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Solomon I.

Khmelnik

Navier-Stokes equations
On the existence and the search method for global solutions

Israel

2010

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Copyright © 2010 by Solomon I. Khmelnik All right reserved. No portion of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, without written permission of the author. Published by “MiC” - Mathematics in Computer Comp. BOX 15302, Bene-Ayish, Israel, 60860 Fax: ++972-8-8691348 Email: solik@netvision.net.il Printed in United States of America, Lulu Inc.,

ID 9036712 First Edition 1, 30.06.2010 Second Edition 1, 20.08.2010 ISBN 978-0-557-54079-2

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Annotation
In this book we formulate and prove the variational extremum principle for viscous incompressible fluid, from which principle follows that the Naviet-Stokes equations represent the extremum conditions of a certain functional. We describe the method of seeking solution for these equations, which consists in moving along the gradient to this functional extremum. We formulate the conditions of reaching this extremum, which are at the same time necessary and sufficient conditions of this functional global extremum existence. Then we consider the so-called closed systems. We prove that for them the necessary and sufficient conditions of global extremum for the named functional always exist. Accordingly, the search for global extremum is always successful, and so the unique solution of NavietStokes is found. We contend that the systems described by Naviet-Stokes equations with determined boundary solutions (pressure or speed) on all the boundaries, are closed systems. We show that such type of systems include systems bounded by impenetworkrable walls, by free space under a known pressure, by movable walls under known pressure, by the socalled generating surfaces, through which the fluid flow passes with a known speed. The book is supplemented by open code programs in the MATLAB system – functions that implement the calculation method, and test programs. Links to the test programs are given in the text of the book to describe examples. Programs are transmitted by the author on request at solik@netvision.net.il

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Khmelnik o Ph. o Activity . electrical engineering. energetics o Published over 100 articles o Published 20 books o Has more than 50 inventions and patents 4 . mathematics.D.Brief Introduction about author o Solomon I.computer engineering.

Dynamic Problems \ 40 Chapter 7. Compressible Fluid \ 71 Discussion \ 72 Supplements \ 74 References \ 101 5 . Stationary Problems \ 39 Chapter 6.Contents Detailed contents \ 6 Foreword of the Reviewer \ 8 Introduction \ 10 Сhapter 1. Principle extremum of full action \ 13 Chapter 2. Principle extremum of full action for hydrodynamics \ 23 Chapter 3. An Example: Flow in a Pipe \ 54 Chapter 9. Body forces and Boundary Conditions \ 38 Chapter 5. Computational Algorithm \ 34 Chapter 4. An Example: Computations for a Mixer \ 42 Chapter 8.

Cartesian coordinates \ 44 7. Boundary conditions \ 31 2.6. Principle extremum of full action \ 13 1. Closed systems with variable mass forces and external pressures \ 43 Chapter 7. Electrodynamics \ 17 1.2.6.4.7. Systems with generating surfaces \ 33 2. Hydrodynamic equations for viscous incompressible fluid \ 23 2. Mechanics \ 16 1.1.3. Mixer with walls \ 46 7.1. Absolutely hard and impenetrable walls \ 31 2. About sufficient conditions of extremum \ 29 2.2.2. Conclusions \ 37 Chapter 3. Polar coordinates \ 44 7. An Example: Computations for a Mixer \ 42 7.2. Absolutely closed systems \ 42 6. Principle extremum of full action for hydrodynamics \ 23 2. Systems with a determined external pressure \ 32 2.1.4.1.Detailed contents Foreword of the Reviewer \ 8 Introduction \ 10 Сhapter 1. The power balance \ 23 2. Stationary Problems \ 39 Chapter 6.4.3.3. Building the functional for Maxwell equations \ 19 1. A closed systems \ 34 2.6.5.1. The split energian \ 27 2.1.3.6.7.2. The problem formulation \ 42 7. Energian and quasiextremal \ 26 2. The Principle Formulation \ 13 1.4.6. Dynamic Problems \ 40 6. Ring Mixer \ 47 7. The power balance of electromagnetic field \ 17 1.5.4. Computational Algorithm \ 38 Chapter 5. Modified Navier-Stokes equations \ 35 2.2. Acceleration of the mixer \ 52 Chapter 8.6. Mixer with bottom and lid \ 50 7. An Example: Flow in a Pipe \ 54 . Splitting the functional for Maxwell equations \ 21 Chapter 2.3.8. Electrical Engineering \ 15 1.4.4.

Discrete Modified Navier-Stokes Equations for stationary flows \ 94 2. The Surfaces of Constant Lagrangian \ 92 Supplement 6. Ring pipe \ 54 8. Discrete Modified Navier-Stokes Equations \ 94 1.4. Long pipe with shutter \ 62 8.8. Variable mass forces in the pipe with shutter \ 65 8. An Electrical Model for Solving the Modified NavierStokes Equations \ 98 References \ 101 V 7 . Long pipe \ 57 8. Excerpts from the book of Nicholas Umov \ 80 Supplement 3. Variable mass forces in the pipe \ 61 8. Discrete Modified Navier-Stokes Equations for dynamic flows \ 97 Supplement 7.6. Solving Variational Problem with Gradient Descent Method \ 89 Supplement 5. Compressible Fluid \ 71 Discussion \ 72 Supplement 1.3.2. Certain formulas \ 74 Supplement 2.5. Pressure in a long pipe with shutter \ 67 Chapter 9.1. Proof that Integral ∫ v ⋅ ∆( v )dV is of Constant Sign \ 88 Supplement 4.

This allows to show theoretically and practically that the global solution for Naviet-Stokes equations exists. which means that there is energy dissipation. that for realizing the method there is no necessity to add boundary conditions to these equations – it is enough to describe the boundaries of the closed domain where the solution is being considered. The boundaries may be walls or free surfaces. 8 . It is important to say that opening the authors of the existence of global extremum made it possible for the author to develop a numerical method for such systems . mechanics. electrical engineering. It should be noted that in his research the author had used essentially the works of a somewhat forgotten nowadays distinguished scientist Nikolay Umov.. into thermal energy. In recent years. In the presented book the proof of using the developed method in hydrodynamics is given. for instance. based on the descend along the functional towards the global optimum. the sum of kinetic and potential energies) decreases with the motion. and it takes into account the fact that in real systems the full energy (i. Mathematically it means that for any (as the author thinks) physical system it is possible to build a functional possessing a global saddle line. This principle is an extention of the Lagrange formalism. the author of the book (my brother) developed variational principles for dissipative systems and has formulated the principle extremum of full action.e.Foreword of the Reviewer I have 50 years of experience in the field of hydrodynamics. turning into other types of energy. What is really amazing. The proof lies in the fact that both of them do not alter the energy of fluid. Thus far he had proved it for electrodynamics.

physics. • Honorary Professor of the Kyrgyz State University of Construction.6 PhD and 2 Grand Ph. hydrodynamics. docent • Worked as docent and then professor of Physics." • Has 2 of the invention • Educate students .D. 9 . Moscow State University Press.Brief Introduction about reviewer • Mihail I. • Activity .D. Khmelnik • Grand Ph. Transport and Architecture. filtration theory (the theory of fluid motion in the soil). electrophysics • Published over 120 articles • Published book: "Physics. Guidelines to solve practical problems..

allowing to construct the functional for various physical systems. and also the energy flow into the system or from it. and thus the unique solution of NavietStokes is found. Here we must take into account the energy losses (such as friction or heat losses). which consists in moving along the gradient towards this functional's extremum. In Chapter 1 the full action extremum principle is stated and its applicability in electrical engineering theory. In this book we make an attempt to extend the said principle to hydrodynamics. This principle has been used by the author in electrical engineering. and they are proved to be the necessary and sufficient conditions of the existence of this functional's global extremum. This functional has a global saddle point. electrodynamics. As the global extremum exists. The first step in the construction of such functional consists in writing the equation of energy conservation or the equation of powers balance for a certain physical system. mechanics is shown. for dissipative systems. 10 . A method of searching for the solution of these equations. and so the gradient descent to saddle point method may be used for the solution of physical systems with such functional. The conditions for reaching this extremum are formulated.Introduction In his previous works [6-25] the author presented the full action extremum principle. which is most important. Accordingly. Then the closed systems are considered For them it is proved that the necessary and sufficient conditions of global extremum for the named functional are always valid. In Chapter 2 the full action extremum principle is applied to hydrodynamics for viscous incompressible fluid. and. It is shown that the Naviet-Stokes equations are the conditions of a certain functional's extremum. mechanics. the solution also always exists. the search for global extremum is always successful. electrodynamics.

It is stated that the systems described by Naviet-Stokes and having determined boundary conditions (pressures or speeds) on all the bounds, belong to the type of closed systems. It is shown that such type includes the systems that are bounded by: o Impenetworkrable walls, o Free surfaces, находящимися под известным давлением, o Movable walls being under a known pressure, o So-called generating surfaces through which the flow passes with a known speed. Thus, for closed systems it is proved that there always exists an unique solution of Naviet-Stokes equations. In Chapter 3 the numerical algorithm is briefly described. In Chapter 5 the numerical algorithm for stationary problems is described in detail. In Chapter 6 the algorithm for dynamic problems solution is suggested, as a sequence of stationary problems solution, including problems with jump-like and impulse changes in external effects. Chapter 7 shows various examples of solving the problems in calculations of a mixer by the suggested method. In chapter 8 we consider the fluid movement in pipe with arbitrary form of section.. It is shown that regardless of the pipe section form the speed in the pipe length is constant along the pipe and is changing parabolically along its section, if there is a constant pressure difference between the pipe's ends. Thus, the conclusion reached by the proposed method for arbitrary profile pipe is similar to the solution of a known Poiseille problem for round pipe. In Chapter 9 it is shown tat the suggested method may be extended for viscous compressible fluids. Into Supplement 1 some formulas processing was placed in order not to overload the main text. For the analysis of energy processes in the fluid the author had used the book of Nikolay Umov, some fragments of which are sited in Supplement 2 for the reader's convenience. In Supplement 3 there is a deduction of a certain formula used for proving the necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of the main functional's global extremum. In Supplement 4 the method of solution for a certain variational problem by gradient descend is described. In Supplement 5 we are giving the derivation of some formulas for the surfaces whose Lagrangian has a constant value and does not depend on the coordinates.
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In Supplement 6 dealt with a discrete version of modified NavierStokes equations and the corresponding functional. In Supplement 7 we discuss an electrical model for solving modified Navier-Stokes equations and the solution method for these equations which follows this model.

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Сhapter 1. Principle extremum of full action
This principle forms the foundation of the presented theory. It was described in most detailed way in [22, 23]. Here only the main aspects of this principle are cited, as well as the results of its usage in electrical engineering, electrodynamics, mechanics.

The Lagrange formalism is widely known – it is an universal method of deriving physical equations from the principle of least action. The action here is determined as a definite integral - functional

1.1. The Principle Formulation
S (q) = ∫ 2 (K (q) − P(q))dt

t (1) t1 from the difference of kinetic energy K ( q ) and potential energy P ( q) , which is called Lagrangian Λ(q) = K (q) − P(q) . (2) Here the integral is taken on a definite time interval t1 ≤ t ≤ t2 , and q is a vector of generalized coordinates, dynamic variables, which, in their turn, are depending on time. The principle of least action states that the extremals of this functional (i.e. the equations for which it assumes the minimal value), on which it reaches its minimum, are equations of real dynamic variables (i.e. existing in reality). For example, if the energy of system depends only on functions q
and their derivatives with respect to time determined by the Euler formula

q′ ,

then the extremal is

∂( K − P ) d ⎛ ∂( K − P ) ⎞ − ⎜ ⎟ = 0. ∂q dt ⎝ ∂q′ ⎠

(3)

The Lagrange formalism is applicable to those systems where the full energy (the sum of kinetic and potential energies) is kept constant. The principle does not reflect the fact that in real systems the full energy (the sum of kinetic and potential energies) decreases during motion,
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We propose calling full action a definite integral – the functional Φ(q) = ∫ 2 ℜ(q)dt from the value t t1 (4) (5) which we shall call energian (by analogy with Lagrangian).turning into other types of energy. y)dt . there occurs energy dissipation. applicable to dissipative systems. having the form: ℜ(q) = (K (q) − P(q) − Q(q)) . disappears Let us determine the extremal value of functional (5).. The fact. for system with energy dissipation) there is no formalism similar to Lagrange formalism. y ) will be called "split" energian. The function ℜ2 ( x . The minimum and the maximum are sole ones. Thus. and a chaotic ("unprincipled") part. This functional is minimized along function x(t ) with a fixed function y(t ) and is maximized along function y(t ) with a fixed function x(t ) . Further we shall consider a full action quasiextremal. the extremum of functional (7) is a saddle line. that for dissipative systems (i. into thermal energy Q . In it Q ( q) is the thermal energy.e. e. i. replace) the function q(t ) into two independent functions x(t ) and y(t ) . seems to be strange: so the physical world is found to be divided to a harmonious (with the principle of least action) part. for example. For this purpose we shall "split" (i. and the functional (4) will be associated with functional Φ2 ( x. ∂(K − P) d ⎛ ∂(K − P) ⎞ ∂Q − ⎜ = 0. y) = ∫ 2 ℜ2 ( x. where one group of 14 t t1 (7) . The author puts forward the principle extremum of full action. which we shall call "split" full action. The principle extremum of full action states that the quasiextremals of this functional are equations of real dynamic processes.the component corresponding to Q ( q) .e. ⎟− ∂q dt ⎝ ∂q′ ⎠ ∂q (6) Functional (4) reaches its extremal value (defined further) on quasiextremals. Right away we must note that the extremals of functional (4) coincide with extremals of functional (1) .

where . In [22. and another . Q(q) present magnetic.4. Q(q) = Rq′q. S . electric and thermal energies correspondingly. Thus. functions xo minimizes the functional.matrix of inductivities and mutual inductivities. P(q) = − Eq⎟. (2) 15 ⎞ ⎛ Sq2 Lq′2 ⎜ K (q) = . maximizes it.5).matrix of resistances. Our statement 1 is as follows: In every area of physics we may find correspondence between full action and split full action. the quasiextremal of the functional (4) is a sum of extremals xo .matrix of inverse capacities. Here and further vectors and matrices are considered in the sense of vector algebra. and functions K (q). E . In other words. q . yo of functional (7). (1) ⎟ ⎜ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ Here stroke means derivative . and the operation with them are written in short form. 1. The equation of quasiextremal in this case takes the form: Sq + Lq′′ + Rq′ − E = 0 . R . and a quadratic form. Rq′q is a product of row-vector q′ by quadratic matrix R and by column-vector q . satisfying the quasiextremal equation (6). Let us consider the relevance of statement 1 for several fields of physics.the sought function q = xo + yo .vector of functions-voltages with respect to time. Therein lies the essence of the expression "extremal value on quasiextremals". determining the saddle point of this functional. 23] the author shown that such interpretation is true for any electrical circuit. P(q). and by this we may prove that full action takes global extremal value on quasiextremals. Electrical Engineering Full action in electrical engineering takes the form (1. a product of vectors is a product of column-vector by row-vector.yo . L . The sum of the pair of optimal values of the split functions gives us 1. for example. It is important to note that this point is the sole extremal point – there is no other saddle points and no other minimum or maximum points.2.vector of functions-charges with respect to time. as.

