I was employed part time in the Dept.. Historically. Some of the more effective ones (e. as compared to the past.Mother Goose Nursery tales The first decade in the new millennium has passed. of Pharmacology. My task was to assess the ability of antihistamines to suppress “motion sickness”. their genetic abnormalities may predispose them to lifelong “Humpty dumpty” morbidity. Moreover. While advances in treatment efficacy have been significant.e. & Ment Health (2011) 18 : 01-03 1 Editorial Changing Personal and Professional SIS Perspectives “Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall. as for example. Unfortunately in the past. in many cases “Humpty dumpty” doesn’t get “put together again”. using structured psychotherapeutic approaches and psychopharmacological medications. medical diagnostic/treatment procedures etc. in the 1950’s while in medical school. the internet and common trade interests. For the severely mentally ill. In contemplating the future clinical applications of the SIS technology. In some American native cultures. no informed person can really feel “wise”. even seems much more complex. Proj. future claims of success must be based in evidence based scientific studies. It not only reveals past perceptions of outer world reality. but accesses symbolic dream imagery. international life on our small fragile planet. I was working there conducting investigations to evaluate the diagnostic/treatment applications of the SIS-I card form of the procedure.g. such sharing might be referred to as “the wisdom of the elders”. now. that may be totally out of awareness and missed in interviews. some clinicians initially became . Consequently. At that time. Psy. As separate nations gradually merge their common interests through English language communication. Humpty dumpty had a great fall: All the king’s horses and all the king’s men Couldn’t put Humpty together again” . statistical based studies have not always guided treatment programs for the mentally ill and with devastating long term results. secondary and tertiary prevention). as well as questionnaires. The modern literature now indicates that existing therapies including SIS interventions must be viewed as primarily palliative and to improve functioning.SIS J. “Schizophrenic Disorder” and the recently renamed category “Multiple Personality Disorder”.Chlorpromazine) were subsequently in the 1960’s used therapeutically as antipsychotic therapeutic agents for the severely mentally ill in Saskatchewan. In the psychiatric hospitals. Perhaps my own past clinical experience might be of interest. by the complexity of peering into the inner world of the mentally disturbed? Looking through the powerful lenses of the SIS represents a projective “time machine”. Present day attempts at diagnostic categorization nomenclature can reflect this pathological fracturing of the self concept. so I wish to share certain SIS society perspectives. air travel. The splitting of ego identity observed in many such conditions is quite analogous to that portrayed in the above nursery rhyme.

Eventually. improperly cared for chronically mentally ill people aimlessly walk urban streets. fault ridden. B15. In those suffering from one of the more severe Affective Disorders. depicting being stared at and/or the number of “Eye” responses. This example of poor research work on drug efficacy and treatment outcome must not be repeated with regard to our promising positive clinical case therapeutic studies. on a regular basis. paranoid type. the provincial government gave lip service to this “cost reducing” plan. whose restricted mental health view is blinded by simplistic. the authoritarian religious bigot.2 Cassell overly optimistic about the efficacy of new class of drugs. worldwide. It was purported that the chronically mentally ill. They access vast hidden financial support from powerful economic sources. Eventually many experience legal problems and become imprisoned. I am more aware of the political/economic vulnerabilities of mental health research investigations due to naïve politicians and a media mesmerized/street drug narcotized public. Many of these are skilled in using the media to manipulate their own public image. I feel quite envious of naïve children. Unfortunately. the seeds of violence. supporting our early work. could be assessed to complete. mentally retarded. One involves the international . especially in India. depicting. Subsequently. terrorism and war are sown. the SIS-II Booklet form. However. near family members and that it would be more cost effective”. In the absence of any scientific longitudinal studies. an individual suffering from Schizophrenia. there again were similar funding deficits. this fallacious. This could alert care providers to medication noncompliance or a need to hospitalize. with the soul leaving. the physically healthy. existential anxiety reducing dogma that considers spirituality. human atrocities. I am pessimistic about the possibility of obtaining necessary financial support. For example. depicting a dying person’s body. This journal has published many other examples and promises to do so in the future. When contemplating international financial problems. but failed to fully fund community programs. These could be quickly scored on intensification of psychosis reflected in an increase of projective responses. I particularly fear Moslems who plan on using inflated reproductive rates as a device to eventually turn democratic nations. Fortunately. I am more pessimistic about the economic vulnerability of community mental health programs. a minority of them convinced politicians that hospitals could be phased out. like in the past. knife like objects and B21. Consequently. There is a similar tinge of anxiety in viewing the power of political leaders. into theocracy dictatorships. While I remain optimistic that SIS research with group controlled studies would produce statistical outcome data. who still believe in positive fairy tales. solely a human characteristic. I am quite hopeful about the educational. not all mentally disturbed people have incurable genetic determined illnesses and even for those who do. sharp. Now. When opposing religious systems clash.depicting a handgun. who basically are ignorant of the growing scientific literature on helpful body-mind-spiritual health programs. research. plan was adopted in the United States. As a result of the Saskatchewan fiasco. unreported suicidal impulses might be detected by the projection of self destructive imagery on B22. SIS intervention can sometimes be helpful in terms of secondary and tertiary prevention. in America with the current economic crisis. “would be better cared for in the envisioned community care facilities. who are fortunate enough to be well taken care of. in North America. clinical and industrial applications of SIS technology.

104th Avenue. Psychology & Mental Health. without some meaningful consideration of spirituality? Finally.D. I hope that our international SIS society based in India will continue to be guided by optimally blending “left brain” scientific methodology. which repeatedly undermine the democratic guidelines of the American Constitution. AK . with “right brain” emotion connected spiritually. We must continue to honestly employ ethical principles in research and clinical practice. I predict that the ascendance of India will surpass all others in a leadership position on the world stage. SIS Center. Director. who prey on mentally tormented individuals lacking mental health care. Anchorage. 4501E. SIS conceptual models intellectually relate to all life sciences sharing common questions. but who find solace in alcohol/ illegal drugs. egotistical military leaders. the most basic of which involves unraveling the puzzle concerning the origin of life on our planet. APC.99507 (USA) E-Mail: siscassell2@yahoo. Editor Emeritus. Some behind public view have established working relationships with corrupt brain washed. Yet. over confident. Ultimately. Another source of funding in America. Proj. A few of the latter are linked with industrial power groups. in biological models. Cassell. yet have sociopathic personality biases. This especially concerns SIS diagnostic/treatment applications relative to the efficacious management of severe mental conditions as well as the less biologically tangible personality disorders involving “Humpty Dumpty” type childhood “fractures”. It is my hope and prayer that Americans who share such concerns can once again raise to the challenge. SIS Jr.Changing Personal and Professional SIS Perspectives 3 drug lords.. involves influential bankers and hedge fund operators who have let their greed (“white collar crimes”) set in motion an unfolding international financial crisis. how can our SIS society proceed in this intangible dimension without turning back into the dark ages of mythology and dogmatic religion? Wilfred A. Many of these perpetrators are wizards at acquiring billions of personal dollars. To what extent did chemicals resulting from cosmic reactions provide the building blocks for primitive life forms on our planet? How did these become transformed into primitive life forms setting the stage for evolution into the central nervous system of higher life forms? Can a human brain ever expect to fully understand itself. M.com . solely. who can benefit financially from covert CIA international operations. FAPA.

In order to conceptualize the role of childhood stress in activating PTSD dreams and symbolic defense mechanisms. Proj. For these. A clinical case history is presented involving an adult male. 2005. he self medicated with alcohol and street drugs for handling bouts of severe depression. who was traumatized in childhood. he sought treatment and revealed his inner tormented world through symbolic dreams and SIS imagery. Ph. This case history study assessing symbolic imagery from a PTSD dream and SIS-II Booklet promises to throw light on this subject in an adult diagnosed with Borderline Personality Disorder. consider a Walter M. Case and Bankey L. These presented time capsule “pictures” of his “borderline” life style traceable to trauma in a dysfunctional family.com Key Words : Childhood PTSD. DPM. Unstable Personality Disorder . Prossin et al. 4406 Forrest Road. Case. 2009). a child who is repeatedly subjected to abuse in a dysfunctional family may be prone to develop lifelong features of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and beginning in late adolescence an emotionally unstable personality. M. the following bodymind-spirit conceptual model of Nature’s homeostatic healing process is proposed.D. As an adult. Psychotherapy outcome studies have also been statistically studied (McMain et al. 2003.. It will illustrate how analyzing dream and SIS symbols in the same individual throughout the course of the person’s lifetime can be facilitated by blending insights from both symbolic sources. When this failed. In attempts to scientifically provide basic answers. The medical model approach to diagnostic categorization has less scientific strength in regard to symptom constellations that lack documented objective biological criteria such as Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Borderline Personality Disorder. This categorization is not recognized internationally and perhaps the closest approximation internationally in the ICD-10 is “Emotionally Unstable Personality Disorder”. who experiences one highly stressful time limited event. Anchorage. there have been many clinical investigations purporting to isolate underlying biological abnormalities in Borderline Personality Disorder (Berlin et al. Dubey In recent years there has been a growing controversy regarding the validity of the APA diagnosis of Borderline Personality Disorder. Donegan et al. The medical model has provided a conceptual basis for much progress in diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders. & Ment Health (2011) 18 : 04-13 Childhood PTSD Roots of Borderline Personality DisorderEmotionally Unstable Personality Disorder Walter M. His personality problems became apparent in late adolescence. Although this is frequently observed in clinical practice. Psy.4 SIS J. For purposes of illustration. AK 99507(USA) Email: bldubey@gmail. SIS Center. Relative to the frequently observed temporal interaction between these two particular disorders. 2010. Director. Borderline Personality Disorder. The simplest form of PTSD involves a relatively mature symptom free individual. Dubey.D. 2010). and Bankey L. This has especially proven to be the case in the Schizophrenic Disorders and severe Affective Disorders. the causal connection is not always clear (McMain et al 2003). who presented with a childhood background of PTSD and ADHD. Stanley and Stanley. modern genetic research and the documented efficacy of evidence based psychopharmacologic treatment conceptually support pathophysiologic formulations regarding their etiology.

incorporating some degree of experiencing dysphoric affect exposure. The severity of his psychological symptoms. by reinforcing cognitive clues concerning what external events would be most likely to pose future potential stressors (e. others could well understand and translate their meaning. and mythology/religion. The second is to create an internal mechanism of “nervous system reconditioning”. Such a severely stressed victim would be expected to immediately develop recurrent “nightmares. spirituality. gradually reconditions memory neurons. as well as their persistence. (This formulation is consistent with clinical studies indicating that for significant therapeutic progress in PTSD situations. relative to this case. realistically depicting the circumstances of the accident. perhaps not just in humans. but in all living creatures possessing a higher functioning nervous system. Thus. a threatening carnivore). Of course. especially if they are socialized in a dysfunctional family. so that the sleeper does not wake up with. the victim usually improves more rapidly in treatment programs. Nature’s healing process occurs. A central requirement in the above theoretical model involves the necessity of the PTSD dreams (and similarly SIS symbols) to be partially disguised. This occurs in the brain’s PTSD memory center. even those trained in symbolic analysis can’t fully cognitively appraise the symbolic significance of their own symbols. Thus. a pounding heart or other somatic symptoms of arousal. involving memory recall of the triggering stressors. These maintain a balance between the “Nature’s Behavioral Therapy” need to have the dreamer experience a degree of necessary affect discomfort.e. would partially relate to his genetic vulnerability to handling stress. the “therapeutic” sharing of dream symbols and their empathetic interpretation by early “Witch doctors” or “Medicine men” established the social roots of human culture. This is Nature’s way for homeostatic healing. for example. Repetitive experiencing of the stress or “neural electrochemical sensory playback” serves two basic functions: one is to impress upon the organism’s memory storage. out of “conscious control”) repeatedly replay affect charged imagery depicting subjective perception of the external traumatic event. Until resolved.g. it might be noted that the immature nervous system of children make them particularly vulnerable to PTSD and attention deficit disorders.Childhood PTSD Roots 5 simplistic case history involving a man who was traumatized in an industrial explosion. Finally. the victim experiences lower levels of stressful symbols such as involuntarily dreaming of a minor fire in a microwave. Repeatedly experiencing traumatic memories in the relatively low state of autonomic nervous system arousal during sleep. the brain’s memory neurons involuntarily (i. Thus for example. by means of Autonomic Nervous System monitored “Stress Exposure” that limits dream arousal. the victim’s precarious emotional state may be triggered by viewing similar type explosions either in the real world or in the media. by removing the dysphoric affect bound to the PTSD imagery and their concomitant somatic sensations. the monitoring functions are vital. . that instead of dreaming of an explosion in an occupational setting. The language ability of humans enables them to communicate symbols of the threatening imagery that sleep activated neural inhibitory mechanisms involuntarily introduced over recurrent nights of dreaming.) In any case. when primitive humans expressed their dreams around camp fires. historically. During the relaxed state of sleep.

what the American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders or DSM-IV-TR (fourth edition text revision) categorizes on Axis II as a “Borderline Personality Disorder” and the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) might categorize as an Emotionally unstable personality disorder”. and while grieving their loss his chronic recurrent depressive moods intensified. Transference distortions may arise from their tendency to oscillate in the love-hate emotionally charged imagery projected or transferred onto the therapist oscillating from idealization to devaluation. During his highly stressful course of psychosexual development. During .g. who is easy to empathize with in psychotherapy). attention defects. so he could bring up his son in the best way possible. Their terror linked affect would disrupt his sleep. “pain in the lower back and ankles” and “headaches”. He had acquired by late adolescence. He had many characteristics of the tragic character in an ancient Greek play. he would have trouble concentrating in school and feel depressed for hours. As indicated earlier. Often “Borderline” individuals will experience somatic symptoms by projecting such distorted symbolic imagery onto their own body and SIS somatic structure. He would awake in panic experiencing psychophysiologic symptoms of arousal. where there is considerable interest in this syndrome. severe suicidal depression. personality problems lasting into adulthood. the similar distorted patterns may be projected onto inkblot representations of human figures. He is a very likeable man. Consistent with the latter. away from his dysfunctional family. Originally he sought treatment in a state of despondent suicidal ideation recurrence at age of 34. impulsivity. his resultant psychological scars ultimately impaired his personality. In such dreams. he isolated himself from close social relationships in various ways (e. but in the latter the diagnostic criteria are somewhat different. Like many individuals who meet diagnostic criteria for Borderline Personality Disorder. such concrete images of stressful past. It involves the life of a large intelligent veteran living in Buffalo New York. Another manifestation was his long pattern of stormy relationships with various psychologically marginal type “street women”. images of his violent father would appear in a relatively close visual approximation to imaginary photographs of the psychologically/physically abusive dysfunctional family scenes.by working night shifts as a taxi driver). When older. On mornings after such disturbances. the man under discussion complained of “occasional lower stomach pain”. because of questions about their validity as objective biological based clinical entities. In America. After a short time. he suffered from recurrent “nightmares”. and his motivation for psychotherapy was real etc.6 Case and Dubey Case History: This study illustrates how stressful childhood interactions in a dysfunctional family can be associated with PTSD. this pervasive chronic “Disorder” is considered to be characterized by the followings clinical features: rapidly shifting perception of self and others.g. A positive commitment not to kill himself. he had risked his life in situations to help others. and subsequently. chief of which was “Stomach pain”. For years. In retest SIS situations. these romances failed. He had likeable “heroic” features to his character (e. intense mood fluctuations and superficial interpersonal relationships. such categorizations are subject to ongoing controversy. were gradually replaced with defensive dream symbols.

this had responded to stimulant medication. Characteristically. At this time I will try to document the first dream”. My first dream while on the medication was so prolific. Rd. he was struggling within himself. He had a pattern of projecting negative affect charged imagery depicting parental transference distortions onto his care providers. Next was at 39 and then finally at 48.Case In the spring of 1965 I sought your help for answers and a treatment for y problems that were controlling and ruining my life in the worst way. to the extent that he met diagnostic criteria for adult Attention Deficit Disorder. “First dream #1: I was standing approximately 100 yards west of T. The weather was cloudy with overcast. Over the years he had sought treatment with various therapists. management was complicated because he also had an episodic history of alcohol and drug abuse. The latter began with his spontaneously bringing into the first psychotherapeutic interview. However. his more recent psychiatrist correctly recognized that the prognosis for staying in long term psychotherapy was guarded. he originally sought brief treatment at age 34. set by community medication standards may have reflected the severity of his concentration problems (or as he admitted to me. Attempts to relate his dream and SIS symbolism to the latter. The fact that the dosage far exceeded limits. On the last occasion. so he recommended a third. As indicated. While standing on the sidewalk I turned my head to the left to witness this vehicle approaching at a high rate of speed. but he did not comply with recommendations for long term medication. With his boy. and to his adult personality problems after a few sessions were resisted. on D. he only stayed in psychotherapy briefly. that I can still remember virtually every detail to this day. Yet in his professional judgment. In any case. which documented his ongoing motivation for further psychotherapy. although I am not sure of the day of the week. This historical time lapse study encompasses persistent symbolism between the first and second therapy periods. without addressing his longstanding emotionally childhood PTSD memories. the following letter. but also for his 9 year old son. Fortunately. . blending dream and SIS symbolic analysis: “Dear Dr.Childhood PTSD Roots 7 such despondency episodes he usually experienced significant suicidal ideation. as a parent. Ave. it was weaving all over the street. You initially prescribed medication that helped me with my sleep and depression conditions. he was referred by a male veteran’s administrator psychiatrist who had been prescribing an unusually high dose of stimulant medication for his ADD symptoms. Part of the therapy requirements consisted of monitoring. not only for himself. it was close to 6:00pm. his giving some of his drugs to his son). documenting and discussing the messages and meanings of my dreams. As the automobile went by me. the two previous short lived therapeutic trials with me had been partially helpful. This disruption of the therapeutic process was tragic. not to replicate the dysfunctional relationship that he had experienced with his own abusive father. It also had been found that antidepressant medication had been helpful. His childhood concentration problems continued on into adulthood.

Just like the street address in the dream took him back to his childhood stressful imagery . there stood two or three young male individuals acting carefree and somewhat wild in behavior. those subjectively rated as “liked least”. he selected the following: B24. At that point I began to panic and felt tight all over my body.8 Case and Dubey I can remember looking down at the hand held telephone in my left hand. I then looked up to survey the area. or spend on prostitutes. The type of neighbors that lived in the unit next door is reflections of the mentality and class of irresponsible people that I surrounded around me during those years. Instead of complying with the printed answer sheet’s instructions. I then woke up. emotionally distancing him from the projective recollection of his distressful PTSD memories. there only appeared to be a console television to my immediate left side. I then remembered asking them if they had seen anyone removing the belongings and furniture from my place. B9 and B25. As frequently is observed in examining SIS responses.” This represented psychologically a defensive maneuver. which I continued to throw away. Instead. I have determined that I am the vehicle out of control. he declined to document his reasons for disliking these on an individual basis. Next I turned around and headed toward a duplex apartment complex.” Personal assessment of dream #1: When I was in the 6th grade. it seemed prudent to avoid the remote risk of disruption of his fragile mental state. everything else was missing. In ranked order of “dislike”. to my astonishment neither any other vehicles nor people were anywhere to be seen. I then realized that this was where I lived. I went to live with my father. he was given the Booklet version of SIS-II to complete in the office. drugs or alcohol. never knowing what would set him off. their reply was that they had not. often are of paramount past and persistent body-mindspirit significance. This version of the SIS-II was used because of his fragile and potentially violent personality.” At the end of this interview. They so happened to live in a house located on (see above address). It was a year to remember. which use the projective pulling power of hypnotic like floral scenes can be more powerful. I can remember being in afraid of my father. As I walked up two or three steps I proceeded to the right door entry way. The dwelling which I reside in is consistent with virtually every home that I have lived within during my adult life. I was so relieved and remember feeling melancholy for hours after. I then remember walking through a doorway and walking to my right. Upon entering the house I began to look around. he categorized his overall negative feelings as follows: “These pictures were all too similar in their arrangements. stepmother and two stepsisters. The fact that I did not actually witness the accident represents the uncertainty of my ultimate outcome and that 911 call placed by myself is me asking for help. while doing so I remember listening to the sound of a horrible crash. In a moment of panic I reached down and dialed 911 emergency for help. The missing furniture represents the loss in property and money. I never knew what to expect of him so I maintained virtually a mode of fear constantly. I had lived with him once before while going through the 3rd grade. While the electronic versions. I still had not seen the accident but understood what had happened.

A13 “A hand with a fire wreath around it”. In dysfunctional families. he saw A10 as “A face peering through a window at me”.” In regard to the positive viewing of the SIS Booklet.g. However afterwards. This is a normal response. in viewing A5 a he saw the following components: “propeller”. B11 “A man’s vest or bullet proof vests”. conceptually formulated to symbolize the underlying biological action of his brain’s inhibitory functions. In spite of this involuntarily attempt at avoidance. when the father is violent. B4 depicted “An adult staring at a child”. A11 reminded him of “a large man’s nose snorting cocaine” (This likely was a composite projective response. one might understand how he could well move from his “borderline” mental state of being non psychotic. in the questionnaire. when asked “How did you feel about taking the test”. These came from yet unknown neural mechanisms restricting his “seeing” or consciously fully recalling the PTSD memories and thus. he wrote “I thought that it was somewhat depressing”. Consistent with this perceptual pattern. Thus. for example. “I can’t remember what the old blacksmith called it…but I think that it was called an anvil”. Projecting his vision of “fog or haze” reflected his defensive mental mechanisms. the son’s fears of his father can provide more than a “kernel of truth” for lifelong paranoid tendencies. a certain amount of tension between a father and a son can arise (e.). Paranoid like imagery was projected in relation to several other SIS stimuli. he projected similar symbolic facial imagery on small aspects of A2 and B2. In most cultures. Next attention will be given to reviewing his responses to the two SIS stimuli which were specifically designed to assess violent impulses. B3 was seen as “A human looking around a corner”. depicting at a personal level himself and perhaps in terms of his childhood. etc. A29 was stated to reflect an object a blacksmith pounds on. For example. Moreover a son’s identification with an aggressive father can play a role in his internalizing such similar violent tendencies as revealed in SIS symbolism. so-called childhood “Oedipal fantasies?” and later in adolescence “testosterone driven” social role competition etc. A22 “Male penis”…next the Inverted image at the base was seen as “Nuclear cloud and mushroom blast”. This took him back in time to previously repressed memories of his father’s angry face. SIS B24 brought to mind the following: “Eyes peering through a fog or haze”. This imagery was perseverated onto a portion of the next SIS stimulus. he labeled one as a “knife”. his father). B1 was seen as “A scary face with an evil smile”. As such it represented his intelligence and perceptual/cognitive ability to identify the reality of the embedded structure. B15 was described as follows: “It looks like a number of sharp objects”.Childhood PTSD Roots 9 traceable to his father. “heart”. Further projective evidence of this mental mechanism follows: A6 was seen as “A bomb going off over water”. A21 “A flattened bird with two human babies facing it”. Lastly. consistent with the notion of being watched. finally adding “not all of it. These could be released by . over the “border” into a florid psychosis flooded by overt paranoid delusions. minimizing the dysphoric affect. ”dove” “bird standing on two legs” and then wrote under these “FUN”. in regard to the projection of scenes of potentially dangerous animals. on A18 he saw “The face of a koala bear” and on B26 a “wolverine”. some negative emotions still surfaced in conscious awareness. This represented the mechanism of psychological projection related to his underlying hidden violent tendencies. Then he minimized this generalization in regard to other SIS images. In subsequent severely stressful social situations.

especially if he were under the influence of alcohol. In his dysfunctional childhood. At a . where he reported the following: “Look through a door peep hole…I see a man’s side profile…looks like me a little!”. as well as the ambiguity in inner world imagery. but this time from a woman. reflecting his emotional isolation from adult human contact B29 was seen as “An UFO…life form coming in from the outside”. located in the absence of such SIS structure. barrel looks damaged”. Similarly. but then rotating the image to see “A man’s testicle” superimposed on the top area of the brain design. in a most bizarre fashion. This may be interpreted to relate to his heightened anxiety concerning his sexual role adequacy. Instead of recognizing this content. may have partially represented an attempt to fulfill his unmet maternal childhood dependency needs. In this age of terrorism. if someone challenged his poor sense of masculinity. when he sees threatening faces in a paranoid like fashion. Envisioning these last two SIS scenes as personifying “abstraction” reflected his emotional isolation from people. he could quickly become overtly violent. He gave a sexual response to A25 as “Inside view of woman’s vaginal canal” and for A24”Woman removing or covering up clothing from her breast area”.10 Case and Dubey the disinhibiting central nervous system action of alcohol. this can reflect at an interpersonal level a memory PTSD image of his abusive father. These figures in the absence of a positive father figure were over represented in his psyche. Another SIS response that warrants assessment was projected in relation to B8. on the right side of the SIS inkblot he labeled “Looking like a man’s left rear profile”. he simply reported seeing “A human figure holding what looks a child”. There was a most unusual childhood memory triggered by B7 “Woman’s rubber douche bag… my grandmother had one hanging in the shower when I was a child”. Next the data review will be focused on those responses relative to female imagery. and then to another. A9 was described to represent “Two abstract figures dancing”. his history of going from one superficial relationship with a woman. his mother and grandmother had many angry episodes. B9 reminded him of “Woman’s 2 ovaries with fallopian tubes present”. depicting his confusion. Next. Certain additional responses were consistent with his over loading with distorted body imagery. B2 was seen as “A hand-gun with cloth cover over the hand grip. the valentine like heart symbol was covered with the response “toilet bowl” for B17. In a similar symbolic fashion of detached loving affect. as family members for secondary personal sexual identification. This projection points both to the complexity. In a social situation. Thus. This inkblot design presents embedded visual structure suggestive of a mother lovingly holding a child. In viewing A4 he projected the most unusual response pattern as follows: “An adult female in a woman’s Islamic gown standing on one foot”. perhaps such symbolism may have reflected fascination with aggression. This latter somatic response again brought out his sexual confusion within his own body gestalt. Reflecting this for example in B24. Most remarkable was his correctly identifying the brain structure in B20. A7 was reported to depict “An abstract female in motion”. here he directly identified with the human structure in the inkblot design. Most revealing in term of his lacking maternal memories of emotional support /affection was his avoidance response to B28.

travelling at high speed.Childhood PTSD Roots 11 personal level. I would like to supplement this by introducing some evidence from my past psychopharmacological research conducted in 1964. his anxiety level greatly elevated. This illustrates how stressful imagery can be uniquely and vividly recorded in memory storage throughout developmental periods. subsequently. while pharmacologically stimulated. he added the following: “I recently gave a statement of this dream report to another doctor of psychiatry. The left side being the rock and roll part type of my personality and the right side considered to be the responsible and self conscious me. his cognitive associations went first to a real life situation. In any case. Consistent with this transfer. which clearly captures some of his personality’s splitting characteristics. that I was living too far apart from both sides together and bring them closer that I would improve my life in terms of acceptance. he perceived the threatening young men as coming from the “right side”. men rated their relative degree of awareness for aspects of the right (e. right foot etc. on the right-left axis. demonize the same professional. and then motivated him to call emergency 911. cohesiveness and understanding. The next scene pertains to his entering a house reminiscent of. regarding treatment). Right eye. The situation was severely stressful. his father had severely stressed him (“It was a year to remember”).” Perhaps it is useful to initially comment on the above interpretation. The residual of such events can then surface in dream and projected SIS imagery. By this stage in the disguised PTSD dream. Often they tend to play one against the other. where as a boy “in the 6th grade”. . Another aspect of the dream involves his adult PTSD occupational exposure to traffic accidents as a taxi driver at night. right hand. As he looked around. It was her thought. witnessing the speeding vehicle. such as his. In the initial phase of the dream under analysis. she elaborated on the duplex apartment. individuals allegedly diagnosed with a “personality disorder”. They temporarily deify one and then. when an intoxicated driver passed him at night. The right door of the duplex apartment is a direct symbolization of his own body or “the house in which his spirit resides”. it may signify the split off aspect of himself and that portion of his violent nature that is identified with his father figure.g. It might be noted that neurophysiologists have now found significant right left difference in the amygdale of men during arousal. In exploring this dream symbolism. After the administration of high dose caffeine. he was standing on. at the end of his dream report. which she said that she felt represented the right and left sides to my character makeup. or near the road. since he had risked his own life in trying to pull a still breathing woman away from the burning wreckage. the neurophysiologic aspects of his “panic” were being experienced subjectively in his overall body gestalt. concerning how right versus left body awareness shifts in overall body gestalt during arousal. frequently consult multiple therapists.) much higher than normal levels. This ended in a fatal crash killing all four occupants. Afterwards. Interpreting His “Prolific” Dream: It might be useful to start at the second opinion offered by a former psychiatrist (As indicated earlier. It reached the level of “panic”. in a relatively low state of arousal.

it might be postulated. However. when he viewed B24 “Eyes peering through a fog or haze” and all the other blots. he substituted the defensive response “A baseball design”.12 Case and Dubey Finally. Imagine. Over the lower portion of the male figure having a penis. he correctly recognized “A male penis” in A2. never knowing what would set him off”). Given the additional possible role of predisposing familial genetic predispositions. In order to further hypothesize on this. These constantly compete for emergence in conscious awareness. at a neurophysiological level. . In regard to the SIS.g. It might be noted that somatic repression/neural inhibition of male anatomy content. it also must be having to process within the body gestalt. empathetically. so the end diagnosis becomes adult Attention Deficit Disorder. It may be recalled that he correctly considered. that this could as well relate to his suffering from a PTSD/ADD “Speeded up” neural transmission network in his brain. which were seen in a paranoid threatening fashion. that when this acceleration in information transmission is being rapidly processed. the speeding vehicle could have represented himself. perhaps it becomes more reasonable to understand how. it is worth reviewing in this case history study the individual’s “Personal assessment” of his dream. what it might be like to be in his skin with “racing thoughts”. his brain tended to be over active. Clearly. in imagining outer world environmental threats from people symbolic of his abusive father. so I virtually maintained a mode of fear constantly. took place on all other blots with such embedded phallic structure (A8’s upper section was seen as “A smiling face”. as the brain matures the skeletal muscle hyper-motility aspect tends eventually to be inhibited. his neuropsychological defense system involuntarily projected the aggressive response “Nuclear cloud…mushroom blast” on the embedded structure depicting the male pelvis. Thus in his mind masculinity and violence were closely linked. In this condition. Perhaps this was most dramatically illustrated by his superimposing a projected image of “A man’s testicle” on the brain design projected with B20 where no sexual structure existed in the inkblot design. “racing” sensory peripheral feedback of sensations arising from internal autonomic nervous system arousal. producing day time “Flashbacks” and mood instability (e. Moreover. in a rising and falling fluid like fashion. Given this formulation. a linkage traceable to his childhood paternal abuse. As noted previously. I never knew what to expect of him. that the neural inhibitory based mental mechanisms related to symbolic defenses are in competitive action. “It was a year to remember. Such an underlying biological problem of “racing thoughts” could have its historical symbolic roots in his childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. this individual’s brain became overloaded with PTSD imagery and dysphoric affect. as a child. A20 Over the kidneys and male urogenital system structure he saw “A wing-tip screw” and B18 suggesting a penis in a vagina he gave the defensive symbol “A gate or door closing or opening on fish like creature”). his projecting threatening characteristics onto human faces could also have set the developmental perceptual/cognitive stage for his “Borderline” personality. Such competition operates prior to projection onto each SIS inkblot and during sleep determines what imagery emerges in dreams. in an analogous fashion. Consider further. that symbolically. This somatic based interpretation is supported by the SIS data. it is quite understandable how such a child’s attention defects emerged in school.

