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Providing Support Through the Reading Process

Mary Lou McCloskey, Ph.D. email 1. Language Experience. After a discussion of a shared or recalled experience, have students dictate a narrative as you write it on a chart, projected computer screen, or transparency. With the students, edit the text, using opportunities to teach language structures and conventions of print. Then duplicate copies of the text for students to use as reading texts and as the basis for a series of follow-up activities, including practice with phonics, language structures, comprehension, independent reading, and creative expression. 2. Read Aloud. After developing schema and background, introduce a text by reading it aloud to students. You may choose to read through the text the first time for flow. Then stop to ask and answer questions when needed during the second and subsequent repetitions. Ask students which words they don't understand and provide pictures, translations, or definitions as needed. Read Aloud is a good way to make students familiar with the text to prepare them for other kinds of reading. It also provides a model for pronunciation, phrasing and expression. 3. Graphic Organizers. Use pictures or designs with graphics to outline text and to illustrate principles within a text. The storyboard, story map, character web, time lines, Venn diagram, ranking ladder and many others can be used effectively. After you have demonstrated and taught graphic organizers, encourage students to develop their own to learn from what they have read and to prepare to write. 4. Partner Read-Aloud. Students read in pairs. They are seated next to one another and facing each other. Students read aloud to one another in turn. The listener follows along in the text. If needed, the reader can ask the listener for help with a difficult text. 5. Choral Reading. In choral reading students have their own copies of a text. They all read together. Often the teacher or a student stands in front of the class to lead the oral reading. When reading dialogues, plays, or stories with dialogue, different groups often read different parts of the text. Assessment suggestion: After students are comfortable with a text, have a student lead the choral reading and walk around the room, standing behind individuals as they read. Note their progress on self-stick notes for individual folders or on a class checklist.

Scaffolding for Reading

students are taught strategies of summarizing. or on a chart. support and guidance." Then the student "teacher" uses these strategies in questioning and leading the group discussion. instruction. Provide time." reading a short passage and asking questions about it to the group. Teacher uses a "group quiz" or the "numbered heads together" cooperative learning strategy to assure group responsibility for the content and to assess comprehension. teach skills or concepts when necessary. features of the sound/symbol system. Jigsaw Reading. When the group meets. background or content-area concepts. and conventions of print. rhythm and repetition and are re-read many times. Teachers can draw students' attention to literary elements. 12. Teachers use the content of the text to discuss ways to unlock meaning from text. In preparation for Reciprocal Teaching. teachers help students learn to discuss readings at a high level. In this form of paired or group reading. Choice Silent Reading. literary concepts. Reciprocal Teaching. materials. The teacher works with a small group of students who have similar reading processes. questiongenerating. each time for a different purpose. Texts usually have elements of rhyme. readers participate in a dialogue about the text. on the OHP. Through a challenging but non- threatening process. teachers make relevant teaching points during and after the reading. One or two individuals in a group read each section and prepare to teach it to the group. books in their first languages. 7. and structure for students to independently choose read books at their comfort reading level. In the beginning. or audiotapes. Teacher divides a long reading into sections. Intensive reading: Marking a text. and predicting. Shared Reading.6.in a big book. vocabulary. and promote students' use of text. 9. classmade books. Books are carefully leveled. Teachers select and introduce new books and support students as they read the whole text to themselves. Instructional Conversations. each individual teaches the group about the section he/she read. Turns may rotate after a paragraph or a longer section. Students are directed to read a text several times. Guided Reading. picture books. the class or group reads together from a shared text -. elements of comprehension. After initial read-aloud. pictures and reasoning to support . 10. 11. patterns of language. Teachers provide background knowledge. Teachers model the "teacher role. Based on close observation of students' reading. With success. Each person takes a turn as "teacher. students may choose wordless books. they will move on to more and more challenging texts and begin to love to read. conventions of print. clarifying. grammar. 8.

During Reading Scaffolding o During reading. Pre-Reading Scaffolding o Types of pre-reading scaffolding include starting KWL charts--where the "K" stands for what students know about the topic and the "W" stands for what they want to know about the topic. and encourage students to take turns with one another. In the process. Post Reading Scaffolding . is the area between what children can do completely independently and what they can do with assistance. Also. 1. picture walks--looking through a book's pictures to predict what the text will be about--and connecting the text to student experiences.arguments or positions about text. preparing them to comprehend more easily and quickly. the "L" for learned comes later. respond to student insights and ideas. What Is Scaffolding in Reading? By Jennifer Zimmerman. Function o Scaffolding in reading allows students to connect reading with prior knowledge. teachers use scaffolding by having students read aloud and discuss strategies for figuring out challenging words. teachers ask many openended questions. which is best for children's learning. Scaffolds brace the building and allow workers access when a structure is being erected. predicting what the text will be about. eHow Contributor Scaffolding in reading is similar to scaffolding in building. scaffolds in reading support learning and allow students access to text that might otherwise be too challenging. This zone. with the teacher as a senior participant in the discussion. History o The concept of scaffolding comes from Lev Vygotsky's theory of the Zone of Proximal Development.

ehow. Read more: What Is Scaffolding in Reading? | eHow. artistic activities or dramatic activities based on the text.com http://www.com/facts_5561393_scaffolding-reading.o Scaffolding after reading the text includes class discussions.html#ixzz1xlVHic3L . rereading important parts of the text and doing writing activities.