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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION, VOL. 60, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2012

**Fast Fourier Transform Based Iterative Method for Electromagnetic Scattering From 1D Flat Surfaces
**

Dung Trinh-Xuan, Patrick Bradley, and Conor Brennan

In what follows we assume the use of pulse basis functions and Diracdelta testing functions (point matching). For a 1D ﬂat surface is a symmetric Toeplitz matrix [8] and the linear system can be written as

Abstract—An efﬁcient iterative method is proposed for computing the electromagnetic ﬁelds scattered from a one dimensional (1D) ﬂat surface. The new iterative method is based on a similar implementation to the Conjugate Gradient Fast Fourier Transform (CG-FFT), where acceleration of the matrix-vector multiplications is achieved using fast Fourier transforms (FFT). However, the iterative method proposed is not based on Krylov subspace expansions and is shown to converge faster than GMRES-FFT and CGNE-FFT while maintaining the computational complexity and memory usage of those methods. Analysis is presented deriving an explicit convergence criterion. Index Terms—Electric ﬁeld integral equation, fast Fourier transform (FFT), method of moments (MoM), wave scattering.

. . . where

. . . .

. . .

..

.

. . .

. . .

. . .

(2)

A. Proposed Method In order to apply the FFT to the impedance matrix, one must ﬁrst embed within a circulant matrix. To achieve this, (2) is extended from equations by appending a system of equations into a system of further unknowns to . As a result, (1) is embedded into a system of equations which has the form of circulant convolution:

I. INTRODUCTION Efﬁcient computation of electromagnetic wave scattering from surfaces has a wide range of applications in microwave circuits, rough surface scattering and antenna applications. Typically, the relevant integral equation (IE) is discretized using the method of moments (MoM) resulting in a system of dense linear equations. The efﬁcient numerical solution of these equations is a key topic in computational electromagnetics. Different techniques have been developed for the solution of such systems of equations including iterative methods: Forward backward method (FBM) [1], GMRES [2], [3] etc. In addition acceleration methods such as the fast multipole method (FMM) have been developed to expedite each iteration step. For problems where the unknowns are arranged on a regular grid methods such as the CG-FFT which exploit the cyclical nature of the basis function interactions can signiﬁcantly reduce the computational cost of matrix-vector multiplications [4], [5]. Moreover, the use of the pre-corrected FFT [6], [7] allows the CG-FFT to be applied to scattering problems involving arbitrary surface shape. However, the performance of CG-FFT schemes can suffer from slow convergence or stagnation. In this paper, we propose a new iterative approach which is shown to converge more rapidly than CG-FFT while requiring the same memory usage. II. FORMULATION The work presented in this paper examines scattering from a one dimensional ﬂat perfectly conducting surface, although the extension to is assumed dielectric surfaces is possible. A time dependence of and suppressed in what follows. The scatterer is illuminated by an incan be formulated using cident wave and the scattered electric ﬁeld the electric ﬁeld integral equation [8]. This can be solved using the basis and testing functions, remethod of moments (MoM) with sulting in the following linear system (1)

Manuscript received May 18, 2011; revised January 27, 2012; accepted June 18, 2012. Date of publication July 13, 2012; date of current version October 26, 2012. The authors are with the RF modelling and simulation group, The RINCE Institute, School of Electronic Engineering, Dublin City University, Ireland (e-mail: xuan.trinh2@mail.dcu.ie; bradleyp@eeng.dcu.ie; brennanc@ eeng.dcu.ie). Digital Object Identiﬁer 10.1109/TAP.2012.2208609

(3) where

(4) (5) (6) The original unknowns have now been embedded inside a system of linear equations. In general the values obtained by solving (3) will not equal those obtained by solving (2). They will only match if one chooses to extend the right hand side vector with that force to equal values zero. This is achieved using the iterative technique outlined later in this and section. The iterative process involves sequentially updating and at each step forcing to be zero for . The advantage of expanding the linear system in this fashion is to facilitate the use of the FFT to speed up the matrix-vector multiplication as in the CG-FFT [4], [8]. As (3) is a circulant discrete convolution of length , the discrete convolution theorem states that it is equivalent to

(7) where the symbol denotes component by component multiplication are the Discrete Fourier Transforms (DFT) of two vectors and of . This can be efﬁciently comfor the sequence of length puted using the FFT [8].

(8) (9) (10) Hence can be obtained using component-wise division

(11)

0018-926X/$31.00 © 2012 IEEE

At this point the components of are set to zero and (7) is used to update (and thus ). One entry in the inverse matrix is unused in the subsequent calculation and is marked as a cross sign. Convergence Analysis In this section we derive a requirement on the structure of that ensures that the solution of the proposed approach converges to the solution of (1). Firstly. The process continues to form the iterative chain as depicted in Table I. The complexity of the GMRES-FFT is similar to the costs are CG-FFT in terms of the number of FFTs needed. C. and from (14). 1 array multiplication and 1 array division operations for each iteration. Subsequently. are reset to the for and this revised incident ﬁeld values is then used to calculate . we write (3) in its matrix form (17) (18) The proposed method uses (11) to efﬁciently solve for (and thus ).IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION. Using (14) and the iterations continue in this (12) is the impedance matrix is a symmetric Toeplitz where and is the right matrix whose ﬁrst row is and are the addihand side vector of (1) respectively. Because the matrix on the LHS of (12) is a and .e. i. but requires other operations which slows it further. by using (11). requiring . This is a system circulant matrix. NOVEMBER 2012 5465 TABLE I NEW ITERATIVE METHOD FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC SCATTERING FROM PERFECTLY ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTING FLAT SURFACES equations where we must choose to ensure that of which will force to equal the desired solution from (1). The corwill thus yield rect choice of (13) The iterative method uses the FFT to solve the more general (12). by using (7). In terms of memory usage. the additional for components on the RHS are initialized with zeros. In addition.. we obtain After iterations we obtain (20) (21) . Complexity Analysis As outlined in Table I. . 11. tional components added to the solution vector and right hand side vector to enable the use of the FFT such that and . B. it follows that (16) where (19) is then used to calculate manner. The zero in brackets indicates that this is the zeroth iteration of the solution. VOL. The proposed iterative approach will converge if (15) To start the new iterative method as given in Table I. the computational complexity of the proposed approach is equivalent to that of the CG-FFT approach operations per iteration. the new approach requires cells to store the entries of in the frequency and spatial domains. the vector components are set to zero and then the revised is used to update . Inside the “for” loop. the solution of which can be written as: (14) where . In short. while the memory [4]. is efﬁciently calculated using the FFT as shown in (11). NO. it requires 3 FFT and 1 array division for the initialization and ﬁnalization. 60. From (12) we see that From Table I. the proposed method requires 4 FFT. Next.

11. A. Investigation of Convergence Versus Problem Size We have shown that the new approach converges if the spectral rais smaller than unity. VOL. NOVEMBER 2012 As approaches inﬁnity. was computed for different discretiThe spectral radius of sation sizes: . we evaluate the accuracy and convergence of the proposed method. . then (22) The Neumann series converges to and so. NO. In this section. assuming this with provided that (23) This analysis shows that the proposed iterative method converges prois smaller than unity. Finally. RESULTS In this section. the ﬁeld obtained using a single iteration of the new approach is compared to the direct matrix inversion (DMI) to demonstrate the performance of the new approach. dius of we investigate the relationship between the spectral radius and the size of the scatterer.5466 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION. vided that the spectral radius of (24) III. A comparison of the new method with two Krylov subspace based methods is also performed in terms of relative residual error and processing time. as well as discretisation size. 60.

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