Stanley. Psychiatry.. Zubieta. N.. H. J. underlying the classic psychological defense mechanisms. American J. Kenneth R. These are out of conscious awareness but can be accessed via SIS technology. and Horowitz. Blumber. and Iversen. 166. Skudlarski.K.. Edmund T.H. .P.Childhood PTSD Roots 13 In summary. 925-933.S. American J. Love. 166.. 162: 2360-2373. 167.A. Lacadie. Fulbright. 24-39.. Heather A. When body-mind-spirit conditions change.. Perhaps SIS workers need to now consider the development of conceptually meaningful strategies involving the timed measurement of response projection. and the Orbital Frontal Cortex. (2005). A. and Gore. Sanislow. Koeppe. It may be recalled. Tiffany M.C. 1365-1374. Early investigators also used a tachistoscope to measure the time it took to recognize specific forms of visual stimuli. Siever (2010) The Interpersonal dimension of Borderline Personality: Toward a Neuropeptide Model. 167. et al (2009) A Randomized trial of Dialectical Behavor Therapy Versus General Psychiatric Management for Borderline Personality Disorder American J. Psychiatry. Psychiatry. Barbara and Stanley. Susan D. Gabbard G. Transference interpretation. neural inhibitory processes related to time. P. Donegan. Robert A. Rolls... this psychophysiologic model hypothesizes complex rapidly fluctuating patterns of imagery. that in the past many psychologists used a stop watch to time the speed at which Rorschach responses were given. energy and body space. and Therapeutic Change in the Dynamic Psychotherapy of Borderline Personality Disorder. 54: 1284-1293.P. Links. M. Prossin. (2003) Amygdala hyperactivity in borderline personality disorder: implications for emotional deregulation. (2009) Insight. Biological Psychiatry. Psychiatry. including anatomy. automatically come into competitive interaction. Impulsivity. (2010) Deregulation of Regional Endogeneous Opioid Function in Borderline Personality Disorder. Psychiatry.. C. 517-521. American J. Borderline Personality Disorder. C. R.S.F. J. It focuses on the “speeding up” in the transmission of certain PTSD externalinternal events and their concomitant symbols. McMain. Amerecan J. References: Berlin.. Alan R. Jon-Kar and Silk.

D. conversion reactions. Rakesh Kumar. Assistant Professor. in a booklet and on videotapes. Female subjects gave more of animal responses and male subjects gave more sexual responses. The SIS provides a new diagnostic aid and can be used to assess the in depth significance of somatic symptoms. Head.. Kandhari. Co-ordinator.D. Ph D. Rathee and Singh (1996) reported that female subjects gave more number of responses and male subjects rejected more cards. Singh and Kumar. The released responses thus. The results indicate that males and females differ significantly only on a few indices of SIS-I. 2002). Psy.on cards. 1980) to extend the Rorschach’s concept that ambiguous and semi-ambiguous visual stimuli evoke spontaneous responses associated with body images. What is projected onto the SIS answer sheet flows from mental depths. needs. and SIS living images. Baraut. The SIS is a semi-structured projective diagnostic instrument and an adjunct to psychotherapy. Kumar and D. Assistant Professor. Department of Psychology. The SIS-I was administered individually and the data was analyzed through Mann Whiteny U-test. Correspondence Email: mindpowerlab@gmail. SIS-II Video. 2002) and Schizophrenia (Mahpatra et al. 1995).com Key Words: Gender Differences. 2006). SIS-I Video. al 2001). SIS-II Booklet 62 images. somatic delusions and sexual dysfunctions (Cassell and Dubey. A systematic review of the existing literature on SIS-I revealed gender differences on many scoring indices. SIS provides images in three forms . 2003). R. mania and depression (Deepak and Jagdish. Proj. Institute of Mental Health and Hospital. Altogether five forms have been evolved: SIS-I (20 cards).College. Kanpur.1996)... ADHD (Jain.. represent recollections of the real outer world subjectively blended with hidden inner world imaginations. normals.Ph. 2009). neurotics and psychotic patients (Pershad et al. SIS-I has been used by a number of researchers and its discriminative power has been established on a variety of population: opiate addicts (Mukhopadhyay et. J. fantasies. schizophrenia and depression (Pershad and Verma. Kumar The present study was designed to compare the pattern of responses on SIS-I in normal males and females. schizophrenic patients (Kumar et al. SIS-I . The viewer is uninhibited by social acceptability restrictions of the presence of “Test administrator”. Kumar et al (2006) reported that manic male produced higher atypical responses and card rejection. The present study is a modest attempt to find out the profile of normal male and female subjects on SIS-I test Sunita Kandhari.. Somatic Inkblot Series Card form was developed in 1959 (Cassell. Department of Psychology. cards rejection and anatomy responses as compared to normal Subjects. Agra and Deepak Kumar. SIS projective technology harnesses the projective pulling power of hypnotically presented ambiguous visual color-form stimuli. dreams and psycho physiologic based body percepts.D. 1997). Highly significant difference was found only on TR and CBA. drives.Ph. Sharma. hospitalized male chronic schizophrenics (Kumar et.D. & Ment Health (2011) 18 : 14-21 Gender Differences in SIS-I Profile of Normal Population S. Kumar et al.Ph. SIS-I was administered to 200 normal persons comprising two groups (Males (n=82) and Females (n=112). Kanpur Institute of Technology. (2007) reported greater number of responses in Females than male subjects.J. Manic females produced higher atypical responses.14 SIS J. and personality dynamics. Projective Diagonstics Instrument. International College for Girls. al. Jyotsna Sharma. Jaipur.

5%(107) Results: The Mann Whitney test was applied to ascertain the differences in the responses of male and female participants. Material and Method: The sample consisted of 200 normal persons drawn from general population. The Mean Rank and z value of male and female subjects on SIS-I is shown in Table 3..5%(69) 46.5%(93) 53. The results are confirmed by Rathee and Singh (1996) and Kumar et al (2007).5%(105) 47.Indices are presented in table 2. 31-45 yrs. Scoring of SIS-I protocols of normals was done according to the Comprehensive Scoring System. Table 1 Sample Characteristics of Normal Subjects (n=200) Gender Male Female Age 18-30 yrs. Education Upto 5th Class 5th to 12th Class 12th Plus Domicile Rural Urban 41%(82) 59%(118) 52.al.1961). The characteristics of the sample are listed in table 1. . According to Cassell (2002) the total number of responses suggest imaginative capacity and functioning intelligence of a subject.5%(89) 34. The index study reported significant difference in the productivity of males and females. Discussion: Total Number of Responses (TR): The number of responses on inkblots is indicative of productivity (Beck et. The means of Male and Female subjects on SIS. The normal subjects with positive history of major psychiatric or physical illness were not included. 1985). The screening of normal subjects was done through PGI Health Questionnaire N-1 (Verma et al.5%(95) 21% (42) 44.Gender Differences in SIS-I Profile of Normal Population 15 Objectives: To find out the magnitude of differences in the responses of normal males and females on SIS-I. This was followed by individual administration of SIS-I in a distraction free environment in one sitting.

45 9.59 13. 1942).23 7.52 9.D.76 17.89 4.82 11.4 28.70 4.95 5.30 1.03 S.98 5.95 7.88 11.65 1.86 7.39 6.36 4.57 7.56 S.33 16.89 0.21 10.43 9.79 5. Sharma.60 Female (n=118) Mean 41.69 .72 56.64 26.17 11.34 3.54 2.50 81.96 2.61 1.13 6. The results obtained in the index study indicate that males and females do not differ significantly in their TBA responses. Kumar and Kumar Total Blot Area (TBA): Total Blot Area has a direct relationship with intellectual ability and is a measure of conceptual activity (Beck.74 2.41 1.16 5.08 2. the common blot area responses are easier to give than total blot area responses because they represent the easiest perceptual cognitive mode to act when faced with ambiguity. Females produce significantly more number of CBA responses as compared to males. 13.83 5.95 7. of CSS Indices in Male and Female Subjects Indices Total Number of Responses Total Blot Area Common Blot Area Uncommon Blot Area White Background Area Shape Appropriate Shape Inappropriate Human Action Color Chromatic Color Achromatic 3-Dimensional Human Complete Human Part Animal Complete Animal Part Internal Organs Most Common Responses Image Rejection Male (n=82) Mean 37.77 9. Generally.09 13.14 5.54 6. 1952).50 22.66 8.36 3.06 1.85 17.16 Kandhari.17 57.D. Table 2 Mean.60 0.38 7.43 5.67 6.21 14.07 10.38 14. Common Blot Area (CBA): The responses to common blot area indicate the ability to perceive and react to clear and distinct characteristics of world (Rorschach.68 0.22 0.11 14.82 11. S.76 3.05 6.84 81.89 3.D 10.90 12.34 6.50 24.43 0.

75 109.53 104.48 101. Females produce significantly higher UBA as compared to males. unnecessary details.76 98.70 99.157 -1.045 *significant at 0.21 -2.429 -1.25 93.867** -2.703* -0.24 84.006 -0.89 103.27 55.27 106. .17 98. The law of perception dictates following pattern whole → conspicuous→ inconspicuous.76 87.62 z value -3.60 86.05 level of significance **significant at 0.84 65.01 level of significance Uncommon Blot Area (UBA): Uncommon Blot Areas are the least frequent areas selected by the subjects for their associations on inkblots.11 Females 84.44 86. It also reflects an emotion of anxiety.68 100.220** -0.78 102.56 87.537* -2.754 -2.57 63.04 67.609* -0.43 100.24 110.44 88.097* -0.057 -1.969* -1.31 98.87 70.72 83.91 87.44 108. UBA on inkblots reflect an individual’s emphasis on minute.61 31.05 100.304 -0.422 -1.50 89.58 108.27 101.22 27.387 -2.43 108.15 100.560* -0.Gender Differences in SIS-I Profile of Normal Population 17 Table 3 Mean Rank and z value of male and female subjects on SIS-I Response indices TR TBA CBA UBA WBA HA SA SI CC CA 3D HC HP AC AP IO PL OTHERS MC REJ Mean Rank Males 111.73 99.93 72.067 -0.217 -2.

discriminating judgment and regard for the environment (Rorschach. Such responses indicate a free floating anxiety against which the individual remains unable to build any defenses. 1942). The mean CC responses given by males are slightly more than the females. negativism. Shape Inappropriate (SI): According to Cassell (2002). 1942. 1946). 1942). The index study reports no difference in the WBA responses given by males and females. control. Males and females do not differ significantly on CA responses. The mean SA responses produced by females is significantly more than the mean SA responses produced by males. males and females do not differ significantly in producing SI responses. Shape Appropriate (SA): The shape appropriate responses are indicative of the ability of a subject to direct his ideation with conscious attention. 1952). Human Action (HA): The human action responses indicate the phenomena of “internalization”. Color Achromatic (CA): Color Achromatic responses in general indicate anxiety and withdrawal from the environment or passivity. shape inappropriate responses are those of poor quality and with vague percept either in structure or verbalization. The primary significance of the white background area has been that of some form of oppositional behavior emerging in a variety of symptom patterns contrariness. Kumar and Kumar White Background Area (WBA): The white background area responses indicate negative or oppositional features (Rorschach. reflecting the ability of an examinee to handle the more deliberate and sophisticated experience in a way that can be controlled emotionally (Rorschach. Color Chromatic (CC): Chromatic color responses indicate affectivity or emotional excitability (Rorschach. 1945). According to the results obtained by the index study. 1942). 3-Dimensional (3D): The 3-demensional responses are based on dimensionality. Adler (1929) described the . The number of shape inappropriate responses is proportionate to the degree of psychological or psychiatric disturbance. A response indicating an appropriate shape reflects that the examinee has respect for the reality of the environment (Beck 1945). The responses in human action indicate awareness towards the external world and reflect some conflicts or emotions which do not get obvious expression in the world of reality (Beck. Sharma. Rapaport.18 Kandhari. hostility (Beck and Molish. Beck 1945. In the present study the mean HA responses for males and females do not differ significantly.

Rav (1951) theorized that restriction and reduction in intellectual drive increases recourse to IO responses. 3-dimensional responses are indicative of a sense of inner incompleteness and a painful feeling tone in which depression of affect and inferiority feelings are also involved. Males and females do not differ in their responses to this scoring index. These responses are consistently high in those who have a poor self. It may also be interpreted as a measure of ego strength and team concept. In the present study males and females do not differ significantly on IO responses. the most common responses are suggestive of coherent. Rejection (Rej): Cassell (1990) stated that rejection of images shows thought blockage and an inability to think properly. In the present study the obtained mean value of males and females do not differ significantly. Males and females do not differ significantly on Most Common responses. 1958). .image and who are preoccupied with internal body organs. Rejection is the result of an inhibition or blocking of thought. Most Common (MC): According to Cassell (1990). No significant differences are found between males and females on the Rejection scoring index. The index study finds a significant difference in the HC responses given by males and females. internal organ responses pertain to internal parts of living beings and their mutilated forms both of humans and animals. Human responses in general indicate high potential for good relation. Generally. Male subjects have given significantly more HP responses as compared to females. with males giving higher responses than females. nose legs etc.Gender Differences in SIS-I Profile of Normal Population 19 personal dynamics involved in looking at distant objects and its relationship to feelings of inferiority. Such individuals also feel uncomfortable with people and show poor interpersonal relationship. Human Complete (HC): Human complete responses include the responses pertaining to the whole human body. ear. Human Part (HP): This category includes the external parts of human body like face. Internal Organs (IO): According to Cassell (2002). logical thinking and ability to keep up with the demands of society. more often a shock phenomena in most cases (Bohm. Animal Complete (AC): A large number of animal responses are generally given by aggressive. In general an excess of animal content indicates intellectual constriction and/or emotional disturbance. hostile. psychologically immature people.

and Kumar. Kumari. 12. (2002) Intellectual struggle in advancing SIS knowledge. J. New York: Harcourt.J. (1990). 8. 53-60. In the practice and theory of individual psychology.134-137. III. S.A. (2009) ISIS Portraits of the Inner Mental World Painted by Blog Pooling of Interpretations. (2001). Aurora Publication. R. SIS Journal of Projective Psychology & Mental Health.16. Cassell. Kumar and Kumar Conclusion: The results indicate that in the normal group. (2009). 31-37. Beck) New York : Grune & Stratton. (1929):The problem of distance. New York : Grune & Stratton...L.J. A. W. SIS Journal of Projective Psychology & Mental Health. A.. and Mohanty.14. Brace & World. & Mental Health. New York : Gurne & Strattons. J. W. Body symbolism and the somatic inkblot series. S. (2007). A. Cassell.. Highly significant difference is reported on TR and CBA only. Inc. (1952) Rorschach test. S. Singh.A.E.. E. Beck. B. (2005) Diagnostic Indicators on SIS-I and Rorschach among Manic and Depressive Patients.B. Cassell. Kumar. Beck. Exner. S. Psy. Beck. SIS Journal of Projective Psychology & Mental Health. Kandhari. A variety of personality pictures. males and females differ significantly only on a few scoring indices of SIS-I. New York: Grune & Stratton. H.. S.9. Dubey.. Levitt. Beck & S. Somatic Inkblot Series Manual. Kumar. and Kumar. E. (1945) Rorschach’s test vol II. Cassell.L.. Vol. D. A study as Somatic Inkblot Series-I in hospitalised male chronic schizophrenics. Bohm. (1980).16.20 Kandhari. and Chaudhary. D.G. D.. Prakash. Personality Profile of Schizophrenia and Bipolar. W. . Anchorage: Alaska. 31-37. SIS Journal of Projective Psychology & Mental Health. SIS Journal of Projective Psychology & Mental Health. Kumar. 13.. Estimation of the Contribution of Gender in Productivity on SIS-I. R.2. S. 100-108.E.J. Singh. Alaska. References: Adler. (1974) The Rorschach systems. Sharma.J. Kumar. Advances in interpretation. Gender Differences in SIS – I Profile of Manic patients. and Dubey. (1958) A textbook in Rorschach test diagnosis (Tr. B.1. W. and Molish. R. Rorschach’s Test Basic Processes. J. SIS J. 61-64. Affective Disorder (Mania) on SIS II. New York : Grune & Stratton. S. Kumar.A.A. (1961).. (2006). R. Proj. by A. R. Beck.

S.. Verma. (2006). B. M... P. D..R. SIS-II profile of murderers. 33-41. Psychological factors in drug addicts and normals : A comparative study SIS Journal of Projective Psychology & Mental Health. A comparative study of male and female on Somatic Inkblot Series-I. and Banerjee.K. Pershad. Pershad. J. (1996). Dubey. 15.. and Singh. 5... Body image distrubances in psychiatric cases. Singh. (1946) Diagnostic Psychological Testing. K. 53-78. Charan Singh University. A.13. New York : Grune & Stratton.R. 7. Mukhopadhyay. (2000). 433-43. Rav. and Bhagat. 3. SIS Journal of Projective Psychology & Mental Health. G. 63-68. Rapaport. H.. (1942) Psychodiagnostic. A..D thesis of first author awarded by Ch. vol II Chicago : New York..Gender Differences in SIS-I Profile of Normal Population 21 Kumar. and Mitra. 43-49. Mohanty.. A. G..P. SIS Journal of Projective Psychology & Mental Health. S. National Psychological Corporation. S. Mitra. 49-52. 14. R. 3. and Mukhopadhyay. A comprehensive profile of personality characteristics of male drug addicts. K. A. S. 75-84. SIS Journal of Projective Psychology & Mental Health. SIS Journal of Projective Psychology & Mental Health . S.. Verma.L. 7.. Note: This paper is a part of Ph. D. D.. and Schafer. L.M. and Dwivedi. SIS Journal of Projective Psychology & Mental Health. Banerjee. R. Singh. Rathee.P.. Journal of Projective Techniques. (2000). .118-121. Rorschach. S. (1996). (1951) Anatomy responses in the Rorschach test. and Kumar. SIS Journal of Projective Psychology Mental Health. SIS-I and Rorschach in Schizophrenia: A correlational study. (1997). A comparative study of managers and students on SIS-II. (1998). Gill. Singh. Sahu. M. S.K. (1985). PGI Health Questionnaire Agra. Meerut in 2008..

In the early 1990s. Educational Testing Service. Flagg-Williams Mental health professionals have historically been trained with Eurocentric-derived assessment procedures and tests for children in North America. & Ment Health (2011) 18 : 22-27 In Pursuit of the Aboriginal Child’s Perspective via a Culture– free Task and Clinical Interview Robert B. Also. Culturally Appropriate Assessment. Among the clinical assessment procedures identified as easily adaptable were the Goodenough-Harris Draw-A-Person and Draw-A-Family. Box 6004. Laurence French at Western New Mexico University encountered human service providers and clinicians in need of cultural-free assessment tasks to evaluate potential abuse among unilingual Mexican.Canada E1C 9L7. Nonetheless. an approach involving two procedures from the drawings was explored and found to be helpful in facilitating clinical interviews and learning about Aboriginal children and their concerns. NB. Williams. The least culturally prejudiced assessment procedures French identified were several projective human figure drawing tasks (HFD) and enquiry procedures from other classical projective tests. With this in mind. Mental Health Assessment. . 1962). bilingual Hispanic. Laurence A. The discussion concludes with a review of the training and experiences needed by a professional intending to implement this procedure. 1973. 1982. 1993). it is worth noting that the issue of culturally free or fair as applied to the assessment and testing of intelligence. and personality has been a topic of concern to researchers in psychology and education for many years (Anastasi. Proj. University of New Hampshire.22 SIS J. The present survey of clinical assessment procedures and/or tests that could be easily adapted in a culture-free format was undertaken in collaboration with Laurence A French and colleagues. Crandall University. 1964. The mental health professionals have historically been trained with Eurocentric-derived assessment procedures and tests for children in North America. Franklin School District. NH and Joan B. Moncton. researchers have considered cultural-free as applied to assessment and testing as interchangeable with notions such as cultural-fair and cross-cultural. FlaggWilliams. Crandall University Key Words: Aboriginal Child. This is true for popular assessment measures such as the Draw-A-Person and Family protocols. achievement. West. 333 Gorge Road.ca. Email: Robert. Barabas. Psy. They have also been confronted with how to define Robert B. Un-adapted these clinical assessment tools tend to be directed toward the Euro-Canadian population and might not be usefully applied to children in Aboriginal communities. French. Results and observations of the survey: First. and American Indian children (French. A survey of clinical assessment procedures that could easily be adapted in a cultural-free format for use with Aboriginal children was undertaken. Nancy Picthall-French. drawings have proven to be valuable in facilitating clinical interviews and as outlets for children to express the intent of their emotions. Nancy Picthall-French and Joan B. In his original article French did not explicate how or whether he surveyed clinical assessment procedures and/or tests that could be easily adapted in a cultural-free format. Aboriginal and other children are in need of access to mental health assessment procedures suitable to their culture. Laurence A. 1990.Williams@crandallu. Draw-Your-Self and Draw-Your-Family tasks were combined with questions adapted from the questioning approach of the Thematic Apperception Test. French. Williams.

Shortly after the publication of the Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test. 228). Psychological Testing. Anastasi (1982) in her text. Westernization.e. Educational Testing Service. the materials needed are a few and simple and the instructions are easily comprehended” (p. is steadily accumulating” (Goodenough and Harris. Russell. the drawings of the man and the woman were scored for accuracy of representation and cognitive development. 370). 1942. 399). offers a cue regarding crosscultural testing that includes a task that may be implemented with a minimum of influence from the examiner’s culture. to … hopes and … frustrations. 1943). A Self scale was used to score the child’s drawing of herself/himself as a projective measure of personality. As in the original form of the test. 1990). 341). It is noteworthy that the test was used by researchers carrying out cross-cultural and comparative psychological studies (Dennis. 1963). It has also been recognized that. “evidence that the child in … drawings frequently gives outward expressions to … inner life of thoughts and feelings. Anne Anastasi (1964) maintained that in the strictest sense “culture-free” tests do not exist. Dennis (1966) reported on Goodenough’s Draw-A-Man Test results for more than 2000 children from 40 different cultural groups tested between 1929 and 1960. 1966. The useful result of this study was the recognition that differences in children’s drawings could result from environmental and cultural influences (i. Wayne Dennis (1942). One definition stated that a cultural-free assessment procedure or test “. Interestingly. . p. asserted that: “The Draw-a-man test suggests itself for use with other cultural groups because the subject to be drawn is universal. 1990. 1950. One of these researchers. this survey did not result in the identification of any specific assessment procedures and/or tests that could be regarded as culturally unprejudiced in their formats. It involved asking a child examinee to “make the very best picture of a man that you can. An extrapolated definition from Justman (1967) defines a cultural-free test as one in which differences in experiences and motivation has minimal effects on the test results. has freedom from verbal. or emotional loadings that differ among cultures” (Educational Testing Service. This task is HFD as administered according to the Goodenough Draw-a-Man Test (Goodenough. 1973. and social change” (Dennis. . what children have been exposed to or has happened to them). content.” This test was initially used as a measure of children’s intelligence. . Applying the Goodenough scoring criteria netted a range of scores from 53 to 125.In Pursuit of the Aboriginal Child's Perspective 23 cultural free. The revision extended the task from merely asking the child to draw a picture of a man to asking the child to also draw a picture of a woman and of oneself. modernization.. Dennis attributed the score-differences among the various cultural groups to environmental influences such as “degrees of acculturation. p. This gives confidence to the notion that what children draw may provide a view of their perspective of what they have been exposed to or what has happened to them. Even in the context of this confidence about the Draw-A-Man Test. p. A revision of the Goodenough test was published in 1963 as the Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test (Harris. Goodenough and Harris (1950) maintained that achievement of a culture-free test is “illusory” and that the idea that “mere freedom from verbal requirements renders a test equally suitable for all groups is no longer tenable” (p. Many assessment procedures and tests have been identified by their authors or publishers as culture-fair (Barabas. Unfortunately. 4). Havighurst et al. 1946. to … fears and … desires. 1926).

1951. and artistic development (Deaver. pp. The setting should be quiet and comfortable. and Bardois. they still appear in research with children. 1988). 1953). 1970. 2000). and Sääkslahti. These guidelines are restated here from French’s original article in a modified format (French. Session 2: Within one to four days after the draw yourself task is completed. 1963). French (1993) identified and adapted the projective HFD tasks as a least culturally prejudiced option that seemed “to work best with minority children . perceptual motor development (Numminen. possible sexual abuse victimization (Webster. 1951). French (1993). 1977). Even though research has not supported the usefulness of HFD tasks as a culture-free measure of intelligence (Goodenough. . Draw-A-Family Test (Hulse. knowledge of internal body parts (Deluca. . 17). McNeish. an excellent springboard for discussion of specific conflict areas” (p. the picture is presented to . Pitts. 1977). There is no time limit and the session ends when the child completes the picture which is passed to the clinician. French (1993. . 1991). in the early 1990s. Provide crayons. The child should be met with in a comfortable and culturally relevant assessment context at a time when one is certain the child does not want to be doing something else or be somewhere else. HFD tasks continue to be applied in studies of children’s concepts of God (Pitts. Session 1: The child is asked to draw a picture of herself / himself. 1952). This is helpful when the child and clinician are from different cultures. French’s adaptation of the DAP and projective tests: French determined that the least culturally and environmentally prejudiced assessment tasks were having the child draw herself or himself from the Harris (1963) version of the Draw-A-Person Test and the Draw-A-Family Test (Hulse. Harris. 1997).24 Williams. intellectual ability (Naglieri. recognized that children can represent their perspectives through their drawings of what they have been exposed to. Nevala. 1996). and Kinetic Family Drawings (Burns and Kaufman. 2009. French also saw that in this context the HFD tasks tend to be more useful when the scoring criteria are derived from the child’s unique perspective. Pennanen. what has happened to them and their thoughts and feelings about these experiences. the HFD tasks have proven to be the most versatile and adaptable. & Picthall-French. desk or floor. 17-18). In this regard. These tasks included the Draw-A-Person Test (Goodenough. 1963. 1948). pencils and newsprint for the child.” (p. When possible. French and Williams Among all the assessment procedures and tests reviewed. 1993. French. Have a teacher or teacher’s aide of the same culture as the child present during the drawing sessions. use an observation mirror to reduce any influence of cultural difference. House-Tree-Person Test (Buck. Betenbough. like Dennis (1966) and Goodenough and Harris (1950). emotional disturbance (Naglieri. These drawings were to provide an initial view of the child’s perspective and may be as Handler (1985) stated “. French. 1926) or personality (Harris. 2007). 1926. Machover. 1972). school readiness (Vig and Sanders. . 1997) offered procedural guidelines for administration of the Draw-Yourself and Draw-Your Family tasks. Permit the child to draw wherever it is most comfortable—table. 169).

& Flagg-Williams. . Williams. The intention is to confirm from the child’s perspective the important features of the drawing and indicators useful for clinical understanding of the child. The study of child development with a diversity and cross-cultural perspective is also recommended. What is happening in the story? Who is the hero? What are the people thinking? What are the people feeling? What is the outcome of the story? Through this procedure examiners can learn about the child’s perception of the situation. assessors will need to have established a relationship with significant members of the Aboriginal community and the families that they will be caring for (Dana. to integrate constructs and processes from social psychological literature and research . A final task is for examiners to reality test the information learned via any projections in order to rule out any pre-morbid clinical problems prior to any crisis.” (Abraham. p. 1980). and Rorschach Ink Blot procedure—from a diversity perspective. Session 3: In a context and following procedures similar to those of Session 1. The Goodenough-Harris Draw-APerson and Draw-A-Family tests were identified for clinical assessment and adaptation. Allow the child to draw as many as s/he wishes. 1997. An examiner may also find it helpful to consider the influence of the developmental tasks that the child is confronting which will vary with child’s age and experience (Gay. It can provide a basis for social or clinical interventions with a minimum of additional trauma to the child. 2006. Ask the child to explain what is happening in the drawings.In Pursuit of the Aboriginal Child's Perspective 25 the child who is asked to tell you about the person in the picture. 1986). Examples of questions whose wording might require modification for the child’s understanding are: Tell me a story about this family. . Havighurst. . TAT. Conclusion: A survey of clinical assessment procedures that could easily be adapted in a cultural-free format for use with Aboriginal children was undertaken in this study. those working with the child need to be aware of the child’s culture and language. supervision and experience administering. The paper discusses combining the Draw-Your-Self and Draw-Your-Family tasks with questions adapted from the questioning approach of the TAT. This scoring and reporting will benefit from an assessor’s ability “. 1971). Again. 4). . ask the child to draw a picture of herself/himself and her/his family. Who are the people? The examiner’s enquiry must be openended so as not to unwittingly lead the child’s responses and contaminate them. There are situations in which children may want to continue to make drawings related to a traumatic event. Session 4: Present the picture of the family and questions based upon the TAT format (Murray. Lastly. . Training and experience needed: Assessors intending to administer the HFD task to Aboriginal children ought to have considerable training. scoring and reporting on projective procedures—HFD.

French. Williams. 27-75). W. In L. J. Gay. 26-30. 083 325) Buck. 4. B. Educational Horizons. Culture-fair tests. New York: Brunner/Mazel. Dana. (1990). Adapting projective tests for minority children. 117. 569-578.26 Williams. (1982). 34.). E. (1970). 341-348. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. 4-11. H. Journal of Comparative Psychology. B. Burns. A. P. (1986). The performance of Hopi children on the Goodenough Draw-a-Man Test. Kinetic Family Drawings (K-F-D): An introduction to understanding children through kinetic drawings. C. (1942).. T. (1966). (2006). . 72. Anastasi. Journal of Clinical Psychology. & Flagg-Williams. Culture-fair testing. (1993). 50. Educational Testing Service. (1926). Counseling American Indians (pp.). Measurement of intelligence by drawings. (1997). & Kaufman. R. What do children know about the interior of the body? A comparison of two methods of investigation. R. B. 26. Burns. The teacher’s block: Personality constructs and social psychologyconceptual scaffolding. Art Therapy Journal of the American Art Therapy Association. 211-228. 18(1).. J. 317-396. 369-433. S. New York: Macmillan Barabas. R. Lanham. P. H. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. Psychological testing (5th ed. (1997). Identifying and assisting schoolchildren with developmental tasks. H. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. 369 805) French. (1997). 1928-1949. 47. Journal of Personality Assessment. (1964). 43(1). Goodenough. J. The Journal of Social Psychology. L. French (Ed. SPA Exchange. R. L. Personality assessment and Native Americans. J.. (1973). (1948). F. P. New York: Brunner/Mazel. 13. New York: World Book Company. J. A.. The H-T-P technique: A qualitative and quantitative scoring manual. Study in the psychology of children’s drawings: II. 4. A. Goodenough scores. 68. Actions. French. When the snake bites: Bibliotherapy for traumatized Indian children and youth. styles and symbols in Kinetic Family Drawings (K-F-D): An interpretative manual. ED 407 168) Dennis. Annotated bibliography of tests. & Kaufman. S. & Harris. N. D. art experience. Deaver. Anastasi. S. Goodenough. 15-18. French and Williams References: Abraham. Psychological Reports. 480-500. (2009). A. W.. C. (1950). (1972).. F. A normative study of children’s drawings: Preliminary research findings. Education. & Picthall-French. MD: University Press of America. Betenbough. P. and modernization. Dennis. Deluca.. Psychological Bulletin. The assessment of minority groups: An annotated bibliography. N.

