Edward Madeley and Benjamin F Barrett THE SCIENCE OF CORRESPONDENCES ELUCIDATED The Swedenborg Publishing Association Germantown 1888 | The New Church | Religious Belief And Doctrine








Por aa the han-cns are hlgher tban the


yonr way•, and my tboughto Ulan your thoughtll."-Jaa. Iv. 9. " f'or the Ill\ lsible thfngs of Hlm from the crcatloo or the world are cleariy - . i. belng untlel'>10od by the thlogs tbat are madc."- .Rom.. 1. 20. .. I, the I..ord tty Ood, b .. o rnultlJ>lftd •isloo1 and u•td •lruilltudeo."- 1/0f. xU. 10.

\~~\~/~ IO are m7 wa:tl~her tt.an





AS.c;ocJ ATIO~.

{ I

The Connecticut New Church Association,

!fai·ing graluilously dislribuled lo all of lhe Proleslanl Clergy 11•ilhin llâs Slale a copy of l~is 1•olume, al a (juarlerly meeli11g Jzeld in llle cily of !farlford 011 lite 17lll day of .Yovember, 188i, il was unanimousl y rJlesolved, "Tlzal lhis .1.ssocia lion will co11li11ue llle good work by graluilously dislribuling lo l'he 'Proleslanl Clergy lhrouglwul llle Uniled Slales, a copy of lhe volume, enlilled 'Tite Science of Correspondence Elucidaled.'"
ApplÏ(·ation~ ,\l'~<X'IATIO'.'\,

for thi" ,·ol11111e rlirected to THE Co:-;:ŒCTICTT NEW CHURCn New llnYen, Conn., will receh·e attention.

The Lord Jesus Christ ls the only God of tho heavens and the enrt!\ In lllm !sa divine Trlnlty of Love, Wlsdom and Power, called ln the Scrip· ture the Father, Rou and Iloly Spirit, and represented ln man, who was created ln 1!111 lrna:.ro and likeness, bl' the soul, tho body, and the operatlon thence. Ile came to rn1tn by aq~umlng hls hu:nnn nature, through which Ho '"'er<'nme the asccndcn<·y of hell wlth hlm, and thus redcem<'d him. )fan accepts rcdempt.lon and I~ regcnerated bl' ghunnlng evils as sin ln th•• :wknowlodgment of the J,ord. The Sacred Scrlptur" is the \\'ord <1! Ood, <>ontalnlng wlthln and nbove its letter the Divine Truth lt1*'1f. Dy lt rncm may kuow good !rom evll, may bo a•soclatcd \Vlth angels, and conjolned to the Lord. ~ran ls an !mmortal spirit, <'lothed wlth a materlal body, whlch is put olI at deat h; nfter whlch, accordlng to the •1ual lty of h ls l l fo upon earth, he dwells ln twaven a< nn anl{el, or Sl'eks au aborle wlth hls llke ln hcll. The fl<'cond Com!ng of the Lord !s not ln person, but is in the openlng o! the fiplrltual scnse of the \Vord and ln the establishment or a New Church on carth. It was etrccted by a General Judgment, whlch took place A. D. 1757, and b~· the revelatlou of the doctrines o! that Church through EmannPl Rwedenl>org, a servant or the Lord Jesus Christ.

7ne laie tRei•. E. Paxlon lfood, a well-known Englisll aulJwr of llte eranuellcal sclwol, leslifies lo lhe value of llte Science of r'orrespondences, as lauglll in lite 11·rilings of Emanuel S1vede~­ borg, as follows:
<''111 tlw Book I••' at all umlt·1·stoo<l u11leo;.o; thi:; be consi<lered?

"Tht> Hihle is written Crom Appenrances and C'orrcspondenccs. .

. .

:->wc1h•nl>0rf:!: rPmm·l"l the H'il; and truly WOJHlerful it i>i to find how b~ thi.; prin<·ipla of ink'rprctation [Gorresponden('I' ], the mo~t opposite pas-1itgeS of tlw ~arn•d !look are fonnd to lm\·e consistcncy anù coh<.'rence · the mind of tlw Book h('<'<?lll<''! mo~e plnin a.nù clrar. . . There is ~ spfrit as well. ns a J~iter m th~ ','or~ .~f 'l ruth."-Sirede11bora: .1 biography awl 1111 },.11>us1l1011, pp. b69, l:H, 8<>.

~rese ntel>



O f tbe

















s JNCE the removal from this world of my dcar father, it has been a labor of love for me to finish tbe work on which hc was engagcd for many years, but which the statc of his health prevented him from carrying to completion. The intricate nature of the corrections he introduecd, often with years of intervals, and the voluminous notes he colleetcd from his extensive reading, has kept the work longer in my hands than I desired or expeeted. I have at Just found time to complote it, and, throngh the kindness and libertility of an American friend, to whom my best thanks are due, I am now ennbled to offer a worthy and affectionate memorial to my father's memory, anrl also to prcsent to the Church a ncw cdition of a work which stands alone in her literature, and which I trust and believe will be useful in extendiug a knowledgc and love of God's most R oly Word. E. M. Boxt.EY, l\fA.IDSTONE, ENuLAND.
Sept. 21st, 1883.


following ;rnrk [Part l.] originated in a lecture delivcrcd at the opcning of Albion Chapel, Albion Street, Leeds, in 1847. I reluctantly consented to the carnest request of many who heard it for its publication, as an epitome of the great subject on which it professed to treat. On reflection, 1 thought it would be but a brief and imperfect sketch-little more than a tract, of which scveral admirable ones on the same topic are widely eirculatcd by the ~lanchestcr Tract Society, and the London Missionary nncl Tract Society of the New Church-and 1 determined to give it a more permanent value; and in this edition have altered its arrangement, and, in<leed, rewritten no inconsiderable portion of the work. 1 have added a series of notes, not only such as are explanatory, illustrative or confirmatory of the subjects and rea.sonings of the text, but many drawn from various sources designed to show the rcmarkable coincidenoes of thought which have obtained among pious and learned men, of all periods and classes; and which indicate most distinctly that an idea, in some shape or other, has bccn and still is prevalent, that an inward spiritual sense or meaning exists within the letter of the Word of God. Much which hns been written on this subject, especially by the early Christian Fathcrs, affords only funciful and n.rbitrary explanations of the Holy W ord; yet they seem eagerly to have sought a more certain rule of exposition, which, in the wisdom of Providence, was rescrved for a distant and more preparcd age. Even the Apostles only "knew in part, and prophesicd (or taught) in part" (1 Cor. xiii. 9). The declnration of our Lord to his disciples, "For many prophets and righteous men have dcsired to sec thosc thini,-s which ye sec, and have not scen them; and to hear




those things which ye henr, and have not heard them" (Matt. xiii. 17), is equally applicable to the New Dispensation under which we are now living. The illustrious Swedenborg has been the appointed instrument, in the ordcr of Divine Providence, for restoring the long-lost Science of Correspondences to the world,-that " chain of golden links by which heaven and earth are bound in harmouious unison ; " and this work is designed to answer, without any pretension to critical exactness, and in as plain and familiar a manner as possible, the inquiries which are continually and naturally urged, as to what iil meant by this science,-how a knowledge of it may be acquired,how its truth may be demonstrated,-and in what way it is to be appiied in expounding the Roly Word: and also to remove some of the difficulties which, from want of a knowledge of this science, every one will encounter in first taking up a volume of Swedenborg's expositions, and which have induced some earnest minds to rclinquish the study of his writings, and regard his interpretations as clever, but chimerical and capricious. I can exhibit only the rudiments of this momentous subject, and for its complete development must refer the reader to the works of Swedenborg hiroself. No satisfactory reasoning can be substituted for the confirmations which so vividly and so constantly present themselves in his pages, especially such as are founded upon bis extensive and profound metaphysical and physiological investigations, and his luminous expositions of mental phenomena, or deduced from his own roarvelous psychological experience. I have endeavored, therefore, by the numerous quotations made from this enlightened author, to keep the necessity of attentively reading and studying his works constantly before the reader's mind, in the hope of awakening an interest in them as treating of the things which preëminently belong to our spiritual and eternal well-being. For the notes to which no writer's name is annexed, the author is responsible, with the exception, however, of a few to be found in Lexicons. Severa! of the pnpers in the Appendix are inserted by



l'lpeeinl desire, with a ,;cw to obvintc <lifficulticswhieh might other wiae perple" the r('t\(lcr. The fonncr c<lition baving hem exhnusted in n fcw months frmu the tirne of its publirntion, this cnlarged, nnd the author hopcs greatly improvcd, edition i~, nt the earnest eolicitation of nuruerous nnd vnlucd friends, submittcd to the public, " ith de· vout prayer to the Lor<l .Jcsus Christ (without whose blessing our best efforts nn.• vain), thnt it mny pro>c eonducivc to the ndvnncenent of true religion, nnd be in~trumentnl in rcmoving from man) mincls thosc objections \\hirh himlcr thcir belicf in the truth of Rev· el:ition, becnu~c ba.."C<l ou whnt appc.'\rs to derognt<> from the purity, ~nnctity, :rnthority :m<l 1livinity of the ORACL ES OF TRUT H .

E. M.,SR.

The Science of Oorresponclences Elucidatecl. CHAPTER I.
mmeuttlcs of the Mere Llteral Sense of the Word Stated.-The Literai Sense Proved to be lndefenslble and Inexplicable lf an Internai Scn.<ie be Denled. 2.t

fnoportanœ of the Subject.-InsplraHon Defined, and the True canon of the Won! or God Declded •


Th&t the Dlvlnlty and Sanctlty of the Won! of God is the Conseqnence of lts Conlalnlng an lnternal or Spiritual Sense

The Laws or the Science of Correspondences St&ted and Confirmed.-Thc Doctrine or Correspondences well known to the Anclents, and its Corruption the Orlgln or all

ldolatry and Sqperstltlon


Thal the Sacred Writers bear the most Ample and Cogent Tœtlmony to the Existence of a Spiritual Sense ln the Word of Ood .


DUferencc betwœn Correspondenœ and Metaphor, Fable, etc., slated.-Correspondence defincd. wlth Examples of lts Application ln expoundlng the Holy Word


The S.:lence of Correspondcnce8 nota Speeulatlve and Vls!onary Theory. bnl an All!lolute Reallty.-lllustratlons from Opposltœ, and varlous other Subjecta-Tho Objeets for wWch tho Word of God wa,s Revealed only Answercd by the Admis· slon of lts lnternal Sensc. whlch &!one Dlstlnguishcs lt Crom ail other Compositions, and Reconelles lts Apparent Contradlctions.-Unlversallty of th!s Divine Science, and the Neeessity that Exists for the Word belng Wrltten accordlng to Il.


The Dlfference betwœn the Apparent and Genulne Truths of the Uteral Sense of the Holy Word Explalned a.nd lllustrated U2

The Corl'\l6pondence of \Var and Implcment.s of \Var ln the Holy Won!

On the Will and Undcrstandln'!'. as Comprlslng both the Divine &nd the Iruman Mlnd ; on the Marnage of Divine Goodness and Truth thereln, and on the Union of Love and Wlsdom ln the Holy Word, wlth Illustrations. 131

The Three Degrees of Llfe, the Trina! Distinction lu Ood. and the Tbreefold Constitution or the Human ~Und and t.ho Iloly Word Expla1ned, and thelr Mutual Correspoudcnoe lllustrat.cd . Ul




f'olol"I, Numlx-1"1, Welgbt•, Mea.<ure•, Mu.Jcal Instrument.•, e~.



The ("orre!>pondencc of Anhnals, Parts of Anlmals, and Compound and Monstrous Anlmals, with Illu.•tratlon~ . 190

<:orre:<pondcncc or the Vcgetable World, wlth Illostratlont Corrœpondcnce of E&rtbs, Mlncral$, etc., wllh Illu.stratlont


<:onwpondence or the Son, J\loon, and Stars; the IdolatroUJ Wonhlp or lhem, and I~• extensive Prevalcnce and InJluence . 231>

T11c Flnt Chapters of Genesl8, to the Zith Verse of Chapt.cr XI., A Grand Sertes or Divine Allegorles, whlch can only be Int.erprctcd by the Science of Corre· •pondences 2C2

IIL•tory of the Flood, the Art, and of Noah and hl! Po6terlt:r, an Allcgory; or, rather, a !'plrltoal lllstory clothed ln the DITlne Lan~e or Corrœpondeuces 2:>1> 8acrl0clal Won;blp


fhe Entlre Hlstory of the Four GOf'pels Llterally True, but Slgnltlcatlve and Repre· fentatlve ln every Partlcular Rcoorded.-Illustratlons Cl'om the Lord's Parable1 and Miracle~. His Transfigumt1on, Lite, llllnlstry, and Cruclftxloll . 27t

The Boat of Rcvelatlon Wholly Oompnsed of Divine SymbolJ or Corrœpondencee
Co"CLt ·ION •



Aclclitional Illustrations and Confirmation• of the Doctrine. CHAPTER 1.
TllE KEY OP KNOWLEDOL-Introductlon, 300.-Creatlon of the World,306.-COnt.ra· dlctory VleW!l of Chronoloi;ers Conccrning the Age of the World. 31l7.--0eology ln llannony wlth Scrlpture, 308.-The Sun the Imtrumental Cau<eor Creation, 311.Hr llumpbry Davy'• \'lcw, 813.-Connectlon betwcen the Creaior and llis Wort1, 3tt.-l'lcnary lo'J>lratlon of the Woro or God, 317.-Corrc~ndence, the Sore Rule or!lcrtptureinterpretaUon . S21

The Orlglo of Correspondence, and why the Scrlplore ls Wrlttcn ln Agreement wlth Il, 3~.-Some Proofa Glven, 32.'>.-Revelatlon the Volce of God Speaklng to Man'a Wiil and Intellect; thercfore or Plenary Inspiration, S32.-0pinlons of Anclcnt and Modern Aothors Rrspectlng Correspondence, 837.-Tho Prayer of Mœet, "Lord, I Be!>eech Thee, ~how me tby Glory," Explalncd, 845.-The Tri-Unlty or God, Ill Conslstinit of Love, Wlsdom, Power, Exhlblted ln ail Creation, St7.-C0r· ret.rondcnce of the Three Klngdoma of Nature wlth the Three Degreea of Llfe ln )fan •

é HAPTim . ni.

l"hc LorJ'• Wonl :Magnlftt.'d ahovc ail His Name, &'>2.-Comparlsons Between the Lli· eral and !'plrituat Scn.ea of the Word of God; lllustratlona or, 353.-The U11& of



PAGE Correspondenœ ln Ex:plalnlng D1mcult Passages of Scripture, ~.-Ita Use ln Ex:plalnlng the J\!lracles and Parables, 857.-COrrespondcnœ of lbe Sun, Moon. and Stars, 300.-The lsracllllah Journey from Egypt Io canaan, 366.-ExplanAtlon of Varions Scrlpture Phrases, 867.-Ezeklel's Vision of Holy Waters, 369.-Two :Miracles lllustrated by the Le.w of Oorrespondenœ, ''lz.. "Death ln the Pot." and the RestoratlonofSlght Io the Man Born Blind, byWasbing ln the PoolofSiloam, ~77.-The TTlbute-Money round ln the Flsh's Mouth, 387.-Rellglon aud Science Connectcd, 391.-Concluslon 89C


KEY TO THE SPIJIITUAL SIONU'ICATION OF NUXBEJIS.-lntroductton, 396.-Numbers l to 12, Inclusive-One, 403.-Two, 411.-Three, 419.-Four, 426.-F!ve, 434.-Slx, 445. -Seven, 451.-Elght, 400.-Nlne, 466.-Ten, 469.-Eleven, 475.-Twelve, 478.-A Rule for Dlscovering the Signification of other Numbers 487


PRECIOVS AND CoXXON STONIS, TH&IB MEA.NINO IN Sc11IPTUBL-A General Aooonnt of the Stones mentloned ln the Sacred Scriptures, lhe Purpœea to whlch they were applled, and thelr varions Signlflcattona 503

Stones used for Altars, Plllars, wun-. and Memoriala •

Tables of Stones for the Ten Commandmenta

Tbe Breaat-Plate of Aaron, called the Brea.st-Plate of Judgment, and also Urim and Thummlm 629

The Science or Oorrespondence Applled as a Key to the Spiritual Interpretatlon of the Principal Symbola ln Revelallon xxt. Chapter, and !ta Appllcablllty and sur. ficlency Demonstrated • • M9

The Word and lts Insplratlon.-No Written Word before the Fall.-The Anclent Word lhat became Logt.-Sonrc,-e of the Grectan Mythotogy.-All Rellglous Knowledge Crom Divine Revelatlon.-The Scriptures a Light to ail Natlone.-The Medium of Oommunlcation between Angels and Men.-Nature of the Word ln Heaven.-11· lu.'<tratlng and Confirmlng the Doctrine of Oorrcspondence.-Distinction between Verbal and Persona! lnsplratlon.-No Wrltten Word on any Ea.rth but ours, and the Reason why 562 The Doctrine of Correopondence Applied as a Key to the Spiritual and Tme Meanlng of Matthew xvi. 18, 19.-The Rock on whieh the Church ts Built.-The Keys of the Klngdom or Heaven, et<:. li90 Correiipondence Applled to the Interpretat!on of I11alah vu. 15.-" Butter and lloney sball he F.at, that he may lmow to re111se the Evll and ehOOfle the Good" 595



The Correspondence of Salt, 59'J.-Some Illustratlvc Examplos Crom the Word. 600.Thc Preserving Prlnelple of Sa.li, and its Oorrespondence, 001.-lts Fructifylng Princlple, and Its Corrcspondence, 60'2.-Jta Oonjoinlng Prlnclple, and lts Corre· 004 sponclenee





Applled to the lotcrprctatlon of Matth~I\ xlllv. ~: "Pray ye that 7our ntcht be not in the Wlnter, nellher on the l'abbath day" • 008


of the Serpent, wlth


;Examplcg from Serlpture •




l\atural and l'piritual Subl<tancc nnd Form.-Truth and l.ove arc l'ubstantlal.-'J'he Natu111l a11d !'plritual llocly.-ObJ1'<'ta in the f;plrltual World, and the Law ofthelr F.xl>tcnt'<'.-Di5Crete Deirlt'<'•, C'onfirmlng the Dœtrlne or Corrcspondenœ.---Ood, the lnllnlle and self·e:rt<tlng l'uœWlce • 62'7

Ct>rre.rondence of the nu man Body and ils l'aria to Thlngs S1>irltual and Dl'l'lnc

rhe Truc Wor•hip of the Lon! Rcp"•scnted by the Offcri nif' of lhc Wise Men from the l>a.•t.· The l'plrltual mcanlng orool<l, Fnnklncen•e, and Myrrb, as unfoldcd hy ('orl'<."-pondence G-12

APPE~"I>IX. Nece<ajty or Divine Re~latlon; on tbo Canon of Sacre<! l'crfptutt, and the Geuufncnl'OI and Authentlclty of the Various Books Compo51ng the Word of the New Te11tament and lhelr Uncorn1pted Prescrvation; wlth a Dricf Ana1ysls or, and a few Rcm&rkl! on, cach Book • f\r..c. JI.-The Canon of Pcrlpturc f>r.<". IJL-The Dooks of the Authorlzed Version or the Bible whlcb are not Plenarlly ln•plrcd, 656.-F.zra and l\ebemlah, 659.~Roth, G."'9.-E.•ther, lillO.-Job, 001. -l'ro\·crœ, 662.-Ecclesl&.1>*""· vœ.-The Song of Salomon l'r.r. IV.-The Apocrypha • !lu. V.-RaLblnlcal Lit.en.tore • !lr.c. VI.-The &ptoagiot, or Oreck Vernon o! the Old Tclltament !lv.c. Vll.-The Versions of the llerlpturcs uscd by Emanuel l'wcdenborg i;r;c, Vlll.-On the Intcgrlty of the Word of Ood, and 118 Mlraeolous Prescrvation $F.c', IX.-The EplsUcs of the A(>O'tlCS • !lrc. X.-The Jewtsb Canon of tbe Old Testament l'Ec. Xl.-The Four DH!'erent l'tylt!ll ln wbich the Word of God Il Wrltten l>tt. XII.-The Anclcot \\'orcl • l>rc. XIU.-Why was not the lntcrnal l'eD.!C of the \\'ord Re\'ealed betoreT. l'f"'. XIV.-The Anthorf!ed Enrllab Version of the Bible • Sœ. l.·~Dl~rtatfoo on the

r .....tbllft:r and





667 &68 670

683 68:1


R•"' X\'.-nc~s
f<F..C, XVI.·- ·Drnldlsm •


l'rr. XVII.-The Pythagorean Doctrine of Metemps:reho•ls Fr.c. XVJII.-The Hlcroglyphl<'ll, lllel'Ol!'lyphs, or Aa~?l'd Wrltlngs and Engra\•lng!l, ami the Il<'pl'ell<'ntaûvc Im"l;l'" of the Egyptinns • f:r.c. XIX.-llow was Il that the l'11lritual lkthod of lnll'rpretaUon Practf!led by the Earl)" Christian F'athPn<, œll"l'tl ln the C'hurch, or wbat 1'el'e the Ca~ of !ta llttllncT • f'Ec. XX.-Tbc Document Theory, and the A'l!yrian Tablel1 !lr.c-. XXl.-The Thrcc Terl'lll<, Corl'Ofponcknccs, !Wpre.entatlvea, and Significatives •

70'l 70.


724 729




The following an the abbreviated titles of the worb of Swedenborg quoted or referred to in this work. A.C. stand Cor Arœna Cœlestia. A.E. " Apocalypee E:xplained. A.R. " Apocalypse Revealed. T.C. R. " True Christian Religion. C. S. L. " Conjugial and Scortatory Lo9e. II.H. " Ileaven and Hell. D.L. W. " Divine Love and Wiadom. D.P. " Divine Providence. S. S. " The Sacred Scripture. D.L. " Doctrine of the Lord. W.H. " The White H or&e in the Revclation. H.K. " Hieroglyphic Key. J. S. B. " Intercourse between the Sool and the Body.







n 1HE subject of this treatise is one of momentous interest to every .l well-dispœed and reflective mind. Accustomed to reverence the Bible' as a book containing the revealed will and wisdom of the Supreme Being, written under immediate inspiration, and professing to regard it as the fountain of ail spiritual light, and the source of ail religious knowledge, we must, if indeed we are humble and teachable, fcel greatly rejoiced when we learn that there exists a certain and tmiversal rule of interpretation, by which its glorious truths can be disclosed, its heavenly wonders unfolded, its consolatory doctrines displayed, and its sacred preœpts made plain. In this state of miud we are prepared rationally to perceive the true nature and character of the Holy 'Vord as "the power and wisdom of God,"-the only au· thentic source of religious knowledge and spiritual wi.sdom (John i. 1, 2; Rom. i. 16; 1 Cor. i. 24). W e shall be disposed to regard it as a spiritual meat and drink,-" the green pastures and still waters" for the repose and refreshment of the Lord's fiock (Ps. xxiii. 2); and as we receive the heavenly nourishment by which our souls live, we shall exclaim, with the prophet Jeremiah, "Thy words were found, and I did eat them; and they were unto me the joy and rejoicing of my heart" (xv. 16).
• Rible ls a word derived fl'om" lril>/()f," the lat.ion of the Hebrew Scrlplures as "the Greek uame for papyru1, lhe mosl ancien\ Book," and whlcb bu beeu adopted lnlo , the deslgnalion of the Sa· materlal oui of whicb ll.s derlvallve, paJm', ail languages .. wa.s made. Bibl us, t.be ~ypllan pl&nl, gne cred &ripturcs in a collected form. \0 lhQ Grecks thelr name for papcr, and thls The Jews call tbelr Hebrew Bible," The ~gal" gave tbelr name \0 lhe earliest traus- Book of Holiness;· or" The Holy Book."





Iueoutrovertible rcu."ous might be adùueed for the ahsolute ncccssity of a direct re,·clation, nnd al~o what are commonly called the prosumptive and positive but irre::;k;tible evidenecs, both intern:.U nnù externnl, satisfaclory Il.'\ they arc, in proof of the genuineness, nuthenticily, and intcgrity of thosc books ''hich form the Word, togcther with the overn helming tClltimonics in favor of their verity derivcd from the won<lrrful literai fulfùlment of many of the inspired predictions,' and from thcir mancllous cffeets in advaneing humat c:frilizaLion wherever they have been freely circul:ited ; likewise the invincible proofs of the <livinity of t he Holy W ord, as exemplifie<l in the perfect harmony, sim plicity, and practical tendency of its doctrines, an<l their univel'!'n.1 adaptation to the exalted purposcs proposed; the furthcr corroborative testimony which might be a<l1luce1l from important philo~ophica.I investigations, philologicnl inquiriCll an<l rc;;ponses, ~cien· tific scrutiny, and arch:cologicul discoverics, togcthcr with its mirnculous prc:iervation from age to age, ami<l the ficrœst colllmotiolli! and demstntion::<, and the dismembcrment of all the nations that have c\·cr cxisted on the face of the earth; s and the wondcrful uuity of tho wholc, though \\ritten by the instrumentality of varions men, nt tfütant pcrio<ls,-nll of whieh fact.:s and circumstances strongly argue n divine in8piration an<l prescience. 1 pa.."S ovcr thcsc multiplied argumenb, safüfactory ns thcy are, and take far higher grounds than these in bchalf of the in!!piration of the W orù, aud appeal to the ÎD\\ard conscioll:!DCSS, expcricnce, and rca.son of ail. To admit that a book is the pure dictate and voicc of Go1l, <lcruaml;s that wo should rcquire it to be authcnticatcd, as well ns di!S· crimiuated from othcr pro<luctions, not mercly by verbal cxC"gcsis, criticnl nualysi~, and hil,tori<'al rcsearchcs (howe,·cr Ynluahlc thcy
•"A r•ropbCC)', ll~rtJJy rulnlled, iJs a real an "'rlum rrom the rury or Il' rnl'mies. miracle: oue such, fatrly produœd, mu"!. go Thouuh it bu bttu rldlruled more biUcrly, 11 grcat way ln convlncing o.ll rca.."Onahlc ml,rrprc'ICUtc<l more grn,,ly, OJ•JlO<{'<l more mcu."-Cou.1:<~. ran<"irou,ly,aud burntmnrc frequcntly than •" Four th<>u."1ln<l yc~ tbia «reàt volume auy othcr book, and perh&)'S thau nit otl1er hn.' with1t<JOd not only the Iron tooth or book• unlte<l, lt 1, so !..r frnm slnkln~ uu<lcr lime, but ail the rhr•lcal arul lntellc<·tual . the efforts of I~~ enemic•. that the probabll· llrenzth or man. l'rctcndcd frlend• he" e ityof Il• survl\'1111: I• now murh gri>atcr thnn corrupk'<l &n<l bctntye<l it: kln~ and )'rlnce'I 1t:vi>r The rnln bas dClll'c11dcd, the Ooods hllve )lel""•·ver!ugly '()Ught to bani~h it from hne corne, the •torm he.• arlsen and bcat the world. the civil 11n<l tnllltary powcrs of upon Il; but lt fcll not; for Il wa• fouuded the grcat empire" of the wnrld have bcen upon a rock. Llke the burnlng bu•h, il hM lellguc<l for lt• d~•trurtlon; the tlrC« of pcl'<c- bœn ln llamC'I, yct lt ls 1<1111 uncon•UmL'<l,cuUon hft\'e h<><-11 l!~hlt><I t•> consume both lt a •uftklcnl proof that tbere ls no olher rcYC· and I~• frlrnd•IO«ethrr; ILD•f llt min)'~"-"""'· l.tUnn from Oo•l,-that lie who •pt.ke from deat11, ln lt• mo<t horrl1! forn1~. ha• l>een the thc bu,h, lg the aulbor of the Blble."-P.&~· e.lmœt certain con»equ1•ncc or aOordh11i il SON.




may be in furnishing expositions and confirmations of the letter), but by the highest and most eogent evidence.' "I speak as to wise men, judge ye what I say" (1 Cor. x. 15). "l'rove all things, hold fast that which is good" (1 Thcss. v. 21). Far be it from me, however, to decry or undervnlue the use and application of profound philosophical, archreological, and scientific researches, applied to tho enodation and illustration of the letter of the W ord of God, from which, when directed by sound piety and judgment, therc is nothing to fear. On the contrary, honor and gratitude arc duc to all who, in a right spirit, engage in Biblical criticism. For it is of the utmost consc.quence that the literai sense of the W ord should be as critically correct, and as absolutely definite as possible; because this sense, adapted to ail rcaders, is the only just source and füithful standard of ail truc doctrine and genuine morality.5 A careful examination of the Bible may lead an impartial and reflectiYe ruind to sec that it consists of two kinds of writings, distinguished by two very different degrecs of inspiration :-one primary, plenary, and infallible-the other sccondary and partial, whieh might appropriately be considered as the result of the spiritual illumination of the writer's rational mind. The first, or superior degree of inspiration, is that in which the speakers and writers were inspired as to the very woriù they uttercd and recorded. For the time thcir individuality was suspended. Thcir mind, reasorr, and mcmory were altogether subservient to the prevalcnt influence of the Spirit of Jehovah, who " spake by them, and his word was in their tongues," which were as "the pen of a ready writcr" (2 Sam. xxiii. 2; Ps. xiv. i.). The writers were only scen in their representative chàract-Ors. Their States were intermittent; at timcs they were in the Spirit, and had direct intercourse with the spiritual world, and conscious communion with God, while at others they were in their ordinary state of mind.'
•"One is tempted Io rcma.rlt bow mucb we may Jose b)' the cold, dry w&y in whfcb wc are api Io read the sa.cred hlslor)', as mere matter of critlclsm, blstorice.J or moral, con· lrasted Wltb !be hlgb and tbrilllng vlews whercwlth the eccleslasllcal rules of fnterpret&tlon warrant those wbo adopt !hem." -Tracu of the Timea, lxxxix~ p.101. •On the above Important toplcs much has been ably wrlttcn by a hœt of leamed, lodcfatlgable, and skllful men-of all ages and countries, wbœe ne.mes and works ft ls unnecessnry Io enumerate. Judlclously read, wltb every allowanco for the respective au1hors' means or Information, rellglous sentiments, and predllectlons, tbese works wlll satlsfy every lnqulry of the student on the historlcal, chronological, and phllologlcal evidences, both lnleroai and external, or on the unquestlonable genuineness and 11,u· tbcuticity of the sacred books which compose tbe Wonl of God. (S« .A.ppcndix, on the Integrü11 of IM Wor<t of GQd. in the Lttlc'.) • •• Durlog the prophetical eC8tasy the very a.ctlons and words of a propbel are srmboll· cal, as 18 rightly obscrvcd by Irenœus."LANCA,'rrER, Pelp. lbm., p. 16. (See Ill&. :a. 3; Ez. iv. l; XX-"!'iv. SS.)