5) in expanded form: ⎞ ⎛ Lq′2 Sq2 ⎜ ′ ℜ(q) = − + Eq − Rq q ⎟ .known coefficient. Thus. found (5) (6) By symmetry of equations (5. It is well known f = mq ′′ + kq ′ . satisfying these equations. satisfy also the condition x0 = y 0 . 23] that sufficient condition for this is that the matrix L has a fixed sign. y0 . 6) are necessary for the existence of a sole saddle line. Mechanics m under the influence of a force f and drag force kq ′ .3. 6) it follows that optimal functions x0 and Adding the equations (5) and (6). ⎟ ⎜ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ Let us present the split energian in the form 2 ⎡ ′2 (3) Here the extremals of integral (1. where (8) It was shown in [22. (7) q = xo + y o .line motion of a body with mass where that 1. From it follows also statement 2: Any physical process described by an equation of the form (2). will assume accordingly the form: 2 Sx + 2 Lx ′′ + 2 Ry ′ − E = 0 . we shall write the Energian(1.7) by functions x(t ) and by Euler equation. 23] that conditions (5. the statement 1 for electrical engineering is proved. (1) k .Substituting (1) to (1.body's coordinate. y) = ⎢ 2 2 ⎢ ⎣(Lx′ − Sx + Ex − Rx′y ) ⎥ ⎦ (4) y(t ) . satisfies the principle extremum of full action. q . which is true for any electric circuit. we get equation (2). Here we shall discuss only one example . ( Ly − Sy + Ey − Rxy′)−⎤ ⎥. ℜ2 ( x. 2 Sy + 2 Ly ′′ + 2 Rx ′ − E = 0 .5). 16 . It was also shown in [22.

potential and thermal energies are accordingly: K (q) = mq′2 2 . However.In this case the kinetic. 17 1. But such partial result permits authors to conclude that all Maxwell equations (with respect to the intensities) are the consequences of least action principle as the above determined functional But all Maxwell equations do not follow from this functional ! Furthermore. 1. Then by varying the action with respect to vector magnetic potential and to scalar electrical potential the conditions of this functional's minimum may be found. and this functional will be called action. Introduction It is known [29]. As a consequence. ℜ2 ( x.5) for this case: ℜ(q) = mq′2 2 + fq − kqq′ .4. Electrodynamics . it also follows directly from Statement 2. that Maxwell equations are deducted from the least action principle. there are heat losses.e. P(q) = − fq. Q(q) = kqq′ . Therefore the Lagrange formalism is in principle not applicable to Maxwell equations. but this energy is not a part of Lagrangian. since the vector magnetic potential and electric scalar potential provide only four varying functions. It is evident. i. Further (after certain reductions) it is shown that this condition (with regard to the potentials) is equivalent to equations system with respect to electric and magnetic intensities. y) = ⎢ 2 ⎢ ⎣(mx′ + fx − kx′y ) ⎥ ⎦ (4) It is easy to notice an analogy between energians for electrical engineering and for this case.0. for the sake of the least action principle in addition to electromagnetic energy. whence it follows that Statement 1 for this case is proved. the Maxwell equations are dealing with currents in a medium with a certain electroconductivity. energy dissipation.4. The obtained equation system corresponds only to four of Maxwell equations. The equation for energian in this case is (1) Let us present the split energian as: ⎡ ′2 ′ (3) ( my + fy − kxy )−⎤ ⎥. (2) Let us write the energian (1. the thermal energy should be also included in the functional. For this purpose it is necessary to introduce the concept of vector magnetic potential and formulate a certain functional with respect to such potential and to scalar electrical potential. It means that.

And. 1. It has the following form PΠ + PEH + PQ + PC = 0 .the density of outside current sources power.Thus. coincide with Maxwell equations with respect to intensities. the above conclusion. where the action is an integral of difference between kinetic and potential energies. In this section we present such a functional with respect to intensities.1. PQ . an electromagnetic field cannot be described by vector potential that is continuous in all the space Therefore the symmetrical Maxwell equations cannot be deducted from variational least action principle. Further instead of the general-action extremum principle with regard to energies we shall discuss the similar general-action extremum principle with regard to powers. PEH . Also PC . PΠ = E ⋅ rot ( H ) − H ⋅ rot ( E ) .the density of power flow through a certain surface . according to a known formula of vector analysis. The power balance of electromagnetic field The equation of electromagnetic field power balance in differential form is well known [5]. 18 .the density of electromagnetic power of an electromagnetic field. PΠ = div[E × H ] (2) (3) or. The matter becomes complicated also because for symmetrical form of Maxwell equations (figuring magnetic and electrical charges). whose first variations with respect to intensities when they become zero. (1) where PΠ . Then we shall describe the descent method along these variations.4. all the more. which is equivalent to Maxwell equations solution. does not demonstrate a triumph of the least action principle. this functional cannot be used for direct solution of technical problems (using the above described method of descent along the functional) So it turns out that the Lagrange formalism is insufficient for the deduction of Maxwell equations.the density of heat loss power. which has some cognitive value.

The appropriate power Pρ = Kρ ε . Here and further the three-component vectors H.distribution density of summary (free and outside) charges. (7) dH dE . (13) potential energy of magnetworkic charges and the appropriate energy Pσ = Lσ µ .absolute permittivity. a product of vectors E ⋅ rot( H ) is a product of column-vector E by row-vector rot( H ) . J 2 . rot( E ) are considered vectors in dt dt PJ = PQ + PC . Then by symmetry we should assume that there exists magnetic current power PM = H ⋅ grad(L ) .absolute magnetic permeability. J1. J 2 . Let us assume now. E . µ . (12) where L is a scalar parameter. dH dE + εE . the sense of vector algebra. 19 где K – scalar potential. (8) (9) where ρ .the density of conduction current. J = grad (K ) . that there exist magnetic charges with density distribution σ and magnetic currents M = grad (L ) . Let us denote J = J1 + J 2 .distribution density of magnetic charges. PC = J 2 E . . (10) The charges in scalar potential field have got potential energy. (11) .PEH = µH where PQ = J1E .the current density of outside current source. rot( H ). For instance. dt dt (4) (5) (6) ε . From (5-9) that electric current power PJ = E ⋅ grad(K ) . So the operations of multiplication for them may be written in simplified form. (14) where σ . J1 .

16) accordingly. the volume density of summary power of the currents is determined from (15. z.Let us denote also the summary currents power (electric and magnetic) PJM = PJ + PM . 22). t )dx ⎬dy ⎬dz ⎬dt ⎪ ⎩x ⎭ ⎪ 0⎪ ⎩y ⎪ ⎭ ⎪ ⎩z ⎪ ⎭ 20 T⎧ ⎧ ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ (25) . and the Pointing vector is Π = [E × H ]. 1. Building the functional for Maxwell equations Let us consider a electromagnetic field of volume V . (22) Taking regard of formulas (2. and the third one is instanteous value of density of power flow through surface S . y . According to Ostrogradsky Theorem:: Π = [E × H ]. 16). (16) Then the equation of power balance of electromagnetic field takes the form PΠ + PEH + PJM + Pρσ = 0 . limited by surface S .2. 15. 4. (22) Here the first component is the electromagnetic field in volume V .4. (21) ⎪ S 0⎪ ⎩V ⎭ Here we have in mind that the volume density of power of electromagnetic field PEH is determined from (4). the second component is the currents power in volume V . Φ = ∫ ⎨∫ ⎨ ∫ ⎨ ∫ ℜ( q( x. Full action in electrodynamics has suсh a form T⎧ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ Φ = ∫ ⎨ ∫ PEH − PJM − Pρσ dV − ∫ ΠdS ⎬dt . (18) where the components are determined as (3. (15) and the summary charges power (electric and magnetic) Pρσ = Pρ + Pσ . from (21) we get: { } ⎫ ⎫ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ Φ = ∫ ⎨∫ ⎨ ∫ ⎨ ∫ PEH − PΠ − PJM − Pρσ dx ⎬dy ⎬dz ⎬dt ⎪ ⎩x ⎭ ⎪ 0⎪ ⎩y⎪ ⎭ ⎪ ⎩z ⎪ ⎭ T⎧ ⎧ ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ { } (24) or ⎫ ⎫ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ .

we get: • By variable E = E x . y . ℜ( q) = ⎨ ⎬ ρ σ K L ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ ⎞ ⎪− ⎜ E ⋅ grad(K ) + ⎟⎪ ⎟ − ⎜ H ⋅ grad(L ) + ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ ε ⎠ ⎝ µ ⎠⎭ ⎩ (27) Let us remind that the necessary conditions of extremum for a functional from functions of several independent variables . Let us consider a vector of unknown scalar functions of four variables (x. K . H y . K . dt • By variable H = H x . (27в) [ ] Let us write the equation of quasiextremal for the functional (27) for each i -th component qi of the vector q ⎧ ∂PJM ⎡ d ⎛ ∂PJM ⎞⎤ ⎫ − ∑ ⎢ da ⎜ ⎪ ⎟⎥ ⎪ ⎜ ∂[dq da] ⎟ q ∂ ⎠⎦ ⎪ i ⎪ i a = x. dt • By variables K . H . 3.rotH + ε [ ] (29) dH + grad(L ) = 0 .the vector of unknown functions ( E . L) . ∂ P ⎪ ⎪ ρσ ∂PΠ ∂PEH ⎪+ ∂q + ∂q + ∂q ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ i i i (28) The first four components here corresponds to Ostrogradsky equation (p23). E y . H x . z . 18).t): q = E x . rotE + µ (30) 21 .where q . H z : .the Ostrogradsky equations [4] for each function have the form (p23).y.t ⎣ ⎝ ⎨ ⎬ = 0. H z . and combining then the three projections into a vector. { } Taking regard of formula (4. L . and two others are ordinary partial derivatives. L accordingly. and the Energian for electrodynamics has the form: (26) ℜ( q) = PEH − PΠ − PJM − Pρσ . H y . E z : [ ] dE = grad(K ) = 0 . Ez . E y . Differentiating by unknown functions according to (28). we get dH dE ⎫ ⎧ H rot ( E ) E rot ( H ) H E µ ε ⋅ − ⋅ + + − ⎪ dt dt ⎪ ⎪ ⎪.z.

ρ⎞ σ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ ⎜ divE − ⎟ = 0. found from Ostrogradsky equation. we shall get the Maxwell equations system (2931). q′′ . q′′) = ⎨ ⎜ H ′ ⎟ − ⎜ E′ ⎟ ⎬ dt dt ⎠ 2 ⎝ dt dt ⎠ ⎪ ⎪2 ⎝ ⎪ ⎛ K ′ρ ⎞ ⎛ K ′′ρ ⎞ ⎪ ⎟ + ⎜ E ′′ ⋅ grad(K ′′) + ⎟⎪ ⎪− ⎜ E ′ ⋅ grad(K ′) + ε ⎠⎪ ε ⎠ ⎝ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ ⎛ L′σ ⎞ ⎛ L′′σ ⎞ ⎪ ⎟ + ⎜ H ′′ ⋅ grad(L′′) + ⎟⎪ ⎪− ⎜ H ′ ⋅ grad(L′) + µ ⎠ ⎝ µ ⎠⎭ ⎩ ⎝ Above it was proved that the extremals of integral (32) by functions q′. scalar potentials and currents). Splitting the functional for Maxwell equations Let us associate with the functional (25) the functional oа split full action ⎫ ⎫ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ . and the ′ .see (27в). ′ + qo q = qo . Consequently. ⎜ divH − ⎟ = 0. are the necessary and sufficient conditions of the existence of a sole saddle line. qo ′′ . q′′)dx ⎬dy ⎬dz ⎬dt ⎪ ⎩x ⎭ ⎪ 0⎪ ⎩y⎪ ⎭ ⎪ ⎩z ⎪ ⎭ T⎧ ⎧ ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ (32) Let us present the split energian in the form ⎫ ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ 1 (H ′ ⋅ rot( E ′) + E ′ ⋅ rot( H ′) ) ⎪ ⎪2 ⎪ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎪− (H ′′ ⋅ rot( E ′′) + E ′′ ⋅ rot( H ′′) ) + ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎪ µ ⎛ dH ′′ dH ′ ⎞ ε ⎛ dE ′′ dE ′ ⎞ ⎪ (33) − H ′′ − E ′′ ℜ2 ( q′. the Statement 1 for electrodynamics is proved. ε⎠ µ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ (31) We may notice that these equations are symmetrical Maxwell equations (for they include also magnetworkic charges. 1.4. Φ 2 = ∫ ⎨∫ ⎨ ∫ ⎨ ∫ ℜ2 ( q′.3. satisfying these extremals. 22 ′ = qo ′′ . satisfy also the optimal functions qo condition (34) Adding these extremals. qo ′′ . where (35) .

another form (see (80) in [1] and Supplement 2) P (4) 1(v ) + P 5 (v ) + P 2 ( p. ρ = const is constant density. y. v = vx .unknown pressure.2. v y . [ F = Fx .coefficient of internal friction. (1) ρ where ∂v + ∇p − µ∆v + ρ (v ⋅ ∇)v − ρF = 0 . Fy . ∆v.1. z. and for viscous and incompressible liquid . where [ ] ] ∇p. vector. The reminder notations in Supplement 1. The power balance Umov [50] discussed for the liquids the condition of balance for specific (by volume) powers in a liquid flow. ∂t (2) p . t . (v ⋅ ∇)v are repeatedly given below P 1= ρ ∂W 2 2 ∂t . Hydrodynamic equations for viscous incompressible fluid The hydrodynamic equations for viscous incompressible liquid are as follows [2]: div(v) = 0 . vector. v) = 0 .unknown speed. x. Fz . For a non-viscous and incompressible liquid this condition is of the form (see (56) in [1] and Supplement 2) P (3) 1(v ) + P 5 (v ) + P 4 ( p. µ . v) = 0 .Chapter 2. vz . 2.space coordinates and time. (5) 23 .known mass force. Principle extremum of full action for hydrodynamics 2.