New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. 328-333.165-216). M. 85-91. A.). S. (1996).. E. The emotionally disturbed child draws his family. 083 325) .).. Ontario: Pearson Canada Assessment. Vig. 354-362. Human figure drawings of children. Machover. Harris. (2007). Naglieri. (1963). Numminen. In C. (1953). Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test manual. L. 35. Pennanen. M. T. (2000). ED 444 099) West. M. Assessing the intelligence of disadvantaged children. Boston. (1988). The clinical use of the Draw-A-Person Test (DAP). J. Childhood conflict expressed through family drawings. McNeish. W. 11-15. Environment and the Draw-a-Man Test: The performance of Indian children. Toronto. 17. (1951). Major psychological assessment instruments (pp.... 400 095) Pitts. Justman. 152-174. P. Boston. Cognitive assessment. Draw A Person: Screening procedure for emotional disturbance. New York: The Guilford Press. Havighurst. B. Boehm (Eds. 58. Brassard & A. & Sanders. & Sääkslahti. Inc. A. C. The spontaneous and instructed drawings of Zuni children. Journal of Projective Techniques & Personality Assessment. J. Toronto. A. N. Personnel and Guidance Journal. (1962). Preschool assessment: Principles and practices (pp. E. (1946). Nevala. (1991). Gunther. Havighurst. R. (1967). (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. MA: Harvard University Press. R. K. P. Identifying sexually abused children using human figure drawings. J. Naglieri. Hulse. Webster. 41. S. R. Ontario: Pearson Canada Assessment. (1943). Thematic Apperception Test manual. K. D. Concept development and the development of the concept of God in the child: A bibliography. Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology. 3. & Bardois. (1977). (1973). W. 383-419).. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. Assessing intellectual ability with a minimum of cultural bias for two samples of Metis and Indian children Edmonton: University of Alberta. Journal of Comparative Psychology.. Cited in Barabas. Hulse. Social and developmental psychology: Trends influencing the future of counseling. (1985). Newmark (Ed. N. W. Journal of Projective Techniques. A. MA: Allyn and Bacon. Human figure drawing as a representative medium of perceptual motor development among 3-to 5-year-old children. 135 487) Russell.. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. (1980). R. (1971). 50-63. Draw A Person: A quantitative scoring system. (1952). 16: 66-79. L. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. Quarterly Journal of Child Behavior. The assessment of minority groups: An annotated bibliography. In M. I. Education. J. R. C. Murray. J. W.In Pursuit of the Aboriginal Child's Perspective 27 Handler. J. A. E. H. V. J. & Pratt. 87.

but also an art. specifically. harmonizing and mastering theories and methods. But this preoccupation should not.28 SIS J. Portugal. 1994). the art of assessment. The psychologist should not be merely a test user. coding. and the “transformation” of the results and their interpretation on something that might be useful to address the issues that triggered the assessment and the client needs. considered psychometrically suitable. in general. Rui C. 1994). There are two opposite ways of thinking about the test situation. In this regard. In my opinion. But the task of interpreting data in a meaningful. we have a fundamental attitude of looking for the subjectivity and individuality of the person. Projective methods and psychological assessment: Projective techniques are powerful tools in the psychological assessment process. overshadow the need and importance of judgments and clinical knowledge. Tel. 7702– 554.D. (With small changes this text was presented in a conference in the University of Évora. Portugal) Key Words: Psychological Assessment. specifically in personality assessment (Marques. there is a growing need to increase the accuracy of the tests. There is a behavior that favors the use of instruments. Two clinical cases following content analysis are also discussed in the paper. it is not only a science. but a kind of expert who decides what is needed and should be done in a particular case. and the psychological assessment process. we must not forget that the ultimate goal of the testing is to get close to the “psychological truth” of the person who is being assessed. Campos The paper emphasizes the importance of projective methods in psychological assessment and places these methods in the context of other psychological assessment instruments. accurately and inclusive way. the projective technique is a privileged instrument in this direction. Psy. However. Évora. Cates (1999) claims that books and journal articles explore much of the science of psychological assessment. The clinical status of Rorschach test and the administration. Still according to Cates.: (+351) 266768050. Ph. is still an art. Fax: (+351) 266768073. Psychological assessment should allow a true interpretation of the data. Campos. structural summary and interpretation of Exner’s Comprehensive System is discussed here. Proj. approached as something secondary. And. University of Évora. Rorschach Comprehensive System. Projective Methods. The role of inference and intuition is. Department of Psychology. One is based on a concern for the objectivity. This attitude leads to see the person as a set of numbers resulting from intra-and inter-individual comparisons. which is observed through an increasing emphasis on validity and in the quality of the samples to obtain normative data. The psychologist refuses any instrument which only aims to seek ‘the objectivity’ (Marques. at best. in any way. & Ment Health (2011) 18 : 28-38 ‘It might be what I am’: Looking at the use of Rorschach in Psychological Assessment Rui C. avoiding anything that is subjective. The psychologist who performs the assessment must match clinical judgment and inference with test results. Apartado 94. E-mail: rcampos@ uevora. no psychological assessment is possible without the use of at least one projective technique.pt.. On the other hand. Content Analysis .

For example. projective methods were and still are. The first. the richness of psychological data that can be obtained by means of a projective method. the multi-dimensionality of the responses. these are not the basic characteristics that define a projective method. rather than tests. 5. this is not completely true. but the fact that no psychometric requirements were taken into account in its construction. but to know and to . Actually. how he or she modulates emotions and ideational aspects. Despite all of this being true in part. Also they would evoke responses of fantasy and responses that do not have the status of right or wrong. what Weiner (1997) says about Rorschach.It might be what I am 29 What is a projective method?: What are the characteristics that allow us to distinguish projective technique from other personality assessment instruments. 2. the subject has ‘freedom’ to answer what he or she wants. I confine myself to say that the initial instruction is restrictive. which are built in a way so that the person is encouraged to respond by interpreting and projecting his or her personality traits. much criticized. the same answers contribute to understand different personality aspects. or at least of which aspects of personality is being assessed by these responses. like personality questionnaires? It is said that projective techniques have ambiguous stimuli. The fifth criterion is the profusion and richness of the response data they elicit. Lindzey (1961) has emphasized five primary criteria as basic features of a projective method: 1. 3. For example. Exner (1986) stresses that it is not the fact that a test is projective or not that explains the lack of quality as a measurement instruments. Despite their wide implementation in some ‘schools’ of psychological assessment. The fourth criterion is the lack of subject’s awareness of the purpose of the test. which allows the examiner to collect different types of personality data. enabling a holistic analysis of personality. as in a questionnaire. or in another words. This criticism to projective methods led to an inappropriate division between objective tests and projective tests. The second criterion is “ It permits the subject a multiplicity of responses”. 4. for example. ie. the person would not know that the systematic use of black color in the Rorschach responses can be related to the presence of a marked negative affectivity. This is. and therefore cannot reveal in a questionnaire. The goal is not to measure. among others. allowing an exploration of various aspects of personality. we can assess simultaneously the subject’s self-concept. Projective techniques cannot be considered tests in a strict psychometric sense. is not confined to a limited number of response alternatives. They are methods. as mentioned by Silva (1986). aspects that the subject does not know. This may be a debatable issue. The third criterion is. not everything is ‘permitted to the person’. criterion is that the “projective techniques are sensitive to unconscious or latent aspects of personality”.

These two aspects. which mostly caused the test to become known. which evoke responses in a form of affection and also of sensations. The Rorschach consists of 10 cards.g. Note the cultural match between the red color of blood and emotions. 1997). compacted with some appendages. indispensable methods and methods of excellence for the assessment of personality. or being more ‘closed’. The inkblots are open. But there are still other types of projective methods. or at least some of them. Finally we have the expression techniques. Perhaps the best known is the Rorschach. color and shading of the cards. non-figurative stimulus (to be defined by each person). when he or she wants to fake the results of the assessment. as drawings and paintings (Lindzey. 1986) with almost 90 years since its publication. stories based on a series of images. we think in the richness of information that can be obtained and the holistic and integrative nature of the analysis that are possible to perform from the protocols. not in the construction process.g. card I) favoring the projection of the human body. in our opinion. in which the subject is asked to respond to the stimulus with the first thing he or she sees and TAT and CAT. its value comes not from its antiquity. However. The emphasis is on the final product. IX and X) are considered to induce affections and to trigger responses that show the quality of relationships of the person with his or her environment (Fernandes. belonging to the so-called thematic or construction techniques. Some of the inkblots are dense. card III) which evokes the representation of the relationship. The pastel colors (cards VIII. As far as their advantages. Used under these assumptions. make. for example the butterfly in card I. projective methods could stay almost protected from criticism. others are more dispersed. It is one of the more regarded personality assessment instrument and also one of the most widely used projective techniques. is not aware of certain psychological characteristics or do not want to reveal them for example. the inkblots can be distinguished also by being more ‘open’ (eg card VII). in this particular case. This does not preclude that there are parts of the inkblots that are very often identified with a particular percept. but also in the fact that they are indirect measures. They provide information that otherwise would be unavailable. 1994a). . There are several types of projective techniques. Moreover. symbolically associated with the representation of female and maternal object. with a bilateral configuration (e. The Rorschach as a projective method: But let us focus now on the Rorschach method which is one of the oldest personality assessment instruments (Silva. projective methods. but from its well documented ability to account for human psychological functioning (Weiner. The richness and the contribution of projective methods for the understanding of personality are very important. contrary to personality inventories and questionnaires. The presence of red on cards II and III can trigger instinctual movements relating to aggression or sexuality. if not the most used. a type of structural or associative technique. simply because the person has no access to it. as well as the relativity of the criticisms. because the person is invited to construct.30 Campos understand. There are still the chromatic properties. symbolically related to phallic references (cards IV and VI ). The inkblots are distributed symmetrically around a central axis as a result of its construction procedure. with a well-defined axis (e. 1961). such as the completion and the choice or ordering techniques.

It is a measure of personality functioning “(Weiner. in face of other perceptual stimuli. and can be interpreted using different theoretical perspectives (Weiner. individuals who perceptually separate the inkblots into parts and then combine or relate them will proceed similarly in everyday life situations. The goal is the prediction of behavior. systems that conceptualize Rorschach more as a perceptualcognitive task or more as a stimulus for fantasy. Rorschach can be conceptualized according to different theoretical perspectives. 1984). thematic and behavioral data. What is the most important type of information? Weiner (2002. According to the perspective that sees Rorschach as a perceptual task. personal communication) says: “I do not know. allowing for other interpretation strategies.g. For example. What is important in this perspective are not the words of the response. locations of the responses). they are never in the extremes of this continuum. The structural data relate to responses coding (e. which allows that different systems had been developed. and behavioral data relates to the behaviors of the person during the administration of the test.” one cannot know. 1994b) On the other hand. It allows the psychologist to characterize personality. where the same structural and organizational operations would be required. 1997). and perceived as appealing to different mechanisms or psychological operations. The Rorschach does not. how he or she starts the responses (example: “It’s a bat” and “Maybe you can say that looks a lot like a bat. it depends on the protocol. in some cases the structural summary is very rich and informative in other cases is poor. a personality test has an underlying theory. at least in some parts” are completely different in an interpretation point of view). since its interpretation is not based solely on results and indexes. the determinants. In the case of pathology it makes possible to know if something is not right in a given personality and what. the fantasy or thematic data are the responses contents. Examples of the latest type are: how does the individual grabs the cards. the elements or structural components of the response as the location. (Fernandes. cited earlier. Rorschach is a method to collect data and to produce hypothesis about personality. but also understand why. which makes the Rorschach a unique assessment instrument. With the administration of the Rorschach test we can collect structural. The other extreme perspective argues that to respond to the Rorschach implies that the . In this sense it would be a test. This is a continuum in which the different systems lie somewhere. The task of responding to the Rorschach is a problem solving prototypical situation. understand the mental functioning. perception and memory. an associative task (Erdberg and Exner.It might be what I am 31 According to Weiner (1997) the Rorschach test should be seen primarily as a multifaceted method rather than as a personality test. etc. which provide information about the most underlying personality characteristics. Its data can be interpreted by different theoretical frameworks. but its structure. personal communication). to respond to the test involves mainly structuring and organizing unstructured and ambiguous stimuli. but the content of responses is important. in which is involved attention. although these may be very important. For example. based upon several theoretical frame works. which can be used both qualitatively and quantitatively. but it is more than simply a test because their usefulness is not limited to the use of quantitative data. 2002. and provides information on how individuals would behave in identical real situations. The responses are samples of behavior.

and had also been build based on the thousands of published studies about Rorschach (see Silva. to “reduce the influence… of non-verbal signals or clues that inadvertently the examiner produces” (Silva. 1994). The interest is in the words and symbols. The seating is made side by side. The Rorschach Comprehensive System: Let us now consider a Rorschach system . 505). will be in greater risk than most people to have aggressive behavior toward others. The focus is on the response content and the sequence of responses on each card. Finally with regard to behavior prediction. This perspective sees the Rorschach as a projective task involving mainly association and symbolization. 2003. the Rorschach is useful only to the extent that the different psychopathological conditions are isolated from the viewpoint of personality characteristics that are specific to them and then. For example. treatment planning and prediction of behavior. needs and fantasies of the individual. interpretation. This system was created by Exner in the 70s and has suffered several upgrades. 1986. the Rorschach is not and does not pretend to be. 1994. and that the responses reveal the symbolic aspects of the internal dynamics. It combines a content based interpretation. a dislike for passivity and dependence. As concerning treatment planning. The administration has two phases. p.32 Campos individual projects on the stimuli (inkblots) material concerning his or her internal states. The interest is in the motivations. with a strong structural component analysis. The status of a clinical assessment instrument is mainly determined by the goals (purposes) that are expected it can achieve in practice. it has been demonstrated the Rorschach ability in this area. Let us now see why the Rorschach may be important in practical contexts. but it provides some information which may be helpful to predict certain aspects of future behavior. it is thought that people whose responses to the Rorschach identify a marked anger and resentment. typical of systems such as the French school system. Regarding the description of the personality. of the five American systems and the research they have performed. by nature. an extratensive coping style. It can be said there are four major tasks that may be clinically relevant and be attributable to an assessment instrument: personality description. presenting a few notes on the clinical status of the Rorschach (Weiner. etc. the examiner would be just recording verbatim the responses and avoid creating response trends. it has to do with what users of the Rorschach can do with the data it provides. a predictive tool. so. The Rorschach data formulated in terms of personality traits may contribute to a conservative estimate of potential behaviors. Regarding differential diagnosis. 1997). and a reduced self-critical ability. It depends on what you want to predict. The system is called comprehensive because it retains the more consistent and empirically defensible aspects. including clinical ones. low impulse control. some Rorschach variables can be used to identify the presence of those characteristics and therefore identify a given condition and differentiate it from others. concerns. 2005) in particular and present some practical aspects relating to the administration. we can obtain data on the structure and also on the dynamics of personality. differential diagnosis. coding and. and never face to face. according to reliability and validity criteria. 1987. The first is . Regarding the administration procedure.the Rorschach Comprehensive System (RCS – Exner. and the verbalizations are used to explain why people tend to behave in particular ways.

developmental quality. shape. It includes the pair when the examinee sees two identical items using the symmetry of the inkblot. in the majority of the situations. “two dogs fighting. for example. determinants. such as color.Explosion. The form quality has to do with the fitness of the percept to the inkblot. which are responses that were given . After the inquiry.whole animal. or even a “dog”. which will be answered. Sc .human detail. Id . The organizational activity refers to the effort or energy expended in the process of perceptual organization when giving the response. which denotes the cognitive elaboration of the response. critical and noncritical.science. The inquiry must clarify three fundamental questions: “Where did the person see?” and “What were the features of the inkblot that made the examinee to see the percept?”. (H). it is coded with o. location. to the examinee and the initial instruction is: “What might that be?”. If the response contains only one object or more than one object without being in a relationship with a specific form demand. Exner talks about coding. In this case. In some responses one can still code a popular content. in a form quality point of view. During the administration procedure all disruption should be avoided to the maximum.” because an inkblot can has any form.blood. etc. Everyone realizes that it is different and more difficult to say. because no relationship between parts of the inkblot is established. Hd . are the most important questions? What the person saw is the third question. and not the assignment of numbers or scores. Ex . The ideal situation is to be in silence. determinant (s) and content (s) are required for all responses. the response translation into symbols. one by one. reflection based on the symmetry.ideographic content – when a percept does not fit in any of the standard content categories.anatomy. it is more appropriate to see a bird on card I (in the whole inkblot) than a stomach. However.botanic.It might be what I am 33 the response phase. developmental quality. At this stage the examiner gives the cards. are features of the inkblot that determine the response. fictional or mythological whole human. not about scoring. which is less dispersed. No more information is needed. This is the only element of coding which is scored with numeric values presented in the system workbook. when the examinee views two or more objects and at least one of them with a specific form demand in a significant relationship the code + is assigned. Bt .whole human. For example. Not all segments are presented in all responses. Likewise. comes coding the responses. After the response phase. The location is always coded with the developmental quality. because it involves the allocation of symbols. more easily and with no questions. normative data are essential to code this element. it is more difficult to give a whole response to card X for example. than to card I. Determinants. content(s). Also. comes the inquiry. it is more difficult to organize the inkblot as a whole than to give a response in an ‘obvious’ detail area. Bl . A . Where and how. organizational activity and special scores. An . For example. we just need to clarify the answers given during the response phase. popular content.” because it is necessary to establish a significant relationship between different parts of the inkblot than just “an inkblot. shading. The coding consists of several segments: location. on the other hand. the attribution of movement. form quality. Some of content categories in the RCS are H .

The interpretation is global and holistic. expertise and knowledge of psychopathology and of the test itself” (Silva. somaticinkblots.” Coding: D+ FMa. green. S-”Here are two dogs.r. www. Finally. It requires a well administered and coded test.R. as presented in the examples. A final element which can be coded in some responses is the special scores that sign the presence of rare and special features of the responses. The structural summary was created to facilitate the summarization of the protocol data before the interpretation. such as the frequency of human contents in the protocol. They are fighting and have blood in the body. After coding the protocol. we must obtain the structural summary. this strongly suggests a very conventional individual.5 People do not always give spontaneously in the inquiry all the information needed to code the response. Besides the analysis of structural data (the structural summary). The main page contains frequency values of the different codes assigned to the responses.0 AG. Take the example of two responses and their coding: Card II: Response: “Two Dogs” Inquiry E. 1987).Bl P 3. and more specifically. so it is often necessary to question. which “requires instruction. There are 13 popular responses in the RCS.MOR Card IX: Response: “A flower arrangement” Inquiry E-Rr. taking into account all the protocol data. S-”Here in the whole. for example. When the proportion of popular responses in a protocol is much higher than the mean.34 Campos by at least one third of the individuals of the normative sample. There are rules for questioning which are mentioned in the workbook. Its locations and the specific contents are described in the workbook. knowledge of personality theories. and a series of indexes derived from the frequency of codes. has many colors. orange. distributed by the various cards. it is beautiful. injured. their heads and legs.CFo (2) A. the analysis of the response content and their possible symbolic implications is considered in a second phase of the process. practice and experience.com). the percentage of responses coded with a poor form. and has some of its form” Coding: Wo CFo Bt 5. Cassell and Dubey(2003) have given detailed interpretation of symbolic and content interpretation of Rorschach and Somatic Inkblot Images with detailed case presentation published in every issue of SIS Journal of Projective Psychology and Mental Health(1994-2010. for example. They are red in here. comes the interpretation. .

The interview reveals strong defense mechanisms of denial and projection. the adolescence changes. Case 1: Mr. He has been a sociable and happy child. Case 2: Let’s see another example of how the response content can be extremely important. He looks younger like a child. but it is also both a source of anxiety and insecurity. but he is very afraid of the green leaves that are there.It might be what I am 35 Using Rorschach in the analysis of two clinical cases: Two clinical cases are presented to show how the Rorschach ‘can be a microscope’ that allows us to look directly at mental functioning if used properly. and others are germinating under them”. She is 22 years old. green leaves and the dried leaves [dried?]. with a funny and intelligent expression. M. the new. or ‘return’ to childhood. In the inquiry. to take a ‘refuge in the nest of dependency’. there are no major cognitive problems. little and affectionate. He is in 6th grade for the third time. The fear and simultaneously the desire to grow up. the unknown. Quoting Fleming (1997). in his own words “to be stupid. who is concerned with the possibility that a psychotic process is beginning. His school performance is mediocre. he is in ‘nobody’s land’. comes to psychological assessment by request of her psychiatrist. Symbolically. and reveals also a speech marked by suspicion. J. He collaborates in the assessment. although he is expectant. skinny. but she could not specify how long. on other persons.” His past history does not point out any significant psychopathology. The aim of the assessment was to clarify whether this teen would benefit from special education. the body is starting to change. It appears obvious that this adolescent is experiencing a developmental crisis. also in himself dried leaves are starting to fall. now. although his intellectual level tends to be higher than average. as a complement to structural analysis. he said: “Here is the trunk. Noteworthy. the adolescence phase. the fear and simultaneously the desire to grow up makes him impossible to concentrate. The school difficulties seem clearly the result of emotional dysfunction. they are like dried. responds to all the requested tasks smoothly and quietly. He is afraid of not being able to learn. on one hand the behavior of autonomy is widely desired by the teen. F. in which guilt is projected outside her. do not let him to be in school. . and how the content analysis of responses can be extremely important. Let’s see a response he has given on Rorschach card IX “A tree”. are falling. The Portuguese and Math are the disciplines in which he has more difficulties. He does not like school. comes for assessment by recommendation of a neurologist. between taking a new developmental step. These concerns. This response shows perfectly the problematic issue of this young boy. smiling and looking at me straight. gives him headaches. Ms. He is 13 years old boy. She had already been assessed by a psychologist some time ago. Several cognitive and personality tests were administered. It is this psychological paradox that ‘haunts him’. Ye. He complains about concentration and memory and also of frequent headaches in the past months. this ambivalence. It is an excellent example of how such as learning difficulties often have their causes in something that has nothing to do with lack of cognitive strategies.

‘She lives with her mother and for her mother’. here are the arms or the legs. strange. one on one side and another on the other side. and gives two responses to the first card. despite being adequate from a perceptive point of view. this test. though much significant from the standpoint of the content. and these are someone who wants to make a transformation in their lives. but who? Two ghosts. initially. despite we can understand her anger towards the consecutive failures in her life. In the inquiry she says: “Or maybe they want to separate them from one another. betrechian [it is not a typo]. manifests a severe cognitive disorganization. take them to somewhere or to perform an operation (a surgery). reveals a need to focus on the body structure. not beetles. at least. The second response: “Those animals like beetles. down here is the tip of the tail. from the standpoint of the content. she says: “May be its skeleton.. I do not see anything. paranoid traits. A delusion less systematically organized appears after 1h and 20 minutes of interview. shows the problematic issue of this woman. animal structure”. but also an obvious thought disturbance and. and then up here has to do with the eyes or with the mouth (has much difficulty in showing the location). they have no skeleton. She assigns her “bad luck” to witchcraft and “evil” that a woman.. two what? They want to take them.” In the inquiry. on a support structure. hesitates. I do not know.36 Campos sensitivity. ye (pause)”. Toward the end of the interview more marked disturbances of thought and references to bizarre behavior become apparent. and an old woman and someone which wants to take them. but the way it is here . No evident bizarre behaviors were reported. did to her parents and eventually felled on her. want to take them. these two. The guilt. their feet. She reveals then some psychological distress and suffering . however. her anger and hostility are projected. difficulties in personal relationships and remoteness and detachment that ultimately provokes on others. the head with a kind of scarf. making an operation [? Where] here. still reveals mark doubts about her identity and the danger of fragmentation and psychotic disorganization. Some epistemological notes: I add now some epistemological notes that I had already the opportunity to draw on a previous . batrachian. in a paranoid ideation and it also shows doubts relating to her identity. yet rational. the body. little container. It reveals not only ‘a violation’ of reality. this is the suit of them. [skeleton]. which is however flawed. After that I said it is not. It shows clearly a poor and fussy relationship with a bad object but the malignant characteristics of this object are. feels sad and resigned. in her building. and two . but I do not know if it has a skeleton or not. The first response is “The other time I also did this exam.. projected. This is their hands. what this reminds me of? I cannot say anything (long pause) nothing comes to my mind [?] Maybe a little old lady.feels a lack of self-esteem. sticked to another one. ‘entered’ relatively poor on the task. this is the hands. about her role as a woman and a marked dependency. they are glued”. J. She took the Rorschach with great difficulties. looks uncomfortable and suspicious. so she is not aware of them. These two responses speak for themselves. She lives almost exclusively in accordance with her mother’s guidelines and is unable to have a more or less independent life. In the second response M. She has also serious doubts about her identity. The ‘accusations’ are ‘logical’ and plausible. The first. The answer has a poor form quality and has two critical special scores.. two… I do not know.

taking into account all the protocol data. more global process. They are methods. According to Exner. The clinical status of the Rorschach has been largely demonstrated. which is the psychological treatment. the interpretation is global and holistic. which can be interpreted using different theoretical perspectives. but not static. attuned by an affection and trust tone. the subject. Clinician and patient in a dialectic movement in which the absence of an excessive need of the psychologist to understand (which it is legitimate). There are several Rorschach systems and the method can be conceptualized according to different theoretical perspectives. the interpretation of structural summary variables). because only then the assessment process makes sense. Besides the analysis of structural data (which is very important in this system. us. The richness of psychological data that can be obtained by means of a projective method enables a holistic analysis of personality. contained. rather than tests. only half-closed. and at the same time reflexive movement. we think the assessment process should be. a cyclical movement. in reality. more as a perceptual-cognitive task or more as a stimulus for fantasy. now me. What happens or should happen in psychological assessment is a movement toward the other. at a close enough distance. Rorschach is one of the more regarded personality assessment instrument and also one of the most widely used projective techniques. The responses can be analyzed in a multidimensionality perspective. in a closed loop. Content analysis in a powerful tool . But projective techniques cannot be considered tests in a strict psychometric sense. 2004). projective methods were and still are. Despite their wide implementation in some ‘schools’ of psychological assessment. but a dynamic attitude. They are sensitive to unconscious or latent aspects of personality and permit the subject a multiplicity of responses. It is like that. will enable the patient to reveal himself or herself. addressing and helping to modify the subject problems. the analysis of the response content and their possible symbolic implications is considered in a second phase of the process. And it is precisely this attitude that I think is compatible with the use of projective techniques and the Rorschach. One of the most popular Rorschach systems is the Exner’s Rorschach Comprehensive System. his or her psychological distress. giving meaning to the title of this presentation: “It might be what I am…” Conclusion: Projective techniques are powerful tools in the psychological assessment process. allowing an exploration of various aspects of personality. the subject’s is not aware of the purpose of the test and there is a profusion and richness of the response data they elicit.It might be what I am 37 paper (Campos. and therefore. an associative task. just close enough to the person. specifically in personality assessment. me. an empathic movement. It is this attitude which allows that the instruction of the Rorschach “What might that be” can be. and a more or less immediate return. responded by the subject of the assessment in a maximum likelihood. and perceived as appealing to different mechanisms or psychological operations. With the administration of the Rorschach we can collect structural. now you…‘. as a primer process or sub-process of another. which in turn will be the object of the clinician’s intuition for the above mentioned empathic movement. mirroring that allows at the same time the projection of that same image. ‘Him / her. in fact. so he or she can be understood. the patient. in which the psychologist mirrors the image of the other. in his or her psychological depth. the psychologist. much criticized. thematic and behavioral data.

(1999). Silva. R. The Rorschach: A Comprehensive System (Vol 1): Basic foundations and principles of interpretation (4rd ed. SIS Journal of Projective Psychology and Mental Health (1994-2010) Website: www. G. B. New York: ApletonCentury Crofts Marques. 189-238. Fernandes. 23. If used properly Rorschach method allows a deep and meaningful assessment of the person. Inc. (1986b).L.. I. Jr.). (1994). B. Current status of the Rorschach Inkblot Method. expertise. 12(4). 20. References: Cates. (1994b). Análise Psicológica.(2003) Interpreting Inner World through Somatic Imagery. D. J. 68(1): 5-19. I. SIS Center. (1986a).A. Do desejo de saber ao saber do desejo: Contributos para a caracterização da situação projectiva. J. (1994a). 20-22 Silva. D. 4(12). Exner. 431-439 Silva. O Sistema Integrativo do Rorschach (SIR) de John E. The Rorschach: A Comprehensive System (Vol 2): Advanced interpretation (3rd ed. somaticinkblots. J. 332-347). 631-6441 Cassell. (1986). New York: John Wiley & Sons Erdberg. Revista Portuguesa de Pedagogia. In G. . 12(4). E. and Exner. (1961). Projective techniques and cross-cultural research. Anchorage. Basic Foundations (Vol 1. New York: Pergamon Press. The art of assessment in psychology: Ethics. Lindzey. E. B. Exner e a reposição do teste de Rorschach.). AK 99517 Exner Jr. R. Reflexões sobre algumas características das técnicas projectivas. O conceito de projecção e as técnicas projectivas: A sua tradução no Rorschach e no TAT. Análise Psicológica. (1987).and Dubey. Journal of Personality Assessment.. and validity. New York: John Wiley & Sons. (2003). (1994). 2ª ed). The Rorschach: A Comprehensive System.).I. (1997). 4406 Forest Road. E. J.38 Campos to look directly at the mental functioning and the content analysis can be extremely important. Rorschach e psicopatologia. New York: John Wiley & Sons Exner. Goldstein & M. Jr. E.W. Jr. Metodologia de investigação e novos avanços no Sistema Integrativo do Rorschach (S. 493-510. as a complement to structural analysis.com Weiner. 12(4). Análise Psicológica. A. Rorschach Assessment. (2005). 441-445. R.). Silva. 463-468. (1984).R. J. P. Handbook of Psychological Assessment (pp. 135-168. I. R. D. Jornal de Psicologia. Hersen (Eds. Análise Psicológica. Journal of Clinical Psychology. Revista Portuguesa de Psicologia. 55. Exner. D. Fernandes. 5 (3). M.