Thus every term, yea, every "jot and titùe" (.Matt. v. 18) of suc11 books wtlS dicta~ or spokcn by the Lord himself,-nece$arily con· tains a heavenly, spiritual sense, distinct from but withiu the lit· cml scnse, and consequcntly both senses are most holy and divine. Now the books of the Bible written according to this peculiar stylo arc the pure and plcnary "\VoRD OF Gon. For " inspiration," Swedenborg says, "implies that in ail parts of the Word, even the most minute,-as well the historical as other parts,-re containcd celœtial things, which refer to love or goodness, and spiritual things, which refer to faith or truth, consequently things divine. For what is in· spired by the Lord, descends from Him through the nngelic heavens, and so through the world of spirits, till it reaches man, beforc whom it presents itsclf as the W ord in the letter." (A. C. 1837.) The second or lower degree of inspiration is that which is genernlly supposed to belong to the entire Bible, in which the writers, for the cdification of the Church, were led by the illumination and direction of the R oly Spirit as far as THE SENSE is conœrned, without being inspired as to the words they used, or in the descriptions of the events and facts they relatcd. The views of the New Church, therefore, do not differ from those of other Christian expositors and commentntors in regard to the nuthority whieh belongs to the latter class of writings, the subsidiary objects for which they wcre composcd, or the mode of interprctation usunlly adoptcd (see Appendix, p. 651); but we widely cliffcr from all others ns to the character of those books which are affirmcd to be plcnarily inspired. And the distinction is, that these are maintaincd to be of immediate divine authority, and thus more saercd-more practical than modern thcologians admit. W e believe them to be the divine truth itsclf,-an emanation from the divine goodness itsclf, -and holy even to the very letter. And further confirmed as it is tous by the most convincing evidence that this very Word of God, thus plenarily inspired, is written according to peculiar laws, which are applicable to no other compositions whatsocver. And morcover, that the books so written are, in the Old Tcstament-those cnumeratcd by our blessed Lord, in Luke xxiv. 44, with refercnoo to Him· self, namely, "TIIE LAW " (the Pentateuch, or five books) "OF l\fos•~,'
" lmplred penons rcmaln mere\y human ' 1 n the celcbrat.ed catechlsm of R&bbl lx·log• ln re»pect of pu~e. not lmmedl· Abraham Jagel, orlginally extracted fl'om at.ely conneewd wilb thelr 1pecla\ mba;ions Malmonldea, lt Ill Ul!el'l.ed lh&t ·• MOl!GI actcd and eodowmentt!."-Kt!llWl'•;\'O(u anJ am. u the mero amanuewda of God ln wrlt!D& menti, 2d Ed., p. 131.



and iu the New Testmnent, the Fouu GœPEJ.s.' which relate to the history of our Lorù's incarnation, ministry, and glorification, and record bis vcry word!<; toi?ethcr 11ith the book of R1;n;L.\T!ON, which the Apostle John calls "the rc\'elation and tcstimony of Jcsus Christ," anrl which hc says wu.~ "significd " to him, or as the original \1ord 10.;µa•,. menus, 8tjlllbolirully tlwwn to l1im. Thesc 8cri}lturcs, thcu, are contradbtinguishc1l &om ail human compositioru; 11 hnt.soever; nnù whilc the histories rt.'cord<"l are ail, iu the gcncrnl scnse, literolly true, 1• yet the wholc i~ c11 pable of lx•ing intcrpreted by t he known, dctcrminuble, hnrmoniou~, uni vcrsnl, nud unerring law on which thcy rcst, nnd nccording to which they werc written. Thnt the t.erm G0><pcl (or" l?hul tidings," or" news that is 1rell ") 11 i~ takcn to mel\n the F<mr G08pcls, nml that these wcre ahYays rcgar1lcd llS, ln somo sense, more holy thnn the Epistlœ, is evident l>>lh the hf<tor!eal an.J tercmonlal partS of 1Holy r.h""1 • parted, and bccame inlO ''"" hb llTc b<>ot•."-1\lrlo Jla1i\ p. 161. hcad'-"'-Jlurpoll'• .!'mn'111•, p. 62. (Cyprian "The eniire Old Tc>i.ament la a counected n._..,. the •me fti;ure.) 0<•r1c• or my<terlc•, relalluir; to Cbrûot, who, Orlgcn, aa quoted by Eu..cblus, prcobyWr th·m~h ou~. i~ rcprcocnted hy varlous types or Alexauclrl&, al,.-, •AY" "Tite four evan· au<I emblem.s."-Dt a1nor et CuU. in Splr. et geli•~• aloue "re rcœlvcll wlthouldispute by l 'rr.. 1>. 31. the wholo Church or Ood."-Jli.-i. Ettl., !lb. vL, cat. ~. AugW'llne, who ftour!E.hed A. I>. •The Son ot !'lrach llCClllS lO allu<le to m wri~· that "The Cour go«pe!& hAre th(' 1111• lhreclold divi.lon nt the ScrlptUn", ln lllgh~t authorlty."-Lordr«T'• G~ Jli'!f.., the preface to Lbc boot or Eœlœla•llru"' vol. 111., p. :m. wrltten about l:.l yoors bcfore the Christian cm, "here ho mentions ·'The Law, the tOBy flndlng a spiritual OCMC ln the \\'ord pmphcl•, and Ille otlter books of our Fa.· of God, Jlllary wut not allo•v lhal bistorical lhc""·"-WoLF, Ulb. lleb ., vol 1., p. 2.~. lruth I• wcakened or œtraye<l.-" ln the lie· ginnlng or our cre&li<e we 'nrned ot.ltt"' • ·• Tallan, a lltUe aner the mlddle of lbe agsln<t •uppoolng lhat we dctracle<I rrom th<' .."'Ondcentury,eo111po..edaHa?Don1ofthe bellcfln tran~ctlons by leftebing Illat the Gu<~I•; thefir-toflhckind l<htchbadbeen lhingg Uiem•eh'es eontaln('d wlt.ltin tllcm nttcmpled, whfch hc callcd Dial<>flrrl)11 [of the outr•'lngs of suooe<iucut rcalltlc~."1h~ f<>ur], wblch llomon•trates tbtlt at thM Q>mm. in .llalt. t'ii.. i., p. 6-10. lime lh~re werc four go11pels, and no more, 1 Cyril of Alexandrl& a.L'o '"YS. .. Allbnu1th of e>la •IL•hcd auth<>rlty in t_he Cburch. lhe spiritual oen.se be good ~nd fruilful. i 11 lrtn«u-, nol long aller, mention> al! the I what 15 hl,Wrical sh<>uld i,., iateu as riru~I F.•augc!Ms hl' namc. arra~ng lbtm ac- history."-ll>mm.;,. 1"4-, llb. 1., Orat. t, ,, 1 tonlfng to the ortkr wberein the> \1 rote, li., PP. 113, lH. whlrh ls the !'&me M thal uuivcrsally ghcn 1 .. Ucmcmbcr," Tertullllln remarks, "t.ltat 01cm lhrou_ghout the Cbristlau world to thls when wc admit of spiritual alleroclc'I, ll>c tll\y, a'"'i1tnmi: rca•on• why the il'""'P<'L~ c_au true lilcral •cnse or the Scrlpture b not oo 1 cllher fewer "'."more. Early lu the llnrd altercd." ct:utury. Ammomu., al~ wrote a bannony oc lht four 1:.,,.1'(:1•." - f'a•p/YI!• .l'rtl1,,., 1 11 "The Gl'ffk word f<>r Go"f'tl means p'~·I 111... '" ~ Ibt<r (}o"J..IA, vol. i., p. 131. l'ee liding•, f1'1'l'I or i"llfMi ,.,.,.., Our Eugll'h nbo ll'tlll<'Oll'• ()1m1n nf ll<L Kno Tut, p. :i.-.;, word • G0'-1><'1,' t\'hlch 18 eompoundcd of the "The gœpcl wrlt<>r• were four-hui the !'a.xon word God-good, sud IJ>rll-n hhlory, go•1><'l i. oue" (Orlu<n, C<!ut. Jlartltm, scc. I., narrativ11, or 1ncs'<llge, \Cry 1wcurately ex p. U). "Like lhal river whlcb "ent out of p.,,_.. the !O!llSI! or the or1gtnal Greel "Eden lO water the garden, i l wM h)· lhe (See l•nli Et11m. A11g. &ud l'arkhurà.)






first, from the circumstancc thnt oaths from n pcriod nntcccdcnt, at lcn.st, to the tùne of Justini:m (A. D. 527), have been administcrcd in the four Gospels;" secondly, from the nncient form univcrsnlly prcvailing in the (,'hristian Church so carly n.s the third century, of or11aining Dishops to their sacred functions in which the book of the Four Eoo.n9elisf.8 wn.s held c;pm over the candidate's head; and, lastly, from the practicc of the Church, in which a custom bn.s long cxistcd, and is evcn now retained, which, if it has any meaning, wa.s de.signcd to mnrk a greater degree of revercnce for the GO$fJe/,s in compnrison "ith the A pœtolic Epistles; for, the congrcgatiou is <lirecte<l, in th<> ru bric of the Church of England communion service, to Biand ''hile the holy Gospel is read, but to sit during the rea.<Jing of tho Epistlcs." Rishop Tomline thus writes on the inspiration of the entire Bible, in his Elemcnt8 of OhriAf.ian Theology :-" When it is sai<l that the Sacrcd Scripture.s are divinely inspircd, we are not to unden;tanil that God suggcsted evcry worcl, or dietatcd every expnl$$iOn, nor is it to be supposed that tbey were inspired in every fact which thcy related, or in every precept which they delÏ\·ered." " I t is sufficicnt to believo that by the general supcrintemlence of the Holy Spirit, they were directed in the choicc of thcir matcriu.ls, and prevcutc<l from rccording any material error."14 ln what, thon, <loes the difference consist bctwccn the view now propoundcd, and that wlùch was held by this orthodox prelate of the Establishment, \1 hœe opinion on this topic ha.s been echoed on nll sidœ, nnd \1oulcl, it is presumed, be adrnittcd as n precise expœition of whnt i.s gcncrnlly bclieved on the suhjcct of inspirntion throughout the Christian 11orld? It consists in this: the Bishop's mode of intcrprotation, like ours, is strictly applicaLle t<> the Epistles, anil such portions of the W ord as nre not includcd by the Lord in the text just noticcd; but we helicve, from evidcncc nppnrcntly irre!listihlc,
11 Cyril, ln bis apologetlcal dil'Counc Io 1'hcodo,h1s, d<'Ocriblng the Councll or Epile· •Os, •t.y<: .. 'l·hc aaer..'<I •ynod bclng a><ScmLlcd ln Mary'• Chureh, had Christ h!msclr for thclr h<'&d; Cor the lloly Gospel wu aa t. eolemn tbrone, prea~blng, as Il were, Io the 'enerable prelate<>, • Judgc ye rigbteousjudgment l "'-Ltll""-, Concll UJ., p. 1014. Glli:d b!I T>r. IJQrd1trmh. u ln the Ea•tern churcbt'l', lfgbts were N-rrlt•d be fore lhcm wbcn they "ere golng to be reatl. " .. l low do wo gel Crom under lbat dUll-

culty [vlz., that of reront'iling purely physl· cal lruth• t.ud •c-lcntific fa.cts wltb the fliblc)T l bellcvc, by tJmply adoptlng a tloctrinc whlrh ls laid do"u ln a )>8S-"llge from llffllf»• mul K~(lf, a !Jook rcœntly ls1m.~J Lly Ur. Candllsb: 'Ali that ls ln &rlpture ls uot rev· elatlon. To a larite extent the Bible ls a record or humau alfalr&-the sayln~ t.nd dolngs of mên; not a rtrord of divine dllC· trine or of communications Crom God.' ··8pee<'h of Duke of Argylc, delh·ered t.t a meet11111 of the l\atlonal Bible Society of ScoUand. bcld at <.llM&Qw, lt>G4.



that by far the greater pnrt is of an incomparably more exalted character than such n standard of intorpretation is calculatcd tv 2:;ta.blish,-for we bclicve that these Jattcr books contnin, in the original at lcast, truth without the aùmixture of error, and that they wcrc inspircd both ns to materials and sense, ns to phraseology and words, as to precepts and facts,--evcry particular expression thcrein bcing hoJy and divine. And that, thus, the oracles of God (Rom. iii. 2; llcb. v. 12; 1 Pet. iv.11; lively oracle,s, Acts i. 35), Iike a casket cnclosing brillinnt pearls and gems, contnin a lucid heavenly meanÎn)!, distinct from, but within, the letter. · Indeed, to the pious mimi, it is a truly lamentable reflectiou thnt the in8piration of the W ord of God has becn reducerl to so low n test by modern expositors. Nothing, ccrtainly, can tend more to the support and encouragement of the most rnnk infidelity. Dr. Palfrcy, for instance, late Profcssor of Biblical Literature in the University of Cambridge, Mass., speaking of the Pentnteuch, snys that "Wc are not <lebarred from supposing that it had its origin in the imperfect wisdom of l\foses."--(.Acad. Lect. on the Jewisk &rip. and A ntiq., vol. i., lect. iv., pp. 85, 86.) Prof~or McLellan, in his Jfanual of &u:red InterpreUdion, dC!'igned to aid theological students in Biblical exegcsis, among othcrs lnys thcsc m=ùrM down as a canon of direction for the expositor: "The objcct of Iutcrpretation is to givc the prccise thoughts which the sacrcd writer iuteuded to express. No other meaning is to be sought but that which lies in the words themselves. Scripture is to be interpreted by the same method which we employ in discovering the menning cf any other book;" and Dr. Davidson, in his Sacred Hmneneutic..~, spca.king of the truc principlcs of intcrpretation, says that "The grnmmutical mcauing [of the Scripturcs] is the same with the historien!; and both constitute all the meaning intended by the Holy Spirit When the grammatical or historical rnenning of a pnssage is nsccr· tniuecl, ail the theology of the pa..."Sllge is also known" (p. 227).
To the 8t\mc purport, Dr. Thlrlw&.11, the BM1op of St. Davld's, ln bis charge, l&l3. affirms tbat "a great part of the eveuts related ln the Old Te.1ament have no more apparent eonnoctlon wlth our religion tban 1.hoscofGreœe and Rome .•.• The hMory, so far as lt Isa narrative of civil and politi· cal tramaetions. has no e..entl&.I connection wlùi any religions truth, and, If lt had bcen lc>•t, tbougb we should have hœn lefl in ig'· 11oranœ or m1,1ch wuich we •hould have de$lred. Io know, our trcasures of C'brlstlan doctrine would have remaiued whole antl unlmpalred.. The numbers, migration>. we.rs. battles, conque.sis, and re,·erses of Israel have no1.hlug ln common wlth the tcacblngs of Christ, wltb the way of salYa· t!on, with the fruits of the Spirit. They lie· long to a t.ot.ally different ordcr of subjccts." -P. 123. "Our Chureh has never att.emptcd to dctermine the nature of the lruiplratlou or the llolf Scrlptures."-Jb., p.107.



Dr. Orville Dewey, one of the mœt <listiuguishc<l theologians of the Unitarian school, writcs on this subject ns follows: " lf any one thinks it neccssary to a rcception of the Bible ns a revelation from God, that the inspire<l pcnrncn shoul<l have writtcn by inunediatc dictation ; if hc thinks that the writcrs wcrc mcre :un:muenscs, and that word aftcr word was put clown by instant suggcetion from above; that the very style is divine and not hum:m; that the style, WC Say, anJ the matters of styJe-thc figures, the mctaphors, the illustmtions, came from the Divine mind, and not from human • mimls; we say, at once and plainly, that wc do not regarcl the Scriptures ns sctting forth any claims to such supcrnatural perfection, or accuracy of style. It is not a kind of distinction that would a<ld anything to the authority, much Jess to the dignity, of a communication from hcaven. Nay_, it would dctract from its power, to <leprive it, by any hypothcsis, of those touches of nature, of that natural pathos, simplicity, and imagination, and of that solcmn grandeur of thought, disrcgarding style, of \rhich the Bible is full. .Enough is it for us, that the mattcr is divine, the doctrines truc, the hii:1tory authcntic, the miracles real, the promises glorious, the thrcatcningi; fcarful. Enough, that all is gloriously an<l femfolly true,truc to the Divine will, truc to human nature, truc to its wants, nnxictie:;, sorro\\·s, sins, an<l solemn dcstinies. Enough, tha.t the &•11) of a. Divine an<l miraculons communication is set upon that lloly l~ook."-( llorks, English Ed., p. 46.'>.) And in a Tract (B elief and Unbelief), publishcd in 1839, with the avowod purpose of defending the Bible from the objections of infidclity, he says, "The Scripturcs nrc not the nctual communication mndc w the min<ls inspire<l frorn above. They ure not the actual W ord of God, but they nrc the record of the 'Yord of God." "If thcrc evcr 11·crc productions which show the free and fervent workings of humnn thought and focling, they arc our sucrcd records. But the things lin thcm) which wc have to deal witb are wor<ls; they nrc uot divine "ymbols of thought." Agnin, hc says, "If we open almost any book, cspccially any book writtcn in a fervent nn<l popular style, wc eau pcrccivc, on accurate analysis, thnt somc things werc hastily writtcn, ;;orne thingi1 negligcntly, some things not in the exact logicnl or<lcr of thought; thut somc things are beautiful in style, and others inclegant; that somc things arc clcar, and others obscure and hard to hc undcrstood." "An<l do we not,'' adda the erunc writcr, " find all thcsc things in the Scriptures?"



Spenking of the twcnty-fifth :md following chaptcrs of Exo<lus, Andrews Norton, Profcssor of Sacre<l History in Harvard University, Mass., says: "Seven chapters are filled with trivinl directions (respecting the ark, the tabernacle, and its utcnsils]. So wholly unconnccted are they with nny moral or religious sentiment, or any truth, important or unimportnnt, except the melnncholy fnet of their 11aving bcen rcgnrded as a divine communication,-thnt it requires a strong effort to rend through with attention these pretcndcd words of the Infinite Bcing. The natural tendency of a belief that sucl1 words proceede<l from Him, whenever such belief prevailed, must have bcen to draw away the regard of the Jews from ail that is worthy of mnn, and to fix it upon the humblest ohjcct ofsuperstition.''-Evidences of the Genuineness of the Go..pels, add. notes, cxxvii. In thcse divinely inspired chapters, Swedenborg in his ÀrC(ina Celestia shows the importance and explains the spiritual me:ming of every sentence and every word, as teaching countless lcssons of ini;truction, and as having in each particular an important reprcsentative menning, and a prncticnl application, in which the celestial and spiritual order and renlities of hcnven and the divine presence and blessing in sncrcd worship are prescnted to the contemplation and ncccptnnce of the prepnrcd mind. They descJ'ibe the vcry snnctuary in which the Lord can <lwell with mnn, and of which he says: "For the Lord bath chosen Zion; IIe hath desired it for his hahitalion. This is mv rest forcver: here will 1 dwell, for 1 have desired it. I will abundnntly hless her provision; 1 will satisfy her poor with brend. I will nlso clothe her priests with salvation, and her saiuts sh:tl! sing alou<l for joy" (Ps. cxxxii. 13-16). And again, "llcholcl the tabernacle of God is with men, and He will dwell with them, and thcy shall be his people, and God himself shall be with them, and be their God " (Re''· xxi. 3). And it was with precisely sneh a precept on the interpretation of these very chapters, that the A J>ORllc Paul th us nddresscs the Christian Church at Corinth: " Ye are the people of the living God; as Go<l hath sai<l [Ex. xxix. 45; LeY. xxvi. 12], I will <lwell in thcm, and walk in them; and I will be thcir God, and they shall be my people" (2 Cor. vi. 16). Surely, less 1·everent i<lens of inspiration than these quote<l above cannot possibly he held by sneh as profess to helieve in its exi~tencc at ail. They must nppear to cvery devout mind as little lei's than a tlisavow:tl of inspiration nltogether, and insteaù of a <lefence, to be a



totnl nb:mdonml'nl of the truth, and a ,·irtunl dcuinl of the sanctity aml nuthority of the W ord of Ge><I. 1f we look into the Christian world, we shall find men, distinguishc<l for their learning and piety, ns widely at variance in their sentiments ami interpretatious of the inspircd Volume as noonclay differs from midnight darkne!-"!<; supporting trn<'ts of religion irrationnl in thrmsrh·c~, and diametrirnlly opposed to cach othcr, hy the most conficl<'nt appeals to its sncred pages; <lisputing with the bitterest ncrimony about doctrine.<> thnt are ndmitted to be mcrc implications, arnl not unfrcquently di.~torting the plninœt fücts of science, and even accrl'1litt•1I cvents of history, in support of favorite thcological opinions. We fini( men, iriftC(l with most profound powers of i.nv~tigating the l!ecrct lnws of nature, who eau unfold, amid a blaze of demonstrntion, the most wondcrful phenomenn of physical existence, and unrnvel the perplexing mystcrics of crcation and mnthemnticnl science, but wlio rither profcss thcm!'Clves embnrrnsscd with the conflicting difficulfü~ ancl oh$curitics of rc,·elation, or openly avow their conviction tlmt the llihle and nature are nt variance with each othcr. And a..~ fart" in nature arc coruitant and undeniable, and as it would be most nbsur<l to suppose that the Divine Bei11g would spcak and net inoonsi:<tcntly, so, therefore, they nt once oonclude thnt the Bible cnnnot Il<' divine--cnnnot ha,·e God for its author.'s
"Newman lap1d11wn the followlng axiom and cbaracter of Jl'!'u•, as reportcd ln the and c onclu~lons wlth rcrercnce to the Won! i:œpels themsch·C8. that Ile used unchl\rit~ of G•~l :· hie 111.nguage, gt\VC way Ill bo.d tcmf>er, a111l "l. The moral and lntellectunl power• of was dcstltute of no.turnl afl'ccUon." man mu•t be ackno\\lcdgcd a.• hnvln11 a "1 know of no work on the •ubjc~t 1111" r1ght and duty to crlUcl'c the contents or plcn&ry Inspiration or the ScrlpturCH] 1111\t 1 the !o'Cripture; darc plaœ ln tbe bands of & ~udcnt of llll'· "2. Whcn excned, lbey condemn por· ology. I know or none wblcb, even to a tlowi of the Scripture u cnoncous and lin· younl! man or or.Jlnary &CUtcne!lS. dol!!'\ 1101 monll: •u~e111 grcater dlffit·ulliC!I tban lt remo,·c>1." "3. The a<.'<llmcd lnfalllbllllyofthe enllrc -biroirumi'• Lttturci on IM Authorit11 rif 1/1< Scrlpture is a proved rwtty, not merci)· a• J.'no TeAtamcnt, p. 100. to 11hy•lol0f!}' and othcr 11Cle11Ufic mattA'l'il, "The Scrlpture~ arc fMt beœmlng, to n but al•on.' to rnoral•."-l'ha.«'1<J/ Faith, p. llô. grcst dcgree, a dcnd and ob'IOlcte lcttN: an<I Tho nororious Rcv. Ch&JI. Voysey, ln hl• thecdltoMiOfour rcllglousjournahlpublkly le<-turc 011 the Biblc,dellvercd atl't. George·~ aclrnowledge tbe moumf\11 facL On 1111• Hall, Ll>n•lon, 1'71, ,. rerom.'<I to ha,·e Mid, 1 bubjoct the ChrLotla11 E.rnmi11a, one or the th&\ H thougb lt contalned much that I• 100<t ably conducted and -..ell·known or rt• beaullful and truc, yct lt makcs uo clolm !Iglous periodlcal•, hA.' the folio\\ lng rc· toadlvluc orlgln and autbl•rlty. Io Il thcro marks:-'1io one who ls accustomcd tn n• aro abt<Olute and lrrccuncllaule contrndir- gard wlth mnch attention the bL5tory nn<I !1011, and downrlght fal•ehoods. Even the tcn<foncy of rellglous opinions can füil of rd Iglous and moral tcnchlng l• not unlfi>rm txfog couvloced tbat tbe qu.:stlon ronccrn· or <"•h<·r~nt. but Io 'l()Uit place~ contmdlc l111e tbc inspiration of the l'criptun:s 11 "<>On tory of 11><.'lf. and 'l()me or lt dci;ndlng to to i-ome !be rn<..t a""°rblni; quc>tlon of 00<l. Thero \\ero ruoral blcml•be> ln the lifc Ch ri.tian tbCOIOl."Y· The ru lods or men Ill\'



13ishop Colcnsv, insisting vehemently on the Bible posscssing a hn· man clcmcnt, and bcing merely "a human book," containing not only a literai sensc, but one that bears no other meaning whatever, execpt that whieh lies upon the surface, says: "In this way, I repent, the Bible becomes to us a huruan book, in which the thoughts of other hearts are opened to us, of men who lived in the ages long ago, and in circumstances so different from ours." " We must uot bliudly shut our eyes to the real history of tJ1e composition of this book, to the Iegendary character of its earlier portions, to the manifest contra· dictions and impossibilities, which rise up at once in cvery part of the story of the Exodus, if we persist in maintaining that it is a sim· pie record of historical faets. We must regard it, then, as the work of men, of fellow·men like ourselves."-(Pent. and Book of Josliua, p. ii., p. 382, §~ 511, 512.)
in that J)Q"ltion ln refcrenr.e to thls subject lsh construction of MnUhew. the tmctltional which clL!lnot long be maintalned. They aœrettons of Mark aud Lukc, and the l'lnone wa; or the other. They mu•t lonlslng medium of John ;- a care ancl lal•>r att.aln to some sort of comlstcuey, ellher by which lt lsprotll.neand presumptuous 1oon111 hclieving le!!S or by believing more. The au· or make llgbt of."-Ea$tem 1hweù, vol. iii.. thorily of lheSeriptures,and e•peclally those p. 175. or the Old Testament, must clther become To the above, whlch coul<l œ cxtendccl higber and strongcr, or be ~uced almost to e.lro011t lndefinitely, on.en wrltteu in terms 11Q1hing. It ls vain to Imagine that, wlth the wc should be sorry to tmnsfcr to OUI' !"'gcs. t>resent secret or open sceptictsm, or at least wc wlll add but the followlng concll1sivc vague And unsettlcd notlons,wlth whlch they answer by Swedenborg:are rcgarded, evcn ùy many who are dofcnd· "The natural man, howcvcr, cannot sllll ers of a Spt.'Clal revelallon, they eau be read be persuaded Io bclleve tbat the Word I• Dl· flnd taught in our churches. scbools, anù vine Truth il.9clf, in which is lli\'lne Wls· fümlllcs, as ùookll, m<i gt;nerû, so as Io rom· dom and Divine Life, lna.much ""he juclges mand much of real reverence for them- of lt by its • tyle, in whieb no such things ap1 selvcs.'"-Tlle Ninctte.nlh Qmtury, p. 47. penr. Ncvcrtbclcss, the style lu whleh the "The gcneral remarks )'(,'Spectlng the ln· Word ls wrlltcn, ls a truly Divine ~tylc. whh •pl ration of the Old Testament apply also to whlch no othcr htyle, however sublime and the New.... Ali the wrltlngs ln the New excellent lt may scern. ls at ail compamble. Tœtamcnt 11.s well as the Old contaln marks for lt ls as darkness comf)l\l'Cd IO Ught. The of human origln, of buman wcakncss and style of the Word ls of such e. nature as to lmpcrfcctlon.''-'I'rwls/or IM TinlP•, pp. 4-10. rontaln what ls holy ln cvery ve11<C, ln e\'cry Rentlments so utterly degmdlng 10 Divine word, and ln some cases ln every let ter; and ncvclation are cndorsed by numbers who hence the Word conjoins man "llh the Lon!. profCS'l to be lhe moral and religions tcach· and opens hcaven ." "llcnce man hR.• Ufc ers of the day. They are vlews wblch srem by and througb the \\'ord.'' "Lest thcrt•fore naturally 10 arise out of a dental of the plcn· mo.nklnd should rclllllill any·longcrin cloubt ary Inspiration of the Word of(lod. To such concernlng the divlnity of the Wo1'1 , lt hM conclnslons the reasonlng of the late Rcv. pleascd U1e Lord Io reveal tome l!R internai Iladcn Powell,ln blswork on ln•plratlon,and sense, which ln lts essence ;,, •plritual, ancl of the leamcd clergymen who were the au· whkh ls to the cxternal sen-c, whi<-h 18 thor.ofthe&saysandRtvlewamostcertalnly natuml, wbat the soul ls Io the body. 'fhls lcad. So agaln Miss II. Martineau can tims internai :oe11sc fs the spirit whlch givcs !Ife •pcak of the Holy Gospels: "In general, lt 18 10 lhe lettcr: wherefore thls scnsc wlll no llght work for the slnccre "1ld reverent cvlncc the dlvlnlty IL!ld sanctlty of the mind l-0 rea.d tho<'..,..pel hlstory,so as tocome Word, and may convlnce cven the nntural ''ll'.iln reachofthcaetual volœofJcsns,an1l man, If be I• of o. disposition Io be COI> llsten Io itamong lhcpcrplexi11gcchoeoofhls vlnccd.''--{S. S., 1-4.) place aud lime; IO sepuate Il !rom the Jew·
mu~t move




multitudes of rcadcrs the mcre lcttcr of the sncred Scripturc.<1 oftcn appcars vague and unconnectcd (li;a.. lx. 7-9; Jcr. xix. 5; )lntt. xxiv. 27-29); har<l and unmeruiing (Ps. cix. 13; Jer. xlviii. 11-15; H os. xiii. G; ~lie. i. 16-21; .John xxi. 2); to aboun<l wit h ~l'O."S noourdities and unintelligible mystcrics (Gcn. iv. 15; .Judg. v. 20; Isa. vii. 20; lx. 16; Ez. xxviii. 13); to coutuin numcrous statemcnts which sccm irrational, self-eontrndictory, or iuronsistent with othc~ (Ex. xx. 5, 6; xxiv. 10; Ez. xviii. 20; Isa. xliii. 3; Luke xxii. 43; .Tohn i. 18- 20); to comprise many "hich are nntagonistic to the modern disco,·cries in chronology, oppoRed to the wcll-known principlcs of the physical sciences, and discordant with the nscertained farts of profane history (Gen. i., ii.; .Joshuo. x.; Isa. xlv. 7; :'ifatt. xxvii. 9; Rev. xi. 8); to inclucle narratives of ,;oJence, trenchcry, cruelty, undenune;s, nu<l injustice S('t•mingl~· approYed by God, yct diamctrically oppo:;ed to his infinite nn<l unchnngeable attribut<'!' nn1l qunlitics of mercy, purity, faithfulnC'"-'<, nn<l justice ·Geu. xxxi,·. li); 1 Sam. xv. 33; Gen. xxvii.; .Ju1lgcs iv., v.); to giyc commnn<ls of nn immoral tendcncy, irrcconcilahle with !lpntlc.l'S perfection (Ex. xxxii. 2ï; .Jo:sh. viii. 21- 25; Ps. cxxn•ii. !l; Ho~. iii. 1-3); m11l w hP occupicd wilh trh·iul circumstnnces al\!l with nffüirs which nppmr ton in~il.(nificnnt, and C\'Cn revolting, tb hnvr over claimcd so much ntt1•11tio11 frorn the Lord of the uni verse (Ez. v. 12; i cch. viii. li). llov. many ltone!<t people, "for Jack of true knowlcdge," h:we in con"C'!llCllC<' trcnted the holy vcritics of di vine rcvelntiou with the utm~t rleri~ion, cithcr as myths of bnrbarou~ agc:i, or frai:rmentR of fal::ehood~ ~tran~ly blended witl1 truth, or ns a contcmptible tL-~11<' of ignorance nncl impœturc; nnd hnYC not hC!<itatc<l to revilc ail religion~ n.~ iiyt<h•mt< ulike of de;poti~m. !'llJ>Cn>lition, and credulity,- the 1 lclusion>< of prÎl'i'tcrnft nnd the olf:ipring of fimutici!<m nucl forvicl im· 24

Tl/E' .lfRRR /,f1'f.'RA/, SRNSE l1YJJl:1 R.YSllJ/,E.