P 5 .⎧ ⎛ dpxx dpxy dpxz ⎞ ⎫ ⎪v x ⎜ ⎜ dx + dy + dz ⎟ ⎟+⎪ ⎠ ⎪ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎛ dpxy dpyy dpyz ⎞ ⎪ ⎟ + + + P2 = ⎨v y ⎜ ⎬ ⎜ dy dz ⎟ ⎠ ⎪ ⎪ ⎝ dx ⎪ ⎛ dp dp ⎞ ⎪ ⎪vz ⎜ xz + yz + dpzz ⎟ ⎪ ⎜ dy dz ⎟ ⎪ ⎠ ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎝ dx (6) P4 = v ⋅ ∇p . or. P5 = ρ ⎜ v x + vy + vz ⎟ 2 ⎜ dx dy dz ⎝ ⎠ 2 2 W 2 = v2 x + v y + vz ( ) pxy and so on – tensions (see (р24) in Supplement 1). Here P 1 is the power of energy variation. the variation of energy flow power through a given liquid volume. v) = P (10) 5 (v ) + P 4 ( p. as it was shown by Umov. P 4 is the power of work of pressure variation. that for incompressible liquid the following equality is valid ⎛ dpxx dpxy dpxz ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ dx + dy + dz ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ dpxy dpyy dpyz ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ dx + dy + dz ⎟ ⎟ = ∇p − µ ⋅ ∆v ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ dpxz dpyz dpzz ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ dx + dy + dz ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ This follows from (р24). and the value P7 ( p.the power of variation of energy variation for direction change. v) is. (7) (8) (9) 1 ⎛ dW 2 dW 2 dW 2 ⎞ ⎟. subject to (6) (11) ( ) (12) (13) P2 = P4 − P3 24 . From this it follows that P2 = v ∇p − µ ⋅ ∆v . In [2] it was shown.

condition(1) and formula (p1a) let us rewrite (8) in the form P3 = µ ⋅ v ⋅ ∆v ( ) . P5 = div v ⋅ W 2 V V ( ) (19) (20) (20а) V V S or. (16) Then for every viscous incompressible liquid this balance condition is of the form P (17) 1 (v ) + P 5 (v) + P 4 ( p. Taking into condition(1) and formula (p1a) let us rewrite (7) in the form P4 = div v ⋅ p . we rewrite (4) in the form P (15) 1 (v ) + P 5 (v) + P4 ( p. Therefore. 2 ∫∫∫ P5 dV = ∫∫∫ (v ⋅ G(v))dV = ∫∫W ⋅ vn ⋅ dS . v) − P 3 (v ) − P 6 (v ) = 0 . subject to (р15). (21с) 25 . V V S ∫∫∫ P5dV = ∫∫∫ div (v ⋅W 2 )dV = ∫∫W 2 ⋅ vn ⋅ dS S (21) Returning again to the definitions of powers (7. 19) and Ostrogradsky formula (p28) we find: ∫∫∫ P4 dV = ∫∫∫ div(v ⋅ p )dV = ∫∫ pS ⋅ vn ⋅ dS .where (14) . From (18. V V S 2 (21а) (21в) ∫∫∫ (v ⋅ ∇(W or ))dV = ∫∫W 2 ⋅ vn ⋅ dS S ∫∫∫ (v ⋅ G (v ) )dV = ∫∫ W V S 2 ⋅ vn ⋅ dS . We shall supplement the condition (15) by mass forces power P6 = ρFv .power of change of energy loss for internal friction during the motion. (18) Taking into account (p9a). v) − P 3 (v ) = 0 . we will get ∫∫∫ (v ⋅ ∇p )dV = ∫∫ pS ⋅ vn ⋅ dS . 8).

⎪ ⎭ ⎩V 0⎪ (23) Having in mind (17). (P4 (q)) = (P5 (v. z. y. . Below in Section 5. v] = p. as distinct from ∂v (29) 26 .3.5) in the following form ℜ(q) = P (24) 1( v ) + P 3 (v ) − P 4 ( q) + P 5 (v ) − P 6 (v ) . ⎟ ⎟ = ρ ⎪ ∂v ⎝ ⎝ dt ⎠ ⎠ dt ∂v ⎪ ⎪ div ( ) v ∂o ∂ . ⎜P 1⎜ v. р18): P 1 = ρ ⋅v where P5 = ρ ⋅ v ⋅ G (v ).2. t )dV ⎬dt .⎪ ⎬ ∇( p) ∂v ∂q ⎪ ⎪ ∂o (P6 (v )) = ρF. let us write the energian (1. we get ∂v ⎫ ∂ ⎛ ⎛ dv ⎞ ⎞ dv ∂ (P3(v)) = µ ⋅ ∆v. (22) [ ] This vector and all its components are functions of ( x . dv . z . t ) . Energian and quasiextremal For further discussion we shall assemble the unknown functions into a vector q = [ p. v x . G(v))) = ρ (v ⋅ ∇)v.7 will be shown – see (р8. The full action in hydrodynamics takes a form T⎧ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ Φ = ∫ ⎨ ∫ ℜ( q( x. v y . y . G ( v ) = (v ⋅ ∇ )v . р15. dt (28) ∂ . dt (25) (26) (27) Taking this into account let us rewrite the energian (24) in a detailed form ℜ(q) = ρ ⋅ v Further we shall denote the derivative computed according to Ostrogradsky formula (р23). ⎪ ∂v ⎪ ⎭ ∂o . by the symbol ordinary derivative dv + µ ⋅ v ⋅ ∆v − v ⋅ ∇p + ρ ⋅ v ⋅ G(v) − ρFv . Taking this into account (р19). vz . We are considering a liquid flow in volume V .

∂v′ b p′ = −2div(v′′) . 2).In accordance with Chapter 1 we write the quasiextremal in the following form: ⎡ ∂ ⎛ ⎛ dv ⎞ ⎞ ∂ ⎤ (P3 (v )) − ∂o (P4 (q))⎥ 1 ⎜ v. q′′) = ⎨+ (div(v′ ⋅ p′′) − div(v′′ ⋅ p′)) + ⎬ ⎪ρ ⋅ (v′G(v′′) − v′′G(v′)) − ρ ⋅ F (v′ − v′′) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ T⎧ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ Φ 2 = ∫ ⎨ ∫ ℜ2 ( q′. q′′)dV ⎬dt . v′y ′ . 2. v′′] = [p′′. ∂p′ ∂oℜ2 = bv ′ . v′ x . [ ] ′ . q′′ = [ p′′. ⎪ 0⎪ ⎩V ⎭ (33) Let us associate with the functional (23) functional of split full action (34) With the aid of Ostrogradsky formula (р23) we may find the variations of functional (34) with respect to functions q′ . ⎢ ∂ ⎥ ∂ + (P5 (v. obtained in the Section 5. G(v))) − o (P6 (v )) ⎢ ⎥ ∂v ⎣ ∂v ⎦ From (29) it follows that the quasiextremal (30) after differentiation coincides with equations (1. v′ y . ⎪ ℜ2 (q′. (35) (36) (37) 27 .4. v′ z . v′ ′ ]. The split energian Let us consider the split functions (22) in the form q′ = [ p′. In this we shall take into account the formulas (р22). Then we have: ∂oℜ2 = b p′ . v′] = p′. ⎟ ⎟ + ⎢ ∂v ⎜ P ∂q dt ⎠ ⎠ ∂v (30) ⎢ ⎝ ⎝ ⎥ = 0.7. v′ x z (31) (32) Let us present the split energian taking into account the formula (р18) in the form ⎫ ⎧ ⎛ ′ dv′′ ′′ dv′ ⎞ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ( ) ρ µ v v − ⋅ − − ⋅ v ∆ v − v ∆ v ⎜ ⎟ ⎪ ⎪ dt ⎠ ⎝ dt ⎪ ⎪ ⎪.

(44) ⎨ ⎬=0 ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ v v v v ⎡ ⎤ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ ⎞ ⎞ ⎪ ⎪+ 2ρ ⋅ G⎛ v′′. satisfy also the functions q0 condition ′ = q0 ′′ . where (46) . b′′ = [bp′′ . the vector (38) [ ] (39) is a variation of functional (34). ⎟⎥ = G (v ′ + v′′) ⎜ ⎟ ⎢ X ∂ X ∂ ⎝ ⎠⎦ ⎝ ⎠ ⎣ (45) Taking into account (27.see (22. we have ⎡ ⎛ ′′ ∂v ′ ⎞⎤ ⎛ ′ ∂v ′′ ⎞ ′ ′ ′ G ( v ) G v G ( v ) G + + + . (43) d (v′ + v′′) ⎧ ⎫ − 2µ ⋅ ∆(v′ + v′′) + 2∇( p′ + p′′) − 2ρ ⋅ F ⋅ ρ 2 ⎪ ⎪ dt ⎪ ⎪ . 44) by 2. satisfying these equations. ⎟ + G⎜ v′. Similarly. bv′ The equations (40. ⎟ + G⎜ v′. the equations of extremal line are Naviet-Stokes equations. bv′′ ] = 0 (41) b′ = bp′ . ⎜v . получаем we get the equations (1. ⎟ + G⎜ v′. ⎟⎥ − ρ ⋅ F ⎪ ⎢ ⎜ ⎪ ⎪ X X ∂ ∂ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎦ ⎣ ⎝ ⎭ ⎩ So. q0 (42) Subtracting in couples the equations (40. ⎪ bv ′ = ⎨ ⎬ ∂v′′ ⎞ ∂v′′ ⎞⎤ ⎛ ⎪+ 2ρ ⋅ ⎡G⎛ v′′. i. By symmetry of these equations we conclude that the optimal ′ and q0 ′′ .e. 32). 45) and reducing (43. ′ + qo ′′ . we get 2div(v′ + v′′) = 0 . and the condition b′ = [bp′ . ⎟ ⎢ ⎜ ⎪ ⎝ ∂X ⎠ ⎝ ∂X ⎠ ⎝ ∂X ⎠⎥ ⎣ ⎝ ∂X ⎠ ⎦⎪ ⎩ ⎭ For v ′ = v ′′ according to (р14а). ⎟ + G⎜ v′′. 41) are necessary condition for the existence of a saddle line. 38). bv′ ] = 0 (40) is the necessary condition for the existence of the extremal line. 2). 41) taking into consideration (37. q = qo 28 . 31.dv′′ ⎫ ⎧ 2ρ ⋅ − 2µ ⋅ ∆v′ + 2∇( p′′) ⎪ ⎪ dt ⎪.

а – a known number. where b is the variation on the line С. q′′)dx ⎬dy ⎬dz ⎬dt . From (48) we find δℜ2 = ℜ2 (S ) − ℜ2 (C ) = ℜ2 (q′ (52) S ) − ℜ2 (q′) . If. bv are determined by (35. then this extremal is sufficient condition of extremum. (47) ⎪ 0⎪ ⎩x ⎭ ⎪ ⎭ ⎪ ⎩y⎪ ⎩z ⎪ ⎭ where vectors q′. About sufficient conditions of extremum Let us rewrite the functional (34) in the form ⎫ ⎫ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ Φ 2 = ∫ ⎨∫ ⎨ ∫ ⎨ ∫ ℜ2 ( q′. Vector b . taking into account (33. Thus. furthermore. the gradient in it is bs = 0 . t ) – vector variables.e. X = ( x. z .2. v′( X )] will be varied.5. (51) . y . A is of constant sign in all definitional domain of the function q′ . defined by (39). Further only the functions q′( X ) = [ p′( X ). q′′ are determined by (31. (50) S v′ bv S where b p . where vector q′ on lines S и С differ by b = bс ≠ 0 . To find out which type of extremum we have. If where A has a constant sign in the vicinity of extremal bs = 0 . p′ bp S q′ = q′ a b + a + ⋅ = . Here the function q′′ here is fixed. Let the values ′ − qS ′ = q′ − q′ qC (49) S = δq′ = a ⋅ b . b = b(q′) . let us look at the sign of functional's increment δΦ 2 = Φ 2 (S ) − Φ 2 (C ) . then this extremal determines a global extremum. 50). i. and do not depend on q′ . or. (48) where С is the line of comparison. is a variation of functional Φ 2 by the of independent T⎧ ⎧ ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ function q′ and depends on function q′ . 32). Let S be an extremal. and subsequently. 36) accordingly. 29 δΦ 2 = a ⋅ A .

bv ) + G2 (vs ′ . of the form Taking into account (р21). bv )] + a 2G (bv ) . ℜ22 are functions not dependent on а. we get: ⎧ ⎫ ⎛ ′ dv′′ ′′ d (v′ s )⎞ − ⋅ − ρ v v ⎟ ⎜ s ⎪ ⎪ dt ⎠ ⎝ dt ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ′ ∆(vs ′ ) − v′′∆(v′′)) + 2(vs ′ ∇( p′′) − v′′ ⋅ ∇( ps ′ ))⎬ . (55) where ℜ20. (54) G (vs Here (53) is transformed into δℜ2 = ℜ20 + ℜ21a + ℜ22a 2 . bv ) + G2 (vs ′ . ℜ21. (58) ∂a (59) 30 . (57) ℜ21 = ⎨+ 2 bv ⋅ ∇( p′′) − v′′ ⋅ ∇ bp + ⎬ ⎪ ′ .′ + abv ) ⎞ ⎫ dv′′ d (vs ⎧ ⎛ ′ ′ ′ ( ) ρ v ab v − ⋅ + − ⎟ ⎪ ⎜ s v ⎪ dt dt ⎝ ⎠ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪− µ ⋅ ((v′ s + abv )∆(v′ s + abv ) − v′′∆(v′′)) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ′ + abp ⎬ δℜ2 = ⎨+ 2 (v′ s + abv ) ⋅ ∇( p′′) − v′′ ⋅ ∇ ps ⎪ ′ + abv ))⎪ s + abv )G(v′′) − v′′G(vs ⎪ ⎪+ 2ρ ⋅ ((v′ ⎪ ⎪− ρ ⋅ F ((vs ′ + abv ) − v′′) ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ( ( )) (53) ′ + abv ) = G (v s ′ ) + a[G1 (vs ′ . ℜ20 = ⎨− µ ⋅ (vs ⎪+ 2ρ ⋅ (v′ G(v′′) − v′′G(v′ )) − ρ ⋅ F (v′ − v′′) ⎪ s s s ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (56) ⎧ ⎫ ⎛ dv′′ ′′ dbv ⎞ ′ ∆(bv )) bv −v ⎟ − µ ⋅ (bv ∆v′ s + vs ⎪− ρ ⋅ ⎜ ⎪ dt ⎠ ⎝ dt ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ . bv ))) − ρ ⋅ F ⋅ bv ⎪ ⎪2ρ (bvG(v′′) − v′′(G1(vs ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ( ( )) Now we must find ∂ 2 (δℜ2 ) = ℜ22 2 ℜ22 = − µbv ∆(bv ) − 2ρv′′G(bv ) .

In the above-cited integrals the energy flow through the domain's boundaries was not taken into account. we must prove that the integral ∂ 2Φ 2 T⎧ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ = ∫ ⎨ ∫ ∂ℜ2 ( q′. and. to prove that the necessary condition (41) is also a sufficient condition of a global extremum of the functional (47) with respect to function q′′ . then the wall gets energy from the fluid. 2. (changing the speed direction). the integral ∂ 2Φ 2 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ = ∫ ⎨ ∫ ℜ22dV ⎬dt ⎪ ∂a 2 ⎭ ⎩V 0⎪ (61) is of constant sign. Therefore such walls do not change the system's energy.6. Boundary conditions The boundary conditions determine the power flow through the boundaries. but the conditions on the walls (impenetrability. circulating between the walls. which is the same. Hence the above-stated may be formulated as the following lemma Lemma 1. and fully returns it to the fluid. To prove that the necessary condition (40) is also a sufficient condition of global extremum of the functional (47) with respect to function q′ . Absolutely hard and impenetrable walls If the speed has a component normal to the wall. the energy reflected from walls creates an internal energy flow. Then the second lemma is valid: 31 . Specifying the concepts.1. we have to prove that the integral similar to (60) is also of the same sign. if the integral (61. The tangential component of speed is equal to zero (adhesion effect). if for them there exists a unique nonzero solution in a given domain of the fluid existence. Let us view some specific cases of boundaries. they may alter the power balance equation. The Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible fluid have a global solution in an unlimited domain. generally speaking.6. However. 58) has constant sign for any speed of the flow. adhesion) should not be formulated explicitly – they appear as a result of solving the problem with integrating in a domain bounded by walls. q′′)dV ⎬dt 2 ⎪ ∂a ⎭ ⎩V 0⎪ T⎧ (60) or. So in this case all the abovestated formulas remain unchanged. Similarly. 2.This function depends on q′ . we will say that the Navier-Stokes equations have a global solution.