As early as 1919.” Injured body systems and structures include auditory/vestibular.S.II. M. central nervous system.” Veterans were suffering from symptoms such as fatigue and anxiety. face. breaks and disease to psychological implications ranging from depression. In combat. our understanding of war’s invisible wounds has dramatically improved. anxiety. (Col) Amitav Banerjee. P. mental health.Y.com) Key Words : SIS in Polytrauma Patients. Professor of Community Medicine. Polytrauma Patients. From burns to amputations. Dept of Psychiatry. Research Scholars.II Suprakash Chaudhury. mines. orbit. Poly-trauma is a term coined as part of the traumatic injuries inflicted upon soldiers. Amitav Banerjee. MD. booby traps. Sarika Alreja Soldiers with poly-trauma are reported to suffer serious psychological disorders. Patil Medical College. Particularly common is Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). from cuts. & Ment Health (2011) 18 : 39-49 39 Poly-trauma Survivors: Assessment using Rating Scales and SIS . Clinical Psych. Bangalore. (Col) Suprakash Chaudhury. Poly-trauma patients had a significantly higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders (34).D. little is known about psychological distress associated with poly-trauma in Indian security force personnel. Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ). depression (41%) and alcohol problems (24%). post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and even hypervigilence.. Consultant Psychiatrist. Dr. Ranchi-834 006. Alcohol Dependence. the diagnosis of poly-trauma is often made. However. Dolly Kumari..SIS J. it is not surprising that blast injuries are often “poly-traumatic. respiratory. It has been estimated that over Dr. Ph. Given the possible effects of explosions on the human body. Suprakash Chaudhury E-mail: suprakashch@gmail. Dr (Lt Col) PS Murthy . P. The study included 100 consecutive polytrauma patients and 100 normal subjects.D. Ranchi. Psychological Morbidity. Psy.D. In this era of modern warfare. Impact of Events Scale (IES). digestive. (Correspondence: Dr. For these soldiers. RINPAS. eye. IES and MFI but not on the MAST. and pain. Prof & Head.. extremity. Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI). All the subjects were screened using General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). STAI. Kanke. Ranchi Institute of Neuropsychiatry & Allied Sciences (RINPAS). Proj. sources of blast injury include improvised explosive devices (IEDs). circulatory. The present study aimed to assess psychological distress associated with poly-trauma in Indian security force personnel. aerial bombs and rocket propelled grenades. Murthy. The results indicate that psychological intervention would greatly facilitate the management of these patients. but science could offer little in the way of effective treatment. CRSD. Pune. renal/urinary tract. .the majority of which are blastrelated. Kanke. The Satisfaction with life scale (SWLS) and the SIS. Simply defined as a condition in which the soldier exhibits serious and multiple physical and psychological injuries. Carroll Rating Scale for Depression (CRSD). MD. Dolly Kumari and Sarika Alreja. medical professionals started tracking a psychological condition among combat veterans of World War I known as “shell shock. artillery. soft tissue. Security force personnel are sustaining new and complex injuries . As compared to normal subjects the poly-trauma patients obtained significantly higher scores on the GHQ. State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST). rocket and mortar shells. and SWLS. Although there remains much more to learn.

Similarly assessment of 363 consecutive admissions to a trauma service (excluding TBI) revealed that over 20% of the group met the criteria for at least one psychiatric diagnosis 12 months after their injury. Comorbidity was common. acute and chronic brain syndromes. evidence of psychological squeal was present even among those with relatively minor injury (Mayou et al. only about half of troops screening positive for PTSD or major depression had sought help. 2009. particularly when the symptoms are recognized early. rather than brain injuries themselves. Rates of marital stress and suicide are all increasing. Keel and Trentz. PTSD.2004. Another effect of troops’ mental health injuries has been an increase in drug and alcohol abuse (Jacobson et al. Regarding the psychological effects of accidents. Hoge et al. and sensory loss (vestibular. with posttraumatic stress disorder manifesting in 11%. 2005. nearly 20 percent of Iraq and Afghanistan veterans screen positive for PTSD or depression (Tanielian and Jaycox. In view of the above the US Department of Veterans affairs Poly-trauma / Blast Related Injuries quality enhancement research initiative aims to promote the successful rehabilitation.40 Chaudhury. maladaptive behavior due to anxiety. hearing. it is often unclear if a service member is suffering primarily from biological damage to the brain or a psychological injury. pain. including TBI. soldiers with such multiple damage types simply did not survive in most cases. 2008). Unfortunately. The downside is however that many of the victims. 2010. 2010. and  trauma patients leads to much unalleviated and avoidable suffering to the patient. They are also prone to psychological complications. 2010) . Hicks et al. 2004). visual impairments) (Brenner et al. even if quickly transferred into hospital care. psychological adjustment and community re-integration of individuals who have sustained poly-trauma and blast-related injuries. though surviving. Banerjee. for in previous wars. Kumari and Alreja 60% of blast-injuries result in TBI and TBI has been labeled the “signature injury” in the Global War on Terror. Its highest priority clinical goals are to ensure that blast-exposed veterans receive screenings and evaluation for high frequency “invisible” problems. The injuries has not only increased psychiatric . 2007) and a study has suggested that infantry soldiers’ lasting symptoms like fatigue and even dizziness “could be attributed largely to PTSD and depression. 2008). psychoses and substance abuse may modify the clinical presentation and complicate the management of the underlying medical or surgical condition. Murthy.. a follow-up study of 188 consecutive road accident victims with multiple injuries found that nearly one-fifth experienced an acute stress syndrome. Disabling phobic travel anxiety was present in 14% of road accident victims. A major challenge to treating troops and veterans with TBI and/or PTSD is the fact that these two conditions are hard to distinguish. TBI and major depression are treatable conditions. will never fully regain their physical or mental form. According to a landmark 2008 RAND study. PTSD is strongly associated with a wide array of physical health problems. 2008). about 57 percent of those reporting a probable TBI had not been evaluated for a brain injury. PTSD and other psychiatric problems. 1993). Moreover. As a result. In addition. many troops and veterans have not been screened for neurological and psychological injuries and do not have access to high-quality health care. According to RAND. depression. (Boscarino. It has both clinical and implementation science goals. Lew et al. In some ways. characterized by mood disturbance and horrific memories of the accident.” (Hoge et al. the high incidence of poly-trauma is in fact a sign of medical advancement. Baranyi et al. with the most frequent being PTSD with major depressive disorder (O’Donnell et al.

one of which may be life threatening. 2009). As is well known the Indian Security forces have been almost continuously engaged in LIC operations for the past six decades. 2003). 2001). The complexity and sophistication of tactics and weaponry of the enemy has kept pace with global trends and blast injuries are occurring on a daily basis. Chaudhury et al. During the sixth week of hospitalization. 1991) Somatic Inkblot Series II (SIS II) (Cassell and Dubey. . Carroll Rating Scale for Depression (CRSD) (Carroll et al. In fact only one Indian study assessed PTSD in poly-trauma patients while a few studies have focused on psychological distress following severe limb injuries (Dubey et al. Chaudhury et al. it has not been systematically studied in Indian security forces engaged in LIC operations. 1995). the lack of a comparison group in this study raises the possibility that at least some of the effects may be etiologically unrelated to the injury. Material and Method: The study was conducted at the Orthopedic and Surgical Center of a Tertiary Care Hospital during the period Jan 1999 to Mar 2000 on consecutively admitted male patients with poly-trauma. Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI) (Smets et al. 1983). Though the psychological distress consequent to poly-trauma is expected. after the initial surgical treatment had been completed the patients were individually administered the following rating scales and psychological tests: 1. 4. Despite the evidence from clinical case series for the existence of post-traumatic psychological syndromes in polytrauma victims. 1983). Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) (Gibbs. 2. Poly-trauma was defined as two or more injuries to physical regions or organ systems. 1979). State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) (Spielberger et al. 6. 7. also increased in psychological distress (Li et al. Impact of Events Scale (IES) (Horowitz et al. 8.3% of 601 poly-trauma patients from LIC had PTSD. It is obvious that the identification and treatment of the psychological distress in these patients may not only improve the ease of treatment but also the speed and completeness of the patient’s recovery and help in their rehabilitation. Equal number of age and sex matched normal subjects without any known medical or psychiatric disorders formed the control group. 3. All the subjects were included in the study after obtaining informed consent. Satisfaction with life scale (SWLS) (Pavot et al. 5. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) (Goldberg. 1977. Saldhana et al (1996) reported that 24. 1998. and underwent all the evaluations along with patients. The Sample characteristics are shown in Table 1.Poly-trauma Survivors 41 disability but. The paucity of Indian work in this field prompted to undertake the present investigation. 1972). Socio-demographic data along with the details of the injury were recorded on a specially designed proforma. 1981).

Murthy.59 11. Table 4 represents comparison of response pattern of poly trauma patients and normal control subjects on SIS-II. In addition.44 0.73 2.77 6.9 6.42 Chaudhury. However. Banerjee. using the cut off criteria of the scales significantly higher numbers of poly-trauma patients were identified as cases as compared to controls on the GHQ. the IES identified PTSD in 14 . CRSD.D. All the subjects were engaged in low intensity conflict operations or a brief war. Kumari and Alreja Table 1 Characteristics of Poly-trauma Patients (n=100) and Control Subjects (n=100) Characteristics Age (in years) Mean S.98 6. Discussion: The present study was conducted on a special group of subjects viz.07 0. Though the IES scores of the poly-trauma patients was significantly more than controls.02 0.64 2. Analysis of the scores on the psychological tests (Table 2 and 3) revealed that poly-trauma patients obtained significantly higher scores on GHQ. as seen below. IES and MFI.33 20.D. Education (in Yrs) 12. Range Service (in years) Mean S.D. Chi square est (with Yates correction) and Mann-Whitney U test Results: Demographic characteristics of the poly-trauma patients and control subjects are given in Table 1.772 NS The psychological tests and rating scales were scored as per their scoring manuals and results were tabulated. Hence the results should be interpreted with caution.17 9. No difference was found between the groups on any of the demographic characteristics. missile or bullet injury.92 20-46 30. On the MFI the poly-trauma patients obtained significantly higher scores as compared to the normal controls on all the subscales. some of the results are in agreement with studies conducted in civil hospitals and therefore the results of the present study can be depression with alcohol. The other cause of injury was road traffic accidents. Statistical comparisons were performed using the students ‘t’ test.573 NS Poly-trauma patients Control subjects Significance Mean S. it is also well known that alcohol can cause or aggravate depression. 9.72 6.428 NS 31. the security force personnel in counter-insurgency area. MAST and CRSD but not IES. The commonest cause of injury was blast injury.

000 S Poly-trauma Patients(n=100) Control Subjects(n=100) Significance Level S = Significant.06 7.39 7.37 1. Carroll Rating Scale for Depression.68 41 6.80 0.132 NS 10.Poly-trauma survivors 43 poly-trauma patients and 6 control subjects (difference was not statistically significant).29 34 1.50 3. NS = Not Significant .01 0. 2008).01 0. Hoge et al.248 NS 4. Table 2 Scores on General health Questionnaire.198 NS 37.31 9. This finding is not in agreement with western studies which have highlighted the high prevalence of PTSD in soldiers returning from combat (Hoge et al. 2009). However.01 0. 2007.88 5.63 18 <0.43 8.D.33 11 <0. 2006.33 33. 23.49 7.20 24 2. 2005.522 NS 35.81 0. State Trait Anxiety Inventory and Satisfaction with life scale Tests General health Questionnaire Mean SD >2 Carroll Rating Scale for Depression Mean SD >10 Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test Mean SD >5 State Anxiety Score: Mean SD Trait Anxiety Score Mean SD Satisfaction with life scale Mean S.62 0.71 6.07 5.000 S 2.36 22.09 9 <0.26 35. this finding is in agreement with earlier Indian studies and also with our clinical experience during service in various Indian LIC areas (Chaudhury et al. Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test.62 2.49 3.

06 NS 20 66 42 52 5.00 8.02 7.000 S 0. S = Significant NS = Not Significant 3.20 7.79 3.47 9.000 S 2.09 11.91 3.36 8.02 11.8 Subclinical range Total IES score 9 – 25 Mild range 26 – 43 Moderate range 44 +Severe range >26 MFI General fatigue Mean SD Physical Mean SD Reduced Activity Mean SD Reduced Motivation Mean 9.38 0.00 7.13 Mean 6.000 S 8.84 3.52 3.68 0.36 16.40 6.35 3.000 S SD Mental fatigue Mean S.000 S 12 2 14 6 0 6 <0.13 .001 S Control Subjects(n=100) Significance Level Tests Score 0.06 11.44 Chaudhury.82 0.08 6.70 0.003 S 2. Banerjee.48 Mean 10.51 11. Murthy.38 0 .76 4. Kumari and Alreja Table 3 Score on Impact of Events Scale (IES) and Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI) Poly-trauma Patients(n=100) IES: Intrusive SD Avoidance SD Total SD Interpretation of Mean 6.27 4.11 10.62 2.D.02 0.03 4.

But when corroborated with the animal responses.3 5.7) may suggest sexual anxiety or conflict in their sexual life.1) was significantly more as compared with normal control subjects (M= 9. Findings reveal significantly low sex responses in poly-trauma patients (M= 1. it shows that this reduction in interpersonal interaction may be a transitory condition caused by their temporary physical disability.9 1.1 8.8 11.05 <0.2 P Value NS <0.3 0.Poly-trauma survivors 45 Table 4 SIS-II Indices of Poly-trauma Patients (n=100) and Control Subjects (n=100) SIS II indices Total Number of responses Human response Animal response Anatomical response Sex response Movement response Most typical response Typical response Atypical response Rejection response PA scale Depression scale Hostile & Aggression scale Paranoid scale Poly-trauma patients 61. Anatomical responses given by patients with poly-trauma (M= 14.7 26.1 1. Obtained findings reveal that poly-trauma patients have significantly less human responses (M= 15.6) which suggests disturbed interpersonal relationship. The Most Typical responses (MT) were significantly low in poly-trauma patients (M= 8.05 <0.7) than normal control group (M= 24.5 NS NS NS = Not Significant The analysis of the SIS-II profiles (Table 4) indicates that the poly-trauma patients showed lowered productivity as compared to the normal controls but the difference was not statistically significant.6 3.7) which indicate poor ego strength.1 1.2 1.05 NS <0.2 24.7 Normal controls 63.7 4.3 17.6) as compared to normal controls (M= 5.05 NS NS <0.7 9.2 1. illogical thinking and .1 1.3) which suggest poor self image and preoccupation with internal body organs in patients with polytrauma. The two groups were also found to be similar on animal responses and movement responses which imply that poly-trauma does not restrict their imagination and fantasy and does not cause any stereotypical thinking.6 40.4 14.9 0.05 NS <0.6 8.6 14.3) as compared to normal subjects (M= 14.7 3.9 1.1 0.3 9.05 <0.9 15.

The poly-trauma patients obtained significantly higher scores on the GHQ. depression (41%) and alcohol problems (24%). 2008). One hundred (n=100) consecutive patients with poly-trauma and 100 normal subjects were screened using General Health Questionnaire. State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test. But with early screening and adequate access to psychiatric treatment. CRSD. and a single veteran’s symptoms usually fluctuate over time. Carroll Rating for Depression.1) which is indicative of dysphoric emotion in poly trauma patients which could be due to their poor health. IES and MFI and had a significantly higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders (34). but also may lead to pessimism. irritability. Banerjee. negativism or even self-punishing behavior. In addition the soldier also fears that a history of psychiatric treatment may impede career advancement within the military. No one comes home from war unchanged. patients with polytrauma scored significantly high number of responses on Depression (M= 3. which could jeopardize treatment. Result also indicate that poly-trauma patients have significantly low Typical responses (M= 17. Kumari and Alreja inability to keep up with the demands of society in poly-trauma patients. Satisfaction with life scale and the SIS-II.8) indicate their poor physical health. However. The psychiatric assistance was found to facilitate the treatment processes and recovery of poly-trauma patients. Impact of Events Scale.46 Chaudhury. Military culture plays a significant role in this stigma. the psychological effects of combat are treatable. Pathological Anatomical Scale (PAS) and Paranoia (P). If these symptoms become severe or persistent. The maladaptive behavior may alienate the patient from the caregivers leading to serious management problems and complicating recovery. Murthy. 21 percent of soldiers screening positive for a mental health problem said they avoided treatment because “my leaders discourage the use of mental health services.6) in comparison of normal controls (M = 26. Both the group rejected only a few images indicating no serious psychiatric disturbance in both the groups. Perceived Stress Questionnaire. 2004). those mostly in need of counseling will rarely seek it out (MHAT. . On Pathological scale both the groups scored low number of responses on Hostility and Aggression Scale (HAS). Conclusion: The psychological distress associated with poly-trauma in Indian security force personnel was assessed in the study. Troops returning from combat may experience a wide range of psychological responses. and almost one in three of these troops worry about the effect of a mental health diagnosis on their career (MHAT. they are often diagnosed as either major depression or PTSD. or feelings of isolation. the severity of these symptoms varies widely between individuals. Atypical responses are significantly high in the poly-trauma patients indicating their low social conformity and deviant thought process and emotions from that of the normal subjects.2) than normal controls (M= 1.” Because of these fears. intrusive memories. Even though both PTSD and depression are treatable the stigma associated with psychological injuries is the most serious hurdle to getting Iraq and Afghanistan veterans the mental health care they need (Hoge et al. Many veterans experience some level of sleeplessness. About 50 percent of soldiers and Marines in Iraq who test positive for a psychological problem are concerned that they will be seen as weak by their fellow service members. 2006). Depression and post traumatic symptoms not only cause emotional suffering. anxiety. Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory.

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Editor in Chief. Kapoor S. S.H. Medical Journal Armed Forces India. and Marmar. T. Lushene R. L. Gima. (2008).D. SIS Journal of Projective Psychology and Mental Health for publication in next issue of the journal. Garg A.Poly-trauma survivors 49 Saldhana D. The readers are requested to send their comments to: Prof.(2009). Ph. J. Seal. and Services to Assist Recovery. 49: 7-10. Amool R.. Jacobs GA. American Journal of Public Health 99: 1651-1658 Speilberger CD. T. (1983). Trends and Risk Factors for Mental Health Diagnoses Among Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans Using Department of Veterans Affairs Health Care.” New York: Rand Corporation. Metzler. “Invisible Wounds of War: Psychological and Cognitive Injuries. and Jaycox. Tanielian. Vogg PR. State Trait Anxiety Inventory. K. Bertenthal. Also... Gorsuch RL. K. Their Consequences. A case study is reported in every issue of the Journal. Kochhar HK (1996). Post traumatic stress disorder in poly-trauma cases.R. California: Consulting Psychological Press. please send your case study using projective test for publication in next issue of the journal.H. D. C..S. Maguen. Goel DS. 2002–2008. . Singh.

Amrita Kanchan. visual-motor coordination (Holmes and Stephen. The present study was conducted to prepare a profile of normal Indian people on Human Figure Drawing Test. 1985). & Ment Health (2011) 18 : 50-61 Human Figure Drawings of Normal Indian Adults Nawab Akhtar Khan. Prof & Head. All India Institute of Speech & Hearing. The drawing of human figure was seen by Machover as an ideal vehicle for self expression. Corresponding Author: Amrita Kanchan. Professor. The latter use of the instrument became especially popular with the advent of projective measures and it is now included in psychological test batteries. but researchers have found the test is effective in assessing neurological intactness (Clement et al. Ranchi Institute of Neuropsychiatry and Allied Sciences. From a psychoanalytic perspective then an indirect approach such as inkblots and projective drawing is more effective instrument. Masroor Jahan. cognitive development (Abell et al. Asso. Figures were sophisticated. After screening through GHQ-5.. District Mental Health Program. Human figure drawing is the oldest and most widely used psychological testing techniques. Masroor Jahan & Amool R. The projective drawings help in viewing the inner world. The figure drawings may vary from culture to culture. 1984). One of the central assumptions of this procedure is that the self report and questionnaire have limited use in assessing personality and unconscious mind. Singh Projective analytic theory is based on the assumption that deep and often unconscious feelings and motives may be accessed through various means of self expression. Initially the interpretation of the test was restricted to intellectual aspect of the person. Pathological Indicators . Amrita Kanchan. Psy. Dept. Singh. The work of Machover (1948). Sadar Hospital. 250 normal participants in the age group of 20 to 40 years with minimum education of 10 years were selected from selected districts of three states of India. 1994) and learning disabilities. although in her original presentation she also offered suggestions for its use in the detection of emotional difficulties or personality characteristics. e. 1996. Thus. Human figure drawing is assumed to be a means of self projection. unconscious defenses and conscious resistance. pattern of clothes etc. e-mail: amrita. Department of Clinical Psychology. Though a few researchers have questioned its reliability and validity (Smith and Dumont. Vernier (1952). The figures were analyzed on the basis of specific features such as line quality. and Buck (1948) in the projective field is well known to most clinical psychologists. and Amool R. Gumla.com Key Words: Human Figure Drawing. of Clinical Psychology. Lecturer. placement of figure. Clinical Psychologist. quality of hairs. a person from rural background of Indian culture may draw figures with traditional dresses whereas person from Nawab Akhtar Khan. Participants were instructed to draw a male and a female human figure on a blank piece of paper. the test is widely used and accepted. Various studies reveal the indicators suggestive of various clinical groups. Hairs were appropriately groomed with clear indication of waist. 1997). The results reveal that most of the drawings were placed on the top.. Hammer (1958). but there is scarcity of studies revealing the profile of normal Indian people. Normal Indian Adult. Goodenough (1926) was one of the first to use this technique as a non-verbal measure of the intelligence of children and feebleminded adults. Manasagangotri.kanchan@rediffmail.g. 1995. Handler. It had heavy or reinforced line. Ranchi (India). Mysore.50 SIS J. Riethmiller and Handler. Proj. position of hands and legs. The popularity of the test is not questionable due to its easy administration and scoring. Kanke.

Human Figure Drawings of Normal Indian Adults 51 urban background may draw figures with western outfits. or who had suffered any traumatic event in last 3 months. General Health Questionnaire-5: It was originally developed by Goldberg and colleagues and was adopted for Indian population by Shamsunder et al. domicile.The short version is less time consuming and better screening instrument. All the three states are culturally diverse in language. . traditions as well as clothing style. GHQ-5 is a short version of the General Health Questionnaire. which consists of 5 items.8% and female: 43.4%). 1949) was adopted.4%). hearing or visual impairment or severe physical illness in the near past. education. but there is lack of studies on normal Indian population. The present study is a modest attempt to establish the norm of normal Indian adults. Sample characteristics revealed that most of the participants were falling in the age range of 20-30 years (69. (1986). Individuals with any significant physical problem. Objective: The present study was conducted to find out the response pattern of normal Indian adult on human figure drawing test that differentiates between the normal response pattern and emotional/ pathological indicators. Human Figure Drawing Test: Instructions and scoring procedure of Human Figure Drawing Test (Mitchell et al. Tools: Socio-demographic & Clinical Data Sheet: A semi-structured proforma developed especially for the study. Jharkhand (Ranchi. illiterate and who were uncooperative were excluded from the study. food. Uttar Pradesh (Kanpur district). sex. i. and questions related to co-morbid psychiatric condition. marital status etc.e. having a history of seizure/ severe head injury or any other neurological problems. 1993) and Draw a Person Test (Machover. employment. Material and Methods: Sample: Two hundred and fifty (250) normal individuals falling in the age range of 18 and above.2%) and belonged to middle socio-economic status (85. graduate (75. Jamshedpur and Gumla districts) and Karnataka (Mysore district). Once the first drawing was complete. Most of the earlier studies have highlighted pathological signs or indicators of emotional maladjustment. literate and cooperative were taken from three states of India..2%).2%) belonging to either sex (male: 56. The patients were given an A4 size blank sheet and instructed to “Draw a picture of a person”. majority being single (74.2%) of urban background (54. It consisted of questions covering all areas of socio-demographic details like age.

bare feet without clothes. necklace. full grown beard).52 Khan. reinforced. small. anklet). legs as well as. very few had drawn tense affect. laughing. It was also found that many individuals had drawn the figure of opposite sex first. accessories male-figure (belt. naked. eyelashes. primitive appearance. tension. developmentally indistinguishable. center). beard (clean shave. geometrical figure. clothes (omitted. Body curves are also not very prominent in the figures and eyelashes are not drawn in most of the figures.female figure (earrings. . arms folded. ears. figure age appropriate (less than/ more than/ equal than to the persons’ current age). pointed feet. omissions of body parts and pathological indicators in the figures. nostrils shown. hairs (omitted. long feet. casuals). sketching. average). waist emphasis. hands behind back. large ears. standing with support). moving. decorated. masculine female drawn by female. long boots. without heels). accessories. side view of the front posture.girl (traditional outfit. size (large. stick figure. legs. posture-profile (front. The table also reveals the position of the figures which were mostly in standing position in front view in a relaxed manner. posture –arms (arms pressed to the body. spectacles. transparency. namely. euthymic). relaxed position). the overall appearance of the figures drawn. partially clothed.general (handbag. tie). profile-body (standing. body built (lean. moustaches. depressed. eye lashes shown. hefty. The results reveal that most of the figures were of small size (4 inches). genderless. mobile. watch. costume-boy (formals. ring. trunk. fingers. sitting. chicken like feet. athletic. top. large dominant male drawn. mouth. petal like fingers. legs and feet. placement (right. Jahan and Singh the subjects were given another A4 size blank sheet and requested to “Draw a person of the opposite sex”. costume. Results: Table 1 reveals the size. incomplete figure drawn. Light shading was also present in many of the figures. Kanchan. shading. side. heavy. opposite sex drawn first. hands clenched. body curve (presence/absence). The results reveal that most of the individuals had drawn figures with average body built with legs and hands posed in relaxed manner. stereotyped). arms. misery. posture –tension (tense. feet). shoes (omitted. appropriate). The drawings of the individuals were analyzed on the basis of 54 dimension classified specifically for the study. tremulous. placed either at the top or at the center and drawn with heavy lines. spiked fingers. thin arms and legs. pupils. disheveled. placement and line quality of the drawings of the normal individuals. western outfit). emotion (smiling. Also almost all the figures were intact with little or no omission. position of arms. large dominant female drawn. line quality (light. teeth shown. accessories. The results reveal that most of the individuals had either drawn figure with euthymic affect or smiling expression. fine quality). waist not indicated. blank outlines drawn. heeled shoes. others). grossly disproportionate. left. angry. bottom. bare feet with clothes. blank. childlike figure. hairs. round sticker or vermillion on forehead. arms widespread. bangles. Table 3 shows the emotions of the figures drawn. neck. Table 2 highlights the body built. hands on waist). simple. hands. Their outfits were appropriate with both western and traditional style and hairs were well groomed. this is particularly found in females (79%). average). extreme asymmetry. shoulders. Only a few people had omitted hands. relaxed). nose pin. genitals shown. posture -legs (legs pressed together. effeminate male drawn by male. omission (eyes. back side). disconnected body parts.

Human Figure Drawings of Normal Indian Adults 53 Table 1 Major Drawing Features Related To Position and Posture of the Figure Dwawing Features Size Small Average Large Placement Right Left Top Bottom Center Line Quality Light Heavy Reinforced Fine quality Shading No Shading Light Shading Heavy Shading Tension Tense Relaxed Body Position Standing Sitting Moving Standing Sitting Profile Front Side Side View on Front Profile Back Frequenc 58.8% 18.8% 4.8% 45.8% 16.8% 5.4% 64.4% .4% 2.4% 32.6% 6% 40.4% 95.6% 44% 56% 95.4% 83.2% 2.8% 20.6% 10.2% 33.2% 2.8% 40.2% 2.2% 0.4% 9.2% 2.

54 Khan, Kanchan, Jahan and Singh

Table 2 Features Related to Position of Major Body Parts and their Appearance
Dwawing Features Body Built Frequency Lean Hefty Athletic Average Arms Pressed to Body Hands Behind Back Arms Folded Arms Widespread Hands on Waist Hands Relaxed Legs Outfit Pressed Together Relaxed Simple Decorated Partially Clothed Naked Girl’s Costume Boys’s Costume Shoes Traditional Western Formal Casual High Heeled Shoes Simple Shoes Bare feet with Clothes Hairs Beard Well Groomed Clean Shaved 40% 4% 8.4% 47.6% 22% 6% 10.8% 8% 4% 41.2% 5.6% 79.2% 52% 20.8% 9.6% 9.2% 40% 45.6% 33.6% 51.2% 29.2% 28.8% 18.4% 88.4% 85.6%

An important feature found in most of the figures was related to accessories. Almost all the individuals had drawn personal accessories like earrings (31.6%), necklace (19.6%), bangles (25.6%), rings (3.6%), nose pin (5.6%), bindi (round colored sticker on fore head, 40%) and anklet (3.2%) in girls. In male figures belts (36%) and tie (7.2%) was prominent. Some of the individual have even added handbags (6%), mobile (1.2%), watch (5.6%), spectacles (6%). Very limited individuals had drawn sceneries, bicycles, umbrella etc.

Discussion:
The overall results of the study reveal that normal Indian adult’s had drawn human figures with appropriate posture, profile and body built.