aginntion.~. Ho'~ mn ny virtuouR, intelligent, nnd rnn•litl minds nrc thcre who nre perplexcd, and distressed, and nlnrmcd, cven at thcir own thoughts while reading their Bibles ! It is surcly time, thcn, for Christians to inquiro what is the renl nnture of God's 'Vord,-to C.'l:amiue into the origin, sanctity, ami authority of that blC88C<I Book on which, ns upon an admnnntinc fonmlation, nll virtue nnd intelligence infallibly re!it, and whencc ail truc religion and spiritual lmowlcdge are derivcd ;-to invel:lif!llt<', carue:tly and narrowly, it.~ claims to universal rcvcreuœ and obe.licncc ;-and to vindicate it.<1 hnllowed doctrines nml its divine precept• from ail contumely by 1\ rntionnl demonstration of its hcing whnt il profcssœ to be,-the very WonD OF Gon. Ami unlcss this be done, it nccd~ no prophetie eye to see, no prophetie tonguc to foretell, thnt infidclity and scepticil!m will soon reign triumphnnt, thnt dnrkucs~ nn•l blindncss as to ail spiritual knowledge, will soon cover evcry minci, ns is describcd by the holy prophet Isninh, "here be sa~~. "The Lord bath pourcd out upon you the spirit of deep sleep, ami hnth close<l your eycs; the prophets and your l'Ulcrs, the sœrs bath He covcrcd. And the vision of all is become uuto you as a book thnt is senlcd, which men delivcr to one that is learne<l, saying, Rend thiH, 1 pray thoe: and be saith, I cannot : for it is sealed ;'5 and the book ii; «lclivercd to him that is uot lcnrned, say}ng, H.cacl tlûs, I pray thee · nml hc snith, I am not lromcd," (xxix. 10-12.) The utter destitution of nll true doctrine, nncl a right interpretation of the Scripturœ, i~ pr<'<lictcd. as a conscqucnce of the prevalence of iniquity, in thc8(' words, " Behold, the days come, snith the Lord God, thnt I will sen<! n fumine in the land, not a famine of bread, uor a thirst for water, bnt of hcnring the words of the Lord : and thcy shall wander from ~n to sea, and from the north even to the enst, they shall run to nnd fro to seck the word of the Lord, and shall not find iL In thnt
.... The Hebrew word fi'.>r>(''8.ft'b,rii:nlfte<110 dh·e lntn the ><Ubllme, profound, m>-gtlral, allegwlcnl, and prophellet.I <en<et< of Holy l'<-rl1>ture. 1 ('or. 1. 20-1</~t û IM l>"C!(nund varthtr."-Ml>lit-u wtht Slu<ly <>/ JJib. Lit, p. 1.;. "The hlddcn wl•dom of tbe SCrlpture ls to h« Mn•l11t•rcd as treasure hld ln tbe earth, for " bh'h men must seareh wltb that N1me rra! an<! labor wllh wblch they pcnetratc tnto a mine of gold; Cor wben our ~a,·tour rommands u• lt>ttmeAIM s-rlplwmlt>rthelr ie-tlmuny of hlm•elf, the hu1in1a~ of the Pre<'< l•I hopllcs !bat ldud of ""artblog by whirh gold and •llvcr are dl-œvered uockr ground. He" ho doth nl>t -l'<'h the Wnf'l

o! God ln Illat manner, and with that •plrll, for what 18 10 be fouud undcmealh il, wlll never dl~'·er tt" true ye.Jue."- Jr. J<mCJJ't 1-«t.. "" tlu: F!g. Long. of Jiotv &rlp .• new cd.,
pp. 20-21. St. Jerome. E'p. !S. to 1~111/inu•, •&Y", "Ali lbat we rcad ln the •acre<! books ls 11Urt an•I brlgh1, evcn ln U1e bttrll:; but li l"'"'eter ln the pith. ,\ nd be that wo1tld corne at tbe ktntd, mn.•t nr-1 brt-.k the wa. 'OJ""" ..,., l')<tl, lhat I ""'r ttt lhingo ool of t•r 1






Till? R('/R,W'R OF


.lay ~hnll the fair virgin!\ and young men fuint for thirst." ( Amo.1 viii. 11-13.) In order to undel'stnnd the true nature nnd <•haracter of divine revclation, it is essentinlly rcquisite that our rcasoning füculties shoul<l he cmploye<l, that our understanding shoulcl be clC\·ated, th11.t our hearts should he hum bled and that our lives shoul<l be purificd, for not to the self-conccited, to th~ worlclly "wieo nnd prudent," but unto "bnbcs" 011ly, cnn geuuino wi11<lom be" revenled." (~fott. xi. 2:>; Lukc x. 21.) Wc sho11ld approach the Word with rcvcrcnœ and with füith. \\'e shoulù "put our shoes from off our fcet [that i'I, <'nst ni<idc ail scnsual rcnsoniugs and ail cnrnnl suggestions], bccause the pince whcrcon wc stand is holy ground." (Ex. iii. 5.)n This surely exprc:<8CS the statc of mimi which wc ought to chcrish when we nppronch the H oly W ore! in order to profit by its sncrcd contents, Md be prcpared to mcet its Divine Author there as in the temple of his prc:<cncc,-a statc of profoun<l humiJity and fervent piety,-ncrompanicd with a d~irc to lcnrn bis will, that we mny rlo bis commnn<lmrnt~. Without nn humblr and willing clisp<Jf!ition of the soul, nnd n rrmoval of the vcil of unbrlief' from the mind, the glorics of the inncr RC'nse cnnnot be made mnnifost unto us: "Do not my word~," saith th<> J,ord; "do good to him tbat walkcth uprightly?" (~lie. ii. 7); and the apostlc Paul testifics that " The nntunù m:m receiveth not the th in~ of the Spirit of God; for they nre foolishncss unto him: n<>ithcr enn he know thcm, becnuse they nrc spiritually <liscernCfl" ( 1 Cor. ii. 14). Thus the Psalmist prnys, "J~ord, open thon mine cy<>S, that I mny behold wondrous tbings out of thy law" ( Ps. cxix. 18). While the Lord J esus says, " Search the Rcriptures; for in thrm yc think ye have ctcrnnl lifc, and they are tlit>y which tcstit'y of l\IB" ( .)ohn v. 3!1); and aftcr his glorious resurrcction we rca<l in Lukc xxiv. 43, that "tbcn opene<l Ifo the understnndings of hi.<1 disciples, that th<>y might understnnd the Rcripturci<." For, ns the illustrions Swcdenhor~ oh,<t•rv~, "It Î.'I univcrMlly confcs.,,..00 that the \\rord is from God, i11 divincly inspired, and of co~"t'IJU<'Ilce is holy; but still it has rcmnin<'d a !\eerct to this dny in whnt part of the W or<l Îtl! dh-inity 1·csi<i<·;., inasmuC'h as in the lcttcr it appcars like a common writiug, comp<l>l<'rl in a ~(range style, neithcr so sublime nor so !'loqu<>ni as that which rli~tingui~h(';; the l>e:<t :<eculnr compositions. Hcncc it is that whœoev<'r
lfTo lo<l'e th<' ""ndal•, •llpp.·,..., or •hO<."' Ea<t. Thl• I• done on <'lll<'ring a moo.quc. rrom off tht' h·t. u a mark <•f 1kf<·n:1u'<' or pegoJa., or the """'<'Il<'<· of any or an•I "'l•.'<'t, ha.• 1>re\'&ll<'fl from the Mrlk-t <lL•tinctlon.4ec l'tarodt1 Sum1114111 l'i<v. li






M a rt•pn.•to.entativc l'u ... torn, over the

M ..



\\"onahips nature in8tead of God, and in conscqucnoo of such worship make.'! himself and his own propriuni [or self-hood] the centre and fouutaiu of his thoughts, instead of deriving them out of hcavcn from the Lord, may casily fa)) into error concerning the Word, and into contcmpt for it, and say within himself while he reads it, 'What is the menning of this passage? What is the mcaning of that? Is it possihlc this should be divine? Is it possible that God, whose wisdom is infinite, should spcak in this manncr? Wncre is its sanctity, or whencc eau it be dcrived, but from superstition and credulity?' "Uut he who reasons thus, does not reflect that Jchovah the Lord, who is God of heaven and earth, spake the W ord by Moses and the prophcts, and thnt, conscqucntly, it must be divine tntth, inasmuch as what ,Jchovnh the Lord himsclf spenks eau be nothing clse; nor <lœs such it one consider that the Lord, who is the snmc with Jehovnh, spnke the W ord written by the Evangelists, man y parts from his own mouth, and the rest from the spirit of his mouth, which is the Holy Rpirit. IIenœ it is, as Ile himself declarcs, that in his words therc is lifo, and that He is the light which enlightcns, and that He is the truth. (John vi. 63; iv. 10-14; :Mark xiii. 31; Jcr. ii. 13; Zcch. xiii. 1; Rev. vii. 17.)" The divine and blessed 'Vord of the ever-living God was writtcn for the sake of spiritual usefulncss-" to perfcct the man of God, that he may be thoroughly furnished nnto a.li good works" (2 Tim. iii. 17); that it may fcrtilize the human mind, dropping upon it like the gentlc "dew" (Deut. xxxii. 2); and descending like rcfrei:hing "showers" (Isa. iv. 11), that by its mcans we may possess "eternal life; " for "by evcry word proceeding out of the mou th of Go<l doth man live" (Dcut. viii. 3; Matt. iv. 5). It was given "for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, and instruction in righteousncss" (2 Tim. iii. 16); "to convert the soul, to make wise the simple; to rejoice the henrt, to enlighten the eyes" (l's. xix. 7, 8). For a "defence" 1tgninst our spiritual eneruies (Eph. vi. 17); for our "sanctification" (.John xvii. 17); for our "regcncration" (1 Pet. i. 23); an<l, to comprise ail in one word, for our "salvation" (2 Tim. iii. 15). "Tho words of the Lord are pure words: ns sil ver trie<! in a furnace of carth, purified se\en times" (Ps. xii. G).18
""The whnle lw/y Scr11>11ire. wlth Chri•t 1Ler. or uritten N>llleni8 thereor. bclng a. U1c cv<~rywhere undcn.tood therein, oow~f.,,t~ of bodu, and U1c t]>iril, or CJui~t himself. with two r•<rt•. leUer au<l ~pl rit: e\·en a• man, for the lrnowltd~ or lruth of llhn con!Alned who<:ie-in~trucU011thcsamcwR.c;cci'·en.isC'On· thcrein, bclng n..c; the «>tll of th~ divine strncl~d of two parll!. bo<ly and tmd; the IN· bookll. Tho lntter of which is likewlsc to lJo



Now, nnless thcre be n. spiritual and heavenly me:ming in the di· vine 'Vord, distinct from, though one with, the letter, how is thi~ spiritual usefulnœs, so cssential to the welfüre of the soul, to be promote<l in an immense number of passages, such as the follo\ving :where the prophet is almost univcrsally allowed to be spcaking of the Lord's advent, and giving the indubitable sign of it, that "a virgin Fhonld conceive and bcn.r a son, and shall caJl his name lmmanuel [God with us, soo Matt. i. 23]," it is added (Isa. vii.18) :-"And it shall come to pass in that day, that the Lord shall hiss for the fly that is in the uttermost part of the rivers of Egypt, and for the bee that is in the l:i.nd of Assyria." And in the 20th ver., "In the sa.me day shall the Lord s!.ave with n razor that is hi.red, namely, by them bcyond the river, by the king of Assyria, the head and the hair of the feet; and it shall also consume the beard." "And it shall corne to pass in that day that a man shall nourish a young cow and two sheep." Also in ver. 23, "And it shall corne to pass in that day, tAat every place shall be, whcrc thcre wcre a thousand vines at n thousnnd silverlings. it shall be for briers and thoms." Or this: "In J udnh is God known; his uame is great in Israel. In Salem nlso is his t."l.bernacle, nnd his dwclling-plnce in Zion. There brake He the nrrows of the bow, the shield, and the sword, and the battle. Thou nrt more glorious and excellent than the mountains of prey. The stout-hearted are spoiled, thcy have slept their sleep: and none of the men of might have found thcir hands. At thy rebuke, 0 God of Jacob, both the chariot and horsc arc cast into a dccp slccp" (Ps. lxxvi. 1-6). Or this: "God c:i.mc from Tcman, and the Holy One from l\lount Parnn. His glory covercd the heavens, and the earth was full of his praise. And his brightncs.~ was as the Jight; He had horns coming out of his han<!: ancl thcre was the hiding of his power. l3efore Him wcnt the pc~ti­ lcncc, and burning coals went forth at his feet. He stood an<l mc.'l.'!· ured the earth: He bchcld, and drove asunder the nations; and the
e<lt'emcd so nccCl;sary to be understood wllh na! sense likc the ROUI ; nnd M the body the former, that, a.• the human body wilhnul lives by the soul, Ml the literai scnsc lives by
the toul il <featl, ~o lk ldlrr nf .'>criplur4, tttilh· oui lM 'J•irit, is drotl alw. :-;,.y, !t !sa 1.:iUfng

and con<lemnin911'0r<I onlyto lhcm that have lt. As St. Pnul expre!<.<ly snys, 'The let~ kiU· <lh, but the spirit g!veth l!fe' (2 Cor. ll!.16)." -Ilolwwa1/a utter and f<pirü, vol. i., !nt. pp.
v., vl.

"The tw<>fold scnsc of tho Worcl tx>ars a to bo<ly a.n<I soul, the litcre.J Jtrfaan{Jl'n alY'r Teligi.om• &1'1.en <ift Jaden, 1: sense lieing likc the bod)' and the inter- P. Bœr Dnmn, 18'.!2, vol.!., p. <i8.l

the Internai; the lifc or the l..ord ftowing tbrough the latter lnto the former, o.ceord· lng to the alfecUon of the person who reads lt."-{A. a 2311.) "Acoording to the opinion or the E<!senes, the sa~red Scrlpturc•. llke man,are com))Ol'Cd of body and soul; of the outward lctt.cr and the lnward spirit."-{Gurhide, Mhren, all'l



"verlasting mountains were scnttcrcd, the pcrpetual hills cli<I bow: hi~ wnys arc ercrh.~ting. I saw the tcnts of Cushnn in attlktion: and the curt.nins of the land of l\1idian did tremble. W Ill! the Lord dii;plcnsc<l against the rivers? was thinc nnger against the rivers? was thy wrnth against the sea, that thou didst ride upon thiuc horses und thy chariots of salvntion? Thy bow was quite nakcd, according to the oaths of the tribœ, cven thy word. Thou didst clenve the carth with rivcl's. The mountains saw thec, nnd thcy trcmbled: the ovcrfiowing of the water passcd by : the dccp uttcrcd his voicc, nud liftl'ci up his h:md,, on high. The suu and moon stood still in thcir habitation: at the light of thine arrows thcy wcnt, and at the shiuiug of thy glittering spcnr" (Hab. üi. 3-11). Or where the prophet says, "And it shnll corne to pass in that day,· that the light shall not be clcar nor dnrk: but it shall be ono day which shall be known to the Lord, not. do.y nor night: but it shall comc to pn.~s that at cvcning-timc it shnll be light. A1HI it shall be in that day, that living waters shall go out from .Jcrusalcm; half of thcm toward the former sea, nnd half of thcm toward the hinder sen : in summcr and in winter shall it be. And this slmll be the plngue wherewith the Lord will smite ail the people that have fought agaiust Jcrusaleru; their flesh shall consume away \v hile thcy stand upon thcir feet, and their eyes shall consume away in thcir holc~, an<l thcir tonguc shall consume away in their mouth. In that day shall there be upon the bells of the horses, IIoLINE.'iS UNTO THE L ORD; an<l the pots in the Lord's house shall be like the bowls bcforc the altar. Yen, cvcry pot in Jerusalem and in Judah shall be holiness unto the Lonn of Hosts" (Z~ch. xiv. 6, 7, 8, 12, 20, 21). "Without the spiritual (or internai) scnse,'' says Swedenborg, "it is impossible for any one to know why the prophct Jcrcmiah was comnum<led to buy himself a girdlc, and not to draw it through the waters, but to go to Euphrates, and hide it therc in a hole in the rock (Jcr. xiii. 1-7) ; or why Ezckiel the prophet was commandcd to nmkc ii razor pnss upon his head nnd upon his beard, and aftcrwar<ls to divi<le thcm, and to burn a third part in the midst of the city, and to smite a third part with the sword, and to scattcr a third part iu the wiud, and to biud a littlc of thcm in his skirta, and at last to cast thcm into the midst of the fire ( Ezek. v. 1-4) ; or why Hosea was twicc comrnanded t.o take to hirnwlf a harlot to wife ( Hos. i. 2-9; iii. 2, 3); or what is signified by ail things appcrtaining to the tabernacle: as by the ark, the mercy-scat, the chcrubim, the cnncll<>-Stick, the altar of iucense, the shew-bread ou the table, and veils anù curtaius. W'bo



would know, without the !'piritual !'cn::e, whnt is ~ignificd by Anrou's holy gnrmcnts; ns by bis coat, his clonk, the eph01l, the urim ami thummim, the mitre, nncl ~vcml thing~ bcsi<k>s? Or, without the spiritual sc1IBe, who wouill know whnt fa l!ignificd by ail thosc pnrticulm"l! which were cnjoined concerning bumt-0lforint,"· c;acrifices, mentofferings; and also concerniug Sabbaths and fcnsts? The trnth is, that nothing wns cnjoined, be it ever i;o minute, but "hnt was signili<'ativc of ~omcthing nppcrtnining to the Lord, to hcaven, and to the Church. From th~e few ini;itnnœs, thcn, it may hc plainly secn thnt t hcrc is n spiritual scn...c:oc11 in nll 1111<1 cvery part of the Wonl." (S. S. Hi.) If wc turn our attention to the prcccptive portions of the GD.~pcl:;, usually regnr<lcd as so plain and prncticnl, wc shall be surprised to lilHl how much thcrc is which could not be liternJly ohserved without brt>aking up ail kin<ls of humnn association, and 1lcstroyir.g all capacity for ut<efulnes.-<, affording indi;1putable evidcncc thnt thcy were only de!:'igncd to be spiritually u111lcrstood ancl obeycd, in "hich CMc cach cxprœ:;ion teems with "life." To instance only two or three Pfilii!:lJ..."CS from the Lonl's Sermon on the :Mount, as where hc says, " And if thy right oyc offcnd thce, pluck it out, and cast it from thee: for it is profitnblo for thec that 0 110 of tl1y members shoul<l }>Crish, nnrl uot tlmt thy wholc body shou!a be cast into bel!. And if thy right hand otfènc 1 thœ, eut it off, nn1l enst it from thce: for it is profitable for thl>e thnt one of thy membcrs should pcrisl1, and not thnt tby wholo hody i>houlcl be cast into hcll." "But l 8aY unto you, that yc rc~ist not cvil : but whosoevcr shall smite thee on thy right check, tum to him the othcr also. And if nny man will 11ue thee nt the law, nnd
""'The ~crlpturcs r<)scmble man. A• a !spiritual ml.'Rnlng be hcM together ; both man eon,f,~~ofthreeparts,-a rntlonal mlnd, arc ne<.'C,..ary r.ir lhc Jife of the "rltU-11 a o.cnsltlvc '!OUI, and a vhlt,l~ \J<>dy,-80 lhe Word. Au<l tb•lugh the lAttcr be Mn•l<lerc<I Sc-rlplllf<·' hue a threcfohl >en-e, a llU•ral u.'ually u the latent an<\ loterlor '!<!D-.e, yt·t ""11-.e, rorr~poorllng wlût lllc bo<ly; a moral lt ls onen •o obvlou• an•l !'eriplunal. that Il -..:1•"C', anAIOl!<>ll' t.o the F-Oul; an<l a mptleal srœk•, &.• lt ,,crc.' l·lbly thnmi:b the kll<·r, or •t>lritual !-<'ll'C. nnalnguus Io the r•tlonal illfLmiM/a Il. an•l gh·c- il it• dinnactu.''min•I.'' Willr'lml( IJcqi11nin9 of UIL }]Qt)l:Qf Gf!v.•u, 1•11. "'I hc llleml 1>en>e is P<'f~clH'<I by ever)· 3'2, 75. allcntlw rc·a<lcr. The moral '<'Il'<' 1, M>mc· Jt might be olijc·Ncd lljtnin•t the lruth or "hat more <llffirnlt to be dl"<'O,·crc<I. Hut the s~lcucc or ~orrc,pondcnccs tbnt, from the 1ny>tlc [or lnmO!ot] !'Cnsc none enn tif•- the apo~tollc Ume~ to tbo prœent, thc>'e who <'ovcr wllh ccrlalnty, unie«• Uwy nrc wl!'e have held that thcro I• a >piritual seu'o 111 111en, an1l nl"O tnught or 00<1."-{0rigrn, J>e the Word or llod h1wc not 11ndcrsl00<I lt. l'rrnrlpli1, llb. iv., Rom. 11., a Lri:it. opp. lom. îf., But Il may be an•\\ cr<>d, ûtat mo•t of ll1e I'· ~19) pMphcdl'fl werc h!tlil<'n !rom the proplll'U ••The llk'ral meaning," ..ya Mr. haac Wll- (liait. xlll. 1r~ 17, 3i'; an<! th&lthc di•dpl"" liam., ••for ûtc most part, b"" the bocly, llic dld not 11n<lcn-1a11d the nature of the l.ord"• oplr11ual mcanlnit as the llOUI; u the llODl ls "King1fo""" c·vrii "hile ûtcy prodaimed unlt~'<I "llh the body,.o mw.t the lllCral And !bat it ,... ·• Rcgh a.t h4nd." (Luku xxh·. 21.)



tnkc nway thy coat, Jet him Juive thy cloak also. And whowever shall compel thee to go a mile, go with him twain. Give to him thnt asketh thee, und from him th&t would borrow of thee, turn not thon nway" (Matt. v. 29, 30, 39, 40, 41, 42). Even the preceptive portions of the Roly Word, such as the Lord's Sermon on the Mount, canuot be undcrstood when viewed in their mcrcly literai scnsc. When viewed, huwever, as to thcir spiritual import, they are seen to overflow in every sentence with infinite wis:ioru, und to tcem with divine lifc. 20 llut the.::e arc the solemn declarations of the inspircd 'Vord, taken promiscuously from the sacred pages. 'Vho, I ask, can comprehcnd thcm? Who can explain their import? 'Vho can see their refercnce to rightcousncs.s, conversion, regenerntion, sanctification, and snlvation,-to promoto which they must unqucstionably have been inspire<! and writteu,-unlcss it be admitted that they have an intcnrnl anrl spiritual sense? And if this be admitted, it follows of ncoessity thnt a rule exists by which that seuse can with certainty be drawn forth; or otherwiso the 'Vord would be a mockery of human reason, and a snare to the simple heart, unworthy of infinite intelligence. Frorn the book of Gencsis to the book of Rcvelation, thousru1ds of passages are to be found equally as rnysterious and difficult to undcrstanrl in the more letter; and thcir constant occurrence in the W ord of God nt once proves the neccssity of some rational and invariable law to interpret the whole, and the probability of its existence.
to"Tbe whole Jaw of Moses ls llke to a llvlug creature, who.;c bo<ly ls the literai ocn"C; but the t<OUI, the more inward and hlddcn mcaning, covered undcr the oou.se of the Jetter."-Phllo Judœus. Prefixed, by Jlcnry More, as a motto to bis Dc/<1"1« q/
"On\jectura lbbball8tlro," or "Threefold ()W. bala, ana TripU I'llllrprctal.ùm qf t/uJ lhret fir.t Oiaplerf qf GC?i«ia, ed. 11>';3. This autlior'a T"'-atise on loonisms. ls deserlbed by Clowes "to be nothlng else but an impcrfcet sketch of the doclrine of correspondence."





X "hnt, lc>t us now nsk, docs the pcculinr divinity and sanctity of the Jloly 'Vonl con1>ist? By what argumcnli> or rcnsonings is the in1l11hitahlc certainty of ils truth to be estnbli.~hed? and how is it to hc 11bti11gui.~hed from works of human composition? Thc•e are moi;t vital nn<l momentous inquirit1<, and cannot be nn"1Wc>rc1l witliout thoughtful rcflection and lnborious rcsrurch. In thi~ "ork I cnn only prof~ to offer a fcw brief and gcncrnl remark". Happy !<hall I he, howcvcr, if the r cader i<ho•1ld be sufficiently intcrr~tc1l to follow the princ>iples which are ntlvanee<l, until it is rntion· ally l>Cl'Cl'ivcd ami ncknowlcdgcd thnt the l foly Word, throughout tlll it,.; in~pirC(l pages, toom1> with the divine "spirit," and is fillcd witl1 tht' <li,inc "life" (.John vi. 1.i3)!1 J woul!I IJCgin by ob,;erving, then, nt once, that the divinity an<! ~:ull'tity of the W ord of God consil't in its lieing nn inspired rc,·cla tion of the <livine will nnd wi~lom, from the mou th of the Lord hitn ~l·lf; and as thcse arc not nppnrcnt in the lettt'r, the W ord must contain n hc:wcnly, spiritual sense, which is, u.s it were, its brcathing, living ~oui. Thl' spirit of the"'ord is unitcd with the Icttcr, nnd pervn<le~ evcry Sl·nll'nre and expre-;;ion, just as the !!OUI is rontaint'<I in the body; nnd Il" tlw Jifc of the soul, momentnrily derh·c1l from God, dcscclllli- 11111! flm1s iuto ami animales ewry corporcal orgnn, li-0 the di\'inc Jifc of tlw Lorù flowb into the minds of humble nnd prt•pnred helie\'Cl'll, 11.~ in füith nnd with affection thl'y r end th e in~pircd pn!,"CS. T hat worl1l
., The 110'-ltlon that the plnll•c ô~.;,.o. ••v 12.-{Jlateù'rto>1't Dfr. ln"Pir., 2<l ed., n. ,., p ••••· la ""'·"r u~d of the wr1ncn Wor<l, or ~AA.) 1be ll<'velalion or the will of Gocl. rontalncd "The phra.·~ \\ ortl of <iod lm plie« that the ln th•• ""rit•lun.-<, mu:.t RJ•pear unwarrantcd 1(plcnar11y ln•pl!'l"<.I 1 !'~riplure« 81'1' !i•kl'• Lo thO'le who lmpe.rtially and carcfully ex· both ln malter and cxpr<.~>iou.~-(lbr.01t't •mine the followini:pa.'"'~: cxlx. l't<., xxx. Thœr. qf l""Pira., pp. 2,;, 42.) l'rov., .'.>; vil. Mark, 13; x. John, :i:;; lv. llcb.,






of tvoudcrs, the human frame, consi~ts of forrns in endlcss variety, cxactly corrœpornling witb priuciplcs ancl füculties of the mind whi~h mhabit it, and as ail the parts ancl portions of the nervous tissues nnd muscular fibre arc harmoniously combiued, and the minutest vesscl, the smallest artcry ancl vein, the slenderest and most delicate filament, are one and ail required to make up the perfection of the whole; and as C'ach rccdvcs its vitalized influx for the s.'\ke of somc spccific u~c­ fulncss, so each part and exprœsion of the Holy Word is the rcccptacle of an inward spirit, has its peculiar analogy, its appropriatc place, and its distinct use; and contributcs to the harmony, the completencss, the divine perfection of the whole. While, thcrefore, the letter of the Word, especia.lly in the Old Testament, appcars to treat much of natural objects and appcaranccs, the inward sense treats only of spiritual, celestial, and divine realities. The very title, "THE 'VORD OF GoD," implies a rcvelation of bis existence and nature, his boundless love and wisdom, his inljnito purposcs and thoughts, togethcr with the existence, the capaeitics, the rcsponsibility, and the destiny of the human soul, and the infüllible doctrines and truths, essentially for man in the rekttion in which ho stands to bis great Creator; and the knowledge of which, without such supernatural commnuications, it were impo1<Sible to attnin (Job xi. 7, 8). Aud if this be the real character of the Sncred Writings, they must, in cousequence, be full of iutcrior truth and goodncss ns emnnations from the divine mind, yet ndaptcd to the comprehcnsion of men on carth. The Apostlc Paul, thcrcforc, declarcs, "Ail 8cripture is given by inspiration of God; " 21 or, as the
,. .. The Yerb 'V.,' whlch conslltutes the wbole affirmation, ls deficlent ln the origi· nal Gr<.-ek, a11d ls appllcd by t.he En.~lish transla.tors a~ an Index to thelr lntcrr>reta· tio11 of the pnllAAge. The sentence undonbt· edly requlres a vcrbsomtwltcrc, but the place of li. Insertion depcnds upon the judgmcnt of the trnn•lator. In the rœelved version tt •IAnds ln the ftn<t clau11e:-• Ail !'crlpture is gh en by in•piration of God, etc.' Bax ter, Grotlu•, Rcbleumcr. and othcrs. render the pa."'9.ge thm: •Ail S<'rlpture glven by ln•pl· ration of Ood. ls al•o profitable, etc.' The original, I thlnk, wlll admit, without vlolent'<', of either rendcring, though lncllned my><:lf to regard the common version as more concordtillt to the Ureek ldlom than the other. But evcn thus tran<IBte<l, t11e Uu:o1mruM11 ONcribcd to the nll,' or cvcry ' ><crlpturc.' dws not in lli,clf dcfine the

deqrceof the lnsplrallonaffirmed. That portion of the ~crlptnrewhlch ls Justly dcnominntcd the lrord q/ God i• u3e11lial dhi7tity iûrelf-a ''~rbal embodlment of the clemal tndh whlcb forms n con..Umcnt part of the Divine nature. Wh lie, therefore, we recognize n gencral th~ly, or <!it•it1e brealhinu, ascrlbed bi• l'au! to all tbe books constltutlng the Old Testament Scripturcs, we stlll regard thls as somcUling h1compa· rably lowcr than that plniary dhine amattlll undcr which the ll'ord, strlctly &i called, was writtcn.'"-.l'rqf. Bmh's Rl'plyto Dr. Woods, pp. 31, 32. "F.vcry writing divincly in"J>lred [is] also profitat.lc for lnstru~tion, for conviction [of error]. Cor recovcry [to 1hat which is rlght], for training up in rlghl<.'OmncS11." .. The
vencrab1e Syrlac vcr.-ion, wbo..""C antiquity



i• almo.t, If not <1uite. Apostolic, rcads •For


<.:rruk tcrm 6101fm~i'oS hns bccn nptly and emphntically trnn..lnted, "God-brenthccl," or God-inspir<..'<I, or divinely in11pircd (2 Tim. iii. Hi, 17), that is, full of the Divine Spirit an<l the Divine lifl',-" AH H('ripturc di\'Î1wly inspircd of Go<\ is profitable for doctrine, for re· proof, for corrt•ction, for iul'tructiou in righteousncss, that the mnn of G0<l may be prrfcct, thoronghly fu rnished unto nll good works." And the A p~tlc Prter imys, " K nm\ ing this first, th nt no prophecy of !-'('ripturc i:< [or cometh] of nny private intcrprctntiou. .F or the prophl'l'Y cnml' not in old timo hy the will of man ; but holy men of ( :od spakr ns they wcre moved [t•pof< m•., borne nwny, cnrricd out of thrm:>eln>s] hy the H oly Spirit" (2 Pet. i. 21); or, ns Dean Al forci rl'll'1Prs it, " h:ul utternncc from God, being mon. -d by the Iloly ~pirit." ,Jo;:cph11:;, the Jcwish historian, spenking of the plcnnrily in~piml books of the Old TCl!tnmcnt, add~, that tbey wcre written a('('ordiug to nnvs1'ui, or tho im1pirntion that cornes froru God ; and l'hilo, n contl•m1x11·ary Jcwish phil<~opher, cnlls the P.criptÛrc t•o.ts•fi' orac·le:-, tbat j,. to lift)", ornclcs givcn under the immediate agcncy nnd dict:itinu of CTod. Tlw idl•m1 of llll'll nnd nngcls naturolly emOOdy themselvcs in suitnhlc somul~ nrnl expressions-the toncs express the scnsibilities of the will, nnd the wor<ls rcrnal the ù1oughts of the intellect. In this we nrc imagt>s of Oocl, wh~<>c voice hns spokcn in nu<lible terms from uu.,.t aucicut tirul~, 11S an intrlligible dictatc,-wbo wrote on stoue tnhlcts the l>ccaloguc, or " tcn words,"--and commamlcd and in~pireJ ~1·1•rs and proplwts what to spcnk nnrl what to writo. 'Vhat arc words hnt syrubols of id('w-1, Lietwccn which there is the closcst corrcspomll'll<'l' aud the mœt iutimntc depcn<lcucc; an<l as without man's words
t'\l'f)" "rilini: whtc-11 hM bccn written br the "plrlt 1, valunhlo for ln!'tructlou,' etc. The Yull('t!C couftnnR thls lnterpn:tatlon :' 1)111111>, >nlptura <llvlnltus lnsplrata, ulllls <"l ail doc:en<lum,' Nc."-(Dr. J>. J:i111itl1'1 " T< <lim. w IM JJ<s~lah," vol. l., p. 27.) Dr. A. Clarke t.rat1'1al<"I tlils ptlSS&ge M foJ. Io\\•. and IA ~upport<.'11 by the l>c!<t auU10rl· Il~ "The p&rtidc .., (nn<l)," hc i;ays, "fs nmltte<l hy almll>t all the ,.er<lon•, and by many or the F'ather<, and ccrtainly do<."I not !\KI"('(' wrll "lth the tcxt." "Ali ~cripture gh·en by Inspiration or (;o<J, ls profitable for <loctrlnc," ctc.-(<bmmmt. '" 1-0c.) IJr. Wardlaw ha~ rcndcred lt th us:" F!\'Cry •lhlnely inspircd "rlllng i~ profitable for ln,tructlon, comtcllon, rcformallon, and NllaltlOD in rti:htroUMlœ.." And ad(] ..