S .external pressure. Then the restraint (63) may be written in the form ⎫ ⎪ ˆ ⎪ Φ = ∫ ⎨∫ℜ ( q( x.normal component of flow incoming into above surface. if the integral (61. ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ Φ = ∫ ⎨ ∫ ℜ( q( x.2. z. t )dV ⎬dt . except the points belonging to the surface S . 32 ˆ (q) = ℜ(q) + Q ⋅ P ℜ 8 (vn ) . y. (66) Therefore the following lemma is true: Lemma 3. vn .Lemma 2. The Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible fluid have a global solution in a domain bonded by absolutely hard and impenetrable walls. if the integral (61. 58) is of the same sign for any flow speed. z.surfaces where the pressure determined. (62) where In this case the full action is presented as follows: T⎧ ps . t )dV + ∫ P8 ( q( x. .6. by performing substitution in them. So all the previous formulas may be extended on this case also. Systems with a determined external pressure In the presence of external pressure the power balance condition (17) is supplemented by one more component – the power of pressure forces work P8 = ps ⋅ vn . y . t )dV ⎬dt . z. determined on the domain of the flow existence and taking zero value in all the points of this domain. y . 58) has constant sign for any flow speed. F ⇒ F + Q ⋅ ps ρ . The Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible fluid have a global solution in a domain bounded by surfaces with a certain pressures. (63) ⎪ ⎭ ⎩V S 0⎪ For convenience sake let us consider the functions Q . 2. ⎪ 0⎪ ⎩V ⎭ where energian T⎧ (64) (65) One may note that here the last component is identical to the power of body forces – in the sense that both of them depend only on the speed.

which was to be proved.3.6. Φ = ∫ ⎨∫ ℜ (67) ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ 0 ⎩V where λ – an unknown scalar multiplier. It is determined or known initial conditions [4]. z. by a given pressure in the pipe section). t )) + ˆ ( q( x. z .squared module of input flow speed. The energy entering into this volume with this flow. i.e. evidently will be proportional to squared speed module and is constant.surfaces where the pressure determined. P9 = Ws2 ⋅ vn .. We shall call such surface a generating surface (note that this is to some extent similar to a source of stabilized direct current whose magnitude does not depend on the electric circuit resistance). NOT dependent on the processes going on in this volume. 2. More precisely. t))dV⎬dt . Indeed. t ) = ⎨ ℜ ⎬. In [4] it is shown that such problem of a search for a certain functional with integral constraints (certain integrals of fixed values) is equivalent to the search for the extremum of the of the sum of our functional and integral constraint. Note also that the pressure ps may be included in the full action functional formally. For λ = 1 after collecting similar terms the Energian (68) again assumes the form (65).Such surface may be a free surface or a surface where the pressure is determined by the problem's conditions (for example. ⎩λ ⋅ (. the power balance condition (17) is supplemented by another component – the power of flow with constant squared speed module. in our case we must seek for the extremum of the following functional: T⎧ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ˆ (q( x. 33 . without bringing in physical considerations. z. S . If there is a generating surface. y. (69) где ⎫ ⎧ℜ( q( x. y .v ⋅ ∇p + Q ⋅ ps ⋅ vn )⎭ (68) Ws . in the presence of external pressure there appears a new constraint (21а). y. Systems with generating surfaces There is a conception often used in hydrodynamics of a certain surface through which a flow enters into a given fluid volume with a certain constant speed.

o the integral (61. if o the domain of fluid existence is closed. In consequence of Lemmas 1-4. 58) has constant sign for any flow speed. In the last case the system will be called absolutely closed. Closed systems We will call the system closed if it is bounded by o absolutely hard and impenetrable walls. Such case is possible. the following lemma is true: Lemma 4.normal component of flow incoming into above surface. we again get Energian (70). 34 . or o not bounded by anything. the following theorem is true: Theorem 1. without bringing in physical considerations. Note also that action functional ˆ (q) = ℜ(q) + Q ⋅ P9 (vn ) .4. in the presence of external pressure there appears a new constraint . local body forces in a bondless ocean create such a system. o surfaces with certain external pressure. where the energian is and then perform the substitution F ⇒ F + Q ⋅Ws2 ρ . but there is no energy exchange between fluid and walls. Including this integral constraint into the problem of the search for functional's extremum. So here we also may consider the functional (64). (71) Consequently. 58) has constant sign for any flow speed. ℜ (70) Ws the pressure ps may be included in the full formally. The Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible fluid have a global solution in a domain bounded by generating surface with a certain pressure .vn . There is a possible case when the system is bounded by walls. and we shall discuss this case later. 2.6.(similar with pressure ps ). For example. o generating surfaces. The Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible fluid have a global solution in a given domain..(21c). if the integral (61. Indeed. One may notice a formal analogy between Ws and ps . An example – a flow in endless pipe under the action of axis body forces Such example will also be considered below.

the boundary conditions in the form of free surface are fully considered. But the boundaries of this system are changeable. and the 35 . Therefore for such system the Energian (24) or (28) turns into Energian (accordingly) ℜ(q) = P (73) 1 (v) + P 3 (v) − P 6 (v) . Modified Navier-Stokes equations From (p19a) we find that (v ⋅ ∇ ) ⋅ v = ∆ W 2 2 . Substituting (76) in (2). ℜ(q) = ρ ⋅ v dv + µ ⋅ v ⋅ ∆v − ρFv . by the fact that the integration must be performed within the changeable boundaries of the free surface. dt (74) For such systems the Navier-Stokes equations take the form (1) and ρ Some examples of such system will be cited below. 2 ⎝ ⎠ ρ (78) which we shall call quasipressure. S (72) Thus. may also be the boundary of a closed system. ∂t (75) ( ) ( ) (76) (77) ρ ⎛ ⎞ D = ⎜ p + W2⎟. In a closed system this power is equal to zero. We have indicated above. D . Let us consider the value ∂v − µ∆v − ρF = 0 . which is under certain pressure. The solution of this system are functions v. that the power of energy flow change is determined by (10). and the integration must be performed within the fluid volume. 79) will be called modified Navier-Stokes equations. It is well known that the fluid flow through a certain surface S is determined as wS = ∫∫ ρ ⋅ div(v) ⋅ dΘ .7. we get (v ⋅ ∇ ) ⋅ v = ∆ W 2 2 .The free surface. Then (77) will take the form ∂v − µ ⋅ ∆v + ∇D − ρ ⋅ F = 0 . ∂t (79) The equations system (1. 2.

It is easy to see that the equation (79) is much simpler than (2). if o the fluid domain of existence is a closed system o the integral (61. The components of equation (55) take the form ⎧ ⎫ ⎛ dv′′ ′′ dbv ⎞ ′ −v ⎟ − µ ⋅ (bv ∆v′ ⎪− ρ ⋅ ⎜ bv s + vs ∆(bv ))⎪ dt ⎠ ℜ21 = ⎨ ⎝ dt ⎬. we may note that from mathematical point of view the equation (79) is a particular case of equation (2). Modified Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible fluid have a global solution in the given domain. 83) has the same sign for any fluid flow speed.see (33). A stricter proof of 36 . 83) always has positive value. dt ⎭ ⎩ q′ is (37) (81) . The above said may be formulated as the following lemma. then it is also described by modified NavierStokes equations. ⎪+ (div(v′ ⋅ D′′) − div(v′′ ⋅ D′)) − ρ ⋅ F (v′ − v′′)⎪ ⎩ ⎭ . evolved by the liquid due to internal friction. Consider the integral ℜ22 = −µbv ∆(bv ) . Integral (61. 78). ⎪+ 2(b ⋅ ∇(D′′) − v′′ ⋅ ∇(b )) − ρ ⋅ F ⋅ b ⎪ v p v ⎩ ⎭ (82) (83) Thus. Physics aside. This energy is positive not depending on what function connects the vector of speeds with the coordinates. Lemma 5. Let us do it. The functional of split full action (34) contains modified split Energian ⎧ ⎫ ⎛ dv′′ ′′ dv′ ⎞ −v ⎟ − µ ⋅ (v′∆v′ − v′′∆v′′) ⎪ ⎪− ρ ⋅ ⎜ v′ (80) ℜ2 (q′.see (38). for modified Navier-Stokes equations by analogy with Theorem 1 we may formulate the following theorem Theorem 2. Gradient of this functional with respect to function and dv′′ ⎫ ⎧ bv′ = ⎨2ρ ⋅ − 2µ ⋅ ∆v′ + 2∇(D′′) − ρ ⋅ F ⎬ . Lemma 6. Proof. and their solutions are similar. ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ J = µ ∫ ⎨ ∫ v ⋅ ∆( v )dV ⎬dt ⎪ ⎭ ⎩V 0⎪ T⎧ (84) This integral expresses the thermal energy. and so all the previous reasoning may be repeated for modified Navier-Stokes equations.pressure may be determined from (9. If a given domain of incompressible fluid is described by Navier-Stokes equations. q′′) = ⎨ dt ⎠ ⎝ dt ⎬.

8. are closed systems. 83). Among the computed volumes of fluid flow the closed volumes of fluid flow may be marked. From Lemmas 5. Conclusions 1. for closed systems there always exists a global solution of modified NavierStokes equations. 6 and Theorem 2 there follows a following.for any speed. Substituting in (84) v = bv . 2. It may be contended that the systems described by Naviet-Stokes equations. 37 . The solution of Navier-Stokes equations may always be found from the solution of modified Navier-Stokes equations. Theorem 3. o Surfaces. integral (84) is positive ( ) 2. 79) permits to find the speeds. as was to be proved. 5. o Movable walls being under a known pressure. which do not exchange flow with adjacent volumes – the so-called closed systems. Calculation of pressures inside the closed domain with known speeds is performed with the aid of equation (78) or ∇p + ρ v ⋅ ∇ v = 0 . which is always positive. and having certain boundary conditions (pressures or speeds) on all boundaries. The solution of equation (1. The closed systems are bounded by: o Impenetworkrable walls. Hence. located under the known pressure. The equations of Navier-Stokes for incompressible fluid always have a solution in a closed domain. (85) this statement is given in Supplement 3. 3. o So-called generating surfaces through which the flow passes with a known speed. we shall get integral (61. Therefore. For closed systems the global solution of modified Navier-Stokes equations always exists. 4.

q2 two more secondary functionals are formed from those functions q1. Seeking for the extremum of the main functional is substituted by seeking for extremums of two secondary functionals. and we are moving simultaneously along the gradients of these functionals. the solution is possible also for an infinite area. having a global saddle point. if the flow speed is damping. is based on the following outlines [22. 38 .Chapter 3. 23]. Another complication is caused by the fact that in the computations we have to integrate over all the flow area. q2 . Each of these functionals has its own global saddle line. Nevertheless. For the given functional from two functions q1. In general operational calculus should be used for this purpose. However. and full integration is impossible. But the area may be infinite. in some particular cases the algorithm may be considerably simplified. Computational Algorithm The method of solution for hydrodynamics equations with a known functional. Here we shall discuss only these particular cases.

. After solving these equations the pressure is calculated by the equation (2. 39 . 79) in stationary mode take the form: (2) In Appendix 6 we considered the discrete version of modified NavierStokes equations for stationary systems (2). (1) The modified equations (1. 2 ∇p = ∇D − ρ (v ⋅ ∇)v = 0 ρ (3) (4) The equation (75) for absolutely closed systems in stationary mode takes the form − µ∆v − ρF = 0 . . i.2) assumes the ⎧div(v) = 0.Chapter 5. ⎨ ⎩− µ ⋅ ∆v + ∇D − ρ ⋅ F = 0.78). ⎨ ( ) ∇ − ∆ + ⋅ ∇ − = 0 p µ v ρ v v ρ F ⎩ ⎧div(v) = 0. It was shown that for stationary closed systems the solution of modified Navier-Stokes equations is reduced to a search for quadratic functional minimum (and not a saddle points. After solving it the pressures are calculated by the equation (4).. (5) The solution of equation (2) has been discussed in detail in Supplement 4.e. Stationary Problems form Note that in stationary mode the equations (2. or p = D − W2. 2.1. as in general case).

3.. dt ⎠ ⎝ (3) (4) where (5) For a known speed vn −1 the value vn is determined by (4). Dynamic Problems 6. On the whole the algorithm of solving a dynamic problem for a closed system is as follows 1. we shall rewrite (1) as where n = 1. dt vn − η ⋅ ∆vn − Fn1 = 0 .75) for absolutely closed systems and rewrite is as where ∂v − η∆v − F = 0 ∂t µ . 3. Let us write (3) as vn − vn −1 − η∆vn − Fn = 0 . ρ (1) η= (2) Assuming that time is a discrete variable with step dt . Absolutely closed systems Let us consider the equation (2. Solving this equation is similar to solving a stationary problem – see Supplement 4.2... 5). Computing vn by (4. – the number of a time point. Algorithm 1 vn −1 and Fn are known 2.1. dt v ⎞ ⎛ Fn1 = ⎜ Fn + n −1 ⎟ . Checking the deviation norm 40 .Chapter 6.

In this case equation (1. 6. After solving these equations. Closed systems with variable mass forces and external pressures Consider the modified equation (1. ⎨ ⎩ j ⋅ ω ⋅ ρ ⋅ v − µ ⋅ ∆v + ∇D − ρ ⋅ F = 0.2. 79) in the case when the mass forces are sinusoidal functions of time with angular frequency ω .the imaginary unit. Further we perform the computation according to Algorithm 1. the pressure is calculated by equation (4). 79) take the form of equations with complex variables: where j . ⎧div(v) = 0. 1. It was shown that their solution reduces to finding a saddle point of a function of complex variables. Then in the initial moment the speed vo = 0 . расчет заканчивается. . the calculation is over. and on the first iteration we assign ∂vn ∂vn −1 − ∂t ∂t (6) vn −1 = 0 . Example 1. if it doesn't exceed a given value. Otherwise we assign vn −1 ⇐ vn (7) and go to p. (8) 41 . Let the body forces on a certain time point assume instantly a certain value – there is a jump of body forces. In Supplement 6 considered a discrete version of such equations.ε= and.

and so the system is a closed one (in the sense that was defined above). and gradient of forces (1) is shown on Fig. whose lades are made of fine-mesh material and are located close enough to one another. For example. coordinates and time. applied to the blades. σ. 2 . 42 . is passed to the fluid elements. The problem formulation Let us consider a mixer. are certain constants. a Function (1) is shown on Fig. these forces may be a function of speed. The body force determined as F may be Fm = ∫∫ (µ ⋅ ∆v + ρF )dΘ . Let us first consider a structure without walls. are described as follows F (R ) = e−σ (R −a ) where 2 . Let us discuss some cases. An Example: Computations for a Mixer 7. and the force Fm .1. (1) R is the distance from the current point to the rotation axis. Let us use for our calculations the method described in Chapter 5. Then the pressure forces of the blades on the fluid may be equated to body forces. the blades of a mixer work in a closed fluid volume Θ . In such a problem there is no restraints. 1. and so in its middle the problem of calculation of the field of speeds may be considered as a two-dimensional problem. The body forces might have a limited area of action Θ (less than the fluid volume) It mean only that outside this area the body forces are equal to zero. Θ Let us assume also that the mixer is long enough. Let us assume that the body forces created by mixer's blades and acting along a circle with its center in the coordinate origin.Chapter 7. In addition.