Human Figure Drawings of Normal Indian Adults 55

Table 3 Additional Features Found Significant in the Drawing
Drawing Features Emotions Euthymic Happy Tense Anger Age Appropriate Less Than Equal Than More Than Omission Hands Legs Feet Body Curves Hands Eye Lashes Pathologic Sign Gross Disproportion Extreme Asymmetry Primitive Experience Bizarre Drawing Internal Organ Shown Stick Figure Geometrical Figure Disconnected Body Parts Developmentally Indistinguishable Genderless Childlike Thin Arm and Leg Blank Outline Opposite Sex Drawn First Frequency 35.6% 34% 11.2% 3.6% 26.8% 57.6% 15.6 18.4% 14% 18.8% 67.6% 18.4% 84.8% 0 0 0 0 0 1.2% 2% 0.4% 0 1.6% 1.2% 0.4% 0 59.6%

Most of the individuals had drawn figures of 4-5 inches. Generally, figures less the 5 inches (Mitchell et al., 1993) are characterized as small in nature and is not considered to be a healthy indicator and sometimes may be pathological in nature (Hammer, 1965; Urban, 1963), but the results reveal that 4-5 inches figure was mostly drawn by the normal Indian adults; therefore this aspect has to be kept in mind while interpreting the figures drawn by the individuals. With respect to Indian population, figures less than 4 inches should be considered as small in nature. The results also highlight that the normal individuals had also placed the figures either at the

56 Khan, Kanchan, Jahan and Singh

top of the paper or at the center. Top placement of figure is sign of optimism (Machover, 1949) and high level of aspiration (Buck, 1964; Jolles, 1964; Levy, 1950) but is also recognized as a sign of fantasy (Jolles, 1971; Urban, 1963). The probable reason for the top placement of the figures could be that the sample of the study mainly comprised of individuals between the age group of 20-30 years, who are supposed to have high aspiration level and are more imaginative and creative in nature and at times may have difficulty in attaining goals. Therefore, other interpretations for top placement like aloofness; fantasy etc. should be done carefully and should incorporate the analysis of other features of the drawings. The figures were also drawn with fine quality line with no sketching. It was also observed that in most of the figures individuals had shown light shading particularly on clothes rather than on body parts. The intention behind light shading could be to present the figure in more appreciable and attractive manner. Heavy shading in turn was almost negligible in the figures. Also there was no indication of heavy shading on body parts. The shading is considered to be a sign of anxiety (Handler and Reyher, 1964; Exner, 1962), but the result of the study shows that light shading can also be a way to draw figures in appreciable manner. However, heavy shading carries special significance and may be considered as a sign of anxiety. Therefore, light shading should not be considered as a sign of anxiety especially with Indian population. The figures were drawn mainly in front and standing profile in a relaxed manner. Figures in side view, back view, sitting or moving profile were very rare. Side view of the figures is thus not a feature of healthy drawing. Earlier studies have also revealed that the side view of figures may indicate evasiveness and paranoia (Machover, 1949) and withdrawal/oppositional tendencies (Jolles, 1971). Most of the figures were also of average body built, without concern on sexual characteristics of the figures which suggest their fair body image. Studies suggest that many obese individuals draw large figure than the person with normal weight (Bailey et al., 1970) and similarly subgroup of females with extra concern with their body parts and sexually abused females, have shown more concern on sexual characteristic in their drawings (Chantler et al., 1993; Van Hutton, 1994). Thus, the excessive body built in drawing the figure is considered to be an unhealthy sign. The figures were also characterized by hands and legs placed in relaxed manner. Figures with hand behind back or pressed to the body were negligible. No clenching of fists was observed. The outfits of the figures were appropriate to the norms of the Indian society as the females had well groomed hairs and male’s figures showed mostly clean shaved. The individuals had incorporated both traditional and western outfits for girls and casual outfits for boys. Omission of clothes or shoes was not seen in any figure. Transparencies of clothes were absent and partial omission of clothes was also very limited. Some individuals had drawn quiet decorated clothes and some had drawn simple outfits. The naked figures, partially clothed figures, transparent clothes and omission of shoes are considered as unhealthy indicators and these were not present in these figures. Almost all the individuals had added many personal accessories like bangles, necklace, tie, mobile etc. but the extraneous objects like bicycle, building, sun etc. were very rare. Mit-chell et al. (1993) in their manual has given two categories of objects as extraneous object. The

C. An incomplete figure is also an unhealthy indicator. The individuals had also drawn figures which represented their own age and may project their self. Journal of clinical psychology. position of hands and legs. The results also indicate that the individuals did not focus on body curves and most have omitted eye lashes in the figures. Omission of hands is interpreted as sign of inadequacy (Buck. 50. The affect/ emotion is also considered while analyzing the figure. and Johnson.M. spiked fingers. pattern of clothes etc. The figures are analyzed for healthy and unhealthy features and discussed in the paper. S. Presence of extraneous objects is considered as a sign of obsessive or narcissistic tendencies (Mitchell et al. The results of the study also indicate that most of the individuals had drawn the figure of opposite sex first especially Indian females.. 1966. A. presence of effeminate male drawn by male and masculine female drawn by female may indicate conflicting gender role. Omission of major body parts was not found. 1993). Heiberger. building etc and the second category includes adornments. quality of hairs. An appropriate analysis may lead to both healthy as well as unhealthy signs. Presence of figures without waist or excessive waist is unhealthy indicator.. Since. 1971) and omission of feet and legs is considered as a sign of immobility (Urban. a very limited number of individuals had omitted these body parts. Conclusion: The present study was conducted on 250 normal male and female subjects to prepare the profile of normal Indians on Human Figure Drawing Test. legs and feet. . but a few individuals had omitted hands. The analysis of figures suggests that personal accessories are drawn by almost all the individuals – a healthy signs in Indian population.E. Drawing of the opposite sex has been associated with strong emotional attachment to a member of the opposite sex. The study reveals that smiling affect or euthymic affect is a sign of healthy personality. particularly in Indian family (Machover. The probable reason for the presence of this feature in Indian females might be because majority of Indian females are more dependent on male both emotionally and financially in comparison to males who mostly run the family financially. 1963). (1994). Presence of large ears.Human Figure Drawings of Normal Indian Adults 57 first category includes non human objects such as car. The results also indicate that none of the pathological sign was found in the index study. Cognitive evaluation of young adult by means of human figure drawings: An empirical investigation of two methods. placement of figure. Hairs were appropriately groomed with clear indication of waist. None of the individuals in index study had drawn figures with large dominant male/large dominant female and therefore. 1949). petal like fingers and chicken like feet is also considered as unhealthy. The results reveal that most of the drawings were placed on the top. They were in the age group of 20 to 40 years with minimum education of 10th standard. it may not be regarded as a sign of any major diagnostic feature. nostrils shown. The figures were analyzed on the basis of specific features such as line quality. Jolles. teeth shown. 900-905. long feet pointed feet. presence of these should be analyzed appropriately. References: Abell. J. Omission of eye lashes may not be considered as unhealthy sign. Also.

and Stephen.). 392-397. SIS Journal of Projective Psychology and Mental Health. Handler. (1993). J. J. Boyon. Levy. 617-618.E. & Kumar. Major psychological assessment instruments. 17.B.F. Kanchan. 269-271. Mohanty. Jahan and Singh Bailey. Measurement of intelligence by drawings. 165-216. (2004) A comparison of human figure drawing among schizophrenics. Psychological Techniques in Diagnosis & Evaluation. 31. The House Tree Person Technique: Revised Manual. normals. and Derouesne. 135-161. Figure Drawing as a projective test. A comparison of the human figure drawings of psychoneurotic.M. L. Consistency of edging on the Bender-Gestalt. In E. K. Springfield. R. Jolles. World Book Co. Lbger. 271-279.Newmark (ED. 1926. Marchan. I.). (1971). (1949). (1964).R.. Personality Projection in the Drawing of the Human Figure: A Method of Personality Investigation. Hammer.Newmark (ED. Yonkers-on-Hudson. S. Permagon press. J.JP. Perceptual and Motor skills. Journal of Consulting Psychology. (1960). Kumar.M.165-216. manics and control groups. 117. C. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services. Springfield. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. In C. Hammer. In E. The effect of stress on the draw-a-person test.). L.). J. 288-319. and subjects experiencing experimentally induced fear. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.R.. (1958). character disturbances. Holmes. Levy... E. P. and Payne. Memory for Designs. T. The clinical use of the draw –a-person test (DAP). Monti. Machover.L. (1965). S. and Draw-a-Person tests. C. F. Acting Out. . L.S. Child Abuse and Neglect. M. I. 11 : 47-51. 349-364. Shinedling.S. A catalogue for the quantitative interpretation of H-T-P.C. (1950). (1964). I. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services. L. 8:3.. F. Major psychological assessment instruments Boston: Allyn & Bacon.The clinical application of projective drawings. and Giffin. V. Weissman (Eds. and Martin. Hammer (Ed. New York: Grune & Stratton. IL: Thomas. Acting out and its prediction by projective drawing assessment. Abt & S. (1985). 111: Charles C Thomas. The Clinical application of Projective Drawings. Handler. .). (1966). A catalogue for the quantitative interpretation of H-T-P (Revised).. & Reyher. In L. IL: Thomas. (1950). Kahn.B. J. Hammer (Ed. (1962). M. (1970). Pelco. Journal of Projective Techniques. 26. International Psychogeriatrics. S. The psychological evaluation of sexual abuse using the Lousiville Behaviour Checklist and Human Figure Drawing. 259-264. Goodenough. In C. P.. IL: Thomas. 28. C. Chantler. L. Jolles.D. Sharma. (1996). Obese individual’s perception of body image. Handler. Buck. D. Exner. Springfield.. Studies on Dementia Utilization of the Draw a Person Test in the Elderly. W. F. 83-112. S. (1985) The Clinical Use of the Draw –A-Person Test (DAP). (1984). Springfield.58 Khan. E. Clement. The Journal of Psychology. New York.J.N.

T. N. R. D. Mitchell. Handedness as a determinant of left-right placement in human figure drawings. (1980).J. 69 (3).J. Appendix 1 1. 799-812. V. (1952) Projective test productions: 1. L. & Gorham. 537-538.. 3.E.. Projective drawings. J. K. (1993). V.. 139-152. McElhaney. Urban. Left. 34. Trent. Los Angeles: Western Psychological services. Heavy. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. Center) Line Quality (Light.J. Bottom. Problematic Methods and unwarranted conclusions in DAP research: Suggestions for improved Research Procedures. 28(3). Relationship among three components of self concept and same-sex and opposite sex human figure drawings. Smith. and Shanmugham. Clinical Psychological Assessment of the Human Figure Drawing. S. and McArthur. Psychological rehabilitation. 30.Human Figure Drawings of Normal Indian Adults 59 Machover. IL: Thomas. and Liebert. & Dumont F. 44. Archive General Psychiatry. A. and Handler.. 2. Western Psychological Services. (1997). Springfield. and Beutall. D. Overall. New York: Grune & Stratton. Van Hutton. (1974).H. House Tree person and Draw a person as a measure of abuse in children: A Quantitative scoring System. Sriram. Journal of Clinical Psychology. Perceptual and Motor Skills. J. 3. Size (Large. 5. M. R.: Charles C Thomas. Van Dyne. An impairment rating scale for human figure drawing. Springfield. Small. Rosenthal. 459-475. (1962).B. (1995).. (1948) Personality projection in the drawing of the human figure. (1969). V. 217-219. Top. Fine Quality) . William. The Draw A Person Catalogue For Interpretative Analysis. Odessa. Shamsunder.G. The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Muraliraj. T. Validity of a short 5-item version of The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ).G. R. A cautionary study: Unwarranted interpretations of the drawa-person test. Reinforced.T. 23. R. (1978). Vernier.F. 758. S. K. M. Journal of Personality assessment. M. Average) Placement (Right. W. Indian Journal of Psychiatry. Tremulous. 53. Journal of clinical Psychology.G. Journal of personality assessment. (1981). Riethmiller. Movement and body image: A preliminary study. California. Human figure drawing of schizophrenic and normal adult: change following administration of lysergic acid. 298-303. W. J. C. H.R. Machover. 111. C. 10.C and Head.M. and Frank. McLachlan. (1986). 405-407. Human Figure Drawing Test. FL: Psychological Assessment Resources. and Carsleadon. (1963).A. (1960). (1994).

Disheveled. 25. 30. 17. Spectacles. Appropriate) Beard (Clean Shave. 32. Transparency. 10. Naked. 27. 14. Hefty. Standing With Support) Body Built (Lean. Heeled Shoes. Moving. 12. Nose Pin. Sitting. 11. Jahan and Singh 4. 29. 33. 22. Sketching Shading Posture –Tension (Tense. Hands Behind Back.Girl (Traditional Outfit. Western Outfit) Costume-Boy (Formals. 5. 24. round sticher on forehead. Athletic. Ring) Accessories Male-Figure (Belt. Decorated. Moustaches. Casuals) Waist Not Indicated Opposite Sex Drawn First Waist Emphasis Large Ears Nostrils Shown Long Feet Pointed Feet Eye Lashes Shown Teeth Shown Spiked Fingers Petal Like Fingers . Bare Feet Without Clothes. Earrings. Full Grown Beard) Costume. 6. 13. Arms Widespread. Watch. 21. Relaxed) Posture –Arms (Arms Pressed To The Body. Necklace.60 Khan. Relaxed Position) Posture-Profile (Front. Kanchan. Partially Clothed. Tie) Accessories. 28. Stereotyped) Shoes (Omitted. 19. 16. Arms Folded. Side View Of The Front Posture. Average) Body Curve (Presence/Absence) Clothes (Omitted. others) Hairs (Omitted. 31. 26. 9. 18. Long Boots. 20.Female Figure (Vermillion. 8. Mobile. Bangles. Simple.General (Handbag. Back Side) Profile-Body (Standing. Bare Feet With Clothes. 23. Without Heels) Accessories. 15. Hands On Waist) Hands Clenched Posture -Legs (Legs Pressed Together. 7. Side.

Eyelashes. 53. 54. 46. Misery. Euthymic) .Human Figure Drawings of Normal Indian Adults 61 34. Ears. Arms. Feet) Large Dominant Male Drawn Large Dominant Female Drawn Effeminate Male Drawn By Male Masculine Female Drawn By Female Figure Age Appropriate (Less Than/ More Than/ Equal Than To The Persons current Age) Incomplete Figure Drawn Blank Outlines Drawn Primitive Appearance Disconnected Body Parts Childlike Figure Developmentally Indistinguishable Genitals Shown Grossly Disproportionate Extreme Asymmetry Genderless Stick Figure Geometrical Figure Thin Arms And Legs Emotion (Smiling. 51. 47. 39. 52. 37. Hands. 48. 49. Shoulders. 40. Pupils. 50. Fingers. Mouth. Blank. 43. 44. Tension. 38. 41. 36. Chicken Like Feet Omission (Eyes. Legs. Trunk. Depressed. Angry. Neck. Hairs. Laughing. 42. 45. 35.

and Rejection of Images. 1996) Heroin and Brown Sugar (Mitra and Mukhopadhyay.62 SIS J. Kumar et al. Kalpana Srivastava and Bankey L. 2003. Of eight analyzed common indices. Animal. of Psychiatry. Mania and Depression (Kumar. Bhattacharya. these subjects projected significantly more responses depicting reproductive and sexual symbols. 2004.com Key Words: SIS imagery. but not for unrelated body parts such as heart and lungs. Typical/Good Form. Anchorage. Cassell and Dubey (2009) presented an earlier unpublished study completed in 1978 with the SIS-I. 2010. L. Sex. Most Typical/ Popular. The scores were converted into percent scores taking total number of responses as denominator and product moment correlations were computed on these transformed scores. Pimpri. Police Personnel (Dubey and Dubey. the correlation coefficients were significant on Total Number of Reponses. it has not been specifically tested on patients with sexual problems i. Bipolar Depression (Shyam et al.Chronic male Schizophrenics (Kumar et al. Sexual Inadequecy . Pune 411040. Kalpana Srivastava. As compared to a control group of 37 women. However. Psy. It used a content analysis scoring system to quantify projective responses in a group of 13 women suffering from Premenstrual Dysphoric Syndrome (PMDD). Saldanha. Movement. Proj. Militants (Saldanha. 2007. 2010a). (Psy) Prof.2003). 2009.2010. AK 99507(USA)Email: bldubey@gmail. M. L. statistically significant differences were found for such sexual related anatomical responses. DPM. Kumar and Kumar (2009) compared common indices of SIS-I and Rorschach on a group of 50 normal subjects. The SIS-I has been used widely by researchers on a variety of populations such as Opiate addicts (Mukhopadhyay et al. and Bankey L. inadequate penile erection for a satisfactory sexual interaction with females and premature ejaculation. Based upon chi squared analysis. M. Cassell and Dubey (2004) summarized three cases using the original 12-card form of the SIS. 2000) Normal.. & Head.Dubey. Human. of Psychiatry. 2005).D. 4406 Forrest Road. Dept. Dept.Findings of the study are discussed in the paper.. of Psychiatry. 2009). Schizophrenia (Mohapatra et al. Persons with sexual dysfunction are basically shy to disclose their problems to a clinician. The second case introduced the potentially new diagnostic Dr (Brig) D. Psychosexual Projection. Scientist “F”. Director. Dept.. Pune 411018. Prof. Normal adults and Children (Jain et al. Dr DY Patil Medical College. & Ment Health (2011) 18 : 62-68 SIS-I Profile of Psychosexual Dysfunction Daniel Saldanha. 40 normal individuals and 40 cases with psychosexual dysfunction were administered SIS -I. Kumar et al. Ph. Kandhari et al. 2009a) and various case studies with sexual dysfunctions(Cassell and Dubey. Somatic inkblot tests are useful to address not only these issues but can be used effectively during therapy sessions as well. Neurotics and Psychotic patients (Pershad et al 1997). the resultant sensory feedback lowers the perceptual threshold for visualizing SIS cardiac content. 2001. The first case explored the notion that when the cardiovascular system is activated by exercise or emotional stress.1996.D. 2001). Bhattacharya.e. Dubey SIS-I has been used by a number of researchers on a variety of population. 2006). 2005.D. Scoring was done according to the original guidelines in “Body symbolism and the Somatic Ink blot Series” by Wilfred A Cassell (Cassell 1980). Atypical. 2002). Armed Forces Medical College.

paranoid schizophrenia and undifferentiated schizophrenia (N=25 in each group) and a group of age matched normal controls (N=25) were individually tested on SIS-II.SIS-I Profile of Psychosexual Dysfunction 63 category “Body Phobia” and illustrates how during deep relaxation. Freud’s emphasis on child’s perception of the body and Oedipal complex is based on the idea that children from very young age are strongly attracted sexually to the body of parent of the opposite sex. The SIS was able to identify deep seated conflicts which patients were unable to uncover through conventional therapy. 1998. Rathee and Singh (1996) administered Somatic Inkblot Series-I to 75 Normal Army Subjects (35 Male and 40 Female). Savage (2001) administered SIS-I to three patients who were not responding with medical treatment. phobic reaction to female genitalia or as Psychosomatic therapists speak of “Organ vulnerability” fears under stress. SIS-I in this respect is an excellent tool to unearth the hidden castration anxiety. and found that female subjects gave more responses and male subjects rejected more cards. The direct and symbolic imagery projected provided new insights enriching those obtained with standard clinical interviews. et al. Cassell. If the mind body integration is not optimally established. The case history illustrated that the SIS is a very effective as a psycho diagnostic tool and therapeutic aid. It revealed how psychotic patients experiencing high sensory feedback from tachycardia become unduly conscious of the heart and develop related somatic delusions. Savage (2003) further administered SIS and Hypnotic relaxation in a case of Child after the traumatic experience of the divorce of his parents. Once the physical causes for sexual dysfunction are ruled out. Pandey et al (2003) reported the diagnostic utility of sex responses with extended quantitative scoring criteria. The protocols were scored for 1) Sex responses on sex-images. 2002). the Child learns to be comfortable with information pertaining to the body and overall mental functioning to get over this fear. The third case examined the relationship of body consciousness. . due consideration should be given to underlying psychological causes. The male child develops primitive fear that his father will physically assault him which in turn causes body anxiety focused on the genitals. Cassell (2005) studied four case histories to illustrate how the SIS can provide important information regarding violent fantasies (Cassell and Dubey. 2) Sex responses on non-sex images and 3) Non-sex responses on sex images. it may lead to the development of various body perceptual disturbances. SIS stimulated imagery can provide an effective Cognitive Behavioral treatment aid. Female subjects gave more of Animal responses and male subjects gave more sexual responses. the “castration anxiety”. In an optimal environment. anxiety neurosis. Analysis revealed that partitioning of sex responses on sex and non-sex images provided diagnostically more rich information compared to the conventional scoring of total sex responses. The therapist was able to help the patient to resolve his underlying conflict of his perceived rejection by father. Three groups of psychiatric patients viz. Related to this is the jealous competition with the parent of the same sex. The usefulness of therapeutic tool of reframing along with hypnotic relaxation was also demonstrated with the help of case studies. and heart rate in newly hospitalized patients of Schizophrenia. ‘Sex responses on non-sex images was found to be diagnostically redundant component and responsible for lowering the diagnostic efficacy of total sex responses.

The Somatic Inkblot series-I has 11 scoring indices such as Total number of Responses (R).Movement Responses(M). Three are exclusively red (10-12) and nine are achromatic (9. HAS & P) The responses to SIS-I are quantitatively scored and compared against the established norms to understand the existence of any deviation. Rejection of Images (Rej) and Pathological Responses (PAS.49. Family Type and Education (Table 1). Cassell and Dubey. 1980. Material and Methods: The study was carried out in a large tertiary care hospital in Northern India. other 10 scoring indices were taken into consideration for this study. The results obtained were statistically analyzed.46 P=0. The SIS-I consist of 20 inkblot images. Animal Responses (A). Bhattacharya.46 P=0. 2002). Most of the researchers combine both quantitative as well as qualitative approach for the interpretation of a given protocol.91 P=0. 13-20). They were administered SIS –I in one sitting.33. D. marital status. Anatomical Responses (At). somatization of anxiety if any and also to explore if there are any unique responses which can be attributed to sexual dysfunction. Except pathological responses.Typical Responses (T). NS 0. Eight of them are black and red (Serial no 1-8). NS 0. To understand the different psychological attributes it is necessary to understand the combination of two or more variables. Atypical Responses (AT). The normal adults were screened and those who had any medical or surgical related illnesses were excluded from the study. The images provide enough anatomical structures to evoke spontaneous responses of naming body parts or colors. Srivastava and Dubey Interpretation of responses of the individuals to the card form SIS-I is both quantitative and qualitative. Sex Responses (Sex). In the same way those patients with medical problems as well as organic basis for their sexual dysfunction were excluded.40 Normal adults and 40 patients with sexual dysfunction were included in the study. Both were very well matched for age. Table 1 Demographic Profile of Normal and Psychosexual Dysfunction Subjects Variables Age in Years Marital Status Family Type Education Normal(n=40) 26-40 Married Unmarried Nuclear Joint 10 standard 12 &Under Graduate Psychosexual Dysfunction(n=40) 20-44 15 25 34 6 29 11 18 22 36 4 25 15 0. The period of the study extended from 2008 to 2010. The present inquiry was undertaken to study the nature of preoccupation with sex. Results and Discussion: Both the normal and patient (Index) cases were male.49. NS X P . Most Typical Responses (MT).Human Responses (H).64 Saldanha. The scoring was done as per the norms in the original protocols in “Body Symbolism and The Somatic Inkblot series” (Cassell.

Lacerated and bleeding Vagina etc.66 5. It is understandable that a person with sexual inadequacy in whatever form will have underlying anxiety to perform and failure thereof will result in a psychological conflict.79 6.08 1.73 1.92 14.66 5.69 P value Sig Sig NS Sig NS NS Sig Sig Sig Sig These are specifically seen in human.Value 15. animal and sex which are significant in this study. card VI (Seeing female sex . This shows the relative somatization of sexual feelings on the female simulated external genitalia perceived by the index cases on SIS-I.90 5.53 2.34 25. headless blood splattered body on card XII.90 Dysfunction(n=40) t. Most of them gave sex responses on card IV(Given as a female gestalt is normal .38 2.75 0.56 6.82 2.31 1.45 2.13 7. They genuinely felt the need of therapy for their dysfunction. In card VII even though they saw the female genitalia some said a deer is trapped inside the vagina of a female.02 42.98 2-15 Significance Level Mean 1. The range of sex responses from the normal to the index shows much variation.19 7.90 5.e.16 3.40 1. They clearly saw female genitalia in Card XIV without any body parts and in the Card XIII they saw body parts like buttocks and perineal area surrounding the female genitalia.34 3.70 1.95 0.37 20.63 4. but seeing female sex organs perse is not usual).25 3.38 1-8 Psychosexual SD 1.00 2.42 3.13 16. This can also be interpreted as inability to perform sexual function because of being ‘trapped” by sexual dysfunction in index cases.04 5.40 1.20 1. Table 2 Response Pattern of Normal and Psychosexual subjects on SIS-I Indices Normal (n=40) Mean Human Responses (H) Animal Responses (A) Anatomical Responses(At) Sex Responses(Sex) Movement Responses (M) Most Typical Responses (MT) Typical Responses (T) Atypical Responses (AT) Rejection of Images (Rej) Total Responses ( R ) Responses Range 3.19 40.33 9. Although there is a relationship between sexual and aggressive behaviors one would have expected some responses suggestive of aggression i.41 4.07 1.32 6.79 5. The sex responses are glaring. “Trapped dear inside…” connotes wishful thinking to have proximity and close relationship which is denied due to impotency.29 SD 2.25 6.98 0.SIS-I Profile of Psychosexual Dysfunction 65 The pattern of responses has been reflected in Table 2 which shows some interesting features in index cases compared to the normal adults.66 12.75 1.43 5.34 1. but no responses were given by the index cases. Almost all the index cases felt quite comfortable with Card XIV and to a lesser extent with card XIII and Card VII.

L. Anchorage. The SIS-I is a good tool to compare the effects of treatment with the pre-morbid state by a re-test.Psy & Mental Health .99-106. References: Cassell. W A.Proj.12: 2. B. Alaska. Conclusion: SIS-I provides valuable insights to a clinician to understand the underlying anxiety status of an individual suffering from sexual dysfunction which can be effectively addressed with psychotherapy and medication. W. .These responses along with responses on the other female sex organ evoking cards VII. and Dubey. Srivastava and Dubey organ is not normal). A. SIS J. In that he comes to a conclusion that Factor I consisting of Atypical responses. Cassell. Cassell. (2003) Interpreting Inner World through Somatic Imagery Manual of Somatic Inkblot series. Factor II represents the latent trait of “Emotional maturity” characterized by more movement. & Mental Health. 5:87-104. The study agrees with the third dimension as there is clear indication of reaction to stress as evidenced by higher number of total responses and lower rejection of images.XIII. Psy. and Dubey. Kumar (2009) commenting on factor structure of SIS in adults concludes that there are three factors which clearly indicate the strength of the responses. (1980) Body Symbolism and the Somatic Inkblot Series. A (2005) Assessing Suicidal/Homicidal Impulses with the SIS.. aggression and frustration”. Human. L.XIV is seen as preoccupation with female sex. In the present study the Typical responses are more than the Atypical responses which agrees with the “original thinking” in Factor I. XIII and XIV was also expected but there were no such rejections in index cases which show that even though they suffered from sexual dysfunction. W. there were no inhibitions to discuss their problems of sexual dysfunction. Somatic Inkblot center. Now the question arises as to where does Sex responses fit in. It also showed that there were no signs of castration anxiety. W. Whether the sex responses are independent of these clusters? As the Sex responses in index cases are statistically significant it can be concluded that “SIS-I brings out the hidden sex impulses to the surface”. Proj. Cassell. Whether numerous sex responses given by the index cases are due to their impoverished sex drive because of their preoccupation with female sex can be designated an independent Factor IV or can it be merged with Factor III will require further scrutiny by research and validation. Alaska 99501.Card XVI (seeing a female sex organ again on this card is not normal). Bhattacharya. Aurora Publishing Co. Strangely there is no comment on the sex responses.213 West Sixth Avenue. SIS J. Rejection of the cards VII.(1998) Mental Disorders Triggered by Exposure to Violent Imagery in the Media and in Electronic Games. Anatomy response and less Animal responses.A. Animal responses are significantly higher in the present study which shows “emotional immaturity. Suite 8 Anchorage. B. Typical responses and Most Typical responses suggest individual’s original thinking.66 Saldanha. Factor III represents the dimension of “reaction to stress” by higher total number of responses (R) and lower image rejection.

and Kumar. Psy.R. Proj. Kumar. Psy. Kumar. Kandhari. B. Health. SIS J. of Proj.R. (2010a) Development of a Comprehensive Scoring System for SIS-I. (2003) SIS-l Profile and its Correlation with Rorschach in Manic Patients. (2002) Application of Somatic Inkblot Series-I: New Scoring System. . C. S. Kandhari. Psy. and Dubey.R. 16: 58-59. (2009) Content Validity of SIS-I and SIS-II Booklet Version. Proj. Singh. 12: 2. Dubey.9: 81-92.A. SIS Journal of Projective Psychology & Mental. Proj.L. 13: 2.. & Mental Health.. S. W. S. Psy. Health. Cassell... SIS J.B. 141-152. Proj. 17: 120-125. 14: 44-47. & Mental Health. SIS..J. S. and Kumar. & Mental Health. Psy. J. Schaeck. Health. (2007) A Comparison of Somatic Inkblot Series-I Indices in Normal Children and Adults. Psy. SIS J. Proj. D. W. 48-51.. and Dubey. Mohanty.120-124.L. Psy. Singh. Mohanty.R. & Mental Health. B. Kumar. Health. Kumar. R. Health.A. (2006) SIS-I and Rorschach in Schizophrenia: A Co-relational Study. & Mental Health. R. and Dubey. 9: 5-22. R. (2005). 10: 201-204. & Ment. and Singh. S.N. Proj. SIS Journal of Projective Psychology & Mental. (2010) SIS Imagery in Depression with Somatization – Therapeutic Intervention. Sharma. S. Singh.L. Proj.and Kumar. R. J. 17: 69-72. J. (2010) Discriminating Power of the Comprehensive Scoring System for SIS-I.R. S. Jain R. SIS Journal of Projective Psychology & Mental Health 16:124-127. (2009) Factor Structure of SIS-I in Adults. L. 8: 31-34. and Mohanty. Psy. and Mohanty. Kumar. 12:2. J. Proj. Psy. J. SIS J. 12: 123-128. S. Kumar. B. (2001) A Study of Somatic Inkblot-I in Hospitalised Male Chronic Schizophrenics. and Dubey. Mohanty. R. Sharma. R. 11:11-18 Cassell. R. Cassell. Health. and Mohn. SIS-I and Rorschach Diagnostic Indicators of Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder SIS. SIS J. & Ment. A.R. Kumar. & Ment. and Khess. 11: 91-94.M. S. A. L. SIS Journal of Projective Psychology & Mental. & Mental Health. Psy. Kumar. 15:1.. S. Health. Singh. (2008) Estimation of the Contribution of Gender in Productivity on SIS-I. SIS J. S. Proj. Kumar. SIS J. Health. and Kumar. Psy. W. and Dubey. and Kumar. (2005) Effect of Psychological Intervention Through SIS-I Images on Police Personnel. & Ment.. Health. Proj. S. R.B.. Health. SIS J. Proj. of Proj. (2002) Symbolism in Violent Hallucinations. A. 17: 16-22 Kandhari. SIS J. SIS. B. SIS J.R.153-158. (2005) An Extended Scoring System of SIS-I. A. R. (2004) Somatic Inkblot Series: Historical Background and Earlier Projects. & Mental. (2004) Comparative Study of SIS-I Indices between Schizophrenic and Manic Patients. Psy. & Ment.. S. & Ment. Psy.SIS-I Profile of Psychosexual Dysfunction 67 Cassell. W. Kumar..