that "tbc 11...i thln1t amrmcd ln lhe-<c words ls the plcnary ln~p!ratlon of U1c Old Teo-ta· ment &."1'1ptur<"!."-{hllrod. Il> Bi•lv!JI Jlu/J'1 Qmtempl., pp. xll., xlll.) Profes.'IOr Rtuart rcnders the fln;t cli111se, "l>'\'ery Scrlpt111'6 ln•pired of God," or "God lnsplritcd."-(Q1110ll. p. 36!.) Tl has al!'O ~n tran•lated by olllcl'I', "Ali !'crlpture dl•lncly ln•plred of God." And, "Every God·brt'&thcd wrillnit.'' "Thcop. ncustos" hM been construed b)' l!l>me wltb an acth·e slgnlflcatlon. of which Il appcars to be susecptlhl<'. lt i. t.ben ren<lercd, "dito/ml11·~oJhlng;" 1md Il ls understood r.o cxpreM the fact that the in"Plrcd Word ls full of God; that through lt a.s & medium, God bttathC8 forth, or communll'aWI, ln humon lani:uage, WJ wlll lllld "iadom IO mauklncL



we cnnnot comprehenrl his human and finitc ideas, 80 without God's words we cannot understnnd his infinite and divine idens. The very l.anguage, then, of the W ord of God, if indeed He be the Author, must be inspired as well as the idea8. The words of a man eontain only his finite thought and intelligenr.e; and by hearing or rcading them, and attcnding to the sense they are designed to convey, we become more or Jess acquainted with the prevsiling sentiments of a finite mind ; but the W ord of God has an I NFINITE BErno for its author, and eternal purposcs to serve; for thus saith the Lord, " My thoughts arc not your thoughts, neither are your ways my ways. For as the heavens are higher than the earth, 80 are my ways higher than your ways, and my thoughts than your thoughts" (Isa. lv. 8, 9). Yea, He bas moroover solemnly declarcd, that "Hrs NAME is cnlled TuE WonD OF GoD" (Rev. xix. 13).'" Whatever, then, may be the appearance of the letter, or the sur· face of the outward covering, the Roly W ord must be designcd to accommodate and convey to man, as far as possible, in a way preciscly adapte<l to the condition and circumstances of his roind, in ail ages, the infinite truth, the perfect intelligence, the unbounded love, and the unchangeable goodness,-or, in other words, thè divine will and wisdom-of the Supreme Being, of whieh it must be the rich depœitory. Thus, Divine Revelation could nevcr bedesigned to instruct us in rnere human history or physical science, in the laws of astron· omy or the facts of gcology, in the elementary constitution of the earth or the political events of empires,-for we acquire al! this kinl of knowledge in an extemal way, by the exorcise of the outward senses, and without the aid of spccial inspiration: but must have bccn designed to instruct man in the subjects and objects of gcnuine religion,-in spiritual and celestial, yea, divine, wisdom,-iu the holy opcrations of repentance and conversion, of charity and füith, of rightcousness and truth; th us, in our duty towards God and our duty towarcls our ncighbor, our regencration and final salvation. Th~ must have been the objects of Divine Revelation,-t.he only objects worthy of an all-wise ani:l benovolent Deity. Without such an inspirerl revelation, thus rnercifully adapted to his states and necessitics, man could never have known anything conceming his soul, or
.... Among the numerous passageii or the 1 word could be subslitul.ed for lt wllhout New Testament ln whlch the phmse, the a manlfCl!I abourdlty."-:lllirlll><IU'a C/w.rgt, mmt of God occurs, there ls not one ln 11!63, p. 105. wbich li signifies the Dlblo,or ln whlch lhat


his eternal lifo, or evcn of the exi~tcnre of God, still lC'lS eould he have kuown anythiug of religion, which is the love of God ahovc ni: things ami his ueighbor as l1imsclf, nud oil which rcvealc<l comnmnds it is 1lcclared by the Lord hirmolf, "hnug all the l:i.w and the prophets" (Matt. xxii. 37-40); or oil which depend all the unspeakahle blessings of salvation. Tha.t the "'ord of God, howe\•er, colltains faithful historienl rdations, records which arc litcrnlly truc, prophecies which have heC11 pcrmittcd to ha,re a gcncral accomplishmcut even in the world, and relates true miracles, that an cxternnl reverence for its contents, apn.r t from superstition, might be thereby pos.sessed nmong the most se11su11l of the humnn race, is frecly and fully accorde<l. But this, great as are the objccts attained, is wholly insufficient to prove that it is a seriea of books dictated by the immediatc inspiration of God. "'Vl10 does not see," says the Rev. S. Noble, in au admirnbly sustnined argument on this subject, "that the differcncc bctween com positions that are rcally the W ord of God and the compositions of' men must be as great as bctween the works of God and the works of men? Aud wherein does the latter differeuce most remarkably consist? Is it not in the int.erior organization which the works of God posse.ss, beyond what appean> in their outward form? Wheu we look at a picture or a statue, which are among the most exquisite productions of human ingenuity, after we have seen the surface, we have secn the whole: and although there are pieœs of cur:ious mechanism, which conta.in a complication of parts within their out;:i<le case, this only cnrrics us one ;;tep farthcr: when we look nt nny of the parts, we soc the wholc :-the interior texture of the material of which they are compos<,>d not heing the work of the human artist, but of the Dh·ine Creator. 'Vhercas, when we look nt any of the works of his omnipotent hand, beautiful and exact as they are in their outward form, still, the most beautiful and wonderful parts of thcm arc within. Some of thcse hiddcn won<lers arc discovernhle to the diligent inqu i rcr by mcans of dissections and by the aid of glas.-;cs: but whcn the most ingenious invcstigator has extende<l his rcsearches into the intcrior co11Strnction of any nntural production to the utmO!it limits that human mcnns can conduct him, he must, if ho is a wi~c man, be couvince<l, that what he has thus discovered, is, aftcr all, but gencral and snperficial, compared with the greatcr wondcrs which still lic conrcalcd within. The most expert anntomiHt ncver, for instance, rcnchccl the l!Cat of the soul.-still l();'S the principle of consciousncss auù lift



of which the son! it.~lf is roercly the organ; al! which, and even the matcrial fonns which are their first envelo~, still lie beyond the most subtile forms that the gross observation of the senses can discover. The îarthcr, however, the observation of the senses can extcnd, the grcnter nre the wonders which appenr. Just so it is with the Word of God ; and so it must be, if it hns in reality God for its Author. To suppose the literai sense of the W ord of God to be ail thnt it contains, bccnnse nothing more is obvious to a superficial inspection, is just ns rensonahle ns to nffirm thnt the humnn body consists of nothing bu.t skin, bccause this is al! thnt meets the unnssisted eye: hut nB the researehes of anatomists have nssured us that within the skin which covers our frame there are innumerable forms of use and bcnuty, each of which consists again of innumernble vesscls and fibres; whilst, afier science has carried her discoveries to the utmost, the principle thnt imparts life to the whole still eludes the senrch : !'O the letter of the IIoly Word, which mny be l'egarded as it.~ skin, includes witbin it innumerable spiritual truths, adnptcd in some meosure to the npprcbension of spiritually-minded men, but more completely to the intellects of purely spiritual beings; whilst the Essential Divine Wisdom, which gives life to the whole, is beyond the comprehcnsion of the highest finitc intelligence, and cnn only be known to its Infinite Original. And such must be the charncter of the whole of tl10 Word of God, ns well of those' passages which afford a clenr instructive scnse in the letter as of those which do not: for the Word of God, to be truly so, must be like itself throughout, and must everywl1ere be composed upon one uniform principle. Evcry mind that reffects. dceply upon the subject, will, 1 run persuaded, see, that to deny the Roly 'Vord to possess such contents as we have described, is cquivalent to denying it to have God for its Author."-Plenary In$piration of the Scriptures Asserted, &c., pp. 63-8. 1 take the present opportuuity of strongly rccomrnending tbis able work to the reader.''
""The •plr!tual ~enl!C of the 1"'alm11," saya Bi•hop llorne, "ls and must be pcculiar to the &!rlptures; be<'ause orthose persous and trnuo;actions only, whleh are there men· tlon<'<I and recordoo, can it be aftlrmed for C<:rblln tbat tbcyweredeslgnoo to be Ogurn· tlw. And N>ould any one attempt to apply the narrative of Alexander's cxpedltion, by Qulntus Curtfus, or the commentarics of Cn:sar, as the New Testament wrltcrs have done, nud tAught us to do to the hlotor!esof Ui~ Old, be would fini! hlm"Clf unable to ~roœeù threc &lcps with consistency and proprlety. The argument, therefore, whlch would Infer the absurdlty of supposlng the Seriptures to bave a spiritual sense, trom the absurdity of supposlng hlstory or pociru merely human to have lt, l' lnconclush·e; the sacred writings diffcr!ng, ln this respect, trom &li otber wr!tlngs ln the world, as muchasthenntureofthetran•actlonswhlch they relate, dlll'ers from thAt of ali othcr transactions; and the Author who relate• them dlffersfrom ail otherauthore."-Cbmm. on IM l'llalms, pref., p. xvi.


"JTfrom is universally eonfesse<l," says Swedenborg," that the 'Vord is Gorl, is divinely inspired, and of conscquence holy; but
still it hns remninerl a secret to this rlay in what part of the W ord ifs clivinity rcsides, inasmuch ns in the letter it appears like a common writing, composed in a strange style, neither so sublime, nor so elegant, nor so lucid ns that which distinguishes the best secular compo· sitions. H cnce it is, that whosoever worships nature insten<l of God, or in preferencc to God, and in consequencc of such worship makcs himself and his own proprium [or selfhood] the centre and fountain of his thonghts, instead of d!Jriving them out of heavcn from the Lord, mn.y easily fall into error conccrning the W ord, or into contempt for it, and say within himsclf, as hc rends it, ·what is the mcaning of this pn!<sngc? What is the meaning of that? Is it possible this should be divine? Is it possible that God, whose wisdom is infini te, shonld speak in this manncr? Where is its sanctity, or whence ean it be derivccl, but from superstition and crcclulity? with other suggestions of a similnr nature. "But he who reasons thus 1locs not reflect that .Jchovnh the I..ord, who is God of heaven and earth, spake the W or<l by .Moses and the prophets, and that eonsequently it must be divine truth, inasmuch ns what .Jehovah hirnself spenks can be nothing elsc; nor <loœ such an one con~i<ler thnt the Lord, who is the same with Jehovah, spake the wortl written by the Evangclist11,-many parts from his own mout.h, and the rest from the Spirit of his mouth, which is the Holy Spirit. Henee it is He himself declares, that in his wortls there is lifc, nnd that He is thnt light which cnlightcns, nntl that He is the tru(.h, The natural mnn, howevcr, cannot still be persuadecl to helieve that th .. Word is divine truth itself, in which is divine wisdom and divine Jife, 88



inasrnuch ns he judges of it by its style, in which no such things appcar. "Neverthclœs, the style in which the W ord is written is a divine style, with which no other style, howevcr sublime and excellent it may seern, is at nll comparable; for it is as darkncss comparcd to light. The style of the Word is of such a nature as to contnin whnt is holy in every verse, in every word, and in some cases in C\·ery lctter; and hence the 'V ord conjoins mnn with the ÎA>rd, and opens heavcn. There are two things which proceed from the Lor<l,-divine love and divine wisdom, or, what is the same thiug, divine good and divine truth: for divine good is of divine love itsclf, nn<l divine truth i:s of the divine wisdom: and the Won! in its essence is both of thcse; and inasmuch as it conjoins man with the Lord, and opens heavcn, as just obscrved, therefore the \Vord fills the mnn who rends it, undcr the Lord's influence Md not under the influence of proprium or self, with the good of love and the truth of wisclom,-his will with the good of love, and his nnderstanding with the truth of wisdom. "Hence man hns life by and through the W ord. Lest, therefore, mnnkin<l should rernain any longer in doubt conccming the ])idnity of the 'Vor<l, the internai seuse thereof is revcaled, which in its cSl!Cnce is spiritu:LI, and which is to the external sense, which is nntural, whnt the soul is to the body. This internai sensc is the Spirit which gh·es life to the lcttcr; wherefore this sensc will cvincc the divinity and sanctity of the 'Vord, and rnay convincc evcn the nntural man, if he is willing to be convinced."-S. S. 1-4 ; A. E. 1065. I1l'the New Church, then, and for the bcncfit of nll who are willing to rcœive the truth, it has been disclosed,-und the discovery is the rnœt important that bas takcn place sincc the completion of the New Testament, that the Holy Wor<I is ~o written, thnt ench expression corresponds to some distinct spiritual idea, that is, an idca which relates to the J,ord, the spiritual world, nnd the human mimi ; to goodnœs, truth, nnd their activities, or to love, wisdoru, n.nd Jifc. Now these spiritual idcns, togcthcr with thosc of the lettcr, arc ~hown to be so wonderfully connected as to form one pcrfect unbrokcn chnin of cternal truth from first to Jast,-one grnrnl series of hc:wcnly particulnrs, which constitutes the internai and external, or the spiritual and literai senscs of the 'Vord of God. The laws which thus unfold the true character of the Sncred Oracles are dcnominated laws of corrcspondenœ. This term is derived from <'Oil, re, and spo11deo, meaning radically i-0 m1S111er wit/1, or to agree, dcnoting, in the ~cnse in which



it Ï!I 11$('(1 in the New Chnrch, the rceiprocnl relntion of ohje<'I~ in highcr und lowcr degrœs,-n mntunl union of the internai \\ith the cxtenrnl,-thc lrnrmony of snl>Stnnrc nml form,-the concord of cause and effort. .From this definition it nmy be perrehed that the ~eienre of eorre:;pondcnccs is not, ns some have rnshly n~scrted, n mere clewr invention, an arbitrnry device, nn imnginnry thcory, a fnneiful eoneeit,-hut thnt it is a systcmn.tic, uniform, nnd certain rulc of intcrpr<'tntion, foundcd upon the nature, qunlities, and u~cs of nll tcrrcstrinl ohjcct.<1, n11d ail the phcnomenn. of life.'$ Th<.'Se hnvc one and nll t hr mo~t rxnc:t eorrœpondcncc with eternnl rcalitics and mental O Jl<'rntioni~, for natnrnl objects and truths nrc the rnirrors in which spiritunl ~uhjects nnd infinite wisdom nre reflectcd.• Ifonce, man has bœi.
•The want (If a •trlet rule of interprctAtlon, for whlrh the world was at that tlmc ~ IO!&lly unprepared, ls tbus acknowledged by Au~'tlne, "where he lays down the prlnclple v.hlch gulded h1m in the inveo.li· galion of hMorlc41 t)'Jl(S." [Tract for the TimtA, lxxxlx •• p. 38.] "Thelle secrets of Divine l'crlpture we INJce O'Ut iu 1« ma11. <me mnrr or ltM a1•ttv thon another, but a• beeomes falt.hful m1•n, holding thu• much for certain; lhat not wlthout >omc klnd of foreshllllowlng of fut.ure c,·cnts, wcrc these t.hln!;$ doue and recorde<! fin the Word]; and that to Chrht. only, and hls Churcb, the City of <'.od, arc the)' t.o be referred iu C\"cry lnstanC'C.''-D<' ('ir. Dti, xvl. 2. Jly the Science of Corresponilcnc<'•, howcver, ail distrust an'1 unccr1&lnt.y arc n·mo,·ed. "The ..evcrc ~hoolcs>h&ll never lauith me out or the phllo..opby of Hermes, th4t thls vl&lble \\Orld f, but a pirlure of tbe ID\'l'<l· ble. "hercln, a.• ln a pourtrait, tbings are not truly, but ln equiYoœl shapes, and as they countt'rfelt »Orne more real subolt.ance ln thet. inYMhle Fabrick." -Sut TuoXA.S BnOWNE. Ob. A. D. 1682. llllllon say•, "\\"hat if eart.b Be but. the shadow of h co.v'n; and thlngs t.h•rcln llal'h to other llke, more than 011 cart.h ls lhought." J'or(ldt.e Lu.t, book v ., lin es 574-6. A ~lmllnr ldea ls thU• expresse<\ by Barrow : "\\'hat we lie<' lu a lowrr <kgrn tKrme· tthtrt tu u!ot, doth prob&bly othcnrt.< aW in 11 hlg/irr dlf)T•'·"-11\Jru, \'Ol. iY., p. 170. "The Platonb~,'' '<a)'S ArebbWiop Lelgh1.. n," dl vide the worlol lut.o Iwo, the ocn•llJlc and lntellectu&l worhl . 1bey lmai:lne the one Ill hl• the ty~ of the othcr, and tha1 ""noJblc an1l Mplritual tbln~'l! arc sta101>cd, as lt "ere, wlth the i.au1c ~11\Jnp. 'l'bcse 1>cutlmeni.s are not unllke the notions whirh the mllstel"< or Ille C'aballetleal doctrme llffiQng the Jews hcld eon~cmlng God's ~EPmnoTn and 'Y.AL,\\ herev. lth, aœordlng 10 tbcm , a:J the worlds, and e\·er)'lhlng lu t.bcm. are st.ampt'<l or >eale<l; and the-e are probl\hly near l\khi to wbot Lord Bacon calls hl• '1mrra/tllà alqnirola :' and lj/mboli:antc• .ehl'l!la· lirnu. ,\ccordlng 10 t.hls hypothei.tl!, thc.c pambles, whlrJ\ are ollcn t.aken from n()./111'al 111111os 10 lllu8trale tiUCh a.~ aret11v!1te, wlll not. be •m11htud1'• lakcn entirctv al p~re, but are oRell in 1\ grcat. mca>Ure /OU7t<lt(l ill nature, and the t.hlng'I themselves." - Leigl1W11'1 ll'or.h, vol. lv .• p. 1:.6. •" }'igurœ t.aken rrom natural tblngs and ncUons are lnll'Oduced lnto the \\'on! of God Io expreio. divine tblngs and action~. ln •uch a manner, tbat, hy looking llflOll one, we may, "" Il were ln a picturc, bchold t.he othcr."-/l<>11trl'1 11utuut. T/lt«"'J., ne., pari 2.. '' lt. ls not. a lltUe remartable that, aceomlng t.o l'rC"o<:Ott., the Pcru,·ian Mythology, bcfore the conqu c;,t, was • not uollke that of ll lndo•t.an.' •They adopted &l!SO a notlou,' •ay• he, • not. unllkct.hat profci;.<cd bpomeof tho•chool~ or anclcnt. pblloROphy, that.cveryth i11K on eo.rth had lts archctnie or ldca, il,a 1111>1/ter, llJ> thcy cu1~bat.1cally stylo<! lt. whlrh the)· hcld "'1<:red,as Io oome sort its >pl ri tuai >. 37. e>..cncc.' "-amq. 'Q J>o-u, vol. !., 1 "Bacon bath wli.ely obscrved, 1hat the "ork• of Ciod mlnistcr" slngular help a11d pre,cr\'atlvc 11tah1•1 uubelkf anll crror: our "•vlour, as he o,nlth, bavlng laid before u• t\\O book• or \'Olumco- to •tlul)'; ftl'>t, th< ,'<-,ij>lurn, rewalinl( the wUI of Ge..!, and thcn the rttalu,..., cxpfCf">lnJ? hb Jl<>\\Cr wh~rt.if the /a'11r I• n kty unto lu /ur1N<-r."/J1U"f>n'• Afll', of l.Mnii11g. b. 1.

8uch wn -

the )>let.y and penctraUvn of Uib grc11t 11141~

/1',<; LA lfS STA 1'ED AND Cr>NFIRMEn.


emphatically <'nllCfl by the nncicnts a rn~.,,11, or little world, ami conhidcrc1l ns an epitome of the 11UU"roco.m1, or grcnt uni verse ;n nnd ns the lowcr or nntural region of the 1nin1l is thus the world in its lcru!t effigy, !<a the superior or spiritual regiou of the mind is a heaven iu it& len.st cffigy, on which account man may also be called a inicrouranos, or litùe hcnvcn (T. C. R. 604). And a fragment of the very earliest philœophy which bas bcen hnnded down to us, nttributed to IIcrmœ TrismegiRtus (t he Greek name for Thoth, the personification of Egyp· tinn wii:;dom), nffir~1s, that "therc is nothing in the hcnvens which i~ not in the earth in an earthly form; nnrl thcrc is nothing on the earth which is not in the heavens in n heavenly form.".. For as the inde6nite particulars of whicb the univcrse is compœ«l
•For 11 wlJI be rllund true, lhat the lnvl&I· orlglo&Uog 1he cxl•tence, as well 11S main· ble tblnga or <'.OO, that is, the thlngs con· 1&loln~ lhe order and hannouy,ofthe na111cernlng Ili• Delme and bis Power, and the ral UDl\'erl'C." economy or hla ~plrttual klngdom, wblch •·The unh·cr!le I• but &gre&t tnirror of ùio arc tht ohJccu of our falth, are clearly «m mlnd ot m1.n. -Gi~lüin'1 Lit. Port., p. 8. /rom Il~ l"fflll/01t q/ IM tt'Of'ld. and undastood ·· Now thls euthly world which we do occ />JI Ille lhlng• thm o~ mcult."-JonCll'• Smnol• i• an exact plcture aud patte.ru of the >plr· on IM Na/. El:id. q/ Cltristianily, preached 1787. ltual, heavenly world which we do not ""r. "There w1.11 an opinion (1 8hould rather As ~olomon sa.ys ln the Pr<>vcrbR, • 1'hc cati Il a tracllllon) among ROme heatben thlng11 whlch are secn are the double.• or phllooophcra that the world ls a parnble, the thlngs whlch are not soon.' "-Ki11gdU:y°1 the llleral or bodlly part of whlch ls man!· r111a11e Strmo1'8, p. 187, fe!<t .IO &Il men, whlle the lnward meao,. .. Thlug<1 lnvi.tblo to the carnal eye arc lng '" hlddcn, a. the soul in the body, clearly scen by the enllghtcned eye of~be the moral ln the fable, or the lnterpretatlon mh11l-belng undeNtood by the llvely and ln the p&r&blc." "We m&y caJI the world a sen>lble dC""rlptlon or them 111 the 1blu~ f1.hle, or parable; ln whlch thcre is an out· that are made. The materll\l worltl and lt' ward appeannce of v!ilble lhlngs. with an objecta are plc1u~ or s!milllude-. lu ..,me lnward tten..,, w h!ch ls hldden as the soul vlew or 01hcr, of the acling<> or God ln the under the body."~ Peri ~cap. gplrltu&l world. t:pon Lhb plan the l!\'efy 8. Jona'e Ltt. on IM J'ig. Lmlg. of Scrip.• p. Ort.<'lœ of 1ruth appcu to ha,·e been wrlt· 70. 1co."-Ser~1 /lor. SolU., p. L'l7. n Philo >&)'11 that "man ls a llltle world, "The wholo or the vh<lblc creat!oo is but and that the world IA one i::rcu man;" and tho ouUlde or a va«l magoiflcent holll!e or Orlg\'n call• man "Jlinomn Jlundum. a Ml· temple, wh080 ln•lde I• hco-en, or the ftn· croro1ome."-/l. Mort'• C011j. Chb., Dcfence of, gellc k!ngdom; awl thl• again is but the p. 200. oui.Ide of & templo or house still more \'O•l "Out ofall bclng• known IO u.•,man !s the and magn!Hcent, whose inslde ls JOl!\u• m<Jtit clcvatc<I; u ln hls form, at the samo Chrl•I, the only living and eternal Lord our tlmc one 1.nd complcx, he eontains ail ln· God.''-Clnwd M/l!l'tU. Thoo9ht., p. 53. r~rlor P:<ihten<'a!.''-Abbt De LamrnMi3, Eqti"That the tcat•hlng of Nature ls oymboll· illl!(' D'u1u: PhlJONJphlf, vol.!., p. 409. Set Jlor- cal, none, wc thluk, can deoy."-Nroü and t/1'1 llill. of JJ<Jd. PAilOf., 2d oo., vol., li. p. 297. ll"dl/J'1 1111rod. Eu. to Dunl11dua on Svml>., p. "Properly undcn.tood, cartùly sub6tances xlv. &re the tYIX'"• l"Cp~ntatlve' and shadows "l'bUoeophy, fable, poe1ry, and the m<1<'t of heavcnly thlnl!".''-Dr. A .ClarU• ani.mne- j reftned me1&phy<I"' have not been &ble to tarr, vol.\'., f'· M.2. form &n hlca of lhe uulver.e whleh sur· "Dnl-. ln hlo UiolfWV q/ lllt O.lnae, tells round• u., wlthuut at the sa1oe tlme lm&i;· us tb&t the <'hln<"<' phys!<1logi•L• expn"~ly lnloic another uuh·ez-,e of wWch th ils !s the r&ll mau a llUlr u•lttTM", or ml('ro('()6Ill: to !m*"-e.''-Rl~htr'• TA Nour. Jeru;J. on Clnnwhlrh lhcy extend the du&l princlple, "" '1JOll., vol. 1., 2d part, p. a.'>5.





m~st have brui a divine origin, so they must ail henr nnn1ogics to cnch '>ther, and reflect infinite intelligence and goodness: thcy must, thereforc, of necessity be iuvested with a moral, n spiritual, yca, n <liviue significance, the visible ohjects of the outwnrd world exactly correspouding with invisible realities in the world within, and these ng:1i11 to the iniinite principlcs in the divine mind, as their secondary and primary cause of existence and subsistence.29 Ail this is in exact
,. Jlctwecn the work of ercatfon and prcscrvat!on on the one band, and that or re· demptlon (ami the authorinlghlhave ad<!ed also. mo.•t truly, thnt of regcncr&lion]on the othcr, there sœms IO be a great analogy; a.• the sacred wrltcr!< frequenUy borrow images from one Io c:xplnln the other. 'The invlsl· bic Uiings or God from the creation of the world arc clearly sœn.' Thlngs \'lslble do not only prove the dfotne pml!C1' aud G<><.1hcad,-the existence and glorlous perfections or God,-but thcy also serve as a mirror to represcnt U\e Invisible thing$ or Go<!. And bctwœn U\cse two rcprewntstlves thcrc ls such a rorrcspondenœ, that an attentive view or thh1g• nnturo.I an<I tcm1>0ral mny hclp us t.o rorm better conceptions of thlng11 spiritual and eternal. .. . Will\out thls erfe<·t, philœ<)phy ls hut a ''ain amusement. But whcn things vL•ible corrcspond to whai ls re\'ealed in the Scrlpturcs con~-ernfng the lnvi•iblc thini(l! of Ood. lllld U\cse corre~punclcnœs are traœd under the gniclanœ of the wrlttcn Word, these Iwo grcat books [erentlon and Hevelatfon] help to cxplaln cnch other."-()ifmoloV!/: Pub. al lJaJ.11, 1791. 'l'om. lv., J>. 1ro. "The worl<I ls ccrt&inly agrcat and ststcly volum(I of natuml thlngs, and may not lmproperl)• be •tyled the hieroglyphirs or a hctt<'r.''-Fr1d!t tif &llitudc, p. 3. "Natnre ls a book writtcn on hoth sld('s, witbin and \\lthouC., ln whlch the linger or God is distlnctly visible; a spœlcs of Holy Wrlt ln n bo<llly form: a glorlons pan<'gyric on<:0<1'x omnipotence exp~ed in the most visible S)'mhol•.''-Sl'HLEGEI.. ln the bftok of l'ohar, a slmllnr •entence Oc"'CU ~: .. </11otlru11qtl1' in lcn'1l est, id f liant. in Ctrlti cN., et uulla rca l<im uigua eli. in ..Utotdo, q111r mm alîi 8iutiti, (Jtt11! in Cielo Cici, CQrrU]JQ11dtal.."

bic to U\elr outwPAcl senscs, to cllscern O.fül dlseover anolher 11'1',·isiblc nat.ure uuder Il.'' -Jul. Oral., iv., p. H><. l'ite<:l byOuduwth, Intel. Syst., vol. li., p. 2f.0. " l'lato, ln hls 'l'tmœus, ce.Ils the world 'a made.> or ereatcd Image of tbe cternal gods.' lly whlch etcrnal gods hc there doubtlc><S meant that • fi""t,' and' second,' and' U1ird,' whlch, in hls second eplstle Io Dionysius, he makes to be uncreated prlnciples or ail U1lngs; that ls, his trinity, by whose 0011current ef!lcleney and Provl<lenoe. and accordlng to whose image and llkencss, the wholc was made, as o. grnud chain of rcsultlng effeeL~.''-SCe Cudworth'e Intel. Sylll.., vol. il., p. 367. ·'The world may well be ealled an image; lt dcpcudlng upou that 11hovc (as a11 Image ln a glass]. whirh is threcfold."-Ploti11us, ciltd l>y Oudworlh, vol. Il., p. 31~. "Empc<locles held, oceording to llle Pythagol'\'an doctrine, tbat thcrc are two worlds, U1e one iutellcetual, the other sensible: the former heing the modcl or archetypc of the latter." (25 E:xod .. 40.J-~c Simpllei fn Pl>y8iJ:. Ar#t., also P!ut. tU Placitia Hiil., b. 1, e. 20. "The •rmholic Jo.nguage of the prophets ls almost a seienœ of iL«elf. None cnn fUlly oomprehcnd the depth, subllrulty. and fort.-e ofthclr wrltings who arc not thoroughly nequnlnted with the pcculiar and appropl'ltlt.e lmai,>Cry they wcre accustomed to usc.''Btsuor VAS M1LJJF.1tT. "The visible world U\roughout ls a pall<>rn or the hwbiblc."-Jonel'• ûtl. ùl• Uic Fiu. J,tmg. qf &>rip., p. 34. " \\'hen the mnkcr of the world bcromc• an Author, h ls word Ulust be ns 1wrl\.~·t "''
his work."-Jmtts'a fA:rturt:$ on /.M. Pigutufi.t•e Lang. of llt.e Jloly &rip., p. 1.