43 . 1. 2.6 0.8 0.2 0 100 50 0 -50 -100 -100 -50 50 0 100 Fig.4 0.1 0. 30 25 20 15 10 5 5 10 15 20 25 30 Fig.

and the pressure may be found afterwards by direct integration of the equation (2). R Fx ( x. It confirms our assertion that speed calculation and pressure calculation in a absolutely closed system may be parted. then the Naviet-Stokes equations assume the form [2]: v2 1 ∂p + = 0. (5) 44 y −σ (R −a )2 e . But the equation (3) may not be solved by direct integration. Cartesian coordinates Projections of forces (1) on coordinate axes are The equation for this absolutely closed stationary system is as follows: µ ⋅ ∆v + ρF = 0 . To achieve it. The condition of continuity in this system is also absent. Physically it may be explained by the fact that our system is absolutely closed (in the determined above sense). Indeed.2. ρF + µ⎜ 2 + ⎜ ∂r r ∂ r r2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (3) Interestingly enough in this system the equation for the calculation of pressure using speed is extracted from the main equation. depending on the direction of integration (from infinity to zero or vice versa) the results will be quite different. which are not determined by the problem's conditions. 7. which also corresponds with our statement for absolutely closed system. the latter cannot be solved independently.. the unique solution should exist. R 2 x Fy ( x.3. When integrating "from the zero:" the result depends on initial values of speed and on its derivative. Thus. Polar coordinates If body forces are plane and do not depend on the angle. we must better return to Cartesian coordinates. as the pressure in this case is not included into equation (3). r ρ ∂r (2) ⎛ ∂2v 1 ∂v v ⎞ − ⎟ = 0. and it may be obtained by the proposed method. y ) = (4a) (4b) . Nevertheless. y ) = − e−σ (R −a ) .7.

which builds the following graphs 1. 3. This method is realized in the program testPostokPuas22 (mode=1). Here ε1 = 0. y .the dimensions of the integration domain The dimensions are chosen large enough. so that the speed on a large distance from center would be close to zero. speed function v R (on the last iteration) in dependence of radius – see the third window on Fig 3.1. k = 286. ε 2 = 0.007.of the residual in the continuity condition in dependence of iteration number – see the second window on Fig. n = 35 . a = 5. The calculation was performed for σ = 0. Logarithm of relative mistake function ⎛ dv 2 ⎛ dv ⎞2 ⎞ 2 ⎛ x⎞ ⎜ y⎟ ⎟ ε 2 = ∫∫ (div(v)) dxdy ∫∫ ⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⋅dxdy (8) ⎜⎜ dx dy ⎝ ⎠ ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ x.01. and thus the system may be considered absolutely closed. ρ = 1. y ∫∫ (µ ⋅ ∆v + ρF ) 2 dxdy x. 4. where n × n . 2.70) in dependence of iteration number – see the first window on Fig 3. note that this mistake is a methodic one – it is caused by boundedness of the surface of integration plane and decreases with the surface extension. 3. where these functions a denoted by dot line and full line accordingly. number of iterations. where k is the 45 . thus. force function ρF and Lagrangian function µ ⋅ ∆v in dependence of radius – see the fourth window on Fig 3. this Figure shows the problem solution. µ = 1. y ⎝ x. y ∫∫ (ρF ) 2 dxdy (7) – of the residual of equation (2.To solve the equation (5) use the method described above in Chapter 5. Logarithm of relative mistake function ε1 = x.

0 -1 Error -2 -3 -4 -5 0 40 30 20 10 0 -50 testPostokPuas22 -3. k = 7000.5 -5 100 200 300 Nepreryv 0 100 200 300 1. In this case ε1 = 5 ⋅ 10−11. The integration area is restricted by the circle with radius Rs . is equal to zero. 7. the calculation is done in the same way.5 0 -50 0 50 Er-g. It is also important to note that to get this result we had not have to add more equations in the main equation . This answers the known fact that due to vicious friction the speed of fluid on the surface of a body surrounding it. In essence.5 1 0. Calculation results are shown on Fig.4. located on the circle with radius Rs .0026. ε 2 = 0.2) and the program testMixerModif.5 -4 -4. as in the previous case. 3. Mixer with walls Contrary to the previous case (in Cartesian coordinates0 we shall now consider a mixer with cylindrical walls. It is important to note that on the circle of radius Rs the speed is v = 0 .Lv-r v 0 50 Fig. We have shown above that the walls create a closed system and do not change the power balance in the system. Rs = 20. 4. 46 . mode=2. by (5.it was enough to restrict the integration domain.

which has built the following graphs: 1. µ = 1. a = 25.7) – see the first window. 7. 4. variant=2. 47 . The calculations have been made for σ = 0. k = 500 . located on circles correspondingly with radius R1 and R2 . ε 2 = 0. R2 = 70 .6 0.0 -5 Error -10 -15 -20 -25 0 testMixerModif -3 -4 Nepreryv -5 -6 -7 0 5000 10000 5000 10000 40 30 Er-g.2).8) – see the second window. function (2. 3.. 2. Fig.4 0.0028. Ring Mixer Let us consider now a mixer with internal and external cylindrical walls. ρ = 1. function (2.8 0. the speed module function v depending on Cartesian coordinates – see the fourth window. r = 33 and R1 = 30.1. by the program testKolzoModif.Lv-r 0 50 20 10 0 -50 v 1 0. 4а shows the result of computation by (5. We got ε1 = 4 ⋅ 10−4 . 4.2 0 -50 0 50 Fig.5. the speed function v R depending on radius – see the third window.

4а. 4в. 2 0 Error -2 -4 -6 -8 0 15 20 10 v 10 5 0 -100 0 100 0 r 100 0 v -100 -100 0 200 400 Iterations 600 Nepreryv testKolzoModif -1 -1.5 0 200 400 Iterations 600 100 Fig. 48 .-4 -5 Error -6 -7 -8 0 40 30 20 10 0 -100 v testKolzoModif -3.5 -3 -3.5 200 400 Iterations 600 -6 0 200 400 Iterations 600 40 20 0 100 0 r 100 0 v -100 -100 0 100 Fig.5 -2 -2.5 -5 -5.5 -4 Nepreryv -4.

4d. 49 . Fig. 4с.Fig.

0432. variant=1. 5. where (9. ε 2 = 0.6.10.11. Let us consider now a mixer with bottom and lid – see Fig.12) – unlimited integration domain. We got ε1 = 0. 50 . 7..0045.In the similar way we shall consider a mixer where interior part has the form of a square with half-side of R1 . by the program testKolzoModif. Mixer with bottom and lid 10 4 Hi 3 Oz 5 11 Hs 6 Hm Ox 2 Rs 1 9 Ri 8 12 7 Fig. 5.2). 4c and 4d show the speed gradient distribution for a round and square interior parts accordingly. Fig. 4в shows the result of calculation by (5. Fig. k = 500 .

2. the rectangle in this window depicts the force action area.7) – see the first window on the first vertical line on Fig 6. along the bottom and along the lid the speed is v = 0 .(2.the radius of mixer's can. which has built the following graphs: 1.8) – the mixer's bottom. 5. Bottom.8) – see the second window on the first vertical line on Fig 6. It is significant that to get this result it was no need to add any more conditions to the main equations – it was enough to restrict the integration domain in the course of calculations. Rs .8) – the mixer's cylindrical wall.see further. oz . lid and walls of the can create a closed system and do not change the power balance in the system.4.5) – the mixer's lid. 4. is always equal to zero.half-height of initial integration domain. Hm half-height of mixer's blades. Ri . where these functions are depicted by dot line and full line accordingly. It is important to note that on the circle of radius Rs .7) –the area of mixer's blades. the function (2. ox . bounded by bottom and lid. (1.half-height of the mixer's can. Hi . 3. (4.the axis passing along the diameter through the mixer's center.3. The calculations results are shown on Fig. 4.the radius of initial integration domain. the function of speed v R depending on radius – see the first window on the second vertical line on Fig 6.the axis passing along the rotation axis of mixer's blades. the function (2. This answers the already mentioned fact that due to viscous friction the fluid's speed on the surface of a body surrounded by the fluid. 5.6. 6. 51 . The calculations were performed by the program testMixerModif3 (mode=1). The calculations are performs exactly as in the previous case. (1. the function of speed v R depending on the distance along the height up to the mixer's center for constant value of radius equal to a – see the third window on the second vertical line on Fig 6. the function of force ρF and function of Lagrangian µ ⋅ ∆v depending on radius – see the fourth window on Fig. H s .

4 0.7. Rs = 15. 3. This algorithm is realized in the program testRagonMixer2.1. the relative residual function (6.1). a = 5.6 0.. and then we calculate the transient process according to algorithm 1 from Section 6. Now we shall consider the period of acceleration. Lap 0 50 100 iterrations 150 0 -40 1 0.F=f(z) 15 10 5 0 -20 -10 0 z 10 20 F.The calculations were performed for: σ = 0. 52 .004.2 0 -40 -20 0 r 20 40 -20 0 20 40 0 50 100 150 ε 2 = 0. Ri = 35. µ = 1. 2. the speed function with radius 5. that the body forces in a certain moment instantly assume a certain value – there occurs a jump of body forces. 20 15 10 5 testMixerModif3 Fig. H m = 3. 7. 6. k = 133. r = 33. We got ε1 = 0. Then in the first moment v (1) = 0 and on the first iteration we assume v (1) = 0 . 8): 1.1. -2 Error1 -4 v(r) -6 -2 Error2 -4 -6 20 v=f(z). the relative divergence from zero function.004. Acceleration of the mixer In Section 2 we have discussed the case of steady-state movement of the fluid in the mixer. assuming (as in Example 1 in Section 6.8 0.4). Hi = 15. H s = 7. which builds the following graphs (see Fig.

01 0 x 10 -5 testRagonMixer2.The computation was performed for the conditions taken in Section 2. 7.011 Error 0. µ = 1.e.2 0 0. ρ = 1.0105 0. a = 5.4 0. i.1. n = 35 . 53 . σ = 0. dynamic22 vt 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 10 Nepreryv 8 6 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Fig. 0.

1. where o is center of construction. Let us assume that in this system the body forces directed perpendicularly to the section plane of the pipe are in effect. An Example: Flow in a Pipe 8. ro Zo r z s Ro R Ox o Fig. R – the distance from oz axis of the ring to a certain point of pipe section measured along the axis ox. 1 Such ring pipe is a closed system. Let there be a ring pipe with rectangular section – see Fig.1. s – center of rectangular pipe section. Such forces do not depend on the z coordinate and are defined by formulas 54 .Chapter 8. also Oz Oy the Figure shows the main dimensions of the construction and the directions of Cartesian coordinates axes. Ring pipe We shall begin with an example.

z ))2 + (v y (x. R ( ) Fz x. At this FR (R. 2 as follows: 1. The calculations were performed for vR (R. (7) dp(R. in accordance with Chapter 5. z = 0 . 2. (8) Let us further denote the distance from a point in the section to the center of the section along ох axis as (9) The calculations results are shown on Fig. z ))2 . y = 0 – see the first window on the second vertical. and the pressure derivatives – by equation (5. z ) ⎛ dp( x. the speed function v R depending on the distance by height to the center of the pipe section with constant radius Ro – see the second window on the first vertical.7. z ) = (vx (x.7. function (7. z ) = −Fo . y. z ) = (Fx ( x. z ) = Fo (1) (2) ( ) Fo = 2.3) for given speed. ro = 12.. R x Fy (x.8) – see the second window on the first vertical 3. The calculation is performed by program testMixerModif3 (mode=2) and. z ))2 + Fy ( x. 4. y. y. y.2.2. z ) = 1 .7) – see first window on the first vertical. z ) ⎞ ⎛ dp( x. in two stages: the speed was calculated by the equation (5. function (7. zo = 11. µ = 0. 55 . z ) 2 (5) or (6) FR (R. The following initial data was used: y . y. ρ = 1. z ) ⎞ = ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ +⎜ dr dx dy ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ ⎠ r = R − Ro . y. y. y. the speed function v R depending on radius and on the coordinate x for constant z = 0. Fx ( x.(3) The definitional domain of body forces is the interior of the pipe.2). 2 2 . y. Ro = 17.

z ) . z ) for a rectangular section as vп ( r . It is important to note that the solution obtained by the proposed method without indicating the initial conditions. the pressure derivative function dp dR depending on the radius – see the second window on the second vertical.F=f(z) 15 10 5 0 -20 -10 0 z 10 20 p 0 -40 0 10 20 30 iterrations 40 60 40 20 0 -20 -40 -20 0 r 20 40 -20 0 r 20 40 0 10 20 30 40 testMixerModif3. z ) or vΠ ( r . The same function depending on the coordinates of one pipe section will be denoted as v y ( r. 56 . We shall call such functions – functions of constant Lagrangian.2). mode=2 20 15 10 5 Fig. knowing only the domain of the flow existence. 3. we shall denote the function v y ( r.2) it follows that this function has a constant value of Lagrangian on its definition domain – the pipe section. z ) . 5 Error1 0 v(r) -5 0 Error2 -2 -4 20 v=f(z). z ) along the pipe section drawn by the plane y = 0 is shown on Fig. Since for each form of section these functions have different form.5.. 2. The mentioned calculation (see the first window) shows that this speed satisfies equation (5. Distribution of speeds v y ( R. From (5.

показано на фиг. проведенному по плоскости y = 0 . 3. Long pipe Here we shall discuss flow in a infinitely long pipe of arbitrary profile in which body forces are in action. Распределение скоростей v y ( R. 8. Such system is a closed one and we can use the proposed method for its calculation. let us look at a "connected" in the described way segment of pipe of the length zo . where constant body forces Fo are 57 . 3. Then instead of this segment we may consider an equivalent system of such segment where the ends are connected in such way that the fluid flow from. For example. the flow in every part of an infinitely long pipe coincide with the flow in the built system. Важно отметить. z ) по сечению трубы.testMixerModif 20 10 0 -10 -20 40 30 20 10 vs 0 0 20 60 40 80 Fig. the left end flows directly into the right end. а только с указанием области существования течения.2. что это решение получено предложенным методом без указания начальных условий. Let us mark a certain segment of this pipe and assume that the section forms and speeds on both ends of the segment are similar. Zero values of speed on the pipe walls appeared as the result of computations. Evidently. say.

This system is absolutely closed. directed along the pipe's axis oz. y=0. 3. 2. and the following values are known: Fo = 1. µ = 1.7) – see the first window on the first vertical. where the following functions are shown: 1. -5 -10 -1 -15 -20 -2 20 0 200 400 iterrations 600 0 Lvz(x. zo = 27.5 400 200 0 20 0 vz(x.y) -20 -20 1. -Lvz 1 0. The result of calculation using the program testDawleModif (mode=2) are depicted on Fig 3. z=1 20 Fig. 3.5 0 -20 0 testDawleModif (mode=2) 0 Error1 20 20 0 x. y ) for constant z – see second window on the first vertical. y ) of the section for constant z – see the first window on the second vertical. ρ = 1.5). because the fluid does not interact with the walls. functions ρF and Lagrangian µ ⋅ ∆v depending on x with y = 0 and with constant z – see the second window on the 58 . function (2. Let also the pipe's section is determined in coordinates ( x .acting.y) -20 -20 0 F. 4. function of speed v z ( x. n = 13. y ) and is a square with half-side n. Lagrangian function µ ⋅ ∆v in dependence of coordinates ( x. The computation is performed according to (5.