S. Psy. (2002).3: 153-164. (2001) The Adjunctive Use of a Projective Technique with Hypnotherapy. & Mental Health.. D. Verma. 10: 219-224. Pandey. Psy. SIS Journal of Projective Psychology & Mental helath. & Mental Health. and R. Ph. D. A comprehensive profile of personality characteristics of male drug addicts. G. Mohapatra.K.D. (1996). G.. Sahoo. Kumar. A. and Singh. Proj.A.. (2009) A Comparative study of Schizophrenia and Affective Disroders on SIS-I and Rorschach.8: 41-50. Banerjee. (2000) Psychological Factors in Drug Addicts and Normals: A Comparative study. Mishra. Pershad.68 Saldanha. Cassell.Health 16: 152-154 Mukhopadhyay. Psy.D. Psy. K. B. Mitra.75-84. M.R. 33-41. Rathee.SIS Journal of Projective Psychology & Mental health 16. & Ment. Saldanha. SIS J. Savage.(2009). 23-32. Orissa 2009 Mohapatra. (1996) SIS and Social Anxiety -an Assessment of Presonality Factors of Drug Addicts. G. P. SIS J. J. SIS J. P.SIS Journal of Projective Psychology & Mental Health. (2003) Diagnostic Significance of Sex Responses on SIS-II 205-208 on Sex and Non-Sex Images SIS J. B.. and Mukhopadhyay. Proj. Psy. Proj. & Mental Health.J. SIS J. Savage. & Mental Health. A. Proj. Proj.24-31 .14. C. and Mukhopadhyay. and Bhagat. George. and Mitra. (1996) A Comparative Study of Male and Female on SIS-I. Sambalpur University. Psy. S.. Misra. Bhattacharya. Proj. Psy. W. and Dubey. Shyam.(1997). & Mental Health. George. S. SIS J. A. Profile of Militants: An attempt to study the mind of Militants.Thesis. 3. Proj. & Mental Health. (2003) The Diagnostic Value of the SIS in Treating a Child with Panic Attacks during the Post-Divorce Period: A Clinical Case Study. R. 9..SIS detection of Invisible Imagery in Bipolar Depression. A.K. R..SIS Journal of Projective Psychology& Mental Health. (2009a) SIS-I Indices as a Measure of Ego Strength in Schizophrenia.L. 7:53-78.and Dwivedi. Srivastava and Dubey Mitra.Body Image disturbances in Psychiatric cases. J.10: 205-208.3: 43-49.

Bhubaneswar and R. suicidal ideation and retardation of activity. thus. Agra – 282002. especially in depression ego submerges in superego. D. Mishra. self-blame. Proj. Orissa.B. Professor in Clinical Psychology. Dept. These techniques are often J. ego generally operates in conscious state where as in psychic illness it more often operates in unconscious governing the psychological functioning. Projective techniques are known for their sensitivity in tapping unconscious mental processes reflected in responses to unstructured / semi-structured stimuli. Cuttack-753007. D. and Most Typical Responses and Atypical Responses were significantly higher in the depressive group. Sahoo. libido and mortido.I . Mishra and R. Movement Responses and Typical Responses were significantly lesser. The results indicate that SIS-I indices successfully measures ego-strength in depressive patients. Ph. Kumar Projective techniques are commonly utilized to estimate the extent of ego strength. guilt. & Ment Health (2011) 18 : 69-76 69 Evaluating Ego-Strength in Depression on SIS-I Indices J.com. Sambalpur (India). Psy.. D. Burla. FIACP.com Key Words: Ego strength.K. thus weakening the ego. Senior Clinical Psychologist..SIS J. Vani Vihar. The following SIS-I indices were identified as measures of ego-strength: Total Number of Responses (R). Typical Responses (T) and Atypical Responses (AT). Somatic Inkblot Series is relatively a new addition to the family of inkblots. of Psychiatry. Ph. Disturbance in ego-functioning for its poor development is the attributable dynamic factor of genesis of the disorders. Kumar . The ego gradually retreats and reappears to have control over psychic apparatus but fruitlessly utilizes compensatory defense (manic symptoms against depression) i. Freud (1917) described depression as a response to loss (real or symbolic) but one in which the person’s sorrow and rage in the face of that loss are not vented but remain unconscious. A matched control group of 50 normal participants was also drawn from general population. Email  : jashobanta. Medical College. It. loosing its controlling ability over psychological apparatus.D. Depression. Somatic Inkblot Series-I (Card Form) was individually administered to 50 depressive patients drawn from Psychiatry OPD of VSS Medical College.imhh@gmail.FSIS. ego impairment invades pronouncedly to emotion and secondarily to perception and cognition.K. Institute of Mental Health & Hospital. Most Typical Responses (MT). Movement Responses (M)..D. Sahoo. Professor. S. “The Mind” Bhubaneswar. FIACP. P. serves as regulatory mechanism controlling behavior and psychological functioning. In his classic paper “Mourning and Melancholia”.e. Consulting Clinical Psychologist. Asst. In turn. SIS . In mood disorder. P. Ego regulates balanced investment of psychical energy. Mahapatra. in conscious states that frequently deals with reality. Freud and early psychoanalytic theorists argued that depression was not a symptom of organic dysfunction but a massive defense mounted by the ego against intra-psychic conflict.orissa@gmail. Ph. Email : jain. Utkal University. In normal person. The analysis of data suggested that Total Number of Responses. Mahapatra. delusion of grandeur against underlying deep sense of psychological deficiencies. this condition results in depression accompanied by self-criticism. We have tried to explore if SIS-I can also effectively measure the ego strength in depressive patients. Human Responses (H).C.

2010 and www. the present study “Evaluating ego strength in Depression on SIS–I Indices” was designed to investigate ego strength. 6. the inner cry that is not only hidden from others. The SIS can help the therapists more sensitively ‘hear’ a suffering individual’s cry for help. operationally defined as reality orientation. 1985). Typical responses (T). 2007. personality of the client and an additional tool for the diagnosis. 1997. and Atypical responses (AT). 2003. represented by means of symbols) of depressive disorder was thought to be an aid for understanding the dynamics of the disorder. 2005b. 2005. Method: The sample consisted of 100 subjects (Depressives (n = 50) and normal (n = 50). 2001. Cassell et al.com/ journal). Most-typical responses (MT). .1998. There would be elevated AT responses in depressives as compared to the normal.70 Mahapatra. 2003. Dwivedi et al.1 (Verma et al. Mishra and Kumar utilized to estimate ego strength.1993.somaticinkblots. 2000. 2002. age. 2. 2002) and also as a powerful therapeutic aid (Cassell and Dubey. 4. There would be reduced H responses in depressives as compared to the normal There would be lower M responses in depressives as compared to the normal. Medical College Hospital. 2009. The normal subjects were drawn from general population who were screened through PGI Health Questionnaire N . et al. There would be reduced T responses in depressives as compared to the normal. 1995. SIS – I was administered individually on each subject and scored as per the procedure developed by Cassell & Dubey (1998. There would be lower MT responses in depressives as compared to the normal. 2004.1997.1995. Movement responses (M).1995. Kandhari et al. Sahoo. 2005. 2005a. 2007. There would be lesser R in depressives compared to the normal. 2010. The clinical group was drawn from Psychiatry OPD. Major Hypotheses: The study examines the following propositions in relation to SIS – I as a measure of ego strength: 1.S. An understanding of inner cry (the resultant outcome of somatic problems. education and domicile. The sample characteristics are displayed in Table 1. 2003).1998. in depression. Rathee.1997. Jain et al.S. Human responses (H).1996.1999. Kumar et al. 2003. 3. 5. The groups were matched on gender. Burla. 2006. 2001. 2004. Many empirical studies have demonstrated that SIS is useful in discriminating various psychiatric populations (Dubey et al. 2006. 2010. diagnosed on the basis of DSM – IV. Ego strength would be measured by SIS-I in terms of: Total number of responses (R). Kumar. With this background. Orissa. but often hidden from one’s own conscious awareness as well.1994.1996. V. Mishra.

17 16.07 32. P<0.22 responses.846 7.70 responses in comparison to Depressive patients who gave 20.725* 2. The findings confirmed the hypothesis that there would be lesser R in depressive patients in comparison to the normal subjects.70 02. 2003. 2005). Kumar.22 11. ** Significant at 0. and ‘t’-values of Rorschach Indices in Normal and Depressive Groups Normal (n= 50) Indices R H M MT T AT Mean 37. Table 2 Mean.71 51.44 S. Results and Discussion: The results are presented in Table 2.D.78 S.26 25.32 62. (t = 7.01 level.05 level Total Number of Responses (R): The normal subjects gave 37.472 6.70 15.915* 2.489** ‘t’-values * Significant at 0. Depressed .339 03.13 12.725.618 6.508 5.577 10.D. 3.01). 2003.144* 4.515 13.925 05.Evaluating Ego-Strength in Depression on SIS-I Indices 71 Table 1 Sample Characteristics Characteristics Gender Age Education Domicile Normal (n=50) Male Female Below 35 yrs Above 35 yrs Up to 10th Class Above 10th Class Rural Urban Depressives (n=50) 25 25 25 25 23 27 25 25 25 25 25 25 21 29 25 25 Statistical Analysis: Scores on each variable of SIS – I were converted into percent scores by taking total number of responses as denominator.152 12.45 05.37 12. 15. and ‘t’ tests were used to analyze the data. S. S.874 Depressives(n= 50) Mean 20.D.392* 3. The total responses given by a subject after viewing the inkblots indicates productivity. Mean.825* 03. Significantly low responses are reported in depressive patients (Cassell and Dubey.789 8.D.

The percentage of MT responses in both the groups as shown in table 2 falls within average range. Higher MT responses in Depressives patients may indicate good contact with reality. Hence. It indicates distribution of variant degree of unconscious psychic energy in different type of M responses as governed by ego-mechanism operational in the person. Movement Responses (M): The Movement responses were 5. Typical Responses (T): The normal subjects gave 62. Sahoo.144.915. Human Responses (H): The normal subjects gave 15. The gestalt projection of . These psychological functioning appeared to be low in depressives but in average range in normal subjects. P<0. the logic-laden hypothesis may be advanced that low R is an index of impaired reality testing. passivity. P < 0. Most Typical Responses (MT): The MT responses was 12. The total responses (R) also indicate individual’s imaginative power. A low human content is reflective of narrow range of interest with people. functional intelligence and interpersonal relations.26 % Typical responses and Depressive patients gave 51. The H responses correspond to a subject’s ability to have better interpersonal relationships with others and indicator of ego strength. p<0. The projection of movement generally demonstrates active operation of dynamic forces in the individual.01). P<0.825.32% in normal subjects and 16. The findings did not confirm the hypothesis that there would be lower MT responses in depressives as compared to the normal subjects. disturbed social interpersonal relation and tendency of isolation and social withdrawal. The findings supported the third hypothesis that there would be low M responses in Depressives as compared to the normal subjects. lack of interest in environment. The Mt responses will be significantly low among depressives with psychotic features and other depressives with suicidal attempt.07 % typical responses (t = 4. The perception of actions in these blots is a psychological experience and thus indicates the creative energy of the individual.17 in Depressive patients (t = 3. The present study confirmed the fifth hypothesis that there would be low Typical responses in depressives as compared to the normal subjects.37 in normal subjects and 2. low self-esteem and empathy which is evident in depressive patients.70 human responses (t = 2.72 Mahapatra. The MT responses were slightly more in depressives than normal subjects.392.01) The present study confirmed the second hypothesis that there would be low H responses in depressive patients as compared to the normal subjects. hopelessness and worthlessness may produce low number of responses on the inkblots.45 Human responses and Depressive patients gave 11. Mishra and Kumar patients because of psychomotor retardation.71% in Depressives patients (t = 3. The Depressives in present study were neurotics with no signs of suicidal ideation.01).01). The Typical responses indicated common perception of the world.

Evaluating Ego-Strength in Depression on SIS-I Indices 73

SIS-I images are signs of positive health. A higher number of Typical responses therefore, are linked with the state of healthy physical, psychological and social functioning of an individual. It is an index of good ego-strength that evaluates reality in its own perspective. It utilizes individual’s physical as well as psychological resources with optimal functioning in a dynamic and coherent mode to adapt with reality, because the ego-strength is correlated with solving problems realistically instead of adapting avoiding / escape / withdrawal or aggressive mode of behavior.

Atypical Responses (AT):
The AT responses were 25.78% in normal subjects and 32.44% in depressives (t = 2.489, P < 0.05). The findings in the index study were in agreement with the hypothesis that there would be elevated AT responses in depressives as compared to the normal subjects. The AT responses represent poor quality and vague percept either in structure or verbalization. It is because perceived sensations are not processed and organized by secondary elaboration mechanism which involves ego-functioning. Higher involvement of ego-functioning is linked with higher functioning of secondary elaboration that makes up poor, vague percept a more logical, coherent and meaningful percept. Therefore, a decline of AT responses is an indication of sound ego functioning in normal subjects. A higher mobilization of secondary elaboration mechanism in normal and a deficient activation of this mechanism in clinical population are probably related to the number of AT responses in normal subjects and Depressive patients. Thus, the findings are in collaboration with conceptualization of Cassell and Dubey (2003) that “the number of AT responses is proportionate to the degree of Psychological or Psychiatric disturbance. Perseveration may be sign of neuropsychological impairment and usually absent in normal people”.

Conclusion:
The findings of the present study clearly demonstrated that depressive patients can be differentiated from normal subjects on the measures of ego strength in terms of different SIS - I indices. Despite several criticisms raised against projective tests by school of experimental psychology and social schools of thought, the status of projective technique for purpose of diagnostic formulation, psychodynamic and therapeutic utility remains undisputed. References: American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV), Washington D.C. Cassell, W. A. and Dubey, B. L. (1996) The Use of the Rorschach and SIS in Releasing Somatised Grief. SIS J. Proj. Psy. & Mental Health, 3 : 3 -32. Cassell, W. A. and Dubey, B. L .(1996) Efficacy of the Booklet and Monochromatic Version of the SIS in a Case of Repeated Miscarriages. SIS J. Proj. Psy. & Mental Health, 3 : 131-145. Cassell, W. A. and Dubey, B. L. (1997) Therapeutic Dream Stimulation with SIS- Video. SIS J. Proj. Psy.& Mental Health, 4 : 3-23. Cassell, W. A. and Dubey, B. L.(1998) Application of Somatic Inkblot Series in Personality

74 Mahapatra, Sahoo, Mishra and Kumar

assessment, Screening, Diagnosis and Therapy, SIS J. Proj. Psy & Mental Health, 5:3-32. Cassell, W. A. and Dubey, B. L.(1998) Mental Disorders Triggered by Exposure to Violent Imagery in the Media and in Electronic Games, SIS J.Proj.Psy & Mental Health , 5:87-104. Cassell, W. A. and Dubey, B. L. (2000) Inkblot Responses as an Aid to Therapy. SIS Journal of Projective Psy. & Mental. Health,7:3-10. Cassell, W.A., Dubey, A. and Dubey, B.L. (2000) SIS Projective Responses in PTSD and Disociative Disorder SIS J. of Proj. Psy & Mental Health, 7:93-108 Cassell, W, A. and Dubey, B. L. (2003) Interpreting Inner World through Somatic Imagery: Manual of Somatic Inkblot Series. Anchorage (USA): SIS Center. Cassell, W. A. and Dubey, B. L. (2006) Tracing the Roots of Violence by associating Dream and SIS Images: A Vicarious Visit to an Adolescent’s Birthday Party, SIS J. Proj. Psy. & Mental Health, 13: 2, 85-106. Cassell, W. A. and Dubey, B. L. (2007) Restructuring Rorschach Pathological Body Symbolism in the Somatoform Disorders with Truth Serum Behaviour Therapy SIS J. Proj. Psy. & Mental Health, 1: 20-29. Cassell,W. A. and Dubey, B.L. (2009) SIS and Sand Tray Psychotherapy of Suicidal adolescents. SIS J. Proj. Psy. & Mental Health,14:2, 87-97 Cassell, W.A. and Dubey, B.L. (2010) Infectious Suicidal Imagery in Combat PTSD, SIS J. Proj. Psy. & Mental Health, 17: 27-37. Cassell, W.A. and Dubey, B.L. (2010) SIS II-Video and Treatment of Alcoholism, SIS J. Proj. Psy. & Mental Health, 17: 104-119. Cassell, W. A., Dubey, B. L., Molchanov,E. and Routh,L.C. (1999) Stimulating Beacon images for meditation and projective psychotherapy. SIS J.Proj Psy. & Ment. Health, 6:7-30. Cassell, W. A. Dubey, B. L. and Roth, G. J. (1997) Medical, Psychological and Spiritual Application of the SIS Inkblots. SIS J. Proj. Psy. & Mental, Health, 4, 89-112. Cassell, W. A., Illardei,F.J., Collins, A., Mishra, M. and Dubey, B.L. (2001) Optimizing Spiritual Healing by Assessing Dream and SIS Imagery. SIS J. Proj. Psy. & Mental Health,8, 75-94. Cassell, W.A., Mohn D., Ilardi, F. and Dubey,B.L.(2003) Unmasking the Devil with Projective Technique, SIS Journal of Projective Psychology & Mental. Health, 10: 167-188. Cassell, W. A., Schaeck,A.M. and Mohn,D. (2002) Symbolism in Violent Hallucinations. SIS J. Proj. Psy. & Mental, Health,9: 81-92. Dubey,B.L.,Cassell, W.A.,Pershad,D. and Dwivedi,P.(1995) Diagnostic Utility of Somatic Inkblot Series. SIS J. Proj. Psy. & Mental Health, 2: 77-84. Dubey,B.L., Agrawal, A. and Palia,R.S.(2001) Personality Profile and HRD Intervention in a Telephone Cables Company, SIS Journal of Projective Psychology & Mental. Health, 8: 127-134. Dubey,B.L., Ajith,C., Gupta,Somesh, and Kumar,B.(2004) Role of Somatic Inkblot Series in Psychosexual Disorder in India, SIS Journal of Projective Psychology & Mental. Health, 11:115-120

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Dubey, B. L. , Dwivedi. P., Cassell, W. A. and Sahay, M. (1993) Projective Value of Somatic Inkblot Series- II in a Case of Stammering. Journal of Personality and Clinical Studies,8: 173- 176. Dubey,B.L.,Mishra,M., Dwivedi,C.B.and Mishra,N.(1994) Diagnostic and Therapeutic Utility of SIS-II and Rorschach, SIS J. of Proj. Psy. & Mental Health, 1:18-25. Dwivedi, C.B., Mishra, M. and Dubey, B. L. (1995). Diagnostic Significance of the Indices of the SIS – II and the Rorschach Inkblot Tests. SIS J. of Proj. Psy. & Ment. Health, 2: 165-170. Freud, S. (1917). Mourning and melancholia. In Standard edition of the Complete Psychological Works, Vol. 14, 243 – 258. The Hogarth Press Ltd., London, 1963. Jain R., Singh,B., Mohanty, S. and Kumar, R. (2005). SIS-I and Rorschach Diagnostic Indicators of Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder SIS. J. Proj. Psy. & Ment. Health, 12: 2, 141-152. Kandhari, S., Sharma, J. and Kumar,R. (2010) Discriminating Power of the Comprehensive Scoring System for SIS-I, SIS J. of Proj. Psy. & Ment. Health, 17: 16-22 Kumar,D.(2003) Diagnostic Indicators on SIS-I and Rorschach among Manic and Depressive Patients. Dr. B.R.Ambedkar University, Agra. Kumar,D. , Dubey,B.L. and Kumar,R.(2006) Gender Differences in SIS-I Profile of Manic Patients, SIS Journal of Projective Psychology & Mental. Health, 13:61-64. Kumar,D. , Kumar, J and Kumar,R. (2005) . Diagnostic Indicators on SIS-I and Rorschach Among Manic and Depressive Patients, SIS Journal of Projective Psychology & Mental. Health, 12:53-60. Kumar,R. and Khess, C.R.J. Kumar, R. (2005a) An Extended Scoring System of SIS-I. SIS J. Proj, Psy. & Mental Health, 12: 123-128. Kumar, R. and Khess,C.R.J. (2004) Special Scores of Rorschach Comprehensive System in Schizophrenia and Mania : A Comparative Study, SIS J. Proj, Psy. & Mental Health,11:85-90. Kumar, R. and Khess, C.R.J. (2005b) Diagnostic Efficiency of Schizophrenia Index and Perceptual-Thinking Index in Schizophrenia and Mania, SIS J. Proj, Psy. & Mental Health, 12: 2, 115-122. Kumar, R. and Singh,A.R. (2007) A Comparison of Somatic Inkblot Series-I Indices in Normal Children and Adults, SIS J. Proj, Psy. & Mental Health, 14: 44-47. Kumar, R. (2010) SIS Imagery in Depression with Somatization – Therapeutic Intervention, SIS J. Proj, Psy. & Mental Health, 17: 69-72. Mahapatra,J., Kumar,R., and Mishra,P.K. (2007). Comparison of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia on SIS – I and Rorschach Psychodiagnostik. Ph.D Thesis, Sambalpur University, Orissa. Mishra, M. (1996) Compatibility of SIS-II and the Rorschach Indices in Normal, Neurotics and Schizophrenics,. Ph.D. Thesis , Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi. Mishra, M. and Dwivedi, C.B. (1997). Content Scale Based Diagnostic Compatibility of the SIS – II with Rorschach Test in Normals, Neurotics and Schizophrenics. SIS J. of Proj. Psy. & Ment. Health, 4:121-140.

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who may indeed behave in love like a women. Dept of Psychology. changed into a man and took her mother in place of her father as her love-object. Freud also stated. The unconscious dynamics of the gender role in male homosexuals was found to be feminine with an aspiration to be masculine at times.700009. University of Calcutta. Psy. Reader. Proj. Road.P. Ph. including lesbian. Both the homosexual and the heterosexual groups have oedipal desires towards the opposite sex parent. The objectives of the study were to: (a) explore the oedipal relations and conflicts of male and female homosexual subjects. with over oedipal attachment and consequent inversional bond resulting from relatively stronger castration anxiety in the homosexual subjects. Cohort matching technique was used to match the homosexuals with their heterosexual counterparts. There arose the search for a mother-substitute to whom she could become passionately attached.com Key Words : Homosexuality. but he may nevertheless be heterosexual and show no more inversion in respect Jhelum Podder. Forty-four individuals participated in the present study of which 22 were homosexuals (13 males and 9 females) and 22 were heterosexuals (13 males and 9 females). The word homosexual is a Greek and Latin hybrid with “homos”. Common themes were elicited by three raters who are experts in the fields of psychology and psychoanalysis. she removed something. while female homosexuals were found to be more masculine. (b) explore and compare the oedipal relations and conflicts of male and female heterosexual subjects. on not being able to bear a male child to her father. deriving from the Greek word for “same”. affectional or romantic attractions primarily to “people of the same sex”. The oedipal stage and its consequent dynamic processes are crucial phenomena which contribute enormously upon sexual orientation.SIS J. A.com and Sonali De. Hetrosexuality . 92.D. thus connoting affections between members of the same sex. In “The Psychogenesis of a case of Homosexuality in a Woman” (1920). which had hitherto been partly responsible for her mother’s disfavour. Kolkata. Homosexual orientation is a term used to refer to an enduring pattern of or disposition to experience sexual. If the girl becomes homosexual and left men to her mother (“retired in favour of the mother”). Research Student. Thus.podder@gmail. and membership in a community of others who share them. might be expected. to choose a man for his love-object.C. & Ment Health (2011) 18 : 77-88 77 Oedipus: The Deep Rooted Reality to Homosexuality Jhelum Podder and Sonali De The present study investigates certain psychodynamic processes of homosexuals and compares it with that of heterosexuals. behaviours expressing them. email: jhelum. email: sonalide2002@yahoo. The Klein Sexual Orientation Grid was used to assess their sexual orientation. Freud explains that the girl having homosexuality was experiencing the revival of the infantile Oedipus complex at puberty as she was disappointed. she turned away from her father and from men altogether. loving only men instead of women. A man in whose character feminine attributes evidently predominate. 10 cards of Thematic Apperception Test were administered to elicit the unconscious oedipal desires and conflicts of both heterosexuality and homosexuality. it also refers to an individual’s sense of personal and social identity based on those attractions. from their feminine attitude. UCSTA. Psychogenesis. which her hated rival mother could do. (c) compare the oedipal relations and conflicts amongst the homosexual and heterosexual subjects. “A man with predominantly male characteristics and also masculine in his love-life may still be inverted in respect to his ‘object’.

in which the father serves simultaneously as both the object and the prohibitor of erotic excitement in the oedipal-age boy. The same is true of women here also mental sexual character and object-choice do not necessarily coincide” (Freud 1920). Beck (1961). Colette Chiland (1994) also states that homosexuals in general suffer from a deficit in their capacity for a relationship with the same-sex parent. 1920). 1944. Fisher and Greenberg (1996) negated Freud’s view of a distant father and a close attachment to mother as the basic dynamic of homosexuality. Dobson. Winterstein. which reinforced the concept of the negative father but failed to support the idea of the overly close. 1952. these feelings are repressed and transformed. 1983). Thus. Kenneth Lewes (1998) argues against the negative and positive oedipal mechanisms. Bergerat. fails to achieve satisfactory masculinity for himself. Bergler (1944) found that selection of a love object in female homosexuals was based on introjective identification with mother and narcissistic projection of herself into the object. Castration fear (Lewinsky. Ken Corbett (1993) goes against this view of homosexual’s feminine identification and argues that male homosexuality is a differently structured masculinity and not simulated femininity. 1999. 2002) coincides with the high value set upon the male organ and the inability to tolerate its absence in a love object (Freud. 1956. 1920). Hart. meaning that all rivalry with him (or with all men who may take his place) is avoided (Freud. 1956. Dracoulides. 1958. 1954). homosexuality in women is determined by a preoedipal conflict. In men’s case it is too strong admiration and attachment to father. and is a defense against certain drives or affects that are potentially disruptive to the ego. so that the rivals became the first homosexual love-objects (Freud. They also suggest that there is a correlation between negative fathering and adult homosexuality but not the oedipal drama surrounding mother. resulting out of strong attachment (Winterstein. seductive mother. 1988. Jaffe. Berliner. Bergler (1943) contends . Terzaghi sees female homosexuality to be richly overdetermined with preoedipal and oedipal factors contributing to its development. Siegel. seductive mother who dominated and minimized her husband (Dobson. overly intimate. 1944. identification with mother. In man. hostile father and a close–binding. 1958) found that maternal narcissism and penis envy in some women intensifies the male Oedipus complex. which made it impossible for her to successfully resolve the Oedipus complex. The parental constellation most likely to produce a heterosexual with severe homosexual fixations or a homosexual person are a detached. which might culminate actual death wish but could not survive further development. They found data. The son. According to Saul and Aaron T. 1920. Wulff (1941) rather considers fixation on father figure and not castration fear. It represents the attempt to deny the maternal rejection and simultaneously allays guilt and anxiety by choosing mother substitutes as love objects. Hart (1956. 1999) at the hands of an angry father-rival leads to the renunciation of women. to be the dynamics behind male homosexuality. homosexuality in the male serves as a pathway of gratification or discharge of diverse infantile needs.78 Podder and De of his object than an average normal man. Women with these traits overvalue their sons (who represent the mother’s penis) and correspondingly undervalue their husbands. He states of the plicate Oedipus complex. Early childhood jealousy against rivals like elder brothers led to extreme hostile aggressive attitude against brothers or sisters. According to Bergler (1943). 1956) and inclination towards a narcissistic object choice (Bergler. unable to identify himself with an adequately esteemed father.

This selection was based according to the ratings provided in the Klein’s Sexual Orientation Grid – whoever scored 1 or 2 in all of the 6 variable components (except for that of social preference*) were included in this group. Sample: The sample consisted 2 groups (22 Homosexuals : (13 Male and 9 Female) and 22 heterosexuals: (13 males and 9 females) with minimum age above 18 years. All were above 18 years with Mean age 23.The two groups were matched on the basis of sex. to acquire personal background information. The Klein Sexual Orientation Grid was used to assess their sexual orientation. This selection was based according to the ratings provided in the Klein’s Sexual Orientation Grid – whoever scored 6 or 7 in all of the 6 variable components (except for that of social preference*) were included in this group. It is intended to refer to sexual ideation or activity involving members of the same biological sex. organics and psychological disorder were excluded from the study. Keeping this background in view the present study attempts: (a) to probe into the oedipal relations and conflicts of both the male homosexual and the female homosexual groups and compare the same. . there must also be a biologic substratum of the ‘oral instinctual drive and a personality of the narcissistic-libidinous type’. It is intended to refer to sexual ideation or activity involving members of the opposite biological sex. Materials and Method: Forty four individuals (22 Homosexuals : (13 Male and 9 Female) and 22 heterosexuals: (13 males and 9 females) were taken for the study. Homosexuals: People having an erotic desire or sexual preference for members of the same biological sex have been selected in the sample of homosexuals. age and educational level.50yrs. Tools Used: Information schedule. 1. and (c) to compare the oedipal relations and conflicts amongst the homosexual and heterosexual groups. Heterosexuals: People who have an erotic desire or a sexual preference for members of the opposite biological sex been selected in the sample of heterosexuals. prepared by the researcher.(The words male and female are used in this research report to indicate biological sex of the person and not gender). Common themes were elicited by three raters who are experts in the fields of psychology and psychoanalysis. education above Secondary level and whose both parents were surviving after the subject turned 10 yrs of age. 2. 10 cards of Thematic Apperception Test were administered to elicit the unconscious oedipal desires and conflicts of both heterosexuality and homosexuality. Cohort matching technique was used to match the homosexuals with their heterosexual counterparts.Oedipus : The Deep Rooted Reality to Homosexuality 79 that actual traumatic experiences producing such hatred cannot in and of themselves lead to homosexuality. Subjects with history of Bisexual. (b) to probe into the oedipal relations and conflicts of both the male heterosexuals and female heterosexuals and compare the same.

Those subjects were included as homosexuals. Klein (1948) to assess sexual orientation of the subjects. Procedure: The data for the present study were collected from two institutions based in Kolkata – Swikriti and Sappho for Equality. by F. Subsequent to this. of both the groups. who scored either 6 or 7 in all the variable components of the KSOG (except the variable of social preference. 9GF. 7BM. by L.80 Podder and De Fritz Klein Sexual Orientation Grid (KSOG). which worked behind as the dynamic force. The raters were experts in the fields of psychology and psychoanalysis. The common themes that were elicited through inter rater agreement were taken for interpretation in the total context of the study. The obtained data were then qualitatively analyzed and discussed.6GF. The results obtained from the TAT protocols show the relation between the perception of mother figure. The subjects of the heterosexual group were matched following the cohort matching technique according to their age. father figure and the oedipal relations amongst both the male and female homosexuals. sexual orientation being an important part of it. the TAT was administered to the subjects with the relevant cards for males and females separately. The following results focus mainly on the contribution of the oedipal phase of a person’s development guiding his/her sexuality. 6BM. there was possibly a strong oedipal desire to possess mother sexually. and also a substantive wish to replace father from mother’s life or remove him totally. sex and educational qualification with the homosexual sample. Bellack( 1975). 13MF for male) and (1. Results and Discussion: Research shows that dynamic development during the pre-oedipal and oedipal phases shapes a child’s personality structure. 9BM. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT). All the subjects. In case of the male homosexuals. The results point to a very inherent root of positive oedipus in the childhood. as cultural influences mostly guided the subjects to socialize with members of both biological sexes) and those with scores ranging between 1 and 2 were selected as heterosexuals. All the 22 homosexuals participating in the present research had been found to show an oedipal conflict resulting in an inversional orientation. came from urban and semi-urban residential areas. Personal information was extracted by administering an information schedule. Treatment of the Data: Three raters interpreted the data obtained from the administration of the TAT cards. 13MF. as he was perceived to be the rival. 7GF. Cards: (1. . to probe into the dynamics of oedipal relations. 8BM.18GF for Females). for the homosexual sample.