"Ali thing'! in nature are prophclie outline• or divine opcrations, God not mercly tptakin(I iJ4lrables, but tlomg them.''-TmTl'LL.tAN; De Unrur., <-. 12. "Julhtn, ln nu orntlon, cxprœscs hlmself

•·Ir <lod 1nadc this world the partlfnlar kind or world whlch hc is found to ha"c made lt. in onler thnt lt might in duc timo prcn!'h t.o manklnd abc1uthlmsclf,and 1tbo11t h ls provhlcnœ :-1 f lie oontrl\'cd bcforchand the germination of 'lCC<ls, the gruwlh or th us:• Not ''i('lw and t~1nlcmplA.tc the hcuvC'n plantl<, the annloglcs of animal llfe,-all, and worl<l with the >:am<· cyc.,, thnt oxcn and cvldcnUy, ln <>rdcr lhnt they might furnish borscs do, buti;o as fruru that whifh ls visi- mu,tratious vf hls lcachiug; and thut 50



agreement with the teaching of the npostlo Paul, when be say~. "For the invisible things of Him [God] from the crention of the world are clearly seen [" being consi<lcred in bis works nre distinctly secn."-HQr. Rom., p. 6], being un<lerstood by the things thnt are made, even his etcrnal power and godhead" (Rom. i. 20). Thcse analogies or correspondencœ many theologians and philosophers have ndmittcd, from the fact that thcy cnu scarcely escape the recognitiou of the devout aud reflective mill(I. Thus the author of Tract.~for tlie Times (lxxxix.), spcaking of the mode of iuterprcting the Sacred Word adopted by the enrly Fathers of the Christi:m Church, and the groun<l and renson of it, makes thc.5e important arnl suggestive remarks: "What if the whole scheme of sensible things be figur:i.tive?" "What if these [eorrespondences in the .Jewish tnbernncle and ark] are but a slight specimen of one grent use which ALMI<1HTY GoD would have us to make of the extemal world, afül of it.s relation to the world spiritual? Certainly the form itsclf of speaking, with which thcse symbols are introduccd [ns made according to hcnvenly patterns], would seem to imply some such gen!'ral rule." And again, "' Thnt wns the true light.' 'I am the truc vine.' ' Who will give you the truc riches?' taking for grantc<l, in a mnnnE>r,
great Nnturc's self mlght prove one vast Jlftl'tlble ln hls hnud•:-wl•y may uot tllc same t.oo, by hls Etcrnal Spirit, have so overrulcd tbe utterall('e of the hum au agents whom lie employed to writc the Bible, that thelr hlstl>rical narratives, howcver lit.tle thclr nuthors rooant or suspcctc<l it, should cm body the outline of things hcavcnly; and whlle they convcy a truc picture of l\Ctual evcnL'<, should ~. aftcr a most my11tcrloW! f11.'1llon, ylcld ln the bands of bis own ln· forming Spirit, celcstial doctrine al~?" "Our purposc has only bccn tovlndicate the profnndlty, or rather IM fulncStJ of Holy Writ, and to •how that under the obvlous and lltcrnl mcanlng of the words there lies oonœnled a more rcconditc anù a pmfounder l'Cnsc-eall tho.t !;Cnse mystical, or spiritual, or Christian, or what you will. 1:nerringly to clicit that blddcn sen!;(' ls the sublime privilcge or l11s1>lred writers, and tbey do it by allu,lon. by quotatlon, by the Importa· tlon of a short phrase, by the adoption of a llinglc word,-to an extent whlcb no one would su•pt.>ct who had not carefu Uy 'tu di cd the sub)c'<'t."-Jlurq<>n'81MJ)iratbm a11.tl Inter· f)f'datl<>n, pp. lGS, 171. "The phllosophlcnl gronnd on which they (the ancien! mitions] J>l'OC<.'Cdc>d ls thls,that ail maller or t<11lrtr3<ll flaturt mulll of ne·

cea.U11 be U~form all(l vl3il>le i<lca of the cm:n(e ,,,. "Pirü witl>in. Eacb objcet ln religion bas
thus its corrcsponding sigu and charactcr ln oueofnature; and thoseofnaturc ln return are held ln esù.'Cm and reverenec from thclr oousooration to the uses of religion. The extcnt, lndecd, towblch thls system wn, car· ried ln F4typt has at ail limes been proverbial. It formcd the subject or cxprcsse<l 1l>toni•h· mcntand secret admiration to the ancieut historiansoftbe world. Themythologyofthe We>t wa•,ln fact,nlmnst found<'<l ou (or rathcr idcntical with] Jo:;gyptian wormip. \\'e trace up to an Eastern origin the system of l'yth· agoras; the cthics of Aristotle; o.nd even ll1c phllosophy of Pinto, so far more spiritual an<! suMime than eithcr: and ha,·c no question. l'rom a comparntlvely abundant cvidcnc-c. that the prlnclplcs which appca.rod so great and glorlous to the t.rccks, exlstcd on the ln· dus and the Nlle ngcs befclre the fir.t dawn of ch'lllmtion in the \\'es\. The Jew-. too, tbrough evcry pcriod of thelr varie<! history. werc no lc•s addictcd to Ibis fa<rinatin~ study than th<' Eft•tcrn nations. The ract I•

or n.n e:xtremc importa.nec;


ln thclr

~.c<!>lon of the Bible, wc bchold the oriyin of that phllo•ophy whlch k•l thcm to the adoption or this system of corTCSpondencc: - 'l'l1ckcr'1 Scrip. /Slud., Inner 1'kme, pp. 2û8, 2G9



the fact that therc was somewhere in the nature of things a true counterpart of thcse ordinary ohjects, a substance of which they wcre but unreal shndows; nnd only informing us in caeh cnse, with authority, what thnt counterpart and substance was." "This doctrine of correspondencc betwecn things seen and unseen, was familiar and very acceptable" [to the Fathers] (p. 165). To the s:11ne purpose, Heylin, in his Select DisCO'ltrse.~, observes, "There is an analogy betwixt the visible and invisible worM, whieh the Seriptures declare to be the foundation of the i\fosaic rites, and from which other religions eeremonics reccive their fitness and utility. The tcrms unclœn, defiletl, pollutc<l, are npplicablc to minds as well as hodies, and thnt with a propriety which is casier felt th:m explained. The correspondent terms of cleansing, baptizing, purifying with water, or with fire, as the case mny require, or the subject can bear,-thesc, too, have a just and obvious signification in morals as well as naturnls: for the systems of both worlds run parallel, so that realities in the sup<lr!or have their respective shadows in the inferior, and are fitly represented by them" (i. 36 and 38, London, 1749). That the natural world is full of analogies is uni,•ers.'tlly aeknowledgecl. Thus, Swainson writes :-" It is unnecessary to enforce the axiom long established by sound philosophy, that natural and moral truths are but parts of the great system of nature. Nor nee<l we go OYer those arguments that have been already so ably and so powerfu lly urged by others, to show that every thing in this workl is evidently intended to be the means of moral and iutellectual improvement, to a creature made capable of perceiviug in it this use. This perfoct nnalogy between the moral and the uatural world, no Christian in these days will even think of questioning, much Jess of <lis· puting" (192). "Between material ami immnterial, therc is no other relation than that which is affor<led by analogy; without this they would be widely and totally distinct; with this, they are united, and one reciprocally illustrates the other. Analogy, or symbolical rcprcsentation, is, therefore, the most universal law of nature, beeause it embraees and extends its influence over the uatural, the moral, and the spiritual worl<l: a property which no other law yet discovered is known to J>O<'SC.."-'>" (193). "Things which in their esscntial nature arc totally opposite, are foun<l, on closer investigation, to possess mutuai relations, and to k governed hy the same law. B ence we disco,·er thrcc sorts of analogies pervading the system of nature, in the widcst and most exalted application of the term: the first regards tho

ITS L.1 WS f'IT.I TF.n AND CONF!R.llf:n


spiritual trut.hs of rcwlation; the second, tho.sc \\hich hclong only to the moral system; white the thir<l arc drawn from the phcnomcnn of the 11111tcri11l world" (~01 ).-J>rcliminary Disoourse on tlte Stmly of Ncdrtral llistory, Cab. Oyclo., pp. 283, 290. Anothcr profounù writcr thus nbly illustrntcs the subjcct of nnalogy in conncction with religion. ""üile analogy," ~ays he, "is the hnppy iuslrumcut of convcying light into subjccts in gcncrnl, it i~ lX'Culinrly so "·ben cmployed in elucidating the truths of reliJ?ion. Ilcre the force of contrast with which it nets is 1tt the maximum. W c bring together the things of henven and the things of earth; and bcstow on the most rcmote nnd innc~iblo ohjccts some portion of that circumstantial particularity which bclongs to thosc present nnd visible. To behold truths, in themselves so high abovc our compre· hension, in connection with thosc which arc fnmilinrly inculcatcd on us by expcricncc, must call forth our strongc:,t admiration, and powerfully intercst us on both si<lCI', but particularly 011 thnt of our religion. Divine wisdom thcn ÙCl'Ccnds from its cthcrcnl seat, ns the accœsor of the thronc of the Eternal, and communes with us face to face, and band to band. Wo find that tho suhjcets on which the Seripturo t.rcats arc not chimeras, not crentions of tho füncy, which have no substantial existence; but things which AUE: things in which wc lh·c, nnrl move, and have our bcing. It no longer appears to us in the light of a scheme, contri\'ed in the bowcrs of philosophie ~c­ clu~ion, and nddrcssing itself only to the contemplative and impru;sioned 'levotee, like the <lny dreams of the K oran, emerging from tho gloom nnd solitude of the cave of H ara; but it shincs forth conspicuously, as an cncrgizing principle, as a knowledge whi<'h is power, as n work of the L ord, cnrriccl on in the passing scene, with which we cnn· not help sympathizing without <!oing violence to ail the principlci; of ou r naturc."-Hnmpden's F,J!J!(ty on the PltilOllophic<il b\idetice.t of Clirillfùmity. . The Rev. W. Kirby, ~I.A., in his interesting /Jrùl!Je:ttv.ûer TrealÏ•P, thus expre:;ses bimself ou the same subject :-" Whoever surveys the three king<loms of nature with nny attention, will disco,·cr in ~vcry dcportmcnt ohjcets thnt, without nny affinity, oppcar to reprcscnt cneh other. Nor is this rc!lemhlnnce confine<! to forms; it cxtcnds alH<> to chnrncter. If wc bcgin nt the bottom of th<> ~cale and nsccnrl up to man, we !!hall fin1l two dC:!Criptions iu nlmo.~t every cla."-q, ancl cn!n tri be, of animnfa: oue, ferocious in their nspcct;i, of'tcn rnpill in thcir motions, prcd:l.('(.'Olld in their habits, proying upon their fellow:1,


aml living hy rapiue and blood:sl11xl; while the other is quiet and harmlc.ss, makin~ no attacks, shedtling 110 b\ood, and subsisting mostly ou a vegctahle diet. Sincc God creatcd nothing in vain, we may rcst 11ss11retl that this system of represcntation wus cstnblishc<l with a pa1·tie11lnr view. The most common mode of instruction is, placing certain sigm1 or symbuls before the eye of the learner, which rcpresent soun<l:; or ideas; and so the Great Instructor of man placed titis world bt>forc him as an open, tliough my>itical book, in which the ditforcnt. ohjccts and words of a languagc, from the study of which he might gnin wis<lom of vnrious kinds, and be instructcd in such truths rclating to that spiritual world to whieh his soul bclonged, as God saw fit thus to rcvcal to him. In the first place, by observiug that one abject in nature rcprescnte<l nnother, he woul<l be tnught tlrnt ail things arc significant, as well ns intenùc<l to net a certain part in the geneml drnma; und further, as he proeooùed to trncc the analogies of chnractcr in its two grent branches just alluded to, he woulrl J)e le<l to the kuowle<lge of the doctrine, thus symbolically revealed, that in the invisible world there are two classes of spirits,-one benevolcnt m11l • bcneficcnt, and the other malevolent and miscl1ie,•ous: clmractcr:s which, after his füll, he woul1l fin<l evcn exemplifieù in individuals of hi:; own specics. [This doctrine of analogy] is a vcry uscful and intcrcsting study, and belongs to man as the principal inhabitant of a world storc<l with symbols, to asccrtaiu what God intcndcd to signify by the ohjects that H e bas created and placed before Him, as well as to know their natures and uses. " rheu we recollect wlmt the A postlc tells us (Rom. i. 20), that the' invisible thiugs of G1xl fro111 the crmtion of the world are clearl y sccn;' und thnt spiritual truths arc rctlccl<..'<l as by a minor (1 Cor. xiii. 12), nn<l shown as it werc cnigmaticully, wc shall ùe convinccd that, in this vicw, the study of nature, if properly con<lucteù, may be made of the fir:st importimœ" (vol. ii., pp. 523- 52.5). Even Emerson admlts that "words arc signs of natura.l facŒ. The use of naturul history," snys ho, "is to givo us aid in supernatural histury. The use of the outer creation is to givc us lnugunge for the bciug and changes of the inward creation. Every worù which is u:scd to express a moral or intellcctual füct, if traced to its root, i:; found tu be borrowed from some material appea.rance. "Riglit originnlly means straight; wrong means twisted; ~pirit primarily means wind; transgression, the crossing of a line; supcrcilious, the rciising of tlie CJJC-brow. \Ve say the heurt tu express emotion;



the he:ul, tll dcnole thought; and thought nn<l cmotion arc, in their tum, wor<l~ horrowed frllm scru;ible things, mul uow appropri..'l.ted to i:piritunl nnturt•. Most of the proœl'S hy whicu tbis transformation is marlc, i~ hidrlen from us in the rcmoto timc whcn lnnguage wrus framccl, but the ~mnc tcndcncy may be daily ob:;crve<l in childrcn. . . . But thi8 origin of nll words thnt convey n ~piritual import,--so conspicuous Il fact in the history of language,-is our lcnst debt to nature. It is not wor<ls only that are cmblematic; it hi things which nre cmblcmntic. Evcry nntuml fact is a symbol of some spiritual foct. Evcry uppearancc in nature corresponds to somc state of the mi111l, and thnt statc of the mind c.'l.n only be ùcscribcd by prcscnting thnt nntuml nppcnrnnce as its i>icture. An enragc<I man is a lion, a cunuing man i~ n füx, n firm mnn is a rock, a learned man is a torch. A larnb Î:I innQC<'llCC, a l'nnkc is subtlc spito. . . . Light and dnrkuc;:.... nre our fümiliar expressions for knowledge nnrl igno1-a.nœ; and heal for lo,·e. . . . It is c:1sily seen that there is nothing lueky or capricious in thl'l<C analogies, but that they arc constant and pcrvade 11at11re. These are not the rlremns of a few poct.8, hcrc and there, but man i::; an t\lllllngist, nnd studics relations in nll objccts. . . . Bec.'\use of this rndicnl corrcspondence betwecn visible things niul human thought.s, savnge:<, who have only what is nccessary, c01wcrsc in figures. As \1·c. go back i11 history, language becomCll more picturesc1uo, until itl! iufimcy, \\ hcn it is ail poetry ; or ail spiritual fücts are reprcscnted by natuml ~ymbols. Tho samc symbols nrc found to nmke the elcmcnt11 of ail lnugunges. I t ha.s, moroover, bœn obsen·ed, that the idioms of all lnnguagc.s npproach each othcr in pru.."lllgt'S of the grealC:!t clo11ucncc und power, nnd as this is the finst lauguage, so it is the lnst. This immc<lintc tlependence of language upon uaturc,-this couvcr.;ion of nu outward phcnomcnn int-0 n type of somcwhnt in humau lifc,uevcr losœ ils power to affect us."-EM<zy on Nabtre, p. 5. Tho nuthor of Essaya and Analogie.11 p1•rccivc1l, with most roflccting mindM, ibnt "Analogy is 11S universal as the uuirnrse itself', and evory uualogy, likc evcry mnn, is, or includcs, the nntural, moral, und spiritual kingdoms" (note, p. 133). "There is nn annlogy," writes nn el~nnt author, "bctwecn ext~rnnl appcnmncœ of nature, u.s intelligible hil•roglyphl!, nnd particular affection:, [of the tioul], strikingly exemplifirativc of that geoeral harmony which !;ub;.i.•œ iu ail the unirnroe. ':Matcrial objectl!,' as ~Ir. Gilpiu bns justly rcmnrkcd, 'hcing fixcd in their appearanccs, strike e\"ery one in the sa me mmrncr; wherens iùcn~, bcing rliffercut in mœt per



sons upon the same subjcct.--, "ill sclllom !ler\'e by wny of illw•trntioo. "' -Buck'~ llanMnÛ:iJ uf .J.Y1ilurc, vol. ii., pp. l!lO, 1!31. For,!\.'! Dr. Youug hns pcrtincntly oh~cn·e1l in his J.Yiy!tt Thouyliu, "the unalogy of Nature is Christinnity itsclf in n vcil or parnhle." Bh;hop Horne nlso rccognizcd the snmc nnnlogics in creution. lie say11: "The visible works of God nre forme<l to lcnd us, uudcr tltc direetion of his Word, to u knowlcdt,re of tho,,ic which a rc in\"i·ihlc; thcy give us iden.s by nnalogy of 'a new crcntion,' nurl are rellll.\ to instruct us in the mysterics of füith au<l the dutics of morality." -Prrf to Comm. on I'llalms, pp. xxiv., xx\'. l n Hwedenborg's Diary, a posthumom; work printed by Dr. Tafcl, of Tuhingen, is the following interesting stntement: "No one [scarecly] reflocts upon those things which exist iu vi11ihle nature 11:> hdng the images of celcstinl and spiritual things; as thnt n plant or a trce arises from its scc<l, and gro\1s, and by its root an<l hark extracts a sap, which i;; the life of the plant or trce, nud which i~ hcnee 1fütributed into ail ile intcrior or œntrnl parts in likc manner us 11piritual things shoulrl relate to celestinl things. l\Ioreovcr, nll thingi>, even the minutest in the pinot and trce, respect the fruit us their end, that is, the renovntion, nnd henee the perpetuity, of the lifo of the tree. The i<amc is the case with all fruit~, even with thoi>e which nre enclosed in hard shells, withiu which arc the 1111clei or fruiti<. The shells and the various surfaces, one within nnother, hy which the juice [or 11np] i;; con>eyed to the interior nnrl inmost principlc:; until the fruit is ripcned, represent corn.•spomlcnt thiugs in mnu \\ hen bcing regcuornted, namely, the naturul, i;cicutific, rational, nud intellcctunl things; which [latter] a re spiritual, nud which in this nmnncr, a.~ from a common pinne, divirled into infinitely vnrious wnyR, cnn h1• com·eyecl und dL~trihutetl iuto ail thini,rs, cven to the m~t p11rtil·11lnr, and iuto the inmo:;t rccœ..;;:cs. H encc nr~cs in such tl1ini."' [ \"Ï1.., plant!', tracs, fruit, etc.] their perpctuiti<•q, which in the lifo of man t•onc:-iponds to eternity. In '!ikc mnnner ail t hing.; of the unimul kingdom, eveu the most pnrticu lar, a rc constituterl; nnd oonscqucntly ail parts of the human body, even to the minutci;t. "Jt is ul~ surprising thnt ail thingll made hy mnn, such ns worlul of nrt, i:tntuel', picturC>t, nn<l innnmerable ot hrr thiniri<, which on the ont.><i<lr ap}X'ar bcautiful, nnd nrc esteemed of grcnt value, are ncvcrt hd<•"',; int<'riorly nothing hut l'lny a111l mu<l, ami <le\•oicl of bcm1ty; it i:o only the cxtcrnal ~urfocc \\ hit·h the evc :ulmil'l"\. .. \\Thl'rl':l3 tho.~o thill)!:! \\ hk·h grow fru111 >-Ct'll:!, bl'gin rro';11 an iutcrior principle, nn<l



incrcruro ancl a~sume au cxtcrnal. i:;uch things nre nul only beautiful to the Pight, but the more interiorly thcy nrc cxnminecl, the more benutiful they appcnr. It is the i;amc with the life of man; thooe thin!Ç' "hich l>egin frorn what is extcrual, th us \1 hieh procee<l frorn the man himsclf, may be compared to nrlificinl \\orks, whose external form is estecrucd and admirerl, but \1 hœc internais are of no value. ' Vhereas tho:;e things which proceccl from Go<l .l\Icssiah are formed from inmost principlcs, and may be compared to those things in nature whieh are bcautiful from within. This is what is meant hy whut Cod Mcssiah says in ~fatthew concorniug the lilics of the fiel<l, that '~lomon, in ail bis glory, wns not arrayed like one of these,' v. hile lilics, IH>we\'er, are di~regarded" ( n. 251 ). Th~ ctcmnl laws of correspomlcnce, overlnirl, indeed, in rnccessh'e ages, and nmong ";dcly different nation!<, by cnclle-s varietics of metaphor, fable, annlogy, mythic epiro<lc:<, lcgt•ml-<, and observances, may be saicl to constitute an "intelligible and truly hurnan," if not divine, "elcment" of relationship among ail pcop)C$ and tribes of the globe, and the exÎlltcncc of which is proved by manners, customs, and lnngungC!I, thnt nothing else can pos.sibly explnin. It appea.ns, from the oldest records, that this science was wcll known to, and highly apprecintcc:l by, the ancicnts. I t was cspeeially cultivatcd among the ]~astem nations of Egypt, As.~yria, Cha1'lea, Syria, Canaan, and Ambin, as the "ehief of all the sciences,'' as the "living science," in compari.son with which all other sciences wcre regnrded as dead. The book of ,Job, one of the most ancient we po:;:;CS.'!, abouncls with eorrcsponden('(l.'I, but they ha>e not that serial conncction which distinguishes the full y in~pirod Word of God. Indecd, ail nncient oriental literature affor<ls incfüputnble cvidence to the truth of tbL~ science. From it ori~inates the saerod and profune symbols of nntiquity. It pervn<leù evcry system of theology and morality. As mankind, however, dcb'tlucratecl from purity an<l intelligence, it was desecrated to vile und sUJ)l!l'lltitious purposcs. It fiually sunk into Grccian fnble,-was associatl•d with ail tlrnt wns monstrous, impious, nnd ab!lurd, nnd was thui for ages lost. From the successive profunntion of this sacred science arow the luter Egyptian hieroglyphi<~.,, the Ilin<loo, Celtic, Persinn, Grccian, Homan, and Scandinavian myQtcric11 and initiatory rites, their oracfo~ nn1l mythologies; Orpheus nrnl the Indian Apollo; the Wadilions of Titan, und the giants invacliug hcaven; the fables of the golden age and the garden of H csperides; the story of Pandora and hcr box of evil ; the translation of Astrca by the Romans, of
6 D


Tllf: scu;,,-cE ()F COR/lf:Sl 'OSDESCE!>.

Dhrurn nmong tho Iliudus, of B uddha nmong tho C'c yloncse, nnd of X aca nmong the Cnlmucks of P.ibcria; the incnrnutious of Vi"hnu in Irnlin, and the fables and ullcgories of ~o m:my nations rcspccting a unh·el'!\nl flood. A Il t hesc are traccnblc to the prolific sourrc of corr uption and confusion. H cnce sprang up nll idolatry,16 in which tho
•" Tlktt I• ,;reat rca.-on to belien'," aays mlght not be loo-L"-Infrodudi<m to Dùtmtal· the author of Tract• for the Timea, lxx X\'llJ,. Of!IJ, vol. 1v., p. 4rtl. "that the PIJlan m,-.tcrlC'I took thclr ri'IC Rwe<ltnbon.:, "r!Ung on the !'111nc 8ublcct from sorocthlng more holy tban them- in the Truc Chri4tion Religion, truly isays, i.eh·cs."-1'. 9. "The hlolatrics of thl' gentllcs of old look "The anclents, lt mu.i be eonfC!'•ed, al- thclr rlse from the sc·lencoe of corl'<:>'pond· mO"t alwaya ~te In allc~ries."-l'o/Wre'• en«'!<, h<un•c ail thln~s that apj"CAr on the l'hil. Dlct., art. AU<gory. faee nf tl1e earth ha,·e correspondcutc, eonBishop Warburton affirms that "lt ""'an scqnently, not only t«°C'I and veg<-U\bll'•,but universal opinion thnt the hcathen mysto- also hea.,t• and hlr<h. of every klncl, with ries were h1•tltured pure."-JJil'. ÙfJ., vol.!., ftshc~ and ail othcr tbiugs. The anclcnts, p. 172. who wett versed ln the sclcnco IJf corre"Druidlsm is thought by many to be de- spondcncx... mad<> 1hcm>clve<1 lmn1:l'f' "hlcb rh·cd, thou1th not witbout pcn·cn<ions and corre.'lponcled wlth hcavculy thlnr; ami corruptiOM, t'rom the Patrlarchal religion." were grcatly dclii:hled wlth thcm by rca.<;0n - A rchfeol<>qiti. vol. vlii., p. 11;, of thcir •ljlnlficntlon, ami be<:nu'c thcy could "It i~ 'imcular," sa}'S Hut.chfnMn, "that <li!'<'Cnl ln them what rclated to hcavcn and the :Magl of ~au.. Il. l, ls l't'ndered tiy an lhc chur~h; thcy lbcl't'forc plaecd tho'C lmIrish ven.lon, DraoilM, the Druid•, or the &Ill"' not ooly in thclr templ("!, bot al"-0 in true ,.,;se men. Mngi lu the east, llruld ln thcir hOUSl'S, not with any intention to worthe west."-JJW. Oumb., vol. li., p. 19:l. ship thctu, but to 1'C'n·e 11• me1111• of recolk-ctClemcnt or Alex1111drla, who wns hlmoeir ing the hcavcnly thh1~"' >lgnUlcd by tl>cm. •upposed to h11ve been loltiatcd lnto the Suce<.-edlng &gC!I, whcn the seim~e of c·orrelleathen m1stcrlcs, M-crt.,, tbat "IM tn1tlu !'JlODdcnc~ was oblltt•rate<l, bcgan to n<1orc l&ugbt in tbem bad bœn 'tolen by phll<JO<>o as holy, and al l~ngth l<> wor!'bip a• clclties, phcri; from M""'esand the Prophe~"-Slroni., the im~ and rh(;mblan~ set up by U1elr v., p. 650. forcfi\thel'l', ~amc thcy found th cm Io and Coronation ~ymbols and ceremoulcs ha\'c about tbeir temples."-n. 2'l5. the s&Jnt' orfp:in. "Not only the mo.t Intelligent among Utc On lhl• •ubjcct Kirh7 and Spcncc mate F.gyptlans, bu\ ail th<~ wbo wel't' dMuted lbc followin11 a<lmimhlc ob-cn·atfon•: ·"In Io 1>hll•M1phy among the othcr holrbarou• no country wai. [the orlglnation or ldollllry) natioM, a1mlred thl' •>mbollMll mi•le of more lnmcnlnbly striklng than ln RltYPt. in,piratlon." "To the •amc purport Orlgeo whœc 11:ml• wcrc all !'Clcctcd from the an!- and the nther aneient <'llristi11n ~'athNs."­ mal and vci:t'lable kl111:dom<. Titi• 'JlCCICS Clt'mou A'tt<lfldri11111, ·"rom, llb. '., rap. 8, of lclolatry d•>Ubtk'' r.~ulted from thelr p. Git. (\Vd by Jfoi,lu '"' fil a ,\·.M; <a a.d· ha,·ioi; b<-cn 1au1tht that thlnir< ln nature ' v:oorth'• I11td. SIJ"l., ,·ol. Il .. p. m werc syiuholg ul thlnlffl alJ<Jve uature ami "Among-t the anclcnt Etruscau•, l'\'CfY· or th<: attribntc• and glory of the Godhea1l. th!ng ln r\'llgio11 a11111...,litics w11i1 e111lilcmt\t· ln J'l'O('I."• of Ume, whlle th1• eurruptlon re· ical. They thought thl' carth only the rcpmained, the knowlt•li:l' "Inch 111111 h.-·n re'><'n!Jltlvc or mirmr of hcaYcn. The ycar, thu.' abu«'•I, "as W<!t or dlmly "'-"en. The the g011', c.erythlng, ln fact, ha•l a triple 'Egyptian tirlc-thoo<I pi·rhap• reta.lnecl ><>me name; the civil or rommoo, the "'~t>lotal rcmains of lt: but by tht•m Il was mnclc an an•I the my,tcriousor nccult-a !l<'erct which c•otcrle <loctrlne, not to be rommunlrntcd none ctare pronounec or uttcr. Thl• cu,tom to the profane vulgar, who wcre <utfl're<l to I• found in the triple name of llome, of ~ the "rarlr•us ohjeel• or their "'J"'r<ti· . whfeh l'Jh1y spe11lr>; the my•terlous namc tiou• vcncmUun, nota• 'Ymhol-. but a• JIOL"· ; of thl• ml<t~ of the world wa.' Amor l!C'<'e<l or An lnhcreut dhlnlty; aocl pr11ba- (LowJ: 1111 Mccrclotal namc, F1ora or An· bly the my•lerks of hl~ in Egypt, nnd of th11'1\: 11.n<l its civil namc, R-Oma."-Ktrne'• Cc= at l•:ll•n•i~, w~re h»tltuwd th•t thls JJath Journal. cooteri~ dO<'trl11c, "hkh wa. to be kt•pt ~ "Th~ tcrm 11 hkh answers to the word cret and ..cl'\.>d from the common people,, ldolatry b not fouud ln any ancl~nt J.an-