If ∇p f = − ρ ⋅ F . Thus. So. The function of speed distribution on the pipe section.5) may be substituted by equation (12) (13) ∇p f − µ ⋅ ∆v = 0 . i. y ) for a rectangular section as vп ( x. z ) of elliptic paraboloid. which corresponds to the constant Lagrangian. the speeds on a circular section of ring pipe are distributed according to paraboloid of revolution function. but beside the pressure p there exists a certain additional pressure p f .second vertical where these function are depicted by straight and broken lines accordingly. ∇p f = dp dy From (12) there also follows that the gradient has a constant value in the direction perpendicular to the pipe section . we shall denote the function v z ( x. (14) and dp = µ ⋅ ∆v dy or (15) 59 . on a rectangular section of a pipe the speeds are distributed according to the function vп ( r . in a similar way we may prove that on an elliptic section of ring pipe the speeds are distributed according to a function v э ( r . Therefore. From (5. In this mode the body forces are absent. 3. z ) with a constant Lagrangian. we shall call this mode a conjugated mode (with regard to the above considered mode). 3.. As for each form of pipe section the functions are different. In Supplement 5 it is shown that elliptic paraboloid is also a function with constant Lagrangian. then the equation (5. The speed divergence and the pressure gradient are equal to zero. Let us consider now another mode of flow in pipe.5) it follows that for constant body force the Lagrangian also has a constant value on all pipe section. where the force and the Lagrangian experience a jump – see Fig. We shall call such functions the functions of constant Lagrangian. In particular. for constant body force the pressure in a linear pipe is constant. is shown on Fig. excluding the boundaries. y ) .e.

for circular section it has the form (с22). y ) . Therefore. is equal to p1 − p2 = L dp dy (17) and. z ) . Evidently. namely dependence (c16) – see Supplement 5. if only the pressure is constant on all the points of the pipe section. This may serve as an additional confirmation of the proposed method applicability. z ) of speed distribution in a pipe with elliptic section.dp = − ρ ⋅ Fo dy (16) Thus. then. 60 . (19) (20) p1 − p2 = µ ⋅ ∆v . particularly – with a circular section. L (18) p − p2 vп ( x . y ) = 1 ⋅ f ( x. L⋅µ In a similar way we may get the function v э ( r . as it follows from (18). In this case there exists an analytical dependence of the form (19). and. The latter formula coincides with the known Poiseille formula [2]. taking into account (15). in a pipe the speed along the pipe is distributed according to the function vп ( r . (21) where ro is the radius of circular pipe section. If the analytical dependence is known: vп ( x. z ) of a constant Lagrangian. and then the formula (20) becomes: p −p 2 vk (r ) = 1 2 ⋅ ro − r2 + z2 4L ⋅ µ ( ( ) . Specifically. The difference of pressures between two pipe sections spaced at a distance L . The speed in a part of the pipe with rectangular section is constant along the pipe and is changing on the section according to function vп ( r . y ) . and is changing uniformly along the pipe. y ) = ∆vп ⋅ f ( x . if there exists a constant difference of potentials on the ends of the pipe. the same conclusion may be reached regarding any part of a pipe.

ω . Thus. In Fig. varying sinusoidally in time.12 0. 3a shows the functions of distribution of speed vz over the pipe section when z = 0 . Variable mass forces in the pipe Here we assume that in a long pipe are massive forces. specified in Supplement 6.58 0. and in the Table 1 .92 61 . zo = 27 and several values of variables µ.10 Сosine 1 ≈0 ≈0 0. ρ = 1. Then.In the same way we may calculate the flow in a pipe of arbitrary section and/or in a pipe bent in arbitrary way (if only the form of sections and speeds on both ends of the segment are the same). an infinite system is formally transformed into a closed system.3. n = 13.the values of the amplitudes of speed and the cosine of the phase-shift sinusoidal speed of the sine mass forces at the point x = 10. 3a and Table 1 shows the results of the calculation by program testDawleModifTime (mode = 2) at Fo = 100. However.01 0. to calculate the rate can apply equation (6. y = 10 . Table 1. the amplitude of the speed vz decreases significantly. In Fig. Variant 1 2 3 4 vz µ 1 1 100 1 ω 0 100 1 10 Amplitude 62.8) and the method of their solution. 8. You can see that at high frequency function distribution of speed of the pipe section tends to a constant at all points of the section. with the exception of the contour section. where it is always zero.

Let also the pipe section be defined in coordinates ( x .1 0 20 0 om=10.mu=1 -20 -20 0 20 20 Fig. 3а. zo = 57. in which an absolutely hard cube with halfside Ro is placed.mu=1 -20 -20 0 0. Ro = 4. n = 27. 62 . y ) and be a square with half side n .02 0.100 50 0 20 0 om=0. 8. where constant body forces Fo . directed along axis oz – see Fig. As in the previous case.mu=100 -20 -20 0 0. ρ = 1.5 0 20 0 om=1. are acting. we shall consider a "connected" pipe segment of length zo .01 0 20 0 om=100. µ = 1. µ = 1.mu=1 -20 -20 0 20 20 1 0.4.2 0. 4. Long pipe with shutter Here we shall discuss the flow in an infinitely long pipe with square section with square side n . r = 39. and also the following values are known Fo = 100.

06. vz and vx by the axis of these sections for fixed value of 63 .0035. 4 the vertical lines (-6. The calculation is performed according to (5. 4. The ruslts of calculation with the aid of program testDawleModif (mode=5) are presented on Fig. Fig.-4.-6 -5 -4 -3 y x Fo n Ro y z zo Fig.-3) from the cube's center. 6 shows distribution of speeds of speeds vx by the same sections. 6. 5. Fig. 7 shows distribution These figures permit to give a picture of speeds distribution when flowing around the cube under the influence of body forces in an infinitely long pipe. 7.-3) are drawn. k = 922 . y = 0.. This system is closed. On Fig.-5. 5 shows distribution of speeds vz by these sections.. and in it the fluid interacts with the cube's walls. passing through the centers of sections distant by (-6.-4. ε 2 = 0. The values obtained are: ε1 = 0.-5.2). and Fig.

y).y).4000 2000 0 20 0 vz(x. z=zz-3 -20 -20 0 20 20 Fig.y). z=zz-5 -20 -20 0 20 20 2000 0 -2000 20 0 vx(x. z=zz-3 -20 -20 0 20 20 Fig. z=zz-4 -20 -20 0 500 0 -500 20 0 vx(x.y).y). 5. z=zz-5 -20 -20 0 20 20 4000 2000 0 20 0 vz(x. z=zz-6 -20 -20 0 1000 0 -1000 20 0 vx(x.y). 6. z=zz-6 -20 -20 0 4000 2000 0 20 0 vz(x.y). 64 . 1000 0 -1000 20 0 vx(x. z=zz-4 -20 -20 0 4000 2000 0 20 0 vz(x.y).

y=n+a. suppose that in a long tube with a shutter are massive forces. n = 13. ω . 7b and Table 21 shows the results of the calculation by program testDawleModifTime (mode = 5) at Fo = 100.−8.6 -10 0 10 20 -10 0 10 20 -10 0 10 20 Fig. specified in Supplement 6. 7a. to calculate the rate can apply equation (6.−10. y = 10 .0) and vx (− 8. 7. In Fig.the values of the amplitudes of speeds vz (− 10.8) and the method of their solution.4000 2000 0 -20 4000 2000 0 -20 2000 1000 0 -20 2000 1000 0 -20 -10 0 10 20 vz(x). ρ = 1. varying sinusoidally in time. is not engaged shutter.3. Variable mass forces in the pipe with shutter Here we are. In 7a. Then.−6) the cosine of the phase-shift sinusoidal speed of the sine mass forces at the point x = 10. However. y=n+a. z=zz-3. except for points section and shutter.5.6 -10 0 10 20 -10 0 10 20 -10 0 10 20 2000 0 -2000 -20 1000 0 -1000 -20 1000 0 -1000 -20 500 0 -500 -20 -10 0 10 20 vx(x). You can see that at high frequency function distribution of speed of the pipe section tends to a constant at all points of the section. 7b shows the functions of distribution of speeds vz and v x over the pipe section when z = 0 .5. as in section 8. and in the Table 1 .5.4. where it is always zero. 8. the amplitude of the speed vz vz decreases 65 . z=zz-3. zo = 23 and several values of variables µ.4.

7в.2 20 0 om=10.mu=1 -20 -20 0 20 20 Fig. 66 . The amplitude of the speed increasing frequency.05 0 -0.mu=1 -20 -20 0 -4 20 20 0.mu=1 -20 -20 0 20 20 Fig.significantly. x 10 10 0 -10 20 0 om=0. 7а.mu=1 -20 -20 0 2 0 -2 20 0 om=100. 1000 500 0 20 0 om=0.mu=1 -20 -20 0 20 200 100 0 20 0 om=1.2 0 -0.05 20 0 om=1.mu=100 -20 -20 0 20 10 0 20 0 om=10.mu=1 -20 -20 0 2 1 0 20 vx also decreases with 20 0 om=100.mu=100 -20 -20 0 0.

6. i. p19d). (2) . p19c. For this purpose we shall analyze the following values: . Pressure in a long pipe with shutter Let us return to the example in section 8.78) or 2 ∇W2 = ρ ⋅G .15 0.03 1 ≈0 8.77).quasipressure – see (18) in Appendix 6 or D = − r ⋅ div ( v ) . Variant 1 2 3 4 µ 1 1 100 1 ω 0 100 1 10 Amplitude Сosine Amplitude Сosine vz 1319 1 104 10 vz vx 100 0. y )⎥ ⎣ dz ⎦ mid ⎣ dz ⎦ mid ⎡ dD ⎤ for a fixed value of z .78 0. ∇D = µ∆v + ρF .56 ≈0 -0.gradient of dynamic pressure – see (р19d) or ∆ (Pd ) = ρ ⋅ G (3) or. 67 z . taking into account (4). ∆(Pd ) = ρ .e.gradient of quasipressure. y )⎥ ⎣ dz ⎦ mid of pressure ∇p = ∇D − ρ ⋅ G .057 vx -1 0. as derivatives of (1) or by (2.Table 2. Pz = z min ∫ pzmiddz .4 and analyze the distribution of pressures in a pipe with shutter. y )⎥ Gzmid = ⎢ z ( x .00001 3. and also average value Dzmid = ⎢ z ( x. . p zmid = ⎢ z ( x . ( ) (4) ∇p = ∇D − ρ or. (1) . taking into account (р19a. (5) (6) Furtherfore. we shall calculate average values by pipe's section ⎡ dp ⎤ ⎡ dG ⎤ .42 0. 2 ∇W 2 ( ) .gradient of pressure – see (2.

1 dp.5 x 10 5 -3 -40 1 0. that shows 1. 8. functions p z of z for fixed values of x = x= y =9 – y =9 (the upper curve) and x = y = −11 (the lower curve) – see the second window on the first vertical . functions p z of y for fixed values x = 10 and z = 1 (the upper curve) and z = 19 (the lower curve) – see the second window on the second vertical.5 -1 -40 x 10 5 -20 0 20 40 -1 -40 10 5 dp(y) 0 -5 -20 x 10 4 -20 0 20 z.G. x=y=9(g) -10 0 10 y. On Fig 8. 3. D zmid .G(z). z=1(b). 2. functions p z . x=10.D. 19(r) 20 Fig. D z of z for fixed values of see the first window on the second vertical . 4.5 0 -0.5 dp(z) 0 -0.D(z) 0. functions p zmid . G z . G zmid . Pz of z – see the first window on the first vertical . x=y=9 40 -20 0 20 40 z.P(z) 0 -1 -2 x 10 5 1 dp(z). x=y=-11(k). 68 .

z=2 -20 -20 0 4 0 20 0 20 20 20 Fig. 1) Quasipressure is equal to zero (a closed system!). 9.y). ⎡1 − 4 ⎤ z=⎢ ⎥ ⎣6 − 20⎦ dp ( x. Fig. 5) The proposed method permits to calculate the pressure distribution in the pipe with shutter for given body forces. due to the fact that as the distance between the segments ends and the shutter grows.e. We must note that the precision of calculation increases with the extension of the pipe's segment length. and the distributions themselves 69 .y). (7) 4) The distribution of pressure gradient by the pipe's section is irregular. i. as an integral of pressures gradient on the ends of the pipe –are equal to zero. the dependence of speeds distribution on the ends decreases. 9 shows distribution functions One may notice the following:. y ) for fixed values of dz z max z min ∫ pdz = 0 . 3) Difference of pressures. z=zz+1 -20 -20 x 10 1 0 -1 20 0 Pz(x. z=zz+5 -20 -20 0 5 5 5 0 -5 20 0 Pz(x.y).y). 2) Average pressure gradient by every section is equal to zero. z=zz-5 -20 -20 x 10 1 0 -1 20 0 Pz(x.x 10 100 50 0 20 0 Pz(x.

In the above treated problem the equation of the type (5. (8) Let us perform a substitution ρF ⇒ ∇p′ . the solution of equation (10) with constraint (13).the known pressures difference on the pipe ends.become equal – this same assumption is made when we "connect" the ends of infinite pipe. the solution of equation (8) is also solution of equation (10) with constraint (13).e. where F = δP L . Let us now consider the case when the body forces are absent.1) has been solved. may be substituted by solution of equation (8). We shall now rewrite the last of equations as ∇p − µ∆v + ρG − ρF = 0 . calculation of speeds in a pipe with shutter and pressures difference of the pipe's ends. (12) where L . 77) is unique. From this and from (7) it follows that the solution of equation (10) satisfies the constraint z max z min ∫ p′′dz = δP . (10) Here p′′ = p − p′ . Therefore. 70 where . the solution of equation (8) always is the solution of equation (10) with constraint (13).1). Then the equation (8) will take the form ∇ p′′ − µ∆v + ρG = 0 . So.length of the pipe.. but there is a difference between pressures on the ends of the segment. i. (13) δP = L ⋅ F (14) . (9) and call the value p′ a force pressure. Consequently. (11) We have: ( ) z max z min ∫ p′dz = L ⋅ F . But it was shown above that the solution of modified equations (1. (15) For brevity sake we have omitted here to mention that the equations (8) and (10) should be solved together with the equation (2.