Dependence on support of father figure to prove self sufficiency is evident. Opposite sex member is directly appreciated.e. Castration anxiety is coming from dominance. esteem and sense of adequacy is prominent. In certain cases. however. i. which possibly is the reason for the consequent inversion in the individual. There is a proper source of masculine identification. (Castration fear). Open oedipal desire and its pain leads to drawing of attraction to father figure leading to inverted oedipus (origin-oedipus).Oedipus : The Deep Rooted Reality to Homosexuality 81 Table 1 Showing Analysis of TAT Protocols for Male Homosexual Subjects Dimensions Mother Figure Father Figure Male Homosexuals There is restriction of oedipal fulfillment by mother. Apprehension. Oedipal Relation Heterosexual Interest Homosexual Relation Masculinity/Femininity Adequacy/Identity Table 2 Showing Analysis of TAT Protocols for Male Heterosexual Subjects Dimensions Mother Figure Father Figure Male Heterosexuals There is a presence of attraction and affinity towards the mother. There is a presence of masculine inadequacy and a doubt regarding masculine virility. a non-submissive attitude towards their father figure had been observed and even . They portray feminine qualities and lack in masculinity. There is a presence of personal insufficiency and a lack of confidence. but perhaps the guilt of bearing or even openly expressing such incestuous desire prevailed over the infantile wish and so there occurred a conflicting desire to distance themselves from the object of incest. They desire father’s absence and show ambivalence towards him (presence is threatening). Strong oedipal conflict is causing the fear of passivity. Oedipal Relation Heterosexual Relation Self / Adequacy There was the presence of a firm fear of being castrated by the father. confusion and ambivalence of inversional domination are felt. There is quite a lot of interest in heterosexuality. the mother or to defensibly incline towards the father figure and develop a superficial inverted oedipal relation which later develops into homosexual trends and orientation. Heterosexual inclination is present in them. Attempted inversional processes arouse more anxiety rather than pleasure in them where the system ultimately succumbs to punishing superego. Intense need to have distinctive identity is also evident. There is a sense of inadequacy. They feel extremely conflicted in homosexual orientation. Feels resistance because of fear of punishment. Dominant male power is the constant source of anxiety for them. Lack of self confidence. Apprehension of and apathy towards authority intervention is shown at times. The open oedipal desire had with it the natural provocation to get more and more attached to the mother figure. They apprehend authority intervention. but sexual resistance is present in many subjects.

the homosexual orientation is perhaps itself an outcome of strong mother figure identification which develops from the oedipal desire towards her (Jonas. who showed castration fear developing from the guilt of oedipal inclinations. there had been a recurrent feature of strong castration fear amongst almost all of the subjects.e. i. But in case of the homosexuals. whereas in case of the homosexual individuals the castration fear is so strong that they totally renounce from having sexual attraction or feelings towards the opposite sex and incline towards men.S.82 Podder and De a reactive aggressive attitude.e. Bose (1956) contended that the male child turns homosexual when the libido is fixated at the action identity phase of the mother–father relationship where the child places itself in the position of the mother (identity of the ego) and finds pleasure in playing the mother’s role and also gets interested in whatever interests the mother. it was observed that except for 3 subjects the rest of the male homosexuals mostly had elder brothers and few had elder sisters. there occurred identification with mother in the men. It might then as well be concluded that homosexual males loses the oedipal battle with their father. The sibling jealousy perhaps could be so intense that it gave rise to extreme hostility against them which was actually repressed and transformed so that they became their first love objects (Freud. 1956). Lewinsky. Thus in case of the present sample. including the father. Winterstein. The homosexual individual actually fears being punished by the father in the form of castration for this unimaginable sexual desire. 1952). along with which there was the presence of domination felt from an authority figure. this helps the son to be loyal to his first love object. The difference between the two groups lie in the fact that in case of the heterosexual individual the castration fear helps him to develop his superego which then guides him to identify with his father and turn his sexual wishes towards the mother into love and affection (Freud. Castration anxiety is a common phenomenon even in the male heterosexuals as is evident from the present sample of male heterosexual individuals. It is unconsciously a wish to remain faithful to mother in a more socially acceptable way. . Perhaps they wanted to possess their mother and therefore a claim on their mother’s virginity by any other men (specifically father) is not tolerated. which is the outcome of the strong attachment. 1944. and thus renounces from being sexually involved with any women at all so that the rivalry with the father or any such man who could take his place is avoided (Freud. 1920. Thus a strong fixation in being identified with the mother gives rise to the sexual interest in father from the mother’s point of interest. In the present gay group. they are fixated at the stage of mother identification and therefore develop to be a homosexual. Apart from fixation on mother. If the heterosexual male group is compared in this case it is found that except for 5 subjects the rest were either only child or had younger siblings in their family. This could possibly be another reason to show distance and recluse or reactive aggression towards the father to protect the oedipal mother and enjoy its direct satisfaction. i. 1900). 1922). G. In heterosexual males if the father loves enough then the reciprocation between them develops and the child is able to identify with him and looks upon the mother from father’s viewpoint. as his wife. Based on the information collected about their background and personal life. of possessing their mother and thus deviates towards inversion. Thus if a male child gets fixated at this phase the sexual interest remains as it was upon the father and his oedipus conflict does not get resolved and hence develops into a homosexual individual. and in a certain manner. the mother. in the present sample. It therefore seems that castration anxiety is much stronger in case of the present homosexual population because of the perception of a punitive father.

Nonacceptance of femininity in self is evident. 1920). Oedipal impulse is evident. Thus guided by the infantile fear of castration. Perception of father figure is abusive.Oedipus : The Deep Rooted Reality to Homosexuality 83 Table 1 shows that there was an inherent interest in heterosexual relationship in mostly all of the male homosexuals. might be explained by the fact that in them castration fear is quite low in strength and they could resolve their Oedipus conflict by turning their sexual interest upon mother to affection and substituting her with a contemporary female on reaching the genital stage. There is a feeling of over interference and domination from the desired oedipal figure. Even though some might feel comfortable in male bondage. not trustworthy. they apprehend being exploited and dominated by the partner. no support. There is no clear identification with any parent due to negligence which leads to injured self. non-understanding. There is also a need to be close with father. driving towards immorality. biosocial. it can be seen that they show open attraction and interest towards the opposite sex people. most of them play submissive and subjugative passive role in their relation. psychosexual adaptation consequent to pervasive fears surrounding the heterosexual impulses. Feels supported in life and attracted towards such partners. Seclusion is preferred to avoid tensions of heterosexual life. Being well understood. Prominent negativity is associated with male temperaments and attitudes. They show partial respect towards mother’s decision hence compromises with her and so cannot identify. There is a desire to possess a penis. highly dominating punishing and critical about their deficiencies and differentiating. Oedipal orientation and inclination towards father is also present. Doubt and instability is associated with heterosexual support. They seek support from homosexual partner. The fact of having an unconscious heterosexual tendency is also evident from the expression of apprehension. While compared to the heterosexual male group. Table 3 Showing Analysis of TAT Protocols for Female Homosexual Subjects Dimensions Mother Figure Female Homosexuals Mother is perceived extremely negative. The Neo Freudian standpoint. It might be for this fear they totally renounce heterosexual relations leaving women for the father (Freud. according to Bieber et al (1963). Female roles are well appreciated and seen in positive frames. But perhaps because of a fear of castration they repressed this need for heterosexual relation or even reacted negatively towards it. Intense ambivalence is present towards heterosexuality. Father Figure Oedipal Relation Heterosexual Interest Homosexual Relation Masculinity/ Femininity Adequacy/Identity . reciprocated and respected in their own form of identity. in spite of going through a phase of castration anxiety. They seem to be in conflict in the inversional context and cannot trust the inversional bond because of this apprehension. doubt and conflict felt in the homosexual life in the present sample. This heterosexual inclination. is that homosexuality is a pathologic. Root lies in heterosexuality.

The conflict between their biological sex. Homosexuality thus gives riddance from incest guilt of the girl child. conflict. confusion and sense of rejection regarding incestuous involvement. Due to the lack of masculine identity most of them were effeminate in their attitude. Separation anxiety is present. Father Figure Oedipal Relation Heterosexual Relation Self / Adequacy The analysis of the TAT protocols show that in case of the female homosexuals (Table 3) they portray a negative attitude towards their mother. Oedipal leanings are evident giving rise to guilt. They showed less respect. There was a tendency to aspire for masculinity and selfidentity as they suffered from identitycrisis.84 Podder and De Most of the homosexual males in the present sample showed less of masculinity and expressed doubts about their masculine virility. which seems to be related to their doubt regarding their gender role.effeminate or”sissy boys”and”tomboyish girls” A significant number of homosexual men also have been found to have histories of cross-gender behavior during childhood (Raphling. There is a lack of self confidence and presence of low self image. Thus. punishing and highly critical. non-understanding. Lack of trust upon father figure is prominent. Bose (1929) noted that there’s a fixation in the feminine attitude towards the father in which the male child develops feminine traits and passive homosexuality. The findings of an over oedipal attraction to the father on the part of the female leading to homosexuality is similar to the findings of dynamics of male homosexuality. Though not much is evident about the perception of the father figure but there was presence of strong oedipal attraction towards the father figure and complexities of a triangular relation is clearly present. Table 4 Table Showing Analysis of TAT Protocols for Female Heterosexual Subjects Dimensions Female Heterosexuals Mother Figure There is a feeling of lose of interpersonal bond with parents. create confusion and inadequacy with a resultant sense of diffidence. sexual orientation and the stereotypical gender roles. particularly the negativities are regarding the mother. However. perceiving them to be dictating. the underlying unconscious process working behind might be that they have a strong identification with the mother figure. inversion is a defensive way to be distant from the oedipal object choice because of interference and domination of the mother felt in a triangular relationship. 1989). The inversional process puts up a blockade in front of . and had a noncompromising and non-submissive attitude towards the mother figure. dominating. Mother domination is felt. that is. which turns them into the feminine self. A generalized apprehension is there regarding heterosexual advances in life. According to Bakwin (1968) there is a high risk of homosexuality in children with deviant gender-role behavior.

However. where the child’s ego feels like the father’s ego. Lagache. He also states that homosexuality is the outcome of the libido being fixed at the Oedipus point. except her father. homosexuality appears to be richly over-determined with pre-oedipal and oedipal factors contributing to its development which made it impossible for her to successfully resolve the Oedipus complex. thus leaving the father and men in general for the mother (Freud. the female heterosexual sample also possessed the oedipal desire to possess the father sexually and expressed direct enjoyment of it. unlike the female homosexual group the female heterosexual individuals identified themselves with their mothers (even if with negative attitude) and had heterosexual interest along with some apprehensions. They also fear that they would be losing their virginity by force if they go into an opposite sex relation. The comfort felt in the inversional bond could rise out of two major causes. In case of the homosexual who are overly attracted to their father it can be deduced that they are basically fixated at the stage of the feminine attitude towards their father. many of the females having a distant relation with their fathers dreaded of being abused by them and men in general. Thus. based on central unresolved conflicts of sexuality and aggression which are internalized in a personality structure. Similar to the female homosexual sample. First. 1950). reviewed by Buttenheim and Contratto. According to Bose (1956) “a female if fixated at the feminine attitude towards the father becomes incapable of loving any male. This is possibly because their over oedipal wish to bear a child to their father in order to possess his penis remains ungratified and they feel rejected by the father in such an incestuous relationship. denying the maternal rejection and allaying guilt and anxiety by choosing mother substitute as love object. Being unable to possess their vaginas fully seems the resultant of identifying as a . Lagache. Elaine V. They might have resolved their oedipal conflict by identifying with their mother and starting to look for a father substitute as they grew up to be adults. on remaining ungratified by both the parents on the demand of a penis. Bergler (1943) presses on the fact that homosexuality in women is determined by a preoedipal conflict. Like the homosexual male group. inversion being a defense helps to get rid of the guilt of over-oedipal attachment and seek mother’s approval. Siegel (1988. The same sex relation seems to be more trustworthy. Thus female homosexuality is the outcome of desiring the mother being a male herself” (Bose. as they could not generate a trustful relation with their father and thus show apprehension and negative attitude to have a heterosexual relation. supporting and understanding than the opposite sex relation where they are insecured. 1950). 1956). The father’s interest becomes the child’s interest. fearing rejection and exploitation (Socarides. 1920. The disapproval of the mother on desiring the father sexually too is removed if she ‘retires in favour of the mother’.Oedipus : The Deep Rooted Reality to Homosexuality 85 unendurable oedipal impulses. the homosexual female group also tends to show an interest in heterosexual relations but still feel more comfortable in a homosexual relationship. Early difficulties surrounding fear of loss of the mother and her love influenced each successive stage of development so that loss is a leitmotif throughout. The child imagines itself to be a grown up man like the father and thus the mother becomes the new sexual object and is looked from the father’s view. 1963. Therefore they become disappointed and move away from men in general to become a man themselves and as they look for a woman now it is obvious for them to take the mother to be the love object. Terzaghi (1992) noted that homosexuality results out of neurotic development during the oedipal level. Second. 1993) stated that female homosexuals have failed to “take full possession of their vaginas”.

Because her phallicism is largely a secondary and defensive phenomenon. Heinmann (1951) stated that when the feminine desires are frustrated because of ungratification she reverts back to the mother and comes finds out that her male organ is inferior. Conclusion: Both the homosexual and the heterosexual sample develop oedipal desire and experience an oedipal conflict is corroborated in the present study. It shows that the attributes of feminine individual is shown utter reactive protest. Farnill. attributes superior qualities to the penis. It might be that majority of the lesbians unconsciously despise such masculinity. It is also found that heterosexual interests are present in both the homosexual samples but both groups are apprehensive about domination by the opposite sex or distrust them. because of which the female aspires to be masculine. A much stronger castration fear is present in case of the present homosexual male sample when compared with their cohort group.86 Podder and De man and seeking mother as the sexual object during the oedipal phase of their development. hopes for her clitoris to grow into one and meets with further disappointment. while the heterosexual group overcomes the incestuous desires by transforming the sexual impulses into affection and thoroughly identifying with the same sex parent. there remains the primitive oedipal desire because of which most of the lesbians show interest in and wish to have a heterosexual relation and expresses doubt about the consequences of the inversional relationship.(1980) have found masculine gender role orientations among lesbians. It seems that the homosexual individuals are not only traumatized inside their conscious lifestyle but also within their individual unconscious reality. some of them even possess distorted self image. but as it remains ungratified they develop a despise towards such masculinity. She disowns her vagina. and Ball. and of men in general. Many other researchers like Oldham. It is perhaps this disowning process of their vagina. Devaluation of femininity thus underlies overvaluation of penis. According to Bakwin (1968) children with atypical gender role behaviour grow up to be homosexuals like ‘sissy boys’ and ‘tomboyish girls’. In case of the female homosexual the inversion is the result of being ungratified in their oedipal wishes. it is not a proper penis and cannot rival the father’s penis whom she hates for rejecting her. (1982). In case of the heterosexual females it is observed that they have a poor feminine identification along with lack of self confidence and confused self concept. Thus it might be concluded that the oedipal stage and its consequent dynamic processes are a crucial phenomena which contribute enormously to the sexual orientation of a person. most of them possess a negative attitude and non-submissive nature towards the stereotypical masculinity as well. . Despising masculinity comes from the unconscious fear of the distant father’s rejection and abuse. yet none of them consider themselves feminine in the stereotypical term. Though few show appreciation of maleness. From the TAT protocols it is evident that most of the female homosexuals in the present sample reject femininity or show negativity to the social pattern of appraisal of femininity. Nevertheless. Certain apprehensions and inhibition are felt in the heterosexual relation by the heterosexual group but they do not resort to any kind of homosexual relations. the homosexual group turns their oedipal desire towards the same sex parent. Shavelson et al. she comes to develop penis envy at the expense of femininity.

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Meaning in Life Questionnaire (Steger et al. Ph. Sil and Basu. This is trait or dispositional hope.directed energy) and second one is pathways (planning to meet goals). Adult State Hope Scale (Steger et al. Reasons for Living. 2006). Psy.e. Dogra.. Proj..directed thinking is impeded repeatedly due to goal blockages. personality and stressful life events . of Psychology. there’s hope’ but the converse ‘while there’s hope. Research student. Saugata Basu.1996). The obtained data have been statistically analyzed using hierarchical regression analysis.. One dimension of hope is positive motivational state that is based on an interactively derived sense of successful agency (goal .1975). Kolkata-700009 ( India) Tel:91-9830526320.2002). Adult dispositional Hope Scale (Snyder et al... state hope and suicidal ideation beyond the effects predicted by reasons for living. (1991) from two dimensional perspectives. Saugata Basu and Sanjukta Das The present study attempts to discern whether meaning in life predicts trait hope. hope could mediate positive aspects of mental health and hence reduces suicide rate. & Ment Health (2011) 18 : 89-102 89 Impact of Meaning in Life and Reasons for Living to Hope and Suicidal Ideation: A Study among College Students Atanu K. there’s life’ is rather appropriate. 2005). individuals go through a series of increasingly serious and lethal phases from hope to rage.. Hope. 1985. Reasons for Living Inventory (Gutierrez et al. ‘while there’s life.D. Stressful Life Events Scale (modified after Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale.SIS J. The old saying goes like. University of Calcutta. Singh et al. There is a growing emphasis on identifying individuals at risk for suicidal behaviors. Corresponding Author: SAUGATA BASU E-mail: saubasu2005@yahoo.in Key Words: Meaning in Life.1991) were administered on 711 undergraduate college students in small groups. Feeling of hopelessness may lead to suicidal ideation and later suicide (Beck et al. along with the perceived motivation to use those routes. EPQ(Eysenck.i. But sometimes goal. and whether reasons for living predicts beyond the effects predicted by personality and stressful life events.1984). 1985)..D.. Ph.C.D. On the other hand.P. As the incidence of suicide continues to rise in recent times (Barlow and Durand. it becomes important to investigate factors affecting suicidal ideation.This is state hope. Asso... Dept. Hope is described by Snyder et al. Professor and Sanjukta Das. Results suggest that future expectations and coping beliefs of reasons for living and presence of meaning in life act as common factors for both hope and suicidal ideation but in opposite direction and the meaning in life influences hope and suicidal ideation beyond the effect of other factors. 2007). Suicidal behavior may be considered as a domain of psychological disturbance and is associated with Atanu K.1994). 92 A. Personal Information Schedule. Road. So hope is the sum of perceived capability to produce routes to desired goals. and from despair to apathy. hopelessness (Snyder.Dogra. Suicidal Ideation . Ph. lack of agency and pathways. Fax 91-33-23519755. from rage to despair. Another dimension of hope is as a cognitive set that is based on a reciprocally derived sense of successful agency (goal directed determination) and pathways (planning to meet goals).. later it leads to a state of extremely low hope . Reader. Suicidal ideation is directly related to hopelessness as hopelessness mediates a tremendous amount of variance in the successful suicide (Beck et al. Adult Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire (Reynolds.1991).co.

overt intentions. Mascaro and Rosen. 1992). Reasons for Living is a set of life sustaining belief and expectancies which may be prominent in non-suicidal individuals and act as cognitive barriers in committing suicide or may potentially influence the intensity of suicidal ideations in suicidal individuals (Linehan et al.. 1973) has conceived of meaning in life as a process of discovery within a world that is intrinsically meaningful. Borum (1996) suggested that alcohol and drug abuse.However. and suicidal ideation (Reynolds. whether encountering life events contributes to hope negatively or insignificantly. Hirsch & Ellis. 1999. 2005). 2008b.1982.2006. or. They stated that people with high amounts of reasons to live would not want to commit suicide. Suicidal behaviors may be categorized to include suicide completion. life events contributes To hope negatively or insignificantly. Dhar and Basu. may be precipitating factors in suicide attempts. lack of proper reasons for living and excessive stress perception (Dogra et al. A phenomenon that may parallel increased rates of suicidal ideation is the loss of existential meaning or existential neurosis. 1996) Existential psychological research emphasized on meaning in life to enhance trait and state hope and prevent suicidal ideation (Frankl. suicide attempts..2005). Dhar and Basu (2006) found out that stressful life events along with personality traits are related with suicidal ideation in this group. 1987. Guha et al. or. 1965. Steger et al. 2005.2006). Each meaning is unique to each person. 2007). Basu and Das potentially severe mental and physical health outcomes. 1999). Various studies have examined protective factors of reasons for living among young people in combination with known risk factors such as stress level and hopelessness (Dyck.. Barrios et al. Frankl (1965. Moreover. there are other factors like personality traits which modulates life events contributing to hope is yet to be discerned. Dhar and Basu . . Presence of meaning refers to subjective sense that one’s life is meaningful whereas search for meaning refers the drive and orientation towards finding meaning in one’s life.Yang and Clum.. Majority of suicides (37. Each one has to individually discover the meaning of each particular situation. Suicidal ideation – specifically the thoughts and cognition about suicidal behaviors and intent – may be considered an early marker for the risk of more serious suicidal behaviors (Bonner and Rich. there are other factors like personality traits which modulates life events contributing to hope is yet to be discerned. 2008a. 2000. 1984.. (2006) proposes 2 constructs: (i) presence of meaning and (ii) search for meaning. The basic striving of man is to find the meaning in life. Dogra et al. Studies suggest that perceiving a meaning in life is related to positive mental health outcomes while meaninglessness is associated with pathology (Mascaro and Rosen.8%) in India are by those below the age of 30 years (National Crime Record Bureau. In Indian context. direct and conscious effort to end one’s own life. stress perception is often related to personality traits (Taylor. 1987). Zika and Chamberlain.90 Dogra.1983). intense stress or personal loss such as failure in school or breakup. Suicide has been defined by Comer (2002) as self inflicted death in which one makes an intentional. Several studies on college students have suggested that suicidal ideation is common among this population (Brener et al.. Several studies have examined the positive relationship between life events and suicidal behavior (Schotte and Clum. 1991). Suicidal ideation is the first step down the dangerous road to suicide is thinking about it.2006).

state hope and suicidal ideation beyond the effects predicted by dimensions of personality and the number of stressful life events in last one year among college students.B. . Reasons for Living Inventory for Young Adults (Gutierrez et al. 12 item inventory designed to tap an individual’s dispositional hope or trait hope in adults. There are 5 subscales: Positive Self Evaluation (PSE) contains 5 items. with a predominant Bengali culture. residing in Kolkata at least for the last 5 years. dimensions of personality and the number of stressful life events in last one year. 1984): PSLES consists of 51 life events. Materials and Method: Sample: The sample comprises of 711subjects (362 males and 349 females) in the age range of 19 to 21 years. The Meaning in Life Questionnaire (Steger et al. and various components of reasons for living predict trait hope.000. Future Expectations (FE) 7 items.000 to Rs.Com).A. Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) (Eysenck & Eysenck.. Tools Used: 1... 1991): It is a self report. The questionnaire consisted of 6 items including 3 agency and 3 pathway items in which respondents describe themselves in terms of how they are “right now”. and Unmarried. Adult State Hope Scale (Snyder et al. this study is designed to investigate whether meaning in life predicts trait hope. family income between Rs. 2. Coping Beliefs (CB) 7 items. The scale tapping dispositional hope consists of 8 hope items (4 agency items and 4 pathways items) along with 4 filler items. Singh et al. Peer Relations (PR) 6 items. students of Graduate Classes(B... 7. 4.5. Five items measure presence of meaning in life and 5 items measure search for meaning in life. 1996): It is desired to measure State hope.10.and B. This scale is specially prepared for adult Indian population. A detailed information schedule was used to collect personal and familial related information. 3. Sc. 2006): It is a 10 items measure of the meaning in life. To find out them. Subjects with known history of any acute physical and mental illness were excluded from the study.. 1975).Impact of Meaning in Life 91 The present study aims to find out whether reasons for living and meaning in life act as protective factors against suicidal ideation and whether reasons for living and meaning in life enhance state and trait hope. Stressful Life Events Scale (Modified after Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale or PSLES. and Family Relations (FR) 7 items. Adult Dispositional Hope Scale (Snyder et al. 5. Modified version of the test with 38 items (Dogra 2009) was selected for the present study. 6. state hope and suicidal ideation beyond the effects predicted by reasons for living. 2002): It is a 32 itemself-report inventory designed to assess reasons (protective factors) for living in college adults aged 17 -30 years.

Adult Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire (ASIQ) were given. Adult Dispositional Hope Scale were given on the first day.0. future expectation and presence . Table 1 Means and Standard Deviations of Males and Females and the t-values Representing Significance of Difference between Male and Female Students’ Scores on all Criteria Variables Variables Trait hope State hope Suicidal ideation Male Female Male Female Male Female Mean 24. Statistical Analysis: To reach the research objectives.39 19. The Adult Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire (ASIQ)( Reynolds.tests between males and females with respect to criteria variables and hierarchical regression analyses. as no significant differences exist between male and female students with respect to all criteria variables.485 0. t. It consists of 25 items. And ii) presence of meaning in life and search for meaning in life have significant effects in predicting trait hope (Table 2) and state hope (Table 3) beyond the effects of three dimensions of personality .92 Dogra.76 4. Stressful Life Events Scale.34 17.50 14.53 16. Basu and Das 8.10 4.61 T Value 0. Adult State Hope Scale.633 1. the obtained data have been analyzed using means. The Meaning in Life Questionnaire.73 30.1991): It is a self –report measure designed to assess a specific aspect of suicidal behavior -thoughts about suicide.01 4. Results and Discussion: Results suggest that i) various components of reasons for living have significant effect in predicting trait hope (Table 2) and state hope (Table 3) beyond the effects of three dimensions of personality and the number of stressful life events in last one year. standard deviations.411 Significance NS NS NS NS = Not Significant In the present study. extraversion. Procedure: Subjects who fulfilled the criteria of inclusion were asked to fill up the detailed Personal Information Schedule followed by different tests: Eysenck Personality Questionnaire.04 23. Among all variables. the number of stressful life events in last one year and various components of reasons for living. coping beliefs.53 SD 3.90 30. The scales were administered in small groups (a group of 8 to 10 students). Within a week. Statistical analyses were done using SPSS 17. Reasons for Living Inventory for Young Adults. further statistical analyses were done combining males and females together.

Stressful Life Events.078 .01.167** -.165** .043 0.342** 10.104 0.003 -.191 0.065 . ** p<0.018 .186** -. Presence of Meaning in Life.010 -.839** 17.046 .052 0.204 0.053 .009 18. Search for Meaning in Life Predicting Trait Hope among College Students Predictor Variables Extraversion Neuroticism Psychoticism Stressful life events in last 1 year Extraversion Neuroticism Psychoticism Stressful life events in last 1 year Positive self evaluation Coping beliefs Future expectations Peer relations Family relations Extraversion Neuroticism Psychoticism Stressful life events in last 1 year Positive self evaluation Coping beliefs Future expectations Peer relations Family relations Presence of meaning in life Search for meaning in life * p<0.057 0.644** F change .212** -.024 .150 0.Impact of Meaning in Life 93 of meaning in life contribute positively to trait hope (Table 2) and state hope (Table 3) as the direction of beta values suggest. Reasons for Living.061 .133** .031 .024 .232** -.044 .053 -.161 0.05. Table 2 Summary of Hierarchical Regression Analysis of the Roles of PEN. 0.220** -.057 R2 Adjusted R2 R2 Change Beta value .019 .187** -.013 -.

Dimensions of Reasons for Living.041 -.056 0. Stressful Life Events.190 0.031 . Presence of Meaning in Life.076 15.676** 0.167** .evaluation Coping beliefs Future expectations Peer relations Family relations Presence of meaning in life Search for meaning in life * p<0.044 -.215** -. Basu and Das Table 3 Summary of Hierarchical Regression Analysis of the Roles of PEN.01.140 0.evaluation Coping beliefs Future expectations Peer relations Family relations Extraversion Neuroticism Psychoticism Stressful life events in last 1 year Positive self.221** -.035 -. 0.051 0.829** 0.185** -.94 Dogra. Predictor Variables Extraversion Neuroticism Psychoticism Stressful life events in last 1 year Extraversion Neuroticism Psychoticism Stressful life events in last 1 year Positive self.017 .039 -.028 .05 ** p<0.177 0.093 .151 0.470** F change .007 16.135** .183** -.095 0.033 . Search for Meaning in Life Predicting State Hope in College Students.010 .166** .063 .031 -.055 .072 .069 .159** -.056 R2 Adjusted R2 R2 Change Beta value .

Impact of Meaning in Life 95 Table 4 Summary of Hierarchical Regression Analysis of the Roles of PEN.007 .219 0.130** -.056 0.063 -. -.166** 9.132** -.186** -.162** .140** -.059 .01.071 . And ii) presence of meaning in life and search for meaning in life have significant effects in predicting suicidal ideation beyond .027 -.061 R2 Adjusted R2 R2 Change Beta value -.081* 15.088** -.054 .200 0.181** .673** 0. Results from Table 4 suggest that i) various components of reasons for living have significant effect in predicting suicidal ideation beyond the effects of three dimensions of personality and the number of stressful life events in last one year. Search for Meaning in Life Predicting Suicidal Ideation among College Students.065 .033 -.676** 11.114** -.527** F change in life * p<0.061 0. Reasons for living. Predictor Variables Extraversion Neuroticism Psychoticism Stressful life events in last 1 year Extraversion Neuroticism Psychoticism Stressful life events in last 1 year Positive self-evaluation Coping beliefs Future expectations Peer relations Family relations Extraversion Neuroticism Psychoticism Stressful life events in last 1 year Positive self-evaluation Coping beliefs Future expectations Peer relations Family relations Presence of meaning in life Search for meaning .231 0.05 ** p<0.149 0.029 0. Presence of Meaning in Life.210 0. Stressful Life Events.061 -.165** -.021 -.110* -.139** -.020 .