correspondiog forms in nature and rep~ntations in art were dcificd and worshipped Îlli'tcad of the attributes and perfections of God which
guagc. Il ls an expreoslon of lhe Grecks,of the Ill.ter &gel!, and wu not brougM lnto gen. cral ul<C untll tbe second ccntury our era.. It vcrlftcs •The adoration or worshlp of Imagea.' lt ts & tcrm of rcproach ;-an ex· pn..,.lon or abuse or tnsulL No ))('OPIC have cvcr talcen npon them the lllle or • Jdola· 11:1'1.' "-L"AW Jla:in°1 PhllD& 'If Jlill.. lrcnu. Gtmtfdl. S\'O, p. 16.J. "The w<•r<I !dol, idolater, idt>latr1, ls r"nnd nctth<r ln lloaner, Jlestod. Heroclotu., uor any author of the religion of Ibo gtntllcs." - Vo/lttlrt'1 l'ltll. Dîd., arl. Idol.. vol. Il., p. 32. .. As man was made an Jm~ or the Delty. IO wcro rhe m<rleri<ù _,-w and 118 part8 maac copl<'I' or rutllmt11ù of the 1mmaltrlcd or heavcnly (Col. li. 8). Wbence also tho tabernacle aJ\crw&r<l•, wblch was made, as we &re told, aJ\cr the Jl(l(I'"' Qf llca-111 llliRgt (Ilcb. vlll. 6), was called a worldl1 unctual')' (llcb. lx. 1). u were the services or tt 1M"ldl11 "'di· ml'MI• (Cnl. Il. 20). beerlu.-e Il wu made after lho ~•"'1v patlm• by the mtdlum or rhe worl<I. whlch had bcen or!qlnally made Ancr iM ICll!ll!. For u the Apostle, epcaklng of crcalcd thlngg ln general, plalnly tells u.' (Rom. t. 20). 'The tnvhiblc thlnl!"Q/ God. t"rom the creatlon C>f the world, are clearly Fecn (or are >ui&ably perccived or clloœmed), hel1111 undcrstood hy the thlnl!' l/ttrJ an: Wtllde.' A• tbc l'salmbt also, gpt'&klng of 1'4r&lculaN, 11&)... •The he&l·e1is dt<lan: Ille 111'>1'7 of God. rutd IM finnamcnt lilow:<llt Ml h&u•\y·work.' (l'e. x ix. 1.) Thal b, they N>ow. or Jgure out. lblnga tbat are not in lhem"<'h <'S. but far above and b<•yond them· sch·<"I. Cl'Cn ln God, and ln lhe heal"en of hJ:Jll11r.•, and ln bis dit-1.nt optrallon1 and 1vorka on hl• lntclleclnal cree.turce. an{}l'll, and mm. Aerordlni::ly. the uvr/d bas hecn iermcd by eome God uplained. They •houhl h ave ll&ld c:ocl adumbrolrtl and lyplcally ~pre­ teutcd; for mob lt ls: and so IO c•onlCmpl&te lhl• ''<111of bis ereatu"" &n<I worlcx ln Ibis artcm, I~ to let.m Io know /liMlt/J, and bis hll!h<-• and more glorlous <.>Pfttltlono. The lighl, ~.trit, ropor1, rai1t, /rvtll, tllfllrn, l>rrod, .,,,·,,,.. c~ .• bclng not only for our bodlly uses herc, but &1!00 Io rai!lll our thoughL• to an· othcr more excellent g/QrJI, •plrU. Wflltr, mMI, drink, etc., ln heaven."- JfoUouiat1'• Lttter ancl ~lri.I. r•P· 1, 2. 00 The n ..1eorruplions of my&lwlogy orlgtn· utetl ln the superaddltion &n<I &<\mixture of ~n"11•I. physlcal. polltlce.I, aud lmOjfinath c a.11<!$:0fl~ &nd f&bles."-&>e Qrof('I llilL Q/ Grrwv, vol. 1., pp. Il, U. "Bbbop Warburton is compclled by irulh



to acl<nowle•I~. ln book Il., p. 172, 'that the wl"""t ancl bcst men lu l11 c Pagan world arc unanlmous ln tlil•, that tlle mystcrlCR wcrc lnstltuted pure. and propose<! lhe nolJh.~t end bylhe worihlc<t means.' "-Tavwr1 Jmn· b'khtl.8, note, p. 14!>. ·•i:t. Au,t111 hlm"!'lf rannoi but own tirai the 1P•gan J mrl.<'rlr11 wcro prlodpally ln•&I· tule<l br the .\nrlents for lbc promoti••n <>f virtue anrt a 11<>0<\ lire. c\·en wb~ be ls M cuslng pej?&ni'm ln gtoncral for ils n~lt'<"t or moral vlrtuc."-Dt Cl"•. Dei, lib. Il.. cav. r. and 26 • '"The myotcrll"I bad thelr common orlgl· na! from lh°"o of Ms and ()<;Iris ln Egypl.'' ·• Everythlng thcrcln WRS lni<tltute<I by the An clcnt• for ln<trurllon ami nmcndmenl of lire. (The mô"l <'clebratcd "cre the Orphie, the Batchlc. the Elcu•lnl&n, lbc ~amothra· elan,theC&blr!,&nd the Mlthraic.l""-Arrlon Di.._, !lb. UL, œp. ~l. Biahop ll'arb<1rlo!t 1 Dîr. Lt!g., \"OI. L, book 1, pp. 17:?, 173, 196, 1:11. •• sen'lus, ln rommcnting on the• lly~lle:a l"annus laechl •of Vll'l!il, ob!<erl"es lhat the $&Cred rll<.'S of Bacchus (>('rlained ln the purification of M>Uls.''-7by(qr's IamblkAU1 note, p. 100. 00 Eupolcmus.Artaplanus, Mclo.and Philo. ail agree lhat lhc !labylonl"11 tradlllons of the Egyplia.u prie>~• of llcllopolL• were, 1111 to imany tblull'o], 1lerll'cd from Abn.htun."E!lltbioa, 1. 9, c. 17. •• We .... y. thcreCore. th&t the Pann• ID lhts, tbelr u..oic>g11lng or physlolc>gy. and clcifrtng the tblnRS or nature and put~ of the world, clld accordlngly call e\"erytlllnii by the namc of God. or God by Ille namc of evcf) tblng.'"-lùdworlh'• Inidl<cl. Syllt., vol. Il., p. Zi9. .. E.-en ~erra nu• can allow that Plato •pakc many thingo< whlrh be nncleni~>od not. drawn OUI of lhC l'hn•nlclan Or 1'yrlan lliC· olOllY. Th~ Plato fl'('<\ucntly mentions, &od eall• tbcm lne!TaMc a111l unlntelll<lhle. For 1u lhc tradhlnn• "cre of llchrcw cz. traction. an<! 'Urh as rcfcm.'<I to lhe Jcwlah mrstcrics aod dlvJne wo~hip. it is no won· der tbey werc unlntcll~ble IO Ille wl..,,.l bel\then. Tbrrcforc l'lato rails them fltll'h.•, - fables whlch ln thclr ph!IOAOpbical notion slgnify some 111)'•1.erle• hftnd~od dowo rrom the anclent•, lhe rc1W>n• whereof "cre bld· den and unknown. notwllhstanding the asslstAoce or alleo:ory or mythology. The leamed JulhU< !<<'.'&!Iger affirms lhe -ame.''E/lil"• Knw/l:<l!J' Qf lX•. TAitcg• /rom ~·rlc.· lioft. 'Ml/N1711 J/'<i.•1• or ;Val.•rt:. pp. 98, ll'J. .. ldolatl')' ln a.Il 118 ramlnœtïons ls but U>a
0 0



thcy siguifü.«l.1 ' The doctrine of a primevnl chno:<, the mctempsy· eJu,..is, or the tmn:;migrntion of souls, togcthcr with the poctic lcgcml» mul fables of antiquity, ail hnd a like origin. llut though the mythological fohles of ancient tilm.'S prcscnt a confusc<l n<lmixture of nllcgorical symbols and nrhitrnry figures, intro<lucccl hy the liccnsc of poetic imaginntion, mystcriously and ingcniously combiuiug a crude system of uaturol aml moral philosophy; yet, hcterogcncous, unccrluin, extravagant, and oh::;cure as thcy np· pcar, from the vestiges aml traces of correspomlcnt·c \\ hich thcy still rotnin, the mcnuiug of mnuy of the l~ corruptcd lxx·nruc;; obvious uncl intm'\.>i;ting to thosc acquaintccl "ith this ll<!Îcnce. [The snmo clcplornblc corruptions and perversions of spiritual i<leas origiuntod magic, clivination, demonology, nccromancy, witchcrnft, alchcmy,
<'Omlpt lt'an<mlssion of origlnAl 1.uro rcllg· ion ."-0' JJrien'• Round TowcT'I QI Ircl<md, 2d c<l •• p. 19:!. .\li fabulou• animais have a likc ortgln. "Wc <'bri,tl&Dll deridc the Ein·pllan•wfth· 0111 Clln<e. thcy hl\vlug mnny my,terlt• in thclr religion, for as much a.. lhcy profc~. that pcr1'11lng brute anfmnls arc not wor•hipp<.•1 hy lhcm. but the cl<lrrml llleu.•."Oriu. l\mt. Cll3., Ill>. iii.. p. 120. Citcrl bv Ourt<Mril•. It1tfl. su.i.. vol. ii., p. ·rn. "lt I• mnrc thl\n probable," n• lhe learned :!\Ir. l'cmhh• oh-.crn•I, "lhnl Zoroa>lcr, Herm~. Ors•la'u~, Plato, R.Jul olhcn.:, drcw thctr knowl.-li:t, "hich th~y b11d ln J•Art or ...an11 Mvil mptTi• •. out of a dccpcr and clcarer fountaln thnn Uoc mutldy, sh&llow ~prlngs or lhelr O\\ n uatnml rca.'iOn, thouith h1 the l"'-''&lle thl• "atcr was much sollcd by thcm wlth tlll' ftlth of many ldle fllb!Cll and •Illy ronNlts."- l'i111licia: Gratitt, p. 41\. "The arcl\nc and rccondltc thonlogy of the F-1.'Y11tlan1 was couccC\lcd from the vu!· gar, 1wo manncr of wars. by fl\bl()li or allew•rll'll, ami h)' '>'lllbol• or hfCr<Jl(ly(lhfc,. Y.u...,hfus lnforms u• that l'orphyrlu~ wn1tc a book •C<>Dten1fnl{ the allei;orlCf\I lh('C)l•>JQ both oflhc (;rccl;• ami F.gyptltlu'I.' l\elther can wc doubt lml that ail the dc,·0111 1'•1:•11• •cknowll•li:<'<l Mme living 11n•I u1111cn<t.and· lng tldtft•ti or olher; nor cai;lly bollern that they crcr \\Or.hippt•d auy lnanfmatc or een>dt"'" IJo•llc•, othcnv1'c (han l\S aome way rcfcrrlng to lhc samc, or n.- lmagci. ancl Kymhol• of thcm."-Ct1rtw<n·tk'1 Intel. s1111., vol. 1., Pl» "36, [>39.
Il Knowlng, as we prc11t.ume~ n(,lhlng of \hc11elene<.• of r<.rn.~pondenec. "t' yei nn•I" multflnrlc of wrltcrs more or le"" lmprc.-..00. 11·1th vicw• rl.-ely appro:w.lnu1Ung tu Uic

truth, as to the f>OUrcc of all ldolatry. Taltc lhe followlng: "Thcrc ncvcr wa•. tbcrc ne,·cr couhl be, any religion hl\·cntcd by man. Rclis;oon must be" sub]C<'l l•U«'IY of revclation rrmn Ood, nnd Cl~ 111 tlll' llr-t ~ [nf\cr the fnll) we llutl it spfrl1u11l, l\1ul cnnv('yC<l to tho min<l throus;h the mcdl11m of nntural thlni:•, whfch wcrc nc<'t'""nrlly cmployc•I ••the ln· strumcn~• nnd me<lln by which alonc a knowledgc of ~plrllucù lhinJ:!< conl<l b) p<.,.. slblllty be communl~ntt•l tt> the u11dcn;tnn<l· lngs or rucn. The lir.t cnrrur•tion that wu introdnœd lnto "'lhrlon wa.< n ru1ppl11s; ~lion, a nnt l<•>khog lhrnugh lhc Uoinl{ l.tl lhC\t which wa• •fs;nll!M by lt. and l"Ylnc divine bonoNto•prlni:- Aud rl\·er-, 1111<1 trccl' and rocb [the rkmcnl.'. a111I animftl'< men anrl demon•l, 111111 nll the h°'t of hcavcn. whlch the 1\pootle r·nll• the worshlpplns; of the crcature mlht•r tlum the Grcnlor. Thf• rnny be rallc<l phllm1ophlcal relis;ion,Ognfn>t whlcl1 the Apô'tlc wam' u'\. 'Ilcware k•t auy man bpoll you lhrough phil<l"Ophy and vain dcœlt.' (('ol li. ;q To Illat "11"<'<'t•lt"l the groo;.• and rorunl >!Ill(', when. IJ<.'<'8u<e thcy dld not li~... ln rctaln 1;n<1 ln thdr lhoughts,' llC rl\n" tbcm U[l [by hl• [ll'Mlllsslve Pro,·hlencc) to a rcprobate 11111111, to work all mnuncrof unclcannœs wlth grccolf· 11~.' (Rom. 1. :,,\. l nut yet in rcalily th1•rc arc not •o man y dl Ocrent religions, b111011ly a corruption of the one rclll(lon, l\nd ho who careflllly nn<I lmpnrtfully fnvcstlgntN! the hcAlhcn mylholnc;y, wlll dlscover ln IL• doctrine> a my~kr> ancl a <ubllmitr of t11c:olnc:· Ica! sentiment \>hkh !'an only be cxplalned by a oompftrll!On oftho••am~ lruths. hul nn-o· pbl•tlf'Atc<I, "' thry arc fumul in th<' Billie." -Oranll''• 1113/u'lJ nnrl .ANliqlUtta o/ ,\"u/hJtg"4111. Col. 1., p. •2.

ru;trology, nu1l chnrms, with numbcrlcsa othcr supcl">'titions which for

llfe8 bound, n.s in ndnmnntùie fetters, the frec-horn miml.] "Tho tranRlntion of the Word," says a t<Cnsiblc nnd pious writcr,
"into a Janguagc of such extensive use as the Grcck, was fraugh\ with important rcsults. And from this source at lcust, if not from an cnrlicr a<·111miut.ance with the H cbrew original, many of the sages, poet!I, nnd philosophersof the hcathen world drcw some ~parks of the liglü of the hcavcnly fire which glowe<l within it. 'Whicl1 of your sophists,' says Tcrtullinn, addrcssing hill Pngnn contempornries, 'hnYe not drunk from the fountnin of the prophcts? It is from these sacrcd springs that your philosophera have rcfreshed thcir thirsty spirits; and if they hnvc founrl nnything in the R oly Rcripturcs which hit their füncy, or which scrvcd their hypothcsi~, thcy took anrl turne<l it to a complianoo with thcir curiosity, not consi1lcring those writings to be sacre<! and unnlterable, nor unrlerstan1ling thcir true sense.'"-D. H . H. in Amer. N. J. Jfag., vol. xxii., p. 431. T o thi~ ~nmc effcct wrote the R]l<»llle Paul to the R omans: "necnuse thnt, when they knew Gorl, thcy glorificd Jiim. not ru1 Gorl, neither werc thnnkful, but bccnme vnin in thcir imaginations, nn1l thcir foolish hcnrt wns darkene<l. Profcssing thcms!'lves to hc wiso, they becnme fools, and change<l the glory of the incorruptible God into an imngc mndo like to corrnptiblc mnn, nn<l to bir<ls, and fourfooted bc:ist~, and creeping things. Whcrcforc Go<l also g11xc thcm up to unclt'llnn~. through the lusts of their own hearts, to 1tiohonor their own l)()()iN< bctween themseh-cs: who chnngcd the truth of God into a lie, nnrl sef\·ed the creature more thnn the Creator, wbo is ble.o;.~) for e\·cr, AmC'll" (i. 21-2.5). Butin the Lord's goo<l timc, an1l in the multitu1le of his mercies, the pcriorl has hnppily nrriverl whcn this long-IO"t science, purged ami defC'cnted from the corrupting <Ù'C'),'S of profnnation, antl without rlanger to human wclfare, cn.n be rcstorcd ns n blœsing to his Church, o. holy me<lium of communion between himsclf' nn<l nngels nnrl meu,-a. gronll!I nnd pillnr of the truth; nor will it cver ngnin be withdra.wn. Thus He hns fulfilled his gmcious prnmi.«e: " H e hath turncd to the people n pure lnn~ungc, thnt they mny nll cnll upon the nnme of the Lord, to serve IIim with one consent" (7,cph. ix. 9); ~o that men nool no longer " walk in darknœ;," but may "have the light of life." &•


11TE are now permittcd to know and make trial of this great exegetiVV cn1 lnw. Since the first systematic promulgation of the henvenly
doctrines of the New Church, in the miùdle of the last century, which iuclude this rule of interpretation, and as if to confirm their truth and importance, science, in every b1·anch of knowledgè, has been permit· ted to be investigate<l with an ar<lor and suceess heretofore unknown. Ancient treasures of learning and remains of antiquity have by unwcaricd researches been brought to light, an<l Jabors, both mental and physical, have been expendcd upon them, unexampled in any former age. To open the prison-house of ignorance and superstition, the world has been explored, as it never was before, in scarch of all kinds of knowledge. A wide field of delightful investigation, pcrpetunlly expanding itself, is reu<lered acc~ible on every si<le, in which the prepared min<l may disport and expatiate, and, by the sacred aml sublime science of correspondence, every ascertained truth, cvery scieutific fact, und every degree of intelligence, mny be made subservicnt to revealed wisdom and gooùncss, and to the indcfinitc udvancement of mankind in virtue and in truth. N atural anù external ohjects eau only exist as effects from prior causes, which nre internai and spiritual, belonging to the spiritual worl<l, though latent or concealed herc. These objects receive thcir nppropriate forms from the interior principles of angels, demons, and spirits, and of which they are the constant exponents; and nothiug exists within thcir minds but what, by an cternal and unehangenble law of the spiritual world, fin<ls its constant and appropriate correeponding form witlwut. This nature and constitution of the spiritworld is one source of the fclicity of heaven, where all is bcautiful arnl delightful because what is without exactly corresponds to what is within, and undergocs changes annlogous to the changes of state; nn<l the same la.w alf'o <letermines the phenomena of hell, w}icre ail without, likc all within, is <loleful and monstrous.


These principles and idens in regard to the spirit-worlù lie at the very root of the sciences of correspondenccs. They illustrate nnd cxplain it. For the fixed object.s of the naturnl world reccive nll their indefinite forms by a like corre><110ndeuce with the spiritual world; and aecording to the respective uses to which thcy ure designed re· spcctively to contribute. Even the representations of the Jewish dispensation were ail, origi· nally, "types ancl 1>aller1ts" of heavenly rcalities. \Vhen the spiritual aight of .Moses was opened, he recefre<l direct instruction from the Lord out of hc.weu eoncerniug the !abcrnacle, the ark of the tcsti· mony, and ail their contents and furniture; and the Lord said unto him, "According to :i.ll that 1 show thee, after the pattern of the tabernacle, and the pattern of ail the instruments thereof, e\·eu so shnll ye make it" (Bx. xxv. 9). Then follows a particular description, and it is added, "And look that thou make them after the JJattern which wns shown thec in the mount" (ver. 40). The word translnted pallem means a!Po likcncss or similitude (Dent. iv. 16-18). · "Not only ail bcnsts, but also all things which are in the worlù, corrc:=1pond, and according to corrcspondcnccs reprcsent and signify spiritual and cele.5tial things, and in the su preme sense the divine things which are of the Lord. And hcnce it may be seen of whnt qnality the ancient churchcs werc, which were cnlled represcntalive churches, namely, that in singular t.heir sacrecl rites werc representcd the things which are of the Lord nnù of his king<lom, thus which nre of love and faith in Him. And that on such occasions heaven was eonjoined with the man of the Church by such things; for interna! tbings were prcsented to view in heavcu. The Word of the Lord was also given for tbat crnl, for in it n.11 :mcl f:ingular things, e\'Cll to the smallcst iota, correspond and signify ; hcncc by the Word ni one there is connection of hcavcn with mnn. That thÎll is the eu.se, is known to no one at this day; whereforc the natural man, whcn he rends the 'Vord, and inquire.c; where the divine [e~ence or principle] lies conccaled th<'rein, and whcn hc ciocs not find it in the lctter, by renson of the vulgnr style, licgins first ,to hold it in Iow estimation, ancl next to deny that it wns dictatcd by the Divine [Bcing] Himself, an<l Jet down through henven to man: for he is ignorant that the Word is divine from the 1<piritual ~cuse, whieh docs not appear in tho lettcr, but still is in the lettcr; nn<l that that sense is presented to view in hcaven, when mnn rc::uls it rcvcrcntly, nnd thnt the ~uhjcet trcat.cd of in that seuse is couceruing the Lord and couccrniug bis kingdo1u.



These divine thing;. nre what rrn<ll•r the 'Vord 1lidnc, nnd ùy [or through] whieh imnctity rlows in lhrough hcnvcn frorn the Lord, even into the litcrnl ;,cni'e, nnd into the very lettcr itsclf. But so long as mnn docs not know what a spiritual principlc is, ucither enn hc know whnt the spiritual scn~e is, thns ncither what correspondcnce is. And so long ns man loves the world in preference to hcavcn, and him~elf in prcfercncc to the Lord, hc is not willing to know those thing~, nor to apprehend them ; when yet ail aneient intelligence wns hcncc dcrivecl, nncl hence also is nngelie 'visdom. The mystic arcana in the 'Vord, whieh scYeral divines have vainly busied themseh·es in exploring, vniy lie eoncenled therein."-A. C. 9280. "Correspondenee is the 11.ppearance of the internai in the external, and its reprcsentative thercin."-A. C. 5423. "The spiritual [thus] nets in the natural, and forms it to a likcncss vf itself, that it may appear before the eyes, or bcfore the world; thnt [11.ceording to truc order] the end mny beeome the cause, arnl the cause bceorne the effect, and thus that the crnl, by the en.use, in the effoet may exhibit itself visible and sensible; this trine is given from ereation; the ultimate products which are in our worlcl are various,-ns mnny as are the subjeets in the threc kingdoms of naturc>,-thc nnimal, the vegetable, and the minerai ; therefore, ail products [both in heavcn and upon earth] are eorrcspomlences. [Thus] corrcspon<lenee is the manifestation of causes in their effoets" (A. E. 1081 et seq.). It connects the infinitely variecl and perfect works of creative skill aurl energy in the spiritual world with those of the nntural worlil ; the inwnr<l mind with outward nature; the innurnerable füculties of the soul with the complicatcd yet harmonious forms of the body; spiritual ideas with natural; revclation with rca.,,011 ; religion with philosophy; God with man; and links the lifc which now is to the agci; of eternity. It is to the W ord of God what the laws of physieal science are to the phenoruena of the univ<.'rse. 'Vithout any ncqunintanee whatcver with seientifie rcscarches and dcduetions, n man may indeed live, nnd enjoy a eonsidcr:thle share of worldly pleasure; but, destitute of 11. knowledgc of thesc laws, 'rhat cnn he learn? Will the pcbble or the f005il disclose to him its origin? Will light by its coruscntions cxplain to him the mysterics of optical phenomcna? Will the planets without the demon;:trutions of astronomy rcvenl to him how they ohey the clcctro-magnectic forces, and how thc>ir conslnnt equilihrium i~ presen·c>d? Or will the thun<ler-clond and lightning-finsh fümiliarizc him with the nature of the irnpondernùlc ngcnts-Jight, hc>at, nnd

TRST!llfONY OF Tl!E SAOREn 117l!TRR.'1.


elcctricity? No. So, neither will the Word of God revcnl to man the ureanu of spiritunl existence an<l mcntnl nctivity, the knowblgc of '~hich is so essentiul to his eternul woll-heing and so earncstly to be desircd, without some acquaintnnce with the divine style in which it is written, und the lnw by which it may be consistently nnrl with certainty interpretcd. The science of correspondences also includes within it rcpreseutntivci<, which have a chief relation to the existence and form of ol~jeeti< in n lower statc, which corrc~pond; and significatives, which have more immerliate relation to lnngnage and worils. Thus the vmions organs of the body nre representatives of the diversified facultici; of the soul, through which they derive from God their innumcrnhle forms and relations, their harmony, unity, and use, but when they act together thcy correspond ; or ns ail created objects are rcprescnt:ttivcs of the living hcavcnly realities of which they are the matcrial forms, so they all côrrespond in thcir active uses. And ail expressions by which such things are deseribed or spoken of in the Wonl, nll the ritnals of worship, and ail disconrse and actions dcscrihed thcrc, arc significative, as Swedenborg most clearly shows, 11hen he usscrts that "hetwcen the things which are of the light of heaven, and those whic.h are of the light of the world, there exist corrcspondenees, and the correspondcnccs which exist in those things which are of the light of the world, nre reprcscntath-es" (A. C. 3337). For bctwcen the light of heaven and the light of the worM, "or bctween those things which are in the light of henven and in the light of the world, therc is giYen a correspondence, '"hen the external or naturn.I man makes one with the internai or spiritual man, that is, whcn the former is subscrvient to the latter; and in this case, the things which exist in the light of the worl<l are representative of su<'h thingi; ns exist in the light of hcaven" (A. C. 3223). "For the things which exi~t hy dcrivation from things spiritual in things natural, a.re reprcsentntivcs."-A. C. 2987. Thus, also, we lenrn thnt the numherlcgs reprcsentntives which the patrinrchs, prophets, and apostlP,s saw, and the significatives whirh they heard in the spiritual world in visions or drenms, or when their spiritual senses of sight and heuring wero miraculously opencd, nnd which they were inspirerl to write and describe in the Word of God, w<>re, in thcir highe.~t significnnre, the living imuges and r<>prcsmtntive spil"Îtunl fürm:1 of the wi~<lom an<l ~oodness of the <liviuc rnind which g1wc thcm birth; and, in a lower 8ense, of the inward t.houghts



affections, perceptions, idcns, nnd <liscoursc of the spiritual inhnbitfillts with which they correspond. "!fonce then it may appcar what oorrrspondcnce is and whcncc it is, what rcprcscntation is, and whenre; viz., that correspondcnce is between those things which appertain to the light of heaven, and those which appertain to the light of the world-that is, betwcen those things which appertain to the internai or spiritual man, and those which appertnin to the external or naturnl man; and that representation is whatever exists in the things appertai11ing [to an external state and] to the light of the worltl-that is, whatever exists in the external or natural man, considcrcd in respect to the things appertaining to the light of hea\·en, that is, appertaining to the internai or spiritual man."-A. C. 3235. It must, however, be always borne in mind, as Swedenborg as.serts from his own conscious experience, that "the rcpresentatives and significatives eontaincd in the W ord of God [ wcrc not originnlly derived from buman intelligence, skill, and observation; however ncute and pcnctrating, for thœe at most can only confirm thcir existence and application, but] from the representatives which exist in another lifc; it wns from another life that such representatives came to the men of the l\Ioi::t Ancicnt Church, who were celestial, and were togethcr with spirits and angels while they li\·ed in the world; these reprcsentatives were derived from them to thcir post.erity, and at length to those who knew only that sueh things were significative, wit.liout knowing what. they particularly signified; but innsmuch as they had existecl from the most ancient timcs, nnd were applicd in divine worship, they were therefore accounte<l venernble and holy. Besicles rcprcscntatives there are also corresponclenccs which both in sound and siguificntion diffor in the natural worlcl from what they nre in the spiritual world; thus, heart denotcs the affection of goo<l, eyes understnnding, ears oheclienee, bands power, besides numberless others; thcsc nrc not so rcprcscnted in the spiritual world, but they correspond, ns natural to spiritual; hcncc it is, that en.ch particulnr expression, ns to the smallcst dot or tittle in the Word, involvcs things spiritual nncl œlcstin.l ; und thnt the \Vord is so inspired, that, when it is rend by man, [the] i::pirits and nngels [attcnding upon him] instnntly perceive it spiritnally, according to reprcsentntives and corrcspondences. But this science, which wns so cultirnted and estccmed by the nncient.\l after the flood, and by which they wcre enahlc<l to think with spirits nml nngels, is nt this dny totally obliterntcd, insomuch that scarce any one is willing to believe that such a science exist.-;; and they who be-



lievc, consider it merci y as somcwhat mystical nnd of no use, and this by renson that man is bccomc altogether worldly and corporenl, so that whcn mention is made of what is spiritual and celestial, he immcdiatcly fcels a repugnance, and sometimcs disdain, yea, even to loathing; what, thcn, will he do in another life, "·hich abideth fore,·er, whcre there is nothing worldly or corporeal, but only what is spiritual and celestial, which constitutes life in henven."-A. C. 2763. And ngain, in another iruportm1t passage, "The Word was sent down from the Los<l to man, and conscquently is different in its origin from what it is in ils externnl form. The Word as bcing divine is not only written for man, but also for the angels attend1mt on. man, so as to serve not only for use to the human race, but also for heaven ; and thnt thus the 'Vord is a medium effecting the union of heavcn and enrth ; t bis union is by the Church, and indecd by the W ord in the Chnrch, which 'Vord, therefore, is of 'such a nature, and is lfütinguished from all other writings. Innsmuch as the lenrned pnrt of the world arc ignorant that things divine and celestial lie iuwardly conceale<l, e\·cn in the historical parts of the \Vord, if they were not impresse<l with a holy vcncration for the books of the \V or<l received from their enrlicst ycars, they would easily be induced to say in their hearts that the Word is not holy, and thnt its holiness is only thus derivcd from the holy impressions received in enrly life; when yet this is not its truc source, but the W ord is holy bccause of its internnl sen.se, which is celestial and didne, and which is effective of the union of henven with earth-that is, of angelic mincis with thosc of men, and thus of the latter with the Lord."-Swedenborg. It hns been snid that it is ridiculous to call corrcspondcnccs a science; bnt the late Ri8hop of Durham bas said that "the symbolicnl Janguage of' the prophets is almost a science in it~élf" (Boyle Lechires); and Rishop Horno calls it quite a science when he says, "If men, in these days, have not heen accustomed to such contemplation, is it not liigh timo they should become so? Can they begin too soon to study and make themselves mastor of a science "·hich promises to its voturies so much entcrtainment, as well as improvement; which recommends the Scriptures, to persons of true tMte and genius, as books intendcd eqnally for our delight and instruction: which demonstrntes the ways of celcstial wisdom to be ways of pleasnntncss, and all her paths to be peace."-Introd. fo the P~abns. . "It isso common," says Profcssor Bush," to represent this doctrine of the science of' correspondcnccs, and the spiritual scnse of the 'Vord, os



the ne pltts 1lltra of extravagance and abstmlity, that the utmost solici· tude is warranted ns to the full and fnir exhibition of the theory in referenee to the Jundamental principles on which it rcsts. Yet we seo the whole matter resolving itsclf into a law as fixed and invariable as the law of creation itself, with which, in fuct, it becomes nlmost identical. The W orcl of God rises under the process into a new revelation, clothed with a sublimity, snnetity, and divinity of whfoh we had not previously the remotest conception. It stands before us the living Oracles of Truth, which are no longer separate from the very being of its Author. He is 11imself in his own truth. New treasures of wisdom gleam forth from its pages, and the most barren details of history, the recorded rounds of obsolotc ritunls, the dryest catalognes of namcs, the most trivial specifications of dates, places, and enaetments, once touched with the ipystic wand of the spiritual scnsc, tcem with the riches of angelic conception. The cosmogony of Genesis hccomes the birth-register of the new-born soul. The garden of Eden smilcs in every renovated mind in the intelligence and affection emblemed in its trees, and fruits, and flowers. The watering strcnms arc the frnctifying knowlcdgcs and truths of wisdom, which make incrense of the spiritual man. The Tree of Knowlcdgc, the Tree of Life, the wily serpent, arc n.11 within us, and within us all. The sccucs transnctcd in the ·Paradisiae purlieus a.rc more or less the sccnes of our 011·n individual cxperiencc, and the narrative censcs to be looked upon merely as the chronicle of evcnts that transpired thousm1ds of years befürc we wcre born."-Reply to Dr. Woods, p. 66. That the sacrcd Scriptures have such a spiritual sensc within thcm, distin~t from the lcttcr, which i.s the shell or rcsting-plaœ thcreof, they thcmseh-cs plainly tcach and positivcly nsscrL The Lord .Jesus himself says, "'rt is the spirit which quickencth; the flesh profitcth nothing: the worcls that I spcak unto you, thcy arc spiiit, and thcy arc life" (John vi. 63). The enlightcncd mind will see that the "spirit and lifc" constitutc the inward spiritual scnsc; and that for this rcason the ' Vord is called in the Rcvclation " TnE LA:un's BooK OF LIF1~" (xx. 12; xxi. 27). In Hosea it is writtcn, " I have spokcn by the propliets, and I have multiplied visions, and J have uscd similitudes,'' snith .Jchov:tl1, "by the ministry of the prophcts" (xii. 10). W11at are similitudes? what are tl1c prophctical wor<ls, and the actions of the prophcts, I ask, apart from thcir hidden signification? and, without it, how arc they to hc 1111de1-i;tood? David thus prnys: "Open thou mine cyt>s, that I ma.y l>ehold wonclrous tl1ings out of thy law" (Ps.