2) are transformed into form (4) In these cases we must consider also the power of energy loss variation under distension\compression due to the friction ⎛ ∂p ∂( pvx ) ∂ pv y ∂( pvz ) ⎞ k⎜ ⎜ ∂t + ∂x + ∂y + ∂z ⎟ ⎟ = 0. for which ρ = kp . Compressible Fluid The equations of hydrodynamics for viscous compressible fluid have the following form [2]: where ∂ρ ∂(ρvx ) ∂ ρv y ∂(ρvz ) + + + = 0. This allows us to use the proposed approach to compressible fluid. For such fluid the equations (1. ⎝ ⎠ µ ∂v kp + ∇p − µ∆v + kp(v ⋅ ∇)v − kpF − Ω(v ) = 0 . ∂ x ∂ y ∂ z ⎣ ⎦ (3) We may consider also barotropic fluid. ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂v µ ρ + ∇p − µ∆v + ρ (v ⋅ ∇)v − ρF − Ω(v ) = 0 . ∂v 3 (8) . (7) It is evident that the function Ω( v ) in this context behaves similarly to the function ∆ ( v ) . . ∂t 3 ( ) (1) (2) ⎡ ∂(div(v)) ∂(div(v)) ∂(div(v))⎤ Ω(v ) = ⎢ . ⎥ = ∇(∇v ) . 71 ∂ (P8 (v)) = µ Ω(v) . ∂t 3 ( ) (5) (6) P 8 (v ) = We have also: µ 3 v ⋅ Ω(v) .Chapter 9.

for example – the fluid "adhesion" to the walls. 3. In the presented method we do not include the boundary conditions into the problem formulation – they are found in the process of solution. "sticking" of fluid to the walls. may иe seen as generalization of known solutions (for instance. 72 . a generalization of Poiseille problem solution for pipes with arbitrary form of section and/or with arbitrary form of axis line).Discussion Physical assumptions are often built on mathematical corollary facts. coincide with solutions obtained earlier with the aid of other methods (for instance. the walls impermeability. c. problems with body as the functions of speed. Usually in the problem formulation we indicate the boundaries of solution search and the boundary conditions – for speed. may be interpreted as experimentally found physical effects (for instance. The obtained solutions: a. In this book there are several such places 1. The equations are derived on the base of the presented principle of general action extremum. coordinates and time) . d. The solution method consists in moving along the gradient towards saddle point of the functional generated from the power balance equation. the walls hardness. the solution of Poiseille problem). 2. b. belong to unsolved (as far as the author knows) problems (for instance. etc. acceleration pressure on the boundaries These conditions usually are formed on the base of physical facts. So it may be legitimate to build mathematical assumption on the base of physical facts. The main equation is divided into two independent equations based on a physical fact – the absence of energy flow through a closed system. absence of energy flow through a closed system). The exclusion of continuity conditions for closed systems is based in the physical fact – the continuity of fluid flow in a closed system 4.

we must analyze the bounded and closed systems. long pipe as the limit of ring pipe. for problems of electro. 73 . transformation of a limited pipe segment into closed system At the same time it must be noted that the solution method has not been treated here on a full scale – we considered only special cases of stationary flows and changing with time flows. Therefore above we have discussed some methods of formal transformation of non-closed systems into closed ones. 2. for example i. for compressible fluids. for free surfaces dynamics (in changing boundaries for constant fluid volume).and magneto-hydrodynamics iii. The proof of global solution existence belongs to closed systems Practically. ii. such as: 1.We may point also some possible directions of this approach development .

∂ ∂ ∂ x y z ⎣ ⎦ div(v ⋅ Q ) = v ⋅ ∇Q + Q ⋅ div(v ) . First of all we must remind that ∂v y ∂v z ⎤ ⎡ ∂v div(v ) = ⎢ x + + ⎥. ⎣ ⎦ (р4) (р5) ∂v x ∂v x ⎤ ⎡ ∂v x v v v + + x y z ⎢ ∂x ∂y ∂z ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ∂v y ∂v y ⎥ ⎢ ∂v y . 2.Supplement 1. Certain formulas Here we shall consider the proof of some formulas that were used in the main text. (v ⋅ ∇)v = ⎢v x + vy + vz ∂x ∂y ∂z ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ∂v z ∂v z ⎥ ⎢ ∂v z ⎢v x ∂x + v y ∂y + v z ∂z ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ P 1= (р6) From (2. (р1) (р1а) (р2) ⎡ ∂p ∂p ∂p ⎤ ∇p = ⎢ . ∆v = ⎢ + + 2 2 2 ⎥ ∂ ∂ ∂ x y z ⎢ ⎥ 2 2 ⎥ ⎢ ∂ 2v z + ∂ vz + ∂ vz ⎥ ⎢ 2 ⎢ ∂y 2 ∂z 2 ⎥ ⎣ ∂x ⎦ ∂⎤ ∂ ∂ (v ⋅ ∇ ) = ⎡ ⎢v x ∂x + v y ∂y + v z ∂z ⎥ .7а) it follows that ρ d 2 2 ( v2 x + v y + v z ). ⎣ ∂x ∂y ∂z ⎦ ∆v x = ∂ 2v x ∂x 2 + ∂ 2v x ∂y 2 + ∂ 2v x ∂z 2 . . 2 dt (р7) 74 .5. ⎥ . (р3) ⎡ ∂ 2v x ∂ 2v x ∂ 2v x ⎤ + + ⎥ ⎢ 2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 ⎥ ⎢ ∂x ⎥ ⎢ 2 2 2 ⎢∂ vy ∂ vy ∂ vy ⎥ .

( ) (р9а) Differentiating.e.i. we get (р10) ⎧ ⎛ dv x dv x dv x ⎞ ⎫ ⎪v x ⎜ v x dx + v y dy + v z dz ⎟ + ⎪ ⎠ ⎪ ⎪ ⎝ dv y dv y ⎞ ⎪ P5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎛ dv y ⎪ ⎟ v v v = ⎨v y ⎜ + + + x y z ⎟ ⎬ . P 1 = ρv Let us consider the function (2. we shall get: dv y ⎧ ⎛ dv x dv z ⎞ ⎫ ⎟ + + v v v ⎪v x ⎜ x y z ⎜ ⎟ +⎪ dx dx dx ⎠ ⎪ ⎪ ⎝ dv y P5 ⎪ dv z ⎞ ⎪ ⎪. (р11) dx dy dz ρ ⎪ ⎜ ⎝ ⎠ ⎪ ⎪ ⎛ dv dv dv ⎞ ⎪ ⎪v z ⎜ v x z + v y z + v z z ⎟ ⎪ ⎪ dx dy dz ⎠ ⎪ ⎩ ⎝ ⎭ Let us denote: 75 . ⎪ ⎛ dv x ⎟ = ⎨v y ⎜ + + + v v v ⎬ x y z ρ ⎪ ⎜ dx ⎟ dx dx ⎝ ⎠ ⎪ ⎪ ⎛ dv ⎞ ⎪ ⎪v z ⎜ v x dv x + v y y + v z dv z ⎟ ⎪ ⎜ dx dx ⎟ dx ⎪ ⎠ ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎝ After rearranging the items.7) or dv dt (р8) ⎛ d 2 2 vx + v2 ⎜ vx y + vz ⎜ dx P5 1 ⎜ d 2 2 = ⎜+ vy vx + v2 y + vz ρ 2⎜ dy ⎜ d 2 2 vx + v2 ⎜ + vz y + vz dz ⎝ ( ) ( ( ) ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (р9) or P5 = ρ 2 v⋅∆W2 .

dx dy dz ⎠ ⎝ dv y dv y ⎞ ⎛ dv y ⎟. ∂v Comparing (p9a. p18). P5 ρ = v ⋅ G. G ( v ) ) = ρG ( v ) . ∂v . we find that G = (v ⋅ ∇ )v . we find that 76 ∂P5 (v. gy = ⎜ v v v + + y z ⎜ x dx dy dz ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ dv dv ⎞ ⎛ dv g z = ⎜ v x z + v y z + v z z ⎟. dx dy dz ⎠ ⎝ Let us consider the vector (р12) ⎧g x ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ G = ⎨g y ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩g y ⎭ or (р13) ⎡ ⎢v x ⎢ ⎢ G = ⎢v x ⎢ ⎢ ⎢v x ⎣ Note that ∂v x ∂v ∂v ⎤ + v y x + vz x ⎥ ∂y ∂z ∂x ⎥ ∂v y ∂v y ∂v y ⎥ . G ) = ρ (v ⋅ ∇ )v .dv dv ⎞ ⎛ dv g x = ⎜ v x x + v y x + v z x ⎟. p15. ∂P5 (v. Thus. + vy + vz ∂x ∂y ∂z ⎥ ⎥ ∂v z ∂v z ∂v z ⎥ + vy + vz ∂x ∂y ∂z ⎥ ⎦ (р14) From (р11-р14) we get 1 G ( v ) = 2G ( v 2) 2 (р14а) (р15) (р16) (р18) (р19) Comparing (р6) and (р14).

∆ W 2 = 2 ⋅ (v ⋅ ∇ ) ⋅ v .
Since the dynamic pressure is defined as [2]

( )

(р19а) (р19с)

then from (R18, r19a) that the gradient of dynamic pressure ∆ (Pd ) = ρ ⋅ G . (р19д) Let us consider also (р20) G ( v + b) = G ( v ) + G (b) + G1 (v, b ) + G2 (v, b ) , where

Pd = ρW 2 2 ,

∂bx ∂bx ⎤ ⎡ ∂bx + + v v v x y z ⎢ ∂x ∂y ∂z ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ∂b y ∂b y ⎥ ⎢ ∂b y + vy + vz , G1 (v, b ) = ⎢v x ∂x ∂y ∂z ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ∂ b ∂ b ∂ b ⎢ z z z ⎥ ⎢v x ∂x + v y ∂y + v z ∂z ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ∂v x ∂v x ⎤ ⎡ ∂v x b + b + b x x x ⎢ ∂x ∂y ∂z ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ∂v y ∂v y ⎥ ⎢ ∂v y + by + by . G2 (v, b ) = ⎢b y ∂x ∂y ∂z ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ∂v z ∂v z ⎥ ⎢ ∂v z ⎢bz ∂x + bz ∂y + bz ∂z ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ If b = a ⋅ bv , then
We have

(р20а)

(р20в)

G ( v + a ⋅ bv ) = G ( v ) + a 2G (bv ) + aG1 (v, bv ) + aG2 (v, bv ) . (р21)

∂ o ⎛ dv ′ ⎞ dv ′′ ∂ o ⎛ dv′ ⎞ dv ′ , , ⎜ v ′′ ⎟ = − ⎜ v ′′ ⎟ = ∂v′ ⎝ dt ⎠ dt ∂v′′ ⎝ dt ⎠ dt ∂o (v′∆v′) = 2∆v′′ , ∂v′ ∂o ∂v′′ ⎞ ∂ o (v′′G (v′)) = −G ⎛ (v′G (v′′)) = G (v′′) , ⎜ v ′, ⎟, ′ ∂ ∂v′ X v ∂ ⎝ ⎠
77

∂o (v′ ⋅ ∇( p′′)) = ∇( p′′) , ∂o (v′ ⋅ ∇( p′′)) = −div (v′) . ∂p′′ ∂v′ ∂ ∂o div (v ′ ⋅ p ′′) = ∇( p ′′) , o div (v ′ ⋅ p ′′) = −div (v ′) -see (р1а). ∂v ′ ∂p ′′
(р22) The necessary conditions for extremum of functional from the functions with several independent variables – the Ostrogradsky equations [4] have for each of the functions the form

⎡ ∂ ⎛ ∂f ⎞⎤ ∂ o f ∂f = − ∑ ⎢ ⎜ ⎟⎥ = 0 , ⎜ ∂v ∂v a = x , y , z ,t ⎣ ∂a ⎝ ∂ (dv da ) ⎟ ⎠⎦

(р23)

where f – the integration element, v(x,y,z,t) – the variable function, a – independent variable. The tensions (in hydrodynamics) are determined in the following way [2]:

p xx = − p + 2 µ

∂v y ∂v x ∂v , p yy = − p + 2 µ , p zz = − p + 2 µ z , ∂x ∂y ∂z ⎛ ∂v x ∂v y ⎞ ⎛ ∂v x ∂v z ⎞ ⎟ p = p = + µ p xy = p yx = µ ⎜ + , ⎜ ⎟, xz zx ⎜ ∂y ⎟ ∂ z ∂ x ∂ x ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠
⎛ ∂v y ∂v z ⎞ p yz = p zy = µ ⎜ ⎜ ∂z + ∂y ⎟ ⎟. ⎝ ⎠
Let us consider formulas (р24)

d x = v x p xx + v y p xy + v z p xz , d y = v x p yx + v y p yy + v z p yz , d z = v x p xx + v y p xy + v z p xz .
(р25)

From (р24, р25) we find

⎛ ⎛ ∂v x ∂v ∂v ⎞ ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ vx + v y x + vz x ⎟ + ⎟ ∂x ∂y ∂z ⎠ ⎟ ⎜⎝ d x = − p + µ⎜ ⎟, ∂ v ⎛ ⎞ ∂ v ∂ v y x z⎟ ⎟ ⎜⎜v ⎜ ⎜ x ∂x + v y ∂x + v z ∂x ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎠ ⎝⎝
78

∂v y ∂v y ⎞ ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ ∂v y ⎜ ⎜ vx ⎟ ⎟ + v + v y z ⎟ +⎟ ∂ x ∂ y ∂ z ⎜⎜ ⎠ ⎝ d y = − p + µ⎜ ⎟, ∂ v ⎛ ⎞ ∂ v ∂ v y ⎜⎜v x z⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ x ∂y + v y ∂y + v z ∂y ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎠ ⎝⎝ ⎛ ⎛ ∂v z ∂v ∂v ⎞ ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ vx + v y z + vz z ⎟ + ⎟ ∂x ∂y ∂z ⎠ ⎟ ⎜⎝ d z = − p + µ⎜ ⎟. ∂ v ⎞ ⎛ ∂v y ⎜ ⎜ v ∂v x + v ⎟ + vz z ⎟ y ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ x ∂z ∂ ∂ z z ⎠ ⎠ ⎝⎝

(р26)

From this it follows that the double integral in formula (81) in [1] and in Supplement 2 may be presented in the following form

⎛ cos nx (− p + J 81x (v )) + ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ J 81 = ∫∫ dσ ⎜ cos ny − p + J 81 y (v ) + ⎟ . ⎜ ⎟ − + cos nz ( p J ( v ) ) 81z ⎝ ⎠

(

)

(р27)

The Ostrogradsky formula: integral of divergence of the vector field F , distributed in a certain volume V , is equal to vector flow F through the surface S , bounding this volume:

∫∫∫ div (F )dV = ∫∫ F ⋅ n ⋅ dS .
V S

(р28)

79

mi. Excerpts from the book of Nicholas Umov http://nn.aspx?bi=171 80 .ru/Showbook.Supplement 2.ras.

81 .

82 .

83 .

84 .

85 .

86 .

1..the number of point on the axis ОХ. .. k = 1. To do this we shall take a twodimensional speeds network vk . v1.n ⎥ ⎥ ⎢..Supplement 3. v2. Let us substitute the Laplacian by its discrete analog..n .m +1 + vk −1.number of point on tee axis ОУ.1 k .. ⎤ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢v2. Proof that Integral ∫ v ⋅ ∆(v )dV is of Constant Sign V Here we shall consider in detail the substantiation of the fact that integral (2. In other words – we shall prove that the integral is of constant sign..m ) − vk .n .. 4 (2) ⎡v1. (3) where row vector 1 (vk . v=⎢ v v v . ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎦ ⎣vn. vn... ⎥ ⎥ ⎢.m . for example.. V Let us first consider the two-dimension case.. This Figure shows also the numbering of vector vk . n .. vn.. n . The value of discrete Laplacian in each point is determined by formula (see.m ..m ...1.... ⎢ k ...m −1 + vk .. For illustration Fig 1 shows matrix А for n = 5 .. ⎥. [27]. built according to formula (2) – see for example.m .. v1....1.m k ..n ...m .m 87 .⎥ (4) and А is a matrix built according to formula (2). v2. the function DEL2 in MATLAB): J1 = ∫ v ⋅ ∆(v )dV . (1) Lk .84) always has positive value. where m = 1. ...m = According to this the discrete Laplacian may be found by the formula L = v⋅ A...m + vk +1...