96 Dogra. Basu and Das the effects of three dimensions of personality. Detrimental influence of number of stressful life events in last one year on suicidal ideation might have occurred in following ways: Firstly. This can be explained by theoretical constructs given by Eysenck (1971). The typical high N scorers are more prone to be an anxious. the more number of stressful life events a person encounters in last one year. Neuroticism. other people and world around them very unrealistic manner. along with the perceived motivation to use those routes. they interpret ordinary situations as threatening and respond poorly to environmental stressors. being characteristically hopeful and optimism are the products of stable extraversion but pessimism is product of introversion. They observed extraversion as a positive predictor of hope.. when a student faces high amount of stressors (for examples high amount of interpersonal conflict with parents. extravert persons are more capable to find out various sources of goals and sum of perceived capability to produce routes to desired goals. Due to sociability.. extraversion and neuroticism are observed as influencing factors for two dimensions of mental health. ‘Williams (1992) and Marshall et al (1992) found that extraversion is positively correlated with optimism. personal adjustment and that’s why. i. while confronting with a stressful life event might give rise to neurosis. the number of stressful life events in last one year and various components of reasons for living.e. Kerby (2003) and Velting(1999). They perceive minor frustrations as hopelessly difficult and thus a great chance to form suicidal ideation. i. hope and suicidal ideation respectively. (2003). The present study found that neuroticism also acts as a significant positive predictor of suicidal ideation (Tables 4). future expectation. Different components of personality and hope and suicidal ideation: Two components of personality. their interpersonal relationship is highly disturbed. If stress increases. and find it difficult to get back after each emotionally arousing experience and they appraise self . In other words. family relations of reasons for living and presence of meaning in life contribute negatively to suicidal ideation as the direction of beta values suggest. worried individual and they are overly emotional. more suicidal ideation he feels. lack of proper identity . According to Eysenck and Eysenck (1985).e. Among all variables. It means that extravert people are more hopeful than introvert people. disruption of a romantic attachment. suicidal ideation will increase. neuroticism. due to high amount of emotional instability. in its extreme point. This finding is in agreement with researches done by Eysenck and Eysenck (1985). Besides this. (2008a). Present outcome is further supported by Mascaro and Rosen (2005) and Dogra et al. expressiveness and tendency to experience positive emotion as characteristics of extraversion. activity. reacting too strongly to all sorts of stimuli. The present study portrays that extraversion is a predictor for trait and state hope (as reported in Tables 2 & 3). So overall. it affects their social. stressful life events in last one year positively and coping beliefs. This finding is supported by Dogra et al. Stressful life events in last one year on Suicidal ideation: The present study reveals that the number of stressful life events in last one year acts as a significant positive predictor of suicidal ideation( Tables 4). (2008b). Enns et al..

stressful life events may lead to suicidal ideation through producing existential crisis. optimistic thinking. This existential frustration leads to suicidal ideation in individual (Frankl. s/he lacks confidence and optimism to deal with life stressors. they are very confident about their goal directed activities and it enhances goal directed determination and finally leads to more hopeful thinking.Impact of Meaning in Life 97 and academic stresses) but may not be able to adapt and may experience lowered capability to deal with future events. Reasons for living and suicidal ideation: The present study also reveals that three components of reasons for living. This finding was supported by Mehrotra (1998a) and Dogra et al. who have inadequacy in family relationship. s/he will breakdown under stress and the stage of exhaustion occurs. This situation often leads to suicidal behaviour. These expectations from the future life help to survive successfully. Dhar and Basu (2006) showed a significant positive relationship of numbers of life events. people who have several coping beliefs regarding own ability to cope with whatever life has to offer (coping belief) . A person. who has inadequate coping beliefs. Reasons for living and hope: The present study reveals positive influences of reasons for living on hope and negative impact of it on suicidal ideation. loss of traditional values and modern bureaucratic society. people. future expectation and coping belief act as predictors for trait hope and state hope significantly (on the basis of beta value). people may employ inappropriate defensive measures to deal with the problems they face and choose suicidal ideation. only two components of reasons for living . who have few personal and social reasons for living. During this phase. family relations. who have high amount of future expectation. believes himself to be unable to cope with most of the losses of his life and also incapable of taking the right decisions at the right time. a behavior to escape from the stressors. have lesser probability to . This external circumstances block humans ‘will to meaning’ and produce an ‘existential frustration’ (Wong. In other side. or family) and consequently lead to optimistic thinking. believe that they have many good things to look forward as they grow older and they are hopeful about their plans or goals for the future (have a job. future expectation act as predictors for suicidal ideation significantly. In other side. i.i. Existential psychologists emphasized that stress is the result of industrialization. Thus this lack of confidence and pessimistic thinking may finally lead to the development of suicidal ideation in college students. are vulnerable to the development of hopeless expectation because when they are placed under negative life stressful conditions and crisis situations. So person with high coping belief has confidence in problem–solving skills. Secondly. such negative schema about life are likely to be activated. On the other hand. beliefs in personal control. People. the perception of threat leads to an increasingly narrow perceptual field and rigid cognitive processes. Here individuals have to confront with others to live.. and respect for and enjoyment of life. coping belief. amount of presumptive stress with suicidal ideation. (2008b) conceptualizing that proper reasons for living help to enhance hope. The present study also reveals that. 1965).1997).. So individuals.e.e. career.

value and worth.98 Dogra. In this context. this perception enhances one’s hope and well-being. sometimes hope about essence in present and future life can be enhanced through meaning derived from experiential values. they can meaningfully choose a set of appropriate goals from various sources . As creative values. As a result.So. more goals of hope through meaning in life: When individuals state that their lives are meaningful. s/he perceive life stressors in a manner which makes coping easier by viewing the world as meaningful. (2008b). creative and experiential values of meaning in life (Frankl. Meaning in life and Hope: The present study revealed that presence of meaning in life helps to enhance trait and state hope which promote psychological well-being and prevents despair and that the very presence of ideals and values can weave the slender threads of a broken life into a firm pattern of meaning and responsibility among college students. i. i. intimacy and fair treatment of their life and take proper sense of successful agency and pathways and finally it leads to hopeful thinking . when individual perceives the life meaningfully. meaning in life helps to person to realize about proper implication of a goal. Bonner and Rich (1991). even in the face of failure or negative feedback. In fact. Through this way. 1965) are more effective for hopeful thinking. invention of life.(2008a) have also suggested that a person’s reasons of living act as stress buffer and prevents suicidal ideation. In other side. It may enhance hope in following ways: A: Setting appropriate goal. religion. 2006) and Dogra et al. Mascaro and Rosen (2005.e.achievement.. has the capability to produce workable routes of goals and the requisite mental energy to initiate and sustained progress alone those route. Even in front of “tragic triad”– pain. It is also revealed that meaning in life predict trait and state hope beyond the effect of stress suggesting meaning in life acts as a buffer against stress. if necessary. music. they do not get family relation as a stress buffer in their life. involving in one’s own projects in art. relationship. individuals may be able to find some positive aspect in seemingly negative events and hopeful about future goals. Basu and Das get informational support about stressful events and emotional support from family. self –transcendence. If a person can a deed meaningfully. comprehensible and manageable. . In other side. writing. potential meaning is only way to survive without hopelessness. grief and death. This finding was empirically supported by the studies done by Emmons (1997). who is meaningfully alive. self – acceptance. B: More Pathways and More Agency: An individual. Such perceptions may preserve or restore the notion that if one’s life has purpose. Mehrotra (1998b) and Dogra et al. or any work. by experiencing something—or someone. future expectations act as significantly negative contributing factor for development of suicidal ideation. So meaningful multiple pathways and agencies help to enhance hope of an individual. proper meaningful life generates more pathways and sustained more agency than person with low amount of presence of meaning and leads to hopeful life.e. people can more actualize utilization of works and associated goal in his hopeful life..

Meaning in life is a natural consequence of experiencing in a balanced. S. the individuals with inadequate meaning in life and insufficient reasons for living are less resourceful regarding their existential as well as their cognitive coping repertoire in dealing with life-battle during the stressful period. existential frustration that leads to existential vacuum associated with feelings of boredom. Belmont. And when something within individuals blocks them from engaging in those activities from which person naturally derives meaning. or when something within them inhibits awareness of the meaningfulness of the activities in which they are already engaged. a condition typified by boredom and apathy. Suicide ideation among US college students. 1969). This study further suggests that the meaning in life (existential coping repertoire ) and reasons for living (cognitive coping repertoire ) act as stress buffers and could predict the ability to cope against the life adversity and help to generate hope or hopelessness which in turn leads to either rebuff or accept suicidal ideation in college students. Finally..R.D. consequently they often assume suicide as a solution to their problems in life. 1992) theory. Under prolonged conditions this experience of meaninglessness can lead to a “noogenic neurosis”. they have general sense of meaninglessness and emptiness. . Simon. they feel that their life have no clear purpose and they have no good sense of what makes their life meaningful. & Brener . & Durand.H.C. which portrayed the detrimental influence of the feeling of total and ultimate meaninglessness of people’s lives.. V. and related to whatever it is that allows self to relate to others. T. Journal of American College Health. CA: Thompson Wadsworth. then a sense of meaninglessness (absence of ‘presence component of meaning’) is evident. and unbiased manner the various fruits that existence offers.229-234. Abnormal Psychology: An Integrative Approach. 2006) and Dogra (2008a). ultimately the propensity towards suicidal behaviour increases. References: Barlow. Hence they may feel that their life has become purposeless and devoid of any sort of challenge.A. The finding is in agreement with the findings by Mascaro and Rosen (2005. As a result. All of these findings including the present one supported Frankl’s (1984. i.Impact of Meaning in Life 99 Meaning in life and suicidal ideation: The present study found significant evidence of the contribution of “presence of meaning in life” in prevention of suicidal thoughts and the absence of which intensifies suicidal tendencies and hence acts as stress buffer. apathy and emptiness is experienced (Frankl. it leads to suicidal ideation. Everett. mindful. a void within themselves. Precisely. (2000). N. (2005). Conclusions: It can be concluded from the present study that reasons for living and meaning in life negatively predict suicidal ideation during stressful period and positively predict hope among college students.e. D. Thakur and Basu(2010) also showed that lack of existential meaning is related to clinical depression. Barrios. which he called existential vacuum. consequently. L. related to oneself. 48.M.. Some of the more common fruits are the various activities relating to others and the world.

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Life stress.(1994). social support and problemsolving skills predictive of depressive symptoms. Personality and Individual Differences. K. S. Kaler. (1994). On the relation between meaning in life and psychological well-being.A. Suicidal ideation and the five-factor model of personality..T.com & Somatic Inkblot Centre 4406 Forest Road. Harris. Personality and Individual Differences. Steger. 53.& Irving. J. M. Anderson.C.A. Frazier. Snyder. (2006). G.102 Dogra. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behaviour. R.40-46.. 83... K. 27 . Babyak. & Chamberlain. 104th Avenue Anchorage. 570 – 585.M. C. S. (1992).(1999). S.E. Indian Journal of Clinical Psychology. 70. hopeless and suicide ideation in an Asian student population: A test of a model. D.A. 60.F. New York: Free Press. (1992). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. (2006). 133-145. 80-93. S. Basu and Das Snyder. neuroticism. 99516 (USA) E-mail : siscassell@yahoo.M.The psychology of hope: You can get there from here. Sympson. S.943-952. C. A study of reasons for living and suicidal ideations in college students. Boston: McGrawhill.R. L. 321 – 335. P. Snyder. Taylor. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 24. & Oishi. 33. The International Forum for Logotherapy . Williams. M. T.L.. 475-477. & Higgins. F.... Zika. (1999).P.Meaning–centered counseling : A cognitive-behavioural approach to logotherapy. (1991). Holleran. M..C.F. Anchorage AK. Development and validation of the state hope scale.G.R. Wong. The wills and ways : Development and validation of an individual differences measure of hope.(1997).85-94. The meaning in life questionnaire: Assessing the presence of and search for meaning in life. Thakur.R. Velting. 127-139. & Basu. (1996).C.com . AK. SIS Instruments can be Obtained from : Somatic Inkblot Centre 4501E. S. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.13. Ybasco. Yang. B. & Clum.20. and extraversion. British Journal of Psychology.Dispositional optimism. D. 99517 (USA) E-mail : bldubey@gamil. Health Psychology. Borders. C.

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Command Hospital (WC), Chandimandir-134107 (Haryana) (LM 97) (SIS Library Membership No. 3)

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Central Library, J.N. Vyas University, New Campus, Bhagat Ki Kothi, Jodhpur-342001(India) (M 2001) (SIS Library Membership No. 10)

Director

Institute of Mental Health and Hospital, Mathura Road, Agra - 282002 (India) Tel:91-562-2603691-93 Email:imhh@sancharnet.in (M 98-2001)(SIS Library Membership No. 4)

Librarian

Devaki Amma Memorial Teacher Education College, Chelembra, Pulliparamba P.O., Malappuram DT., Kerala-673634 (SIS Library Membership No. 46)

Director

Librarian

Ranchi Institute of Neuro Psychiatry and Allied Sciences, Kanke, Ranchi-834006 (India) Tel.: 91-651-223776,2455813 (SIS Library Membership No. 5)

H.P. University, Summer Hill, Shimla (India) (M 98) (SIS Library Membership No. 12)

Librarian,

Director

Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136119 (SIS Library Membership No.40)

T.N. Rao College, Nr Sul Campus, Kalwad Road, Rajkot-360005, (Gujrat) (SIS Library Membership No. 50)

Librarian,

Maharshi Dayanand University Library , Rohtak -124 001 (Haryana) (SIS Library Membership No.39)

120 Membership Directory Librarian Principal

Mysore University Library, University of Mysore, Manas Gangotri, Mmysore-570006 (SIS Library Membership No. 13)

Akal College of Education for Women, Fatehgarh chhanna, Dist. Sangrur-148001, (Punjab) (SIS Library Membership No. 48)

Librarian

Principal,

Saurashtra University Library, University Campus, Kalawad Road, Rajkot–360005 Tel: 91-281-2278501to 2278512 (SIS Library Membership No. 14)

Arya Mahila Degree College, Chetganj, varanasi-221001 Tel:91-542-2411893 (LM 2006) (SIS Library Membership No. 36)

Principal

Librarian

Technical Library & Documentation, IFFCO, Aonla Unit, PO. IFFCO Township, Bareilly-243403 (India) (M 97) (SIS Library Membership No. 15)

Avila College of Education, Aquinas Grounds, Eda Cochin, Cochin-682006, (SIS Library Membership No. 49)

Principal

Sri. R. Ravichandran

Senior Librarian, Technical Teachers Training Institute, Taramani P.O. Chennai-600113 Tel.:91-44-22541054,22542959, E-mail : ritsouth@giasmd01.vsnl.net.in (SIS Library Membership No. 16)

DAV College for girls, Jagadhari Road,Yamuna Nagar-135001 (India) Tel : 91-171-23728152,23724674 (SIS Library Membership No. 21)

Principal

DAV College, Sector — 10, Chandigarh — 160011 (SIS Library Membership No. 45)

Librarian

Shibli National College, Azamgarh (UP) Ph.: 05463-222840 (SIS Membership No.11)

Principal

Desh Bhagat College, Dhuri, Distt. Sangrur (India) Tel. : 91-1675-2265027 (LM 2000) (LM :SIS Library Membership No. 22)

Librarian

University Business School, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014, (India) (M 98) (SIS Library Membership No. 17)

Principal

Library-in-charge

Dhirendra Mahila Maha Vidyalaya, Karmajeet Pur, Sunder Pur, Varanasi-221005 Tel.: 91-542-2575787 (M 2003) (SIS Library Membership No. 23)

Sahara Behaviour Change Communication Center, 240 F, Basarat pur east, B.R.D. Medical College Road, Gorakhpur 273001 UP (INDIA) Tel: 91-551-2283305(O); 9335227310, Email : swfbccgkp@rediffmail.com Email:shak_mishra77@rediffmail.com (SIS Library Membership No.41)

Principal

Government Bikram College of Commerce, Patiala (Punjab) (M 2001)(SIS Library Membership No. 24)

Principal

Government Man Kunwar Bai Arts & Com. Women’s College, Jabalpur (M.P.) (M 2002) (SIS Library Membership No. 25)

Librarian In Charge,

Vivekanand Central Library, VBS Purvanchal University, Jaunpur-222001 Email:vclpu@yahoo.co.in, Vidyutel@ yahoo.co.in, (SIS Library Membership No. 18)

Principal

Govt. P. G. College Bhiwani — 127021 (Haryana) (SIS Library Membership No. 44)

Principal

Magzine World

Station Road, Near Gopal Talkies, Anand-388001 Email : achal@icenet.net (Supplying to SP Univ Kheda)

Lakshmibai Natioanal College of Physical Education P.B.No. 3, Kariavattom, Thiruvanathapuram-695 581 Tel.: 91-471-2418712 Fax : 2418769 E-mail : lncpe@csnl.com (SIS Membership No.33)

Membership Directory 121 Principal Principal

K.S. Saket Post Graduate College, Ayodhyaya, Faizabad-224001 (India) Tel:91-5278-2232305 (M 2000) (SIS Library Membership No. 26)

Principal,

Matushri Virbaima Mahila Arts College, Kalawad Road, Mahila Chowk, Rajkot-360001(Gujrat) Ph.: 91-281-2451603 (W) 2479257 (H) (SIS Library Membership No. 27)

Vrundavan Institute of Nursing Education College of Nursing, Pitruchaya Near Sai Service, Porvorim, Bardez, Goa — 403501 (SIS Library Membership No. 43)

Prints India, Prints House,

Principal

PPG College of Nursing, 9/1 Keeranatham Road, Sarayanampatty (P.O.), Coimbatore-641035 (SIS Library Membership No. 47)

11 Darya Ganj, New Delhi-110002 Fax: 23275542, Tel: 91-11-23268645, 23257864, (SIS Library Membership No. 32)

Surya Infotainment Products Pvt Ltd.
Subscription Department, 91, Mahatma Gandhi Road, Bangalore-560001 Email: sipmag@touchtelindia.net (SIS Library Membership No. 35)

Principal

Rajaury Library, P.N. College, Khurda - 752057 (Orissa), (India) (M 2000)(SIS Library Membership No. 28)

C: Free Distribution The Registrar of Newspapers for India
West Block-8, Wing No.2, R.K.Puram, New Delhi-110066

Principal

Saurashtra Gyanpith Arts & Commerce College, Barrala, Dist. Junagarh-362020 (Gujrat) (SIS Library Membership No. 51)

Operation Co-ordinator

Principal

PsycINFO, American Psychological Association P.O. Box : 91600, Washington, DC 20090-1600 (USA)

SBAS, Khalsa College, Sandaur, Distt. Sangrur (Punjab) (India) (LM 2000) (SIS Library Membership No. 29)

The District Magistrate,
Ranchi

Principal

Documentation Officer,

ST. Xavier’s College, Mapusa, Goa-403507 Email:xavierscollege@sancharnet.in Tel:91-832-2262356(O), 2293305( Principal Residence) (SIS Library Membership No. 38)

Indian Council of Social Science Research INU Institutional Area, Aruna Asaf Ali Road, Post Box No. 10528, New Delhi -110067 (India)

Rekha Mittal,

Principal,

Dr. Uttam Rudrawar, Ph.D. Smt. Vatsalabai Naik Mahila Maha Vidyalaya, Talab Lay0ut, PUSAD, Dist: Yavatmal- 445204 (Maharastra) Tel: 46115 (W), 46124(H) Email: smtvnmmv@rediffmail.com (SIS Library Membership No. 31)

Scientist- E1, Indian National Scientific Documentation Centre, 14, Satsang Vihar Marg, New Delhi-110067

Assistant Librarian,

English Section, National Library, Belvedore Road, Calcutta

Principal,

Sree Narayana Guru College N.H. 47, K.G. Chavadi, Coimbatore-641105 (Tamilnadu, India) Ph.: 91-422-2656371, 91-422-2656527 (SIS Library Membership No. 34)

Librarian

National Medical Library Ansari Road, New Delhi

B.N. Puhan, Ph.D.,

Principal

Department of Psychology, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar-751004, ( Orissa)

Vaidyaratnam P. S. Varier Ayurveda College Kottakkal, P.O. : Edarikode, Distt. Malappuram, Kerala 676501 (SIS Library Membership No. 42)

Swami Nirmalanand Saraswati,
Director YRF, Bihar Yoga Bharati, Ganga Darshan, Fort, Munger - 811201, (Bihar)

K. A. Department of Psychology University of Calcutta 92 A. P.com New Members Miss. Delhi-110006 Tel. CALICUT Tel: 91-4942403238 7/105B. Ph. Chennai--600030 (India) Tel. S. E-Mail : yvverma@lgeil. : 91-11-9124569635. (India) Tel.D. Jain Vinay Kumar & Co. Banaras Hindu University.D. Banaras Hindu University.com (SIS Life Membership 344) Akansha Dubey Research Scholar. University of Allahabad.: 91-80-26692075 (H) Yasho V. Associate Professor. Cell: 91-9830112145 Consultants: John Baby.. 51. Allahabad-211002 Telefax: 91-532-2461358. Dept.P. 1280. K.. Varanasi-221005 Cell: 91-9410498080 E-mail:prachisaxena. of Psychology. Sunderpur.D. Vinay K. Ph.D. Banashankari 3rd Stage. Rakesh Pandey. V. 5th Main. CA. Prachi Saxena Research Scholar. Guru Nanak Dev University. Greater Noida-201306 U. Dept. Verma. LM = Life Member. : 91-11-23267440(W) Mob. C/O Dr.Bangalore-560085 (India) Tel. Keshary.D. 48.dubey31@gmail. Ph. Banaras Hindu University. Department of Psychology. K. Ph. Thimmappa. Srivastava.bhu@gmail. Calicut University. Brijenclave Colony. Varanasi-221005 Cell: 91-9838703607 E-mail:garimaguptabhu09@yahoomail. C Road.com (SIS Life Membership 343) Miss. Ph. Associate Professor. Ph. Jain. Professor and Head. Shenoy Nagar.: 9868109259 (LM 99) 49. Department of Psychology.Vakilpura. Personality study and Group Behavior.com Chartered Accountant B-6. The Editor. C/O Dr. Rakesh Pandey. A. Ph. Udyog Vihar. C/O Dr. of Psychology. Plot No.D.D. Kanpur-208002 Cell:9415429024 M. Rakesh Pandey. Kolkata-700009 Email: sanyal_nilanjana2004@rediffmai.. Department of Psychology. Garima Gupta Research Scholar. Psychology and Developing Societies. 8th Cross Street. Surajpur-Kasna Road.com Tel:91-33-24642083. : 91-44-26260571 (H) Vice President-HR & MS. Kaliappan. Durga Niwas. Dept of Psychology. Anjaneyanagar.. Email: editors@indiasage. M = Member .122 Membership Directory The Editor. Varanasi-221005 Nilanjana Sanyal. LG Electronics India (P)Ltd. Varanasi-221005 Cell:91-542-2211309 E-mail:akansha. 24560900-940. Associate Professor. Amritsar-143005 Professor. Swaroop Nagar.com (SIS Life Membership 345) FM = Fellow Member.

Kanke.psy@gmail.Amool R.Dubey: email: bldubey@gmail.L. Udaipur Kurukshetra University. of Management.Umed Singh. Ranchi Advent Inst. March and April 2011 At RINPAS.com Prof. Diagnostic Evaluation.B. Screening and selection ” To be held During Feb.com .Singh.Naveen Gupta: dr_naveengupta@yahoo. email:sisamool@yahoo.com Prof. email: umed. Therapeutic Intervention. Kurukshetra Please contact if you are interested to attend at any of the above Institution: Prof.com Prof.123 Advance Workshop on “The Application of Rorschach and Somatic Inkblot Series in Personality Assessment.

com Email: sisamool@yahoo. prosperity and happiness to every one in our extended family.85:1001/SIS/Test http://psyche.96. suggestions and any constructive criticism about the above mentioned SIS applications. You will be pleased to learn that both SIS-I and SIS-II instruments are available on Website for online assessment. Email: bldubey@gmail.Singh Email: siscassell2@yahoo. related to projective psychology and mental health. Cassell.Dubey and Amool R. You are invited to view these on the following websites: http://122. you are welcome to contact us regarding any help we might be able to provide. clinical diagnostic/treatment or research.com We also invite your contributions to our SIS Journal.bz We will welcome comments. Anchorage.160. Please note down my new emails for future contact. If you want to use these techniques for personality assessment. Alaska(USA) Dear SIS Members and friends. Bankey L. We wish you all a HAPPY NEW YEAR. Looking forward to hearing from you in the New Year! Sincerely Wilfred A. May the HOLIDAY SPIRIT provide peace.dubay.124 SIS CENTER.com Email: bldubey@gmail.com .

D.834 006 (India) The Subscription Cheque should be made in favour of “SIS Journal of Projective Psychology & Mental Health” payable at Ranchi (India) . Ranchi Institute of Neuro-Psychiatry and Allied Sciences (RINPAS).D.834 006 (India) E-mail : sisamool@yahoo. Kanke. Kanke. Amool Ranjan Singh. RINPAS Professor and Head.125 Important Announcement Dr.. Ranchi . Director. RINPAS. Amool Ranjan Singh. Department of Clinical Psychology. Ranchi . Ph. Ph. Director. RINPAS Professor and Head. Department of Clinical Psychology..com has taken charge of the office of Editor In Chief SIS JOURNAL OF PROJECTIVE PSYCHOLOGY & MENTAL HEALTH From January 2006 Institutional Members (Libraries of National and International Universities) are requested to send their Annual Subscription/Dues to Dr.

SIS Journal of Projective Psychology and Mental Health.somaticinkblots.somaticinkblots. Psy. The Individual and Institutional Members of Somatic Inkblot Society/ SIS Journal of Projective Psychology and Mental Health Can get the current issue and future issues of the Journal through Electronic mail free of charge Please indicate if you wish to get the Journal in Hard Copy or through Electronic mail To: Bankey L.126 SOMATIC INKBLOT SOCIETY IS PUBLISHING ITS JOURNAL SIS JOURNAL OF PROJECTIVE PSYCHOLOGY & MENTAL HEALTH a half yearly publication in January and July. Cassell. Email: siscassell2@yahoo. The Journal is available on Society’s Web Site at http: //www.. Dubey. It started in 1994 and has published 33 issues in 17 years. Director SIS Centre Editor Emeritus. M.1500/. & Mental Health. Anchorage. 104th Avenue. E-mail : bldubey@gmail.D.(for Indian Members). 4501 E.com The Journal from Volume 1-17 is available in C D (Acrobat and Page Maker) Members of Somatic Inkblot Society can get it on a nominal payment of US $50 (for Overseas Members) and Rs. Ph.com Web Site at http: //www. of Proj. Alaska .com . Editor Emeritus.99507 (USA).D. DPM.. FAPA. SIS J.com OR Wilfred A.

B. : (W)__________________________H)__________________ EDUCATION Degree Year Institution Major Field of Study ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ EMPLOYMENT : Current position. Singh. RINPAS. 4406 Forest Road._________________________________________________________________________ 2. 300/. An APPLICATION FEE Cheque is enclosed for Foreign Members $50 & Life Membership $ 400.Institutional Membership Rs. dates (Graduate Students indicate area of study and degree toward which you are working). Ph. . 70 ($10 foreign Member) if you are sending subscription through out station cheque. AK-99517 (USA). ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ MEMBERSHIP : ____________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ TRAINING AND EXPERIENCE IN PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT : ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ SPONSOR (S) Name Address Telephone 1. Director. Please submit this request to the Membership Committee. and Rs. I certify that the information provided above is accurate and correct. of Clinical Psychology.. Dubey. RINPAS. 10000/Total Cheque $/Rs. Prof. Kanke. Anchorage. For Members in India Rs.__________________Drawn at_________________________ Signature of applicant : __________________________ Date :________________ PLEASE RETURN with your cheque to : Dr. 2500/.127 THE SOMATIC INKBLOT SOCIETY I wish to be a Member __________ a Life Member ________ of the Somatic Inkblot Society. Dept.D. 1000/.& Life Membership Rs. Ranchi-834006 (India). Editor Emeritus. employer.Ph. NAME __________________________________________________Birth date __________ (Print or type) First Middle Last __________________________________________Zip ______________________________ Business/Office Address : ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ _____________________Tel. N._________________________________________________________________________ SIS subscription payable every year in January through Cash/Cheque at par/Demand Draft in favour of “SIS Jr of Proj Psy and Ment Health” payable at Ranchi. : Please add Rs.D. Amool R.L. 50 ($10) as one time registration fee.Institutional Life Membership Rs. & Head. Foreign members send their subscription cheque to B.

PAL OR SECAM).com for getting the above material .99507 (USA). 104th Avenue. E-mail : bldubey@gmail. Police case—”Witnessing an Accident” Vietnam Veteran — “Unresolved Guilt” Therapeutic Dream Stimulation Anniversary Reaction to Miscarriage Grieving a Still Birth : Conversion Reaction Fear of Cancer and Hypochondriasis (includes Rorschach imagery) Alcohol and Cocaine Dependent : Father/Son Incest : Teen-age Alaska Native’s Death by Gas Inhalation Suicide Behaviour in Adolescent Alaska Native Nightmare Vision (Sexually Abused Adolescent Girl and Absence of Father Figures in Black Adolescent Boy) Auschwitz Revisited Neuropsychological Reactions to Life Threatening Accident & SIS Occupational Stress and the SIS The use of the SIS as an Aid in Meditation while Grieving a Miscarriage SIS-Video (A&B Series). Audio & Videotapes SIS Journal of Projective Psychology & Mental Health in C D (Acrobat and Page Maker) from Volume 1-17 Contact : SIS Centre. Anchorage.com Web Site : http://www. 4501 E. Alaska . SIS-II Images in CD. SIS-I Videotape and SIS-Living Images A Walk Through The Garden of Life and many more.somaticinkblots. AS WELL AS AUDIO TAPES AND TRANSCRIPTS OF INTERVIEWS ARE AVAILABLE FOR TEACHING/CLINICAL PURPOSE.128 PROFESSIONAL QUALITY VHS VIDEOTAPES (SPECIFY NTSC.

Ranchi-834006 (India). President. of Clinical Psychology. has recognized it as a Corporation for Income Tax purposes where relief is given to donators and advertisers under section 80G of Income Tax. D. : 91-651-2233687(H). & Head.com Tel. Dept. In America. RINPAS Prof.129 ANNOUNCEMENT The Somatic Inkblot Society is a Non-Profit International Organization with headquarters in India. a comparable non-profit organization similarly named the Somatic Inkblot Society gives Income Tax relief for residents of the United States. Somatic Inkblot Society APPEAL Members of Somatic Inkblot Society are requested to kindly send their Annual dues before the 31st of January each year to : Amool Ranjan Singh. Director. The Indian Govt. E-mail: sisamool@yahoo. The Subscription Cheque should be made in favour of “SIS Jr of Proj Psy and Ment Health” payable at Ranchi (India) . Mob. Kanke. RINPAS. Ph.: 91-9431592734. Please help the Society by Donation/Advertisement for it’s smooth functioning.

hereby declare that the particulars given above are true to the best of my knowledge and belief. Big Bazar. Jharkhand (India). India Half Yearly PERIODICITY OF PUBLICATION EDITOR’S PRINTER’S PUBLISHER’S NATIONALITY ADDRESS : : Name : : Amool Ranjan Singh Indian Dept. Ph. Main Road.Kanke. India SOMATIC INKBLOT SOCIETY OWNER : I.Kanke. Sd/ Dr. : 2331800 Editor-in-Chief : Amool Ranjan Singh . Amool Ranjan Singh. Amool Ranjan Singh on behalf of Somatic Inkblot Society at Annapurna Press & Process. of Clinical Psychology. 5.Ranchi-834006. Amool Ranjan Singh. RINPAS. Opp. RINPAS.Ranchi-834006. Ranchi-834 002. Editor-in-Chief SIS Journal of Projective Psychology and Mental Health Published by Dr.130 STATEMENT SHOWING OWNERSHIP AND OTHER PARTICULARS ABOUT SIS JOURNAL OF PROJECTIVE PSYCHOLOGY AND MENTAL HEALTH PLACE OF PUBLICATION : Dept. of Clinical Psychology. Dr.

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Volume 18. SIS Journal of Projective Psychology & Mental Health 2011 . Pgs. Number 1. 01-122.