c.."<ix. 18). This is surcly 1\ praycr t.o the Lord thut He \\Îll f.'nlightu1 the :.ight of the under:;tnndiug, ond make manifo:!t to hnman di.oecmment the invi~iblc thinbrs of his Word and kiug<lom. Aud, ngain, hc affirma: "l\fy Longue is the pcn of 1i rcudy writl•r" (Ps. xlv. 1). Who is the rcn(ly 1Hiter but the Lorrl himself? The l'snlmi~t 11·as but nn in~trumcnt in his band, to record his inspircd wisdom nnd his revealcd will. Precj:,e)y the saine h.'l!timony is borne, in n hi~toricnl form, in some of the lnst inspired wonls of Da,·id, whcre it is 11 rittrn : "Tlw Hpirit of the Lord spake hy me, nml his wor<l wn.s in rny longue" 12 Sam. xxiü. 1, 2). Arnl in rl'frrcnro to what be 11rotc, hr furtht'r says: "I will open my mouth in a parablc; I will utler dark 1:1<'\yings of ol<l" (Ps. lxxviii. 2). And yct, ns thcsc dw·k sayi11ys wcrc oui y a plain nn<l simple llfin-ation °of the hi:,tory of the childrcu of famcl, what do 11c jmitly conclude, but that the wholc Î:! n divine allc).:ory :i.s well ru; n truc history, rcconlcd for our spiritual cilificntion, un<l Io promotc ou r cternnl wclforc. Ro nlso of Cyrus, in his rcprœt•nt:itive charactcr as n type of the Lord in his glorific<l hum:mity, nml iilso of ('nch of hi:; füithful followcrs, it is writtcn: " I \\ill girn them tho trcnsurcs of darkn('8S, and hi<ldcn riches of i;iccrct pinces;" uml thut thc~c e::"fm.::ssions lmvo rcRpcct to the communications of wi.&lom und intclligcnl'C, in all nbunrlance tlirough the Wor1 l, is cvidrnt from what follows 111; the divine cnrl of thcsc mnn·cllous gifts, nnrnely, "Thal thou mnycst know that I, the Lo1m, '~ho roll thce by thy name, nm the Gocl of Israel" (Isa. xh-. 3)."
•"Arc we oon<'emcd witb lbe alfalrs or b<'rome new.' (2 l'or. v. 17.) "-Iform:'i Cbnr Jlnvlô nnol l....,.cl ! Jial'e wc anyU1ln1t to <Io m"fllm·11 mi the Pmlm., p. xltl. wiU1 the ark ami the tcmplcT They ore Ill) "A• to symoollMn,lt 1' the normal cxpn-•· more. '' "' we to go up to Jcm•1•lcrn, nnrt to 1•Ion of hclug. Thcrc ls mcanlng lùlnei<• of wor-hlp ln !'lion? They arc d<'">luwd anrl gruvc moment lu cvt•ry organlo auù lnortro<lrlcn 1111<1cr foot by the Turk"' Arc wc 1:aule form: yca, our very •t>et.'Ch ls but " to •M·rffke younK bulloeks acror<llnif to the string of mctApho,.., a• If" e rould not uller lawT Tho lnw ls alJoll•hc•I. ncvcr 111 oo nb- thou~ht wllhout thu pne1ry •\cep lu natU>"\' ttrvl'Ù •o:aln. r>o we pray for Tktory "'cr out nnrl Le<-<1ruc C\ lflcut. ldca lt...,Jf Mot.h, Rdnm, 1111<1 l'blll•tln: or for •lelhu· fs œn"\'d in plctu~.. - the wonl mee.netb nn &Il«· Oum llah)'l•m ! Thcrc an: no ••wh na· hllug<. An•I for aulh..,rlty of th!•, the nlù tlono, no "'~h !'Io.te; lu the "nii>I. Wha(, la\\ tecms witb Il; li 1., ln füt'l, nue IJoM,

l ""z.ed

thcu, do "e mean, wben, tâking ir-1wh ex· <;od-wrllten flgutt: and the commcanator
p~!iiont lnttl our moutbs. \\C utt<•r them i11 of t.he new law 111'' no rtet.• or 111.ake no "ord. our own J)Crjo,()ns, as pa..rt-8 or our dc\·otlon"\ 1 wlthout.A furt.lJ~.'r intl·lllgt·1100 and meaulug bdn1-c Gocl ? A"urc<lly wc nrn•t mean a lwronrl tbc merc or<ltnnry rcadlng. If H e •plrltMl Jeru•alcm and ~ton; " •plrltual 1 ht'ttle<I, lie'""' upon rlay; Ir he preachcd, ark nncl temple; a •t>iritual law; •1•lrltual lie •pake !'rom a •hlp; lt He prayc'f!, Ile f!A<'riflœs; ani1 ~vtritual vktorlt'~ o,·cr ~Ir· \\o{'l\t up into a. mnuntaln; even out of hl! ltual encmll"': ail d«•Crib<d umkr tho ol<t g&rment>. brca.lhc•I a 'lrlur, a11rt hls wonh nnml'I', \\hlCh are •ttll retalued, thoUj!h 'ohl wcre pol('nt Io r al-e the <1CMI. ThC'C ma· thl ugo An: paqoQ away, and &li Ul.lup bave tcrial forms, tbb! •ound, ,(gin, •men. ancl l»te-tbcsc common, un11blluoophicnl, dulJ.



Now t urn to the Gospels. It is thero \Hilton thnt " J csus Fpnko unto the multitude in parables; and without n pnrnble spake H e not unto them: That it might be fulfilled which "as spokcn hy the prophet, saying, I will open my mouth in parables; l will uttcr things which have bœn kept secret from the foundation of the world" ( Mntt. xiii. 34, 35). Agnin, the srune things n1·e dcclarcd in another pince: "A u<I with man y pnro.hles spnke He the W ord unto th cm, ns they were able to hear it. But without a pnrnble 11pnke H e not unto thcm; and '' hcn they were alonc, H e expounlil'<i ail things to his disciple·~" (.Mark iv. 33, 3-1). Now what wcre thcsc pnrnhlcs ancl dark 1<nyin~'!I, "ithout the spiritual things secretly significd-that is, without th<>ir internai an<l heavenly mcnning, prc-emincntly call~l by the Psalmi11t ( P::1. cvii. 43) and by John the Evangclist ( Rcv. xvii. 9) w1111>0J11 ~ W o nre clenrly taught that, "from the crcntion of the world," this divine style of instruction hns been adopted in nccommodation to the nnturc and condition of the human race, nnd as men were able to bcnr, nnd prepared to un<lerstand, these parnbolic mysteries have bccn cxpounded. This, ngain, the Lord iutimatcs, nt the en<l of the Jewi~h and the estnblishmcnt of the Christian dispensation, where H e 11ays to his disciples: "Blcs~e<l are your eycs, for thcy sec; nnd your cnrs, für tlrny hear. For verily 1 say unto you, thnt many prophet.s nn<l ri!l'hteous men have dcsircd to sce those things which yc sce, nnd J1ave not scen them; and to hear those things which yc hcar, and have not heard them" (:MntL xüi. 16, 17). And the npœtJe Pau] a.s..-.crts the s11me doctrine where he writcs: "For we know in part, and we prnphesy in part ; but when thnt which is p<>rfrrt is come, then thnt which wns in part shall hc donc away" (1 Cor. xiii. 9, 10). This mcthod of imparting spiritual instruction to mnnkind, un11rr the nntural i magery of corrcspondcnce, 11en ·c1l nlso to prevcnt the "Îl·ked and unprepnred from injuriug them~cl,·es lJy pcrvcrting the truth, nnd tunling it to vile purpœes; tlwrdi>rc, whcn the <li~ciplt.,; im1uirccl of the Lord th<> rcasou why Ill' spakc to the umltitudc in purablc;., Ile said: " I spcnk to thcm in pnrn.blcs, llCClluse thcy, ;;cl'ing, s<.'C not; and hearing, thcy hcar not, neitht•r 1!0 thcy undcr,.tnml; for this pcoplc's hcart is waxe<l g ross, nnd t hcir cnrs arc dull of hcnriug, und thcir eyes thcy have clo~l; l~t at nny timc thoy should sœ with thcir cyet>, and hear with tl1eir ears, and shouM understanrl with thcir
'tn•lble tbin~in the •hallow lhlnter's "Ymbol. A propbetfe rlddle of the l'nfathomtlmatlon, are pregnan~ wllh the Et.cmal's able Profound, •~ the wbole or Creallon."po>\er and will A gre&t l1J>C, a m7atlc Chippc.nd<Jle·• 11iowghûfor tlle ThlW.flh/J"'-

œ- 1



hcnrt.P, nnd ~hould be oonvcrtoo, and I should hcal thcm ""(Matt. xiii 13-15); that is, lest they should believe and acknowledge the Lord, nnd outwnrdly receive his truth and goodness, whilc their heurts 11cre full of hypocrisy and cvil; in which case it 11·ns forcsccn thnt they woulrl aftcrwards have awfully profaned hil! divine gifts, nnd denicd Him, nn<l, rcturuing to their evil ways, thcir salvation would thu~ hu\"e hccn rcndere\l impog.qihle. This purnbolic mode of nddrcss 11a.s thus mercifully ovcrrulc<l, it appcnrs, to protect the mysterics of sncred truth and goodncss frou• profanation and abuse, ancl to rcstrain presumptuous men from pluuging hl'ndlong into the most fatal and irretrievable statcs of hypocrisy. 1t wn.s to reprcscnt titis accommodation of divine tmth to humnn perception, and to check such deplorablc arrogance and wiekedncss, that "l\rœcs put a vnil upon his face" when hc dœcen<Icd from the Lord's presenœ on Mount !=:iuai ( Ex. xxxiv. 33), dcnoting the obscnrity of the lett-Or of the W ord, which >ails the glory of it.s hiddcn 11 L~1lom from the unprcpare1l, nn<l attcmpcrs it to the prepnred, behol<lcr. How booutifnlly docs the npœtle Paul cluciclnte thi.5 signifi· rnnt tict, ancl point to a pcriod when the inwurd glory should be reven.lcd. "l\foscs," snys he, "put 11. vnil over his füco, that the chil<lren of I~rncl could uot stendfüstly look to the end of that whieh is uboli;:hed; but their milllls wore blindcd: for until this 1lay rcmaineth the samc vnil untnkcn n\\ay iu the reading of the Old Testament; which mil is doue n\\ny in Christ. But evcn unto this day, whcn )[<X"CS i$ read, the vail is upon thcir heart. Nevcrthclcss when it shall turn to the Lord, the vnil shall be taken o.wn.y" (2 Cor. iii. 12IG)." Agnin, wc read, "Upon ail the glory shall be a dcfonco" (Isa. iv. 15). Whilc "the glory" is truly descriptive of the inwnrd spirit of
•" :<n tbat they i<ee no\ wlth t/vir ~>C•, nbr hctweo, uetthcr do tht'). pa.~ o\·er to C'11ri ...t, h1'llr 11 lth tMlr ears, nor undcn.taud wllb that He ml~ht rcouoH• the un [" blrh I• tltlfir lu""""'- nor are ront"CftN, tb&t J IJ11>uld uron thclr hean>J;" and com1•«lng bellevlu·al U•em.'' -!\EWl"n3il&. ers ln the mcn:ly wrbAI t<en•e or th~ l'enta· ~rt• )t.,rt lv. 11, 12.. "~Ince &CelUJt thcy teueh to tllo unbell~vlng Jcw•, sa)~, that '-\'l', aml •1ll uot )'CN-eh·e; and hear1ng th<'Y when •• thcy rea•l the book or Mose<o, thcy hl·Ar, R11<l •lo not understand; 80 lhat the)' ht.ve the val! upon thelr hean.•. and as tblH nr<• 1101 t'Onvcrt.ed and thelr slus forglven." fs not rcmnved, they do not undezstand the -Kt'l!\OF.L. L&w."-Oml. Fau.i., llb. xll., cnp. 4. Boyle aJ>;0,on tho .awe •ubJect,makes the Lukr vlll. 10. "l'lnce ttelng Ule)' do not "<'c: eut\ hr11rlng ther do noc unilcr•tan1l." Collowlug int.cf'Cl't.lng romark: "The buman untler.,tan<linK, llke MO'\."< lu th<' mounl,dOC'I -JIR. J., ('A Rl'E.'<TER. .. Alll(t>'tln, hi roference to thl! vcry pe.•· by an L"'ldunu• c-OU\'CN! wltb Gnd a<qulre
~' , ''~"~~. that .. They wbo talr.ê th~ wrlt,... lnr nr~1.,..... acrording (A) the liter al leU><?,i!O

a IMl!ng lumlnoo·n~--.··-0n theltighttnera•
li.lm Jf<111'1 l•ld4«1 ouu ~> Ood, p, 9'l.

aol d""lre IO be le&r11ed in the Id1111dom or



the W Or(l, its litcml Pense must :tl'Suredly constitutc it.« protcrtion nnd "dcfcnce." In the P&nlmi: we rend, " Blc.«s the Lord, yc his nugels tlmt cxccl in !'trength, t]rnt do bis commandment-., hcnrkening unto the vnice of bis Wonl " ( ciii. 20). The nngels, then, have tht> Wor<l of Go<l for thcir in~lruction and delight; and nll wc know of nnµ-cls is moi:t intimately connected "ith the Wortl of GtMl; withont it, intl('(Xl, hcnven woul<l no longer he heaven. What follows, but thnt ns therc is n liicrnl scnst', adapting the divine wisdom to men on l'arth, 8<) therc mu~t be within it a hcavcnly intcrnnl sensc, adapting ils intcrior lifo to the nngcls in the king<lom of God, and to rcgcncrnting men on emth. Thus the '\'or<l of God i.s a medium connccting earth \1ith hcaven, angcls with men, and hoth with the Lord. ln the Acts the divine Jaw is caJ!etl the " livcly" or" li\·ing oracles" ( viii. R),.., in exact ngrc..-cment with the Lord's O\rn <lcclaration, thnt ltis wordi; arc "spirit nn<l life," :111d also "ith the ini;pircd nflirmation mmle to l\lose.'l, aiul cit.ed by our ble&ed JAJrd him!:!df: " l\Inn doth not live hy brcnd only, but by evcry worcl that procccdclh out of the mouth of Go<l doth man live" (Deut. viii. 3; l\lntt. iv. 4; Luke Î\.
•" L1v1sn OaACL&". The word tran•latcd 1or 0.rf.lianity, wnulcl g1,·e hl• J>"<'ple tlle omc!t< •la:nlnes a ditin• rci·daJîon, a E}llrihlAI lntcrp~IAU<ln, 11nder<tan•lln1:. and c<llwnfront God hirn"C{f, no lb bere a11pll~l IO u-c of the IAw, or Oltl Te>lllmenl, \\llh the the .VoMiic Law; to the Olrt T""lamtnt ln ~n· Ty}ICR, nnd 8ymhol8, nnd ~ncrnmcnt<, by


cra.I (l<om. Ill. 2; llcb. v. 12); aod to llfri~ nn:lalimt ln general (1 Pct. lv.11)."-J>r. A. Clartt"I (}"'""·Oil Arl• \•iil. "ln the l'bll?niclan 111111rue the Orarlc ls rollcd the }Joulh of QOll; and to sapt~ cxna1ull 1111! m<ml1' of God, I• the same il' to wc con•ult the oraclc."-U Clerc. Sec Ouokl!s Jlt~iotl, //ir Thtogony, 1. r.2;. • .• Lockt', Oil this tt•xt 12 Cor. li!. G), "11)'1, 'ln fuel, \\C flnd Paul truly a minhteroflhe •tilrit or U1c law. c•(l<'<'lnlly in his Epl•tle to the Itcltrl'W•. whcrc be 'hnws thnta •1>irit11nl ~cu><e r nn tbrough the )tm.aical in,tltntluns and wrltinl:".' Xow fnnn hcncc Il nppcars 1111\t J.ockc \\l\S of oplnl<>11 that the law of ~lc..c-., b<"l<lcr the literai 11<·nse, ha<! a api ritual monnlng. whlch c'Uuld not be •ll"<"<"crcd wlthout ln,plrntlon.''-Iloi8crn on the R1n#.les, lntrod., p. xvll. "Jeromt' ol>-erve.<1 t.hat 'whnt•OC'\'Cr ls l'romi'<'<I to the l'l'M'llt<'• œrnally. "Ill at one lime or othcr Le f\Jlfilled ln 11• •r>lrltunlly.' "-In Pr:xf., Jib. lv., ln J tre. "Il)' tho divine proml•t1 of the T.onl, made to the proplwt Jeromlnh (ch. xxxl. 31. 32), was met.nt thQt God, 1111dcr llle Dbpeu.allon


wrltlng, <tc.mplng, or l111pn•1.-lng thcm. ns IL \\Crt', UJ'IOO thclr •t>lriL•; cwn to serve lllcin a' n dirint m•l•lt1" whel'\'<m to mount up, b)· •·ontempbtlon (throu11h ritllh and the operation or the lloly 8plrlt). rnm1 <'ftrth to hen\·cu, and from the mv>l<rù8 ln the Wor<l to l11clr mcrln.tlm: tv:rlll'• in God lllmJ<clf."-llollotrov'• Ltt/.tr awl ~piril, ml . 1., l'· lx. "l'urely, the <lt'll\"c,.. nœ or (,racl, and thelr Tt't'l'l>li011 or the n;,·lnc Il\\\ At the foot of tht' mou nt, \H'~ typlcnl of ll••l'S u1odc or dcnll11g wlU1 hls Jl(..iplc un•l•·r the 111,. r~·11..,1lion of the' hl'lt<·r <'o,·cnn11l.' lie tincla thcm ln a .state of t'<lTDBI ho11<lagc un<:l~r -.111 and »atan. The)' i:n111n for dclh·cmnrc, but ba,·e not ~trenJ.,-th to 1•11'œt If for th<>m~h'cs. Gocl unllertakcs for lhcan, not hy onlhutry mcanA, but extraonllnary: not by 11a1ural, lmt b)' mlraculou<, whirh rc-ult tn llw ahol· i-bln1: o r dcath, and hrhu;in~ llft' nn.1 im· mortallly to Jight. lie appoint' lhcm a lencl1•r; lie gi\·cs thl'm, ln the pniic or rcv· dntinn,thcpil1ar of the cloud by<ltly and lhc plll11r or Hrc by 11l11ltl. As tJipy follnw thelr leader lu Ille excrd•c of a •Impie fui th, tllcy




That the npo!'tlc P nul most di.•tinctly recogni1,cd the l:\nme doctritw ilf an internai ~Pn~ in thp dhiue W orrl, is eviclcnt from ail hi~ writinh"'• ru< '1here he uJ<.-crts that " The letter killcth, hut the spirit giveth life" (2 Cor. iii. G); an<l this iR true not only of the mcrc observance of the lcttcr of the law of l\Iœt'tl, to the ncglcct of that spiritual intcrpretation which Christianity, or the Gn!'pel dL"}l<'tNttion, reveals as con· tained within it, but it aJ,o implic:i, more remot<?ly, that the lctter of the Word of God, when l:\l?parated from the inwnrd spirit which givcth lifc, by a dt'nial of its existence, is constnntly pcrvcrted hy acnsunl in· tcrpretatio~ an<l re:iiionin~, whicb dea<lcn and <l~troy within us ali revcrence for its authority and chnracter. Ro in bis Epi~tle to thr
CXfll'rl(!Jl(:e dcll •crntJC(>; ""they look Io the plllar•>ftbe dou1I 1.nd the plllu o!llro,&hey llr f<!e<b thcm wlth • bre1.1I frvm he-.ven; 1.nd mates waie,.. to ir;iish out for thcm in U1e dc-.crt: He •11111.etl the •pir· Hull.! mck "lllch follows U1 cm: lie reveals hl.• wlll to thcm; lie writcs lt ._, a law ln thelr hl't\rto; lie makc- thcm • &temple,' '" tahcniaelc,' lu" hkh 11.- dwcll• bf hll!<:pirlt: Il•• places hi• naine' among U1Mn; He is thelr God-tht'Y arc hl• pcoplc."-Pl<k"• Poolor'• Jlcmorial qf J:o11pt, lht' Red S.a, IM Wil·
•·A• the 1ieoplc of l•rnel were type., and art' ,enerally allowe<I to be ..,, nr the elect orc;.w\ ln ail &,llM; '">Ülcenemlc- \\hicb lhey wnoe eojoinccl w root out,"<.'('111 to ~rmbolil!(: tho"<'•plritual f<X'• whlcb the Chrl<tlao ts en· jolnc1l to avol1l llurlug hl< wnrraro upon carU1. Thi< i<ka a1•1~'llnl the ml'lrP probl.hlc ther1.dlct.J Import ofthelr namcs,whlch corrv Jlond verych,...,.lrwitb th<>'<.'meutioned hy the &f""'tlc in 2 Tim. lii. 2, er.c. Thus Oie Amoru,. menn the ph>Ud, bo1111tlng rebcls (A mil'> li. 9). 1 hc /\inoanit,~, the covctous, or worldly tralllckh1g, sucb &.• th08e men· Unn<'l ln Rom. X\111. 4, 11, ctc. The Hütües, Jlcn-e. tcrrifyiu;t, tru~-e·b1'<'1.lm.. , cte. The I'!·ri:;IU-o, pcl'til'C'utors, scattere.,., bla.phem· c,,., etc. The llivltcs, mcre worldly livers, "Il<! and dif!Orilcrly per>0ns, pleuure-lo\·efll, ctr. The GiroOJ1h•ln. ftltby wandereM, lu· rontlnent, etc. Ali theoe -e\·en nations are fl'<'qucnUrcaJll•I hyagencraloamc, 0nia4,.. lln; and llterally and splrftually the word l~trucconcemlng thcm,that thcyarc grœtcr an!\ rolgbller than the people of God, lmpos,fbl~ ~>be vanqul•hed by homan streogth, and redudblc onl7 b~ the Lo•» Ood or S.lJI.. AOTU. And, aW. (th~ ChrMl1.n while oo e&rth may oay), U1ey are yet ln the land!"~tif'• Jin.-. .<!olit., p. 2t . " lt ls ab11nda11tly evldcnt th&l bcBldes the


11.N •11~1<.-d.

d'Tnrx•. and IM JJvJ11 !.and.



lltrrnl <eDt!e of ~rlpture. thel'C """ 1. hlghcr sen.'e 1.dopted: for.as w tblll r..ct. Eucb~rlu• (lJl'hop at /,v!]riv•I.... n. 431)>flt'llk' m"'t •lt· dd,•clly lu hb preface to thl• hook, wbl~h ~prnng out of the mode of lnlt'rpretation whlch then prcvalled. We 'hou Ill 80 n•gnr•I the ~rlptUre• arcordl7tg Io IAt /11,a ll'lùd1 Il" ,.,.rlptun ü"l(f .\o ln man the"! I• a body and a •oui, l'O in ~erlpture it \la• hellend th•t tht·re l•a litcro.I and an hlstnrlcal t1ense: but that under Oil• thcre h a ~plritunl seu•c, rclatlng V> hlghcr or to spi • !tuai thlngs." "The i'crlptur<"! 1.ppean.-d •• A verltable orad~. e\·cry word ~lm:/"11 •if G ~tp 1ignijlNIJ/Qn." "At Oie tlmc of ChrM Ane! bis Apo•Uc-, thi• m0<\e or lntcrprcUnl{ theOlcl T~tament prcvailed not 011lyamon11 the Jews at ,\lexaudrlo., but also iu tll~ ll('hools of Pal~tinc: a1<d il """ adopte« ln rf,ft:rtn« lt> tM ,v,,,. Tr.<l<1•tt111. This mode or lntcrpreUni! the Old Te-umcnt ror the of ('hrlslllwlly V'<U pret'<Jlrtd lhroughOMI the tnlirtaj)Qllullcagtand ajlrruY<rd•."-Dr. Lut:.'1 J/lb. lfcrmet~. Jllt9, pp. lll, 1()7. E;:traclcd/ro1n J>r. Tqftr1 re1>1v Io Dr. Jlrhlcr. Dr. C'onyel'>\ )lldf\Jeton, ln hl• D<;/tm:t!, U· aure11nsthal"ThcallCl(Orlcalll&foCe:i:pound· lnit,for whlch we have the authorltyof mt1't or the primitive l'e.thcrs ood the lJCl>t Jcwl•h wrlters, was llO rar from glvlng scandai lu former age!! of the Church, that, on the con· trary, to sllght lt wu lookcd uron as herell· cal, 1.nd Ml of dangNon• con-equen...,.., "'l'iere ezre q/ the lterrl1,.. mailll•i1'

gi••• .,.... •


lhfJI the Scrl)>turu nf IM <)(d T1ala11icnt wghl to be heldm11Allcall11, Qf' ()(/IL'MJ•i•ttlu:m qf IM t<lmtirol thino1 ,,.,.,.lil)fltd."-JJil~inlh. P"trum.


prr Karg. Pi<rf•. 131'9. tom 1.,c. 3, pp. 270. 100. C'lcment of .\lcXADdria &1-o t~lls us th•I ••the whole !'<-rl1•tnre ls" rl~n ln the p&rl.· bollœl style" (Slrom., h·., tom. Il.. p.568. Ed. by Potier), for \\ hicb be gtvee scveral rea• f<Ons.





Romans he thus writes, "For he is nota Jew who is one outwnrdly; ncither is that circumcision, which is outwar<l in the ficsh: but hc is a J ew who is one inwardly; and circumcision is that of the hcart, in the spirit, an<l not in the letter ; whose prni~e is not of men, but of Go<l" (ii. 28, 29). And this explanation is in pcrfcct aeconlance with the tcaching of the Old Testament, wherc wc rend of "the cir· cumcision of the heart" (Dent. xxx. G; .Jor. iv. 4). '' In the Epistle to the Ephcsians, also, the apostlc, whcn hc is spcak· ing and exhorting on the important subject of marriage, ilcclares that what A<lam says in the second chapter of Genesis respeeting the union of man and wife, is "a grcat mystery; concerning Christ and the Cburch" (v. 30-32). The apostle Peter, also, nlludcs to Noah's ark, and snys thnt it is "The likc figure whcreunto evcn baptism doth also now s:we us" (l Pet. iii. 20, 21 ). Thus what is written rcspeeting the ark and the flood, is cvi<lcntly to be intcrpreted, and, indeed, eau only be intclligibly undcrstoo<l, as n scries of divinely-inspired figures and types rc· speetinp; human rcdemption and salvation. Not only <lo the apostles spiritually cxplain some of the divine allegorics of the Old Testament, and the eeremonics of the J ewish dispensation, but in like m:mner, :ilso, certain narratives which are there recordcd, and wcre histori· cally truc. In his Epistle to the Galati:ms, the npostle Pnul, referring to the Patriarehal history, sRys: "It is written that Abraham hnd two sons, the one by a boud-mnid, the other by a free-woman. But be who w11s of the hond-woman wns born aftcr the flcsh; but he of the frec-womnu was hy promi;;e: Whieh things are an nJicgory: for thcsc nrc the two eoveMnts; [an<l] ~1s hc that was born nfter the flcsh pcrsccute<l him that was horn after the Spirit, so it is now "(iv. 22-24). 13 In RJ.>enk., .. Extcmal circnmei•lon WM a. symbol of mental and moral purity, and extirpation of evil alTcctlons and dcslrcs. Bence, ln the Old and Xew Testament, clrcumcision is applied li> the mind."-llloomj!dd's Svrw1>•i3. vol. lv ., p. 262. "Ma.cknlgM wcll observe~ that the Apos· tic, by disllnguig)ling bctwccn •the spirit and the lettcr' or the law or lltoscs (Rom. li. 29), lntimates that the rites enjolned ln that lnw wcrc typlcal, an<I had a spiritual or moral mcaning; as Mores also cxpressly dcclarcd to the Jcws."-lb., vol. v., p. 401. .. In the orlginnl, "which thlngs arc allegorlr.ed," that ls, "allegoricnlly applicd," "wlthout destn>ylng tbcir hi~torical vcrlty."
-See BW.op JiarsNa ud., p. 32. /J.ïllo'a Oye• Bib. Lit., p. 115. "In allegorics framcd by man, the groundwork !s gencrally fiction, bccause of the tlirficulty or find!ng one truc serics of filets which shall cxactly repre!W!nt anothcr. Dnt the gTCat Disposer of e\•ents, • Known unto whom arc nll hls works,' rrom the beglnnlng tothc etul of t!me,wasable to cffect this; nnd the Scrlpturc alk-goric.' nre tbcreforc cqually true ln the lcttcr and ln the spirit of them . The cvents slgnlfylng, no less than those signllled, rcally happene<l, &$ they are sald to have done. Why the nUegories of this mos1 perfcct fonn, wlth whlcb the book of God abounds, a.ud whlch are all pregoo.nt •dth



ing of the childrcn of Israel, their reprcscntative journey, and what befell them in the way, as signifying thiugs spiritual, he thus writes to the Uorinthiuus: ".Morcover, brethren, I would not that ye should be ignorant, how that ail our füthers were under the cloud, and ail pnssed through the sen; and were ail baptizcd unto Moses in the cloud nnd in the sca; and did ail cat the same spiritual mcat; and did nll drink thc·snme spiritual drink; for they drank of that spiritual Rock which followcd them : and that rock was Chri~t. Now nll thcse things happcned nnto thcm for ensamples [rvn0< types] : nnd they nre writtcn for our admonition, upon whom the ends of the world are come" ( 1 Cor. x. 1-4). In the Epistle to the H ebrcws we meet with little else than a spiritual intcrprctation and application of Jewish history. Thcir burntoffcrings and sacrifices, thcir meat-offcrings and drink-offcrings, thcir priesthood and rituals of worship, the.golden censcr and the ark of the covcnant, the golden pot that had contained the mmma, Aaron's rod which had buddcd, the table of the covenant, and over it the cherubim of glory overshndowing the mercy-seat, thcir füsts and festivals, their civil and eeelesiastical government, their battles and journeys, thcir captivitics and deliverances,-iu a word, the whole history of the J ews, as recordcd in the W ord of God, was, as to evcry particular, representative of spiritual and divine thiugs (Heb. ix., etc)."
truth of U1c blghe•t lmport.,sboald be treated witb nci:Ject and contempt, wblletlle Imper· ftoct allegorlcs of man's devlslng are nnlnr1;11lly S<lugbt e.11.er and admlred, a.. Ille mœt plen•lng and elllcaclous method of conveylng ln•truction,111• ncx easy to Slly."-ll&rnt'• ll>•rn>ertl. "" the Poalms, pref. Io llCIO tel., p.