It is known [28]. The program testMatrix. then it has a unique Kholetsky expansion. 88 . It means that for any vector v v ⋅ A ⋅ vT > 0 .m computes expansion (6) and shows that matrix A is symmetrical and positively defined. that if matrix а A is symmetrical and positively defined. Fig. (6) where U is the upper triangular matrix.elements. it is proved that the value (5) in two-dimensional case is positive. The discrete analog of integral (1) is J1 = v ⋅ A ⋅ v T . let us find for it the Kholetsky expansion A = U TU . which was to be proved. in the limit we get that the integral (1) in two-dimensional case has positive value. 1. Decreasing the network spacing. In the same way it may be shown that in three-dimensional case integral (1) is positive. (7) Thus. (5) To verify that the matrix А is of constant sign. According to formula (3) the Laplacian also is presented in the form similar to (4).

From (2. (7) In accordance with the equation Ostrogradsky the necessary condition of extremum for this functional has the form σ ⋅ v − µ ⋅ ∆v − ρ ⋅ F = 0 . as in section 2. then this extremal determines the global extremum. (9) 89 .. (3) To prove that this condition is also sufficient. we shall reason in the same way. To reveal the nature of this extremum we must analyze the sign of functional's increment. If.bs = 0 . A is a value of constant sign in all the domain of definition of the function v . If δΦ 2 = a ⋅ A .Supplement 4. then this extremal determines a global extremum. Solving Variational Problem with Gradient Descent Method Let us consider the functional Φ 2 = ∫ ℜ2 ( v ( x. y . (6) where b is the variation on the line С. Gradient of the functional (4) has the form: b = σ ⋅ v − µ ⋅ ∆v − ρ ⋅ F (5) Let S be an extremal.5. in addition. (8) where A is a value of constant sign in the vicinity of the extremal bs = 0 .55) we find δℜ2 = ℜ20 + ℜ21 ⋅ a + ℜ22 ⋅ a 2 . and therefore the gradient on it . δΦ 2 = Φ 2 (S ) − Φ 2 (C ) . а – a known number. Let the values S and С differ by v − vs = a ⋅ b . z )dV . 2 ⎩2 ⎭ (2) where С is the line of comparison b = bс ≠ 0 . where V (1) 1 ⎧1 ⎫ ℜ2 (v) = ⎨ σ ⋅ v 2 − µ ⋅ v ⋅ ∆v − ρ ⋅ F ⋅ v ⎬ .

for σ = 0 (which is always so for stationary problems) the integral is of constant sign. (12) ∂ (δℜ2 ) = ℜ22 . the gradient b is calculated according to (5) for given function v . and positivity of the second component has been proved above. Algorithm 1. the necessary condition (3) is also a sufficient condition of functional (1) global extremum in stationary problems. of integral ∂ 2Φ 2 ∂a 2 = ∫ σ ⋅ b 2 − µ ⋅ b ⋅ ∆(b) dV V ( ) (16) is of constant signs. we must prove that the value of integral Let us now find 2 2 2 ∂ 2Φ 2 ∂a 2 = ∫ ∂ℜ2 ( v )dV V (14) or. which is the same. ℜ22 are functions not depending on а of the 1 2 1 ℜ20 = σ ⋅ vs − µ ⋅ vs ∆(vs ) − ρ ⋅ F ⋅ vs . Positivity of the first component is evident. finaly. ℜ21. Therefore. To prove that the necessary condition (3) is also a sufficient condition of global extremum of functional (1). Further we shall use the following algorithm. 90 . For certain proportion between the constants σ . (13) 2 ∂a This function depends on v . 2 2 (10) 1 ℜ21 = σ ⋅ b ⋅ vs − µ ⋅ (b∆vs + vs ∆(b)) − ρ ⋅ F ⋅ b . (11) 2 1 1 ℜ22 = σ ⋅ b2 − µ ⋅ b ⋅ ∆(b) .where form ℜ20. of integral ∂ 2Φ 2 ∂a 2 = ∫ ℜ22 dV V (15) or. In particular. µ the integral (14) is of constant sign. On each iteration: 1.

V V 3.2. (17) (18) Φ 21 = ∫ ℜ21dV . Φ 22 ∫ ℜ22dV . 91 . the coefficient a is calculated according to a = − Φ 21 Φ 22 . a new value of the function is calculated as v := v + ab .

we get 2 vo = v2 zo . we get − 2vo 2 2 r + zo 2 2 o ro zo − ∆v y o ( ) . z ) are the coordinates of the plane that the paraboloid rests On the borders of this base plane v y (r. с12. (с10) accordingly ro . с11. From (с10) we find o o ∆v y = −2(v1 + v2 ) . z ) = vo − v1 ⋅ r 2 − v2 ⋅ z2 . (r. ∆v y = (с14) Superposing (с11. Let us consider an elliptic paraboloid of speeds bounded by a plane perpendicular to its axis. The Surfaces of Constant Lagrangian 1. (с13) Let us find the speed Laplacian. (с15) From (с13. z = 0) and 2 vo = v1ro . с14). z ) = 0 . z ) = 92 2 2 2 2 2 ( − ro ro zo − r 2 zo z ) 2 2 2(r + z ) o . Denoting as of the ellipse for v y (r. for from (с10) we find (с11) (с12) Superposing (с10. zo the semi-axes (r = ro . с15) we find v y (r. z = zo ) in the base of paraboloid. (с16) . (r = 0. с12).Supplement 5. z ) = 2 2 2 2 2 ( ro zo − r2 zo − ro z ) r2 z2 vo . v y (r. The surface of such paraboloid is described by the following equation: where on.

From the previous considerations for v y (r. (с20) (с21) 2 ro − ∆v y 2 v y (r. (с22) 93 . z ) = vo − v1 ⋅ r 2 + z 2 ∆v y = − 4vo . Let us now consider a circular paraboloid of speeds. (ro = zo ) we get: ( ) . z ) = ro − r 2 + z 2 4 ( ( ) .2.

The form of these matrices does not depend on the fact. v z . Fz and quasipressure D ) as row-vectors (shown. For this purpose we shall present functions of three variables (speed projections v x . where the matrices А. for two-dimensional case in formula (4) of Supplement 3). v z . Further we shall take a stationary system in which the pressures Px .1. Q. . it depends only on the configuration of the domain of the fluid existence. В. Py . T − µ ⋅ Ax vT x + Bx D − ρ ⋅ Fx = PxQx . we may construct a matrix – discrete Laplacian (for two-dimensional case the discrete Laplacian has been considered in Supplement 3) and a matrix – discrete derivative.79) for stationary flows. and the upper subscript "Т" means transposition. v y . For example. z . Pz are determined. D .Supplement 6. v y . force projections Fx . and 94 T − µ ⋅ Az vT z + Bz D − ρ ⋅ Fz = Pz Qz . Qz . acting on the surface Qx . Fy . in the direction perpendicular to coordinate axes x. Formally these equations may be considered as a linear equations system with respect to unknown vectors v x . Discrete Modified Navier-Stokes Equations 1. T − µ ⋅ Ay vT y + B y D − ρ ⋅ Fy = PyQ y . Discrete Modified Navier-Stokes Equations for stationary flows Let us now consider the discrete version of modified Navier-Stokes equations (2. ( ) (1) (2) (3) (4) where А – matrices – discrete Laplacians of speeds. 2. Q y . y. for instance. to what functions they are applied. Then the modified Navier-Stokes equations will become: T T Bx vT x + B y v y + Bz v z ≈ 0 . В – matrices – discrete derivatives of speeds and quasipressures. The derivatives and Laplacians of these functions may be presented as product of some matrix by such functions.

⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (5) µ ⋅ Ax vT x + Bx Jr + ρ ⋅ Fx + PxQx = 0 . the considered function is a quadratic one and therefore has one minimum. P are known. v z are as follows: ⎛1 T T T ⎜ µ ⋅ v x Ax v x + v y Ay v y + vz Az vz ⎜2 ⎜ r T T T 2 + ⋅ + + B v B v B v y y z z Φ=⎜ 2 x x ⎜ T T ⎜ + ρ ⋅ Fx vT x + Fy v y + Fz vz ⎜ T T ⎜ + PxQx vT x + PyQ y v y + PzQz vz ⎝ ( ( ( ( )⎞⎟ ) ) ) ⎟ ⎟ ⎟. T T J = Bx v T x + B y v y + Bz v z . µ ⋅ Ay vT y + B y Jr + ρ ⋅ Fy + PyQ y = 0 . ( ) To analyze the sufficient conditions of the minimum existence we shall transform the function (5) to the form ⎞ ⎛⎛ ⎛ 1 r ⎞ T ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ v x ⎜ µ ⋅ Ax + ⋅ Bx BT x ⎟v x + ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎟ ⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎛ 1 ⎟ r T⎞ T (10) Φ = ⎜ ⎜ v y ⎜ µ ⋅ Ay + ⋅ B y B y ⎟v y + ⎟ + Θ⎟ . To solve this equations system let us consider the function where r is a constant.vectors F. where (6) (7) (8) (9) µ ⋅ Az vT z + Bz Jr + ρ ⋅ Fz + PzQz = 0 . v y . It is easy to see that the necessary conditions of this function's minimum by the variables v x . 2 2 ⎠ ⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎝ ⎟ ⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎛ 1 ⎟ r T⎞ T v µ A B B v ⋅ + ⋅ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ z z z ⎟ z ⎟ ⎜⎜ z ⎜ 2 2 ⎠ ⎠ ⎠ ⎝⎝ ⎝ where Θ . if the matrices of the form r ⎛1 ⎞ M x = ⎜ µ ⋅ Ax + ⋅ Bx BT x ⎟ 2 ⎝2 ⎠ (11) are negative-definite. For these matrices analysis we must note that the discrete Laplacians of the speeds are positive-definite (see Supplement 95 .the component depending on the first power of speeds. Thus.

The method of this gradient descent discussed in Supplement 7.see also Supplement 7. 18) is reduced to the method of solution of the discrete equations set out in Supplement 7. (16) 2 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ + PxQx v x + PyQ y v y + PzQz v z ⎟ ⎜ ⎠ ⎝ Thus. Therefore. that from (13) it follows div (v ) ≈ 0 . Then we shall get. and matrices Bx Bx are also positive-definite. for certain values of r the equations (13.T 5). So. (15) and the function (5) turns into the functional ( ) ⎞ ⎛1 ⎟ ⎜ µ ⋅ v x ∆v x + v y ∆v y + v z ∆vz ⎟ ⎜2 ⎟ ⎜ r Φ = ⎜ + ⋅ (div(v))2 + ρ ⋅ Fx v x + Fy v y + Fz vz ⎟ . matrices of the form (11) are positive-definite and the function under discussion has a unique minimum. D = − r ⋅ div ( v ) . 6-8) coincide with equations (1-4). the method of solutions of continuous equations (17. − µ ⋅ ∆v + ∇D − ρ ⋅ F = PQ . (12) . From this and also from (9) it follows that for sufficiently large r T T Bx vT (13) x + B y v y + Bz v z ≈ 0 . if we denote DT = − Jr . (14) and gradient descent along the function (5) permits us to find the values of variables that give a solution of equations (1-4). It may be shown [32] that J → 0 for r → ∞ . for sufficiently large values of r minimum of the functional (16) ( ) ( ( ) ) is reached for (17) (18) Thus. 96 . Let us now return from the formulas of discrete form to the analogous form.

19-21).8) for the dynamic flows in the case when the mass forces are sinusoidal functions of time with angular frequency ω . 19-21) and the equations of the circuit with sinusoidal voltage sources. in this case. As above for them can also be constructed as a discrete analogue (19) − jω ⋅ v x + µ ⋅ Ax vT x + Bx Jr + ρ ⋅ Fx + PxQx = 0 . The latter are solved by gradient descent to the saddle point of known function. where j . discussed in Supplement 7. 97 . (20) − jω ⋅ v y + µ ⋅ Ay vT y + B y Jr + ρ ⋅ Fy + PyQ y = 0 .imaginary unit. we can specify the analogy between equations (9. Discrete Modified Navier-Stokes Equations for dynamic flows Consider a discrete version of modified Navier-Stokes equations (6. (21) − jω ⋅ vz + µ ⋅ Az vT z + Bz Jr + ρ ⋅ Fz + PzQz = 0 .8) reduces to the method of solution of the discrete equations (9. 2.and (9). as set out in Supplement 7. Thus. the method of solutions of continuous equations (6. And in this case.

J . L1. The analysis of such circuits permits to formulate algorithms for solution of appropriate problems. Such transformers have been first introduced by Dennis [33]. 1. L3 . consider of direct current circuit. r . current sources and voltage sources. L2 . E2 . i2 . k1. In [32] it is shown that such circuit is described by the following equation: R ⋅i − E = 0. An Electrical Model for Solving the Modified Navier-Stokes Equations Here we shall deal with electrical model for solving modified NavierStokes equations and the solution method following this model. R2 . TD3 .Dennis transformers.direct voltage sources. i3 . R3 . i1. In [32] such electric circuits are considered.transformation ratio of these transformers.Supplement 7. TD2 . resistors. (1) where 98 . The electrical circuits described below contain direct current transformers or transformers of instantaneous values. Dennis has presented the transformers as an abstract mathematical structure (for mathematical theory interpretation) and has developed the theory of direct current electric circuits including TD.inductances. First. E3 . So we shall in future call them Dennis transformers and denote them as TD. TD1. diodes. k2 . E1. where R1. They contain TD and are used to simulate various problems of regulation and optimal control. To solve our problem we shall analyze the electric circuit shown on Fig.resistors. k3 . in which no inductance.currents in these resistors.

TD1 E1 TD2 E2 E3 In [32] it is shown that equation (1) is the necessary and sufficient condition of the following function's minimum: J 99 . 2 0 R3 k1k3 k2k3 k3 (4) and all the value included in these formulas.i1 i = i2 . 1. . may also be vectors (in the sense of vector algebra). J = k1 ⋅ i1 + k2 ⋅ i2 + k2 ⋅ i2 i1 L1 R1 i2 L2 R2 i3 L3 R3 TD3 r Fig. E3 (2) 2 k1 R1 R= 0 0 and 0 0 k1k2 2 k2 k1k3 (3) R2 0 + r ⋅ k1k2 k 2 k3 . E = i3 E1 E2 .

(11) 0 0 L3 In [22. and L1 0 0 L= 0 L2 0. In [22. as in the case of direct current. 100 .⎛1 ⎞ Φ = ⎜ i ⋅ R ⋅ iT − E ⋅ iT ⎟ .2. consequently. ⎝2 ⎠ where (5) J → 0 for r → ∞ .imaginary unit. the solution of equation (1) may be found by gradient descent method b = R ⋅i − E . the values i. L2 . condition (6) performed. where j . where b = ω ⋅ j ⋅ L ⋅i + R ⋅i − E . E are vectors with complex components and are defined by (2). Here. E2 . 23] showed that equation (10) is a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a single saddle point of a function of the split currents . for which at each step of the new current value is determined by (12) inext = i prev − a ⋅ b .see also section 1. (9) Now consider the circuit with sinusoidal voltage E1. (13) (14) a= bT ⋅ b bT ⋅ (ω ⋅ j ⋅ L + R ) ⋅ b . where the gradient step is determined by the formula bT ⋅ b (8) a= T b ⋅ R⋅b and inext = i prev − a ⋅ b . R defined by (3). 23] show that this circuit is described by the equation (10) ω⋅ j ⋅ L⋅i + R⋅i − E = 0. The solution of equation (10) can be found on the gradient descent method. (6) The minimum of function (5) and. (7) for the function (5). E3 source of angular frequency ω and inductance L1. L3 .

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