"St. C)'l'll or Alexandrla, in hts Commen· taries 011 Jsalab, 811)"1. •The word8of the holy prophcts 11hvays carry a mlghty depth, and erœp nlong by 00/J/ruu and Melden cour,.... Thercfore, we are not Io suppœe the.t Ille outwnrd ~urfaœ or the lettcr alwars ptt$CnlS the trnth lntcndcd: but tbat Ulemlml<lland llJ>iritual mea>ting of the leUô', joined wilh e.nd concclvcd under the lettcr, ls rather to be consldered. For the style of the holy prophet.~ ls everywhere ob~re. and full of dari: Mntenccs, as contalning the unfolding of the dlrl11t mysttrito."' -Jlollou;c.y'• Ldler and Spirit, et<:., vol. !., lnt. Ill!. ., "There ls ouc way, and a very obvlous one, ln wh!ch the con$l<lcratlon of the rit· ual and hiswry mti:ht oonfinn the early Chri&tians in their mystical explanatlons of tbe wbolc exi.ernal world. They found

some pe.rticulars, both ritua.J 11nd bistorlcal, mystlcally cxpounded ln the New Testa· ment, 1111<1 plain Implications, almô.'< t SAACr· lions, tbnt the wbole was capable of ~lmllar exposition: e. g., Illat' Moses made aU thlng1; e.r.cording to the pattern 8bcwed hlm ln the mount,' 11nd !bat 'aU tb&t befcll God's people ln the wllderncss bappened unto tbcm 111< type$ of ns.' Wben. therefore, ln the natu · rai world tbey had a.~œrtaln<'<I a few chier symbols, it was reasonable for Ulcm w Infer that tbesc; too, wcre but speelme11•, •lngle chords of a barmony to be Cully made out berealler; Uley woald fœl llke learnera of a Janguage, wbo have ploked up Ille mc&ning as yet but of a fcw words hcre and therc, but have no donbt wbl\tcvcr Illat the whole has Ils meanlng: and perhaps tbeywould tbink that tbey found warrant for this iu sueh texts as Illat or St. Paul to the Romans, 'The ln· -risible things or Rlm Crom the crcation of the world a.re clearlyseen, bclng under;;tood ùy the thlngs the.t are made.' This would secm lo lay down Ille principle or cano11 or mystical lntcrpreto.tlon for lh6 works or Nature, as the othcr texts Just now spcdfied. for the Môi!aic ceremonles and the history





Aud this spiritual iuk1 ·pl'etntion of the Ohl T~>!tlnment, the """cn-d writer distinguil'h~ from the mere Ictter, hy <.'nlling it ""<lfül food" (Ueb. v. 12-1-l). .\1111 thus wurrnnted hy npo~tolie e.xnmplc, it hns bcen commou plu:a.,eology, from the enrlit~t pcrio<l of Christinnity, to spcnk of the sacrifice!\ of the henrt, or the hnllowing of ail the nffretions (IIeb. xiii. 15, 1G; Rom. xii. 1); of the nltnr and the tl.'mple of the soul (1 Cor. iii. 10, 17; vi. Hl); of" a bctt.er country, thnt is a henvenly," as promiscd uuder the type of Cnnnnu ( Heb. xi. Hl); of 1i spiritual " bondage " from which the soul must be dcli \"Crc<l ( Rom. viii. :n);"' of spiritual enemics from whom we must be protected, :md
of the Jew11."-Troc!8 /f)r IM 7'imea, lxxxlx.. the examplc nnd 11hn!low of thlnf!• ~clC!I· I'· 11\ii. tial.' "-!':e<>t. 1 .. l. Il .. I'· 205. T. T., p. :1-·>. "The mention of the sanctuary aml 1.1\b!'!~'Ott, ln hlA comment on Jo:xoc1n~ xxvl., <>rn11t·ll'. the ark, and certain other (ltlrti<-u· whereln are dc.,cribe<l the ark, lt• "hnpt.', ma· lllr<, 11111•t of course lcacl rdlcellng mlnd•, lerla~. and d,'t.'onltlons, tu1mlt• thni the c,·cn \\lthoul furthcr lnfonnaUnu, t.o the \\bole h N!l'l'C.'<mtallvc of 8plrltnnl lhlnJ"". •nrml"'" 1hat ln regard llkc" lt<e or othcr lie""~"'· "The "hule repn><e111' the J'(',.,.nn p•inL• not 'IJl'Clfied.o.nd inshon lu lcswbole and 1loctr1nc or C'br1~1. bis trul' dmrt'h 1md rwi:c awl rlctail, the Jewf-.h cwnomy was ail hea.-enly lhhig>." An<la,,..,.10, ln hl· ln1ro1yple11\ of the Christilin."-1!>., I'· l&i. durtoryrcmark•On Lcvitlcus, the œmc cml ln a nCJblc pa.•<agc of Orlgcn lu the flf'th llCJll wrlter ~"''· .. JI principally CCJll•l•t• or llomlly of I~vltlcus, ctt<>d by the wrlt.cr of rltual lo.w~. dcll,·cred to l\106('!! from ah"rn Tmrts/or 11.e Tlmc.,lxxxlx., on nccouut oflbc the mcl't.'y·l!CO.t du ring the first month ll~t lil(ht whlch lt ooems to throw on analogy, he the Tabcrnnclc wn8 crcclccl; U1011gh moral AAY•, "'J h<' dct.l\ilsof the la" ('OnCcrnlng 56.<'· pl'C'CCptg are frt'<l.ucntly lnlcr>pcl'liCd. In r11lt..u arc ln bt.> reœlvt..'<1 ln a dlncrcnt i;cn•e tbel'C 1·cremo111t11 the Gospel w11S prrarht'<I from thut whlch the lit<>ml text polnt.s out. t.o l•racl; ancl the solemn and eX11Cl ma11· El>e, "hen they are pnbll~ly rcad ln the ner, and the mauy repetitiono wirh \\hlch church, the)' tend raU1er to the hlndrant.'e thcy are cnrort.'t'<l, are •uitcd t.o lmpre« the and suh,·cr-ion or the l'hri-tinn Calth tb&u ser1ous mlnd wlth a ronvlcllon that 11<>mC· 1>1 the admoni tion an!l e<llflt'lltlon or men. thlng hnmen•cly more importD.ut ancl •pirlluttr "" 'earch ami ftm.l ln what 'Cll'Cth<."-C llnRI than the cxlcmal observant.'e~ la thing• >Rl<l, and mark lhcm, as thcr rouehe<l undcr cach of them." onght "ho lbink of God, who 11 the de· "Jcrtc•alcm was lmta type of the Clirl•tfrm ch11"t•d Anthorof tht-sc laWll, thcn the bcarer Ch urch, a• the t•nrntù Israel, or tho cnrnal \\Ill be<.'Umt• a Jcw hHl~(.'(1. but,• a kw ln· .cccl nnd po•«•rlty of Abraham, wcre of trnc war•lly,' aœording to the dMlncllou of St. and •lnt.'<lrc <'hrMlan•. And thcreforc l'aul Paul ln the J<:pi;,tlc to the lto111n11'. Tbings t•xprcS'ly <llHin~ui,hei. ùctwccn the l'•lrthly vl•ll•lc ft'taln wlth lnvi>Jblt.' no 'mali ft.ffin· Jeru•ulem and the Jcru.•alem "hl<·h h ity; .., that the Apo>tll' aflirm,, •the fmisl· Rho"c !Or !'rom abovc, i. e., tbe L11ri•U1111 hie thlnK' of God, Crom the füundallon or <'l1urd1), (whlch he ,..,., b the mothcr of u.. the \\Otl<l;' to be <een, • b<>lng un•Jcr•tood by all)."-.Dto11Shcr/•l("/t11'<rm<>M,1., I'· G. thl• thlnl-"' which ar~ mnde.' A• thcrefore a '"Tho scvcn lmplous nations, or da""-' of inutnlll affinlty exhts bet\\N'n thh1g•\hiblc Ir.habitants, who JlO"'C.~d th<' land or Co.and ln\Mble, earth nn<l hra,·cn, M>lll au<l naan, and who wcre o\·<rUirown, or made tlc,h. body and oplrlt. and of r<>mblnation~ •ubl;ervlcnt, or wcre cxlir)'nted hy the de· of ll•lw..c ls made up thih pr..,.cnt worltl ; "" sccndant• of 1-r11cl, r1.•vre.cnt.c<l diO\lr<'nt ul•o lloly ~rripturc, wo m11y licllcv<', I• 11111do klnd• of hlol11try, ancl varion s hcN·clltnry up of ~MIJlc aud lm·islble parlll; n...,t, as lt e\'ll hM• a111l fa!"' \>el'!ltlasions of th<' mu, \\l'l'e, of a klud of bolf11, l.c. of the lctt~r Ul'lll a1Hl "<'1"1tul minci. whlch, warrhll{ whleh we "<-'C "ith our eycs; ucxt of a'""'· ai:aln"1. the powcN of lu'fl,· en in thu 'IOul, 1. c .. or the -eu...: wblch ls dl-em·cl'\.'<l wltbln 1mu.t loe clthcr e:r.tlrpnl<'<l or •uhdued ln that letler: thlrdly. or a 1plril, 0-0 far a• it spiritual .-0011.at, bcfore man can be tùlly !'rontaln• al<O ln ltsclf rerlaln hl'l\\'~nly regencrated and at&aln a atate of eteroal thlnG'I: as says lhe Aposlle, 'thcy i.erve to pca ce.




ii.piritunl <langrrs from which wc hope to escape (1 Tim. vi. 12; 2 'l'im. iv. 7); of spiritunl trials in the wilderness, which we have to endure (1 Pet. iv. 12); of a spiritual Re•l Sea and J ordan, over which we must pass; of heaven-descended rnnnna, on which we must fcefl; of living waters gushing from the Rock of Truth, by which we must be refreshed; and of that delightsome land visibly outstretched liefore us from Pisgah's mount, which we may inherit as n11 eYerlastiug posi:ession. A land thus described in the bcautiful language of correEpondencc, in order to represent a heavenly state of rninù, or the establishment of henven in the soul, and also to alfor<l us foiut iùcas of the surpn$iug lovelincss, the inoonceivable grandeur, the b~at ific glory of the hravcnly world; the nbundance of its i>recionl'< blcssings, the splendor of its spiritual aml diversificd sccnery, the incffahlc delights, the ecstatic virtues and the exalted graces of the evcr-hlessed inhabitants, of which the outward objects, in ail their indcfinite Yariety, are ail exact correspondcnœ.~. "A good land and a large, a land flowing with milk and honey" (Ex. iii. 8). "A land of l.ills and vnlleys, and drinketh water of the rain of heu.Yen ; a land that the Lord thy God careth for: the eyes of the Lord thy GoJ are always upon it, from the hcginning of the year even unto the end of the yenr" (Deut. xi. 11, 12). "A land of brooks of wnter, of fountains and dcpths thnt spring out of valleys and bills; a land of wheat, anù bndcy, and vines, and fig-trees, and pomcgr:tnates; a land of oil olive and honey ; a land whereiu thou shalt eat bread without scarceness, thou shalt not Jack anything in it; a land whose stones are iron, and out of whose hills thou mayest dig brass" (Deut. viii. 7--9). And whnt docs ail this justly imply, but that the wl1ole of the eventful history of the Children of Israel, narrated by the plenarily inspired penman, is to be spiritually explained and understOod. Thus the IIoly Word inculcatcs its own spirituality, and the writings of the apostles most abundantly confirm the testimony.'1
lu the Greek Dtt'Oliom of Bishop An· 1 I.echery . . . . . • . . . JJtvlte. drews, translated ln Tr~t• for the Timrs. TheC~rcsofUfe(Covctousne.-) Co.naanite. lxxx.-m. (fourtb day. p. 48). occurs the fol· , Lukcwarm Indlffcren<"c tSlotb) JcbtL<lte. lowlng lntcrcstlng pa<sage, whlch indi<-atcs 1 [Give me) thnl the above nations were regardcd by IIumlllty, pltifulncs.<, patience, sobrlety, thnt author as figoratlvc or uuclean pr!ncl· purity, contcntment. rcady zcal.0 pics ln the mlnd; Il oC<:ors lu the prayer ü Voltaire, in ignorance of the truc lntcrft>r gracc. prct&tlon of the Divine Word, saron.stlcally "[Dcfend me from) quotes the passage ln Gen. xv. 18. whcre the Prlde . Amorite. Lord sald to Abraham, "l'nto thy sœd I ~:nvy . Hittite. have glven tblsland. Crom the r!Yerof F.gypt Wrath . Perlzzite. unto the grent river. the river Euphrates: •• Oluttony Girg1i.Shlte. and says, .. 'fhe critlcs ask, how could God



rroml"<' the J''"' U1i• lmmcn•c ('Ountr)' "hlch th<r ha1·c owYcr possc-.....00? ancl how roul<I 1;0.1 gin· ln Uoem forfrer tbal •mall part or J'llh.,.Uow out of wbich the) bave ""long 1.....,11 drln-u!"-PhU. Di<L, an. A!>ra· hm•, ,·ni. 1.• J'. 1:1. '-'uch ba."CI.,,.,. objections &l!!\b"t the Won! of t;<XJ ftJI IO the grouod. llkc•"" Dagnn did bl>fore the ark (1 Rfllll. "-), whm the true prlnciples of luterpretatlon are kn»\\ n. Thnl emhwnt men htwe had some Mea or the tr•1c m<'tho<l of cxpoundlug the \\'ord of C.od, thnnRh unacquaiuted witb the dlrcet 1aw> of c·orrC.'f>Ondcnce, mlght be conftrml'd by an ahundancc of cvldcnce. J quote ln prowof n 1••"•1lll from nishop IIorne's Ôlm· mrnlaJ'!I on t/u' Jloot of halmil. The prelatc "'>·•,"The •plrltual ~eMC is, and mu''t be, pcrnllar to the f<<-rlpturcs; b('CSu!'e of thno.c pcl"nn• 11ntl tran<acUons only, whlch are U1t•rt• lll<'l\tlOnl-d and rt'<'Ord.!<l, can il be amrme.J for certain that they were des!gncd Io be fog11rathe. And sbould any one att<-mpt to apply the narrative of Alexander'• expcdltlon by Qulntu• Curtlu.•. or the f'om. mente.ri<·~ of ~r, M tl1e New Te<tament wrltcrs have donc, 11ncl tau1tht us to tlo to the historie• of the Old, he would fincl hlm· self une.bic to procced threc •teps wltb eon· •lstrnry ami proprlcty." "The argument, ther<>fl>rt'. whlrh would Infer the alJ.,unllty of 'Ul'IK>'lnR the Rerlptures to ha"c a spirit· uni F< " " " from the ncknowlcdgcd ab<urdlty of >up1w>-h>i:- hMorics or poem• merely hu· man to hR"C lt, I• luMocluslve: the ~rcd '1rlllu1:• 1l11Tt•rhtlf ln that respect f'lom ail othcr "rltl111:~ ln tht> world, as mucb as the nalllrc of the 1"11\M('tlons they re!Atc dllfCJ'!j fnim 111l othntn1n•n~tion•. and the A T'TflOR "ho n·lnt<ot thcw dlllens Crom ail otber au· thon."


Orl1:<·n «Ay•," They who find fllult wllh tht 1111.,.,orll'aJ expo•ltlon or the &rl1•tul'(', And mah•ll•ln that lt hu no olbereeul'<.' thon llutt whkh th•' t<'xl •hows, take awar tht' kcy of knO\\ lt'l~-c."-J11 Jlntl., cap. xxlll. .. Ill all thlnl;"," !!l\)'S Augu•tlnc, .. that m.• (0<>1 hatb 6pokeo unto W! (Io hls wrltten \\'ord). wc mn-t JOCek Cor the spiritual mean. lng. to a.•œrtaln whlch your dœl= ln the uam~ of f'hrlsl wlll assist us. By whlch, M hy fuvblble hatuls, ye knock at the lnvl•lhl~ i;nt~. thut hnlslbly lt may open to us, &11<! yc lnvMbly may enter ln, and lm'lslbl)' hc hr1\]rcl."-J"'11m clll., Enamllio. Ancl aotnln the mme wrlwr 0&y•. "Barley, as yon lmow, I• so.formed that you eome wlth dlftioulty to the nouri•hlng part of lt, wmpped up n• lt l• ln a eovcrlng or chaft', and that rhalT llllll and rlea,·lng, M> a• not to be strlpp<'<I oll''llth•JUl •ome trouble. Ruch ls the kttc-r of the Old Tl'•tament, clothed \\ith the" mpplngs of carnal <acmments, or token•; but If you on« couic IO its marrow, it nourl>hM a111I "8tl,flC"."-J" Joo.n, tr. 2l, 25. "ll'hlll u tM rhnff Io lht u·hrot, roUh tM Lonl.~ (Jer.

xxlll. ~'>!.)
AUJfll<tlncal«0rcmarkslbat"Now no one doubt• thnt both ohjects berome known to u• wlth gr<.'nter dellght by mean' of simili· tuclc•, and thlng• that arc sought for wlth somo dlfficulty are d1sco"orcd with more pl<11•11.1re. l\lagnlflcently, therefore, and hcalthflolly for u~. 11ath the lloly Spirit •o ndnpl(.-d tht> Sac-red Rerlpturl"! u to satl!<l'y our huu11cr by J18.•S<lg<'$ more man!· f<"I, 11n1l hy th•"'<' lhat &rc •nore obscure to 1>rc1'\•nt f.l>tldlousu~."-.De J.JocL Cllril., Ub> Il., \OI. Ill., I'· O.



llTE have alrearly secn that the only science hy whir.h the Word of VV G0<l can hc spiritually unfoldcd, nml clearly distingni~hcd from
ail other compositions whatsocver, is the ~cicnce of corrci:;pondences. Let us investigate and illustrate the nature and applieütion of its first principles. The science of correspondences is cnpnblc of heing establishcd and confirmed by the strictest rcnsonin~ and 1lcduction of philosophy. Indced, the absolute principles of ail philosophy must he sought and found within us, and this is trne of the philosophy on which correspondence rests; but, as Swedcn borg states, "it may al~o he gathercd from analogies, and evcu from geometry it~lf" ( H. K. 41 ). This mo1lc of reasoning, howcvcr, woul1l learl ns into a long train of mctaphysical inquiries anrl rcscarcl1cs for which gcncml readcrs have but little leisure, and still Jess inclination. In gencral, we mny say of ~cience, that it ÎR n kuowlcclgc of the relation which exists bctween the clivine idcas nnrl divine works; betwecn "·hat is infinite and what ia finitc; bctwcen whnt is spiritual and what is natural; anrl between what is mental and whnt is matcrial. 'Vhilc füble has no higher aim thnn to inculeate moral mnxims which have relation only to carthly existence; whilo figures of speech arc but arlornmcnls of discourse aml ornnmcnts of rhctoric; and while comparison merely likens one nnturnl ohject in appeürance to another for the cnpricious pnrpose of illustration; <,'Orresponrlcnec is 1ho J)O.~itiv<" allinity or relation which naturnl objects bcar to ~piritual realitiœ. It is prcciscly the relation of the producing cause to its resultiug cffect; of the inwarrl e.c;.-.ence to the mnnifestc<l form; of the spiritual world to the naturnl world; of the soul to the borly; of the rnrious fÎ\culties of the 111ind anrl thcir spiritual uses, to the yurious orgnn~ and \'i~ccra of the body nnd thcir respccti\'e natural uses. Thu!<, as the wholc of the naturnl world corresponds in all its multitudinous particuln.rs to the spiritual worlrl,



and the visible objects in hoth worl<ls correspond to the world of mind, -the affections and thoughts of men, spirits, nnd nngcls; nnd these ngain, in thcir purcst and holicst significancc, to the Divine affoctions and thoughts of God,-just so the litera} sense of the Iloly W ord, which appears to treat of tcrrestrial objects nnd nffairs, corrcsponcls toits internnl sense, '"hich treats only of divine nnd "henvenly things" (,John iii. 12), which are, so to sp11ak, mirrors reflecting the image of t.he Great First Cause, the Creator and Sustainer of ail. The figures of speech, and bcautics of diction, in the literai scnsc, nre but "suh«icliary ornaments of the cnskct" which eontains purest gcms of inestimable pricc. Such is the nature of that hnrmonious and indif'si1lnhlc bond by which ail things, spiritual as well as nntural, are councctcd with thcir Supreme Original, and are preserve<l by the smne law as that by " ·hich thcy were primarily crcated. Imagcry is usually divided, first, into Tropes or Figures, including Allegory, ~lctaphor, Metonymy, Parable, Prosopopœia, and Synecdoehc; and, sccondly, including visible images and similitudes, as the Emblem, the Symbol, and the Type, all of which, however, are allied to, and luwe thcir essence or ground in, correspondenœs and representatives. Correspondence must not be confounded with metaphorical figures of speech. Hindmnrsh strikingly explain.s the cliffcrence betwecn mctaphor and the langunge of eorrcspondence. " A mere figure or metaphor," says be, "is the rcsemblnnee in some certain way, which one tl1iug bears to nnother, not according to the true nature and fit. ncss of things, so much ns by the arbitrary choiœ of a spenker or writcr, who is desirous of illustrating his subjcct, and rendering it fümilinr to the eomprehension. Consequently, thcre is no necess:uy union bet1\'een the subject and the figure, nor is the one an efl'ect of the other, or in any wise depen<lent on its existence and subsistence, as is the case in ail eorrespon<lenccs. An example will illustra.te the trnth of my observation. Virgil, in bis AEneid, lib. ii., likens the cle.<truction of Troy, with hcr lofty spires, to the füll of an aged oak on being hewn clown by the woodmnu's hatchet. This is a simile, or figure, but not a eorrcspondence; for there is no necessary connection bctwccn tho city of Troy and a mountain oak, nor hetween hc1· loft.y epires and the wide extending branches of a tree. The one is not witbin the other, as its life and soul; nor can the rclationship subsisting betwccn them be eonsidered like that of cause and effcct, essence nn<l form, prior and posterior, soul and body, which, uevcrtheles.'I, is the case with ail true corrcsponclences. The diffürenee between a

DEFI.YRD.-Tr/Tll //,Ll'STR,A 'l'ffR BIAMI'f,J:.'1:.


mcrc figure nnd a corre.~pon<lcuec may again appcar from the followiug consideration. A mcre figm·e or similo is the rcscmhlance "hich ouc natural object or eircumslance is ~upposed to bcar to anoth('r uatural object or circumstance; whereru;, a correspon<lenœ is the actual relation subsisting between a natural object and a spiritual su bject, or a natural form and a spiritual essence; t hnt is, betwC'Cn outer and inner, lower and higher, nature and spirit; and not betwœn nature and nature, or spirit and spirit. This distinction should h<' well attended to. The l:mguage of correspondences i11 the langungr of God hirnsclf, being that in which Ile always speaks, both in hi~ Word and in hi,q works: but figure and metaphor, together, with the language of fable, are the mcre inventions of man, which took tlwir r~ when the <lhine science of correspondences bcgan to be lœt in the world."-Prcfa.œ to Ilindmarsh's translation of Swedeubor!{'il Jlicroglyphio Key to Natural and Spiritual Jlfystcrie8, pp. 3-5. Ali natural things exist from a spir itual origin, anrl all thin~ spiritual from a dh·ine origi11, or the Lord. The human body, \\ith ail its parta and functions, is elaborated from the soul, its faculth·~ and powers, and therefore corresponds to it in every particular of itK structure, form, and use. 8o the whole Universe is not the product of no immcdiate and direct fiat of Omnipotcucc, but is the rcsult nf a fleries of spiritual causes nnd divine ends. Henœ ull thin~ therein, cvcn to the mosl minute atoms, are correspondences; the langua;::e of which is inteIJigible to angols, from the realities with which thcy arc surrounde<l corrcsponding to their own statcs of mind, and suggcsts to the enlightened mind spiritual idca.s. Thus co1·rei1pondence origi· nates in the very nature of nngels and of God. " H eaven, in the W ord, in the internai sense, does not signify the hcaven or sky which is apparent to the cyes of ihc body, but the kingdoru of the Lord universally and particularly. Ile who looks at things internai from thosc that arc extemal, "hcn he views the beavens or sky, does not think at all of the starry heavcn, but of the angelic hcaven; whcn he beholds the sun, be does not think of the sun, but of the Lord , as bcing the sun of heaven; and so when hc sces the moon, and the stars also; yea, wh en be bcholds the immcn~ity of tlie heavens, hc does not think of material immensity, hut of the immen.~e and infini le power of the Lord; so also in other instances, since therc is nothing but what is represcntativc. He Jikewise regnr<l11 curthly objects in the snmc view; tlrns, when he bcholds the first <lawn of the morning light, hc does not think of the day7


dawn, but of the rise of nll things from the Lord, and their progrœ. sion to the full day of \\Î!'l<lom; in like mnnncr, when he looks or. gnr<lcm1, shrubberies, nnd bcds of flowcrs, bis eye is not confincd to nny particular tree, its blossom, leaf, or fruit, but hc is led to a contemplation of the celestinl things reprcscnted by them, neither docs ho bchold only the flowers, their beauties and olegancies, but is lc<l to regard also the things which they represent in the other life; for thcre i~ not a single objcct cxisting in the sky or in the carth, whieh is heautiful nnd agrecablc, but what is in some way representath-e of the Lord's kingdom. Tho ground and reason why ail things in the hMvcn~ or sky, and on the cnrth, both collcetivcly and individually, are rcpresentative, is hceausc they originn.lly existcd, and do continunlly cxist. that is, sub~i1't from nn influx of the Lord through hcaven. The case in this respect is like thnt of the humru1 body, \\hich cxists and subsists by its soul; whercforo ail things in the body, both collectively nnd individunlly, are represcntntive of its ~oul: the soul is in the usœ anrl ends regnrdcd, but the body is in the cxecution of such uses nncl ends. In like manner nll effects whatsocvcr arc r<•presentativc of the uses which are thcir causes; and the use.<1 arc repm1entative of the ends which are thcir first principles. 'fhey who are in divine idea.'! never confine thcir 1:1ight to mere externnl objeet..'I, but continually, from thcm and iu thcm, behold things internai; nnd internai things arc, most essenlinlly, thœc of the Lord's kin;!1lom; cou...~uently, thelc nre in the vcri~t end of all. The cnsc i'l i:1imilnr in regard to the \Vord of the Lord~ thcy who are in divine: idrn.'l nover regard the \Vord of _ the Lord from the Icttcr, but consiclcr the lctter nncl the literai scnse, as representnth·e und signifir:üive of tlw c·rl<'~I ial and spiritual things appertaini11g to the Church nnd to the Lord'!( kingdom. Witb tl1em the litera! Pcn~c is only nn in:<trnmcntnl medium of lending the thought.<> to surh ohjccts."-A. C. 1A07. "Evcrything in the vc~ctahle kingdom \\hich i~ henntiful aml ornnmcntal 1lcrivcs ils orif{in through hcaven from the Lorrl; and thnt, whcn the ccleRtial and 11piritunl thing~ of the Lord flow into nnturr, 1111ch ohjecls of benuty and ornament arc artunlly cxhihited, and thnt tll<'nce procccds the vcget1llÎ\'e soul or lifc. Jlcncc, also, corne rcpre8<'11tntivc:1."-A. C. 1G:l2. The irwi~ihle, or, a.q mnuy philosophers prcfcr cnlling it, the :mhjcctivc world, arts within or upon the vi.~ible or ohjrcti\•e world; for evcrythin~ in the naturnl nnivcn;e, a~ wc hn\'c 11hown, continunlly suh~i11ts a..; an effcct terminatiug in somc u~c by mcans of influx from



what corresponds thcrewith in the spiritual world as its efficient cause; it is thus t\1e plane or resting-place of something spiritual. AU this adroits of easy illustration, nnd may be abundantly confirmed. For instance, there is a constant influent life momentarily derived from the Lord, and descending from the soul into ail the particular members, viscera, and forms of structure, however minute, belonging to the body, without which the mnterial organization would soon be dcrange<l, and the elements composing them would spee<lily fnll to pieces, and be dispersed. Thus there is an exact correspondence established by creation between all the various parts and fonctions of the body, and the manifold principles and fa.culties of the soul which gave them existing forms and activities in the natural world, and may be said for a timc to iuhnbit thcm. There is, for example, an exact correspondcnce between the organ of vision-the cyc, its structure, and its use-and the mental eye or the understanding and its powers. Tl1e brilliancy and earnest gaze of the eye will often search and reveal the quality of iuward thought without the utterance of a word, or where the speech would be ambiguous (1 Sam. xvi. 7; Luke xxii. 61). · Here the tacit operation of the intellect in and through tlte eye proves that there exists the closest correspondence and conncction. Thus, also, what light is to the natural eye, truth is to the understanding; what vision is to the eye, perception is to tt.e soul. And it is common in all languagœ, for those who know nothing of the divù1e science of which we are trcnting, whcnce such forms of expres.<sion were originally derived, to speak of insight, of seeing and not sceiug; of seeing in some particular light, or with various degrees of illumination ; of blindness, darkness, shade, and brilliancy in reference to intellectual energy and rational discernment. As a further most striking elucidntion, there exists a correspondence between the heart,-a vital organ of the body, its physiological structure nnd itS multifurious uses-and the human will, as a vital orgnn of the soul, with its complex affections and its complimtcd spiritual uses, for the will is the more immediate seat of all spiritual life; while the varied forms and functions of the heart as to cvery particular correspond, again, to the spiritual forms, activitiee, and offices of love. As the heart is the centre of all motion to the vital fiuid in the body, so the will is the centre of circulation to the soul of nll iuward life. As the hcnrt mny be snid to reign throughout the bodily organs by its procccding artcriœ and veins, and holds them all in hnrmony, so the will by its ruling desire or love, and ita


TllE S('/RX('F: ()F CORR8SI'ONnT;:N($S

pr<><'ffiling rlcrirntin~ v~cls of nlfection nn<l thought, nùcs ";thin an<l throughout the min<I, nncl holds nll mcntnl princip~es in unity thrrc. Thcre is nlso a continuons influence flowing from the will into the ho<lily henrt which pro,·cl' the existence of a correspondcnce. Exeitemcnts of the pnssions nlways rlisturb, more or 1~. tho movomcntR of the heart, an<l thence influence the whole body ; and just so the nff<.>ctions of the mind proclnce changes in the will, and thenco in the lifc. As the bloocl is perfectcd in the hcart, an<l there acquire- it!< hcat nnd ,;tality, and is rcndered fit for its important pur~ in 1<11i<tnining the whole cconomy of the body, and is thence by the i<ue<'t>s:-ivc expansion and contrnetion of its muRcnlnr walls, impclled iu rnntinual and hcalth-rœtoring strenms to the most remote extremitic~ of tho human frame, RO it is in regnrd to the will. In that recc-ptacle of lifo withiu the mind, the living affections of goodness and truth aro formed in the rcgcncrating mind, nurl thcre receive hcavcnly q11alitics; and thcnce by action and reaction, Rtrenms of rlivinr lifc rrui flow perpetua11y forth to Yivify the wholc spiritual system. Thnt the will-prineiple is always signified hy the heart in the Word, 11omctimcs in a good sense nnd sometimes in an opposite seme, nmAt hl' ed<lcnt. to every intelligent rcader of tho~ numcrous pnssngœ "hcrc the henrt is mcntioncd. The Lord, who nlone judgeth rightcously bccause H e knowcth the secrets of the will, l'llys, "I nm lfo who st-nrcheth the reins [or kidneys] and hearts; and I will give unto C\'t-ry one of you at-cording to your works" (Rev. ii. 23). The Psalmi!;t pray:\ "Scnreh me anrl know my heart" ( Ps. cxxxix. 23). "'c rca<l of an "honest hcart" nncl an "evil henrt;" a "double heart" ancl "Pinglenœ.'! of heart;" a " fcu.rful hcart" and a "strong henrt;" of a " hnr<lcncd heart" and a " libcml hcart;" of a "hroken heart" and a "glad, joyful hcnrt ;" of an "impure heart" and a "clean heart;" a "hcnrt of i:tone" and a" hcnrt of flesh;" of a "willinj!'. hcnrt," of au "undcl"tanding henrt," a" prouil heart" nnrl a" lowly heart,"--0xprc,,.~ion.s which eau only rdntc to vnrious and oppo!!ite states of the will, and to the affections and thoughts thenee dt-rivec.1. To rcfcr again to common forms of cxpres:-ion, what is more com111011 than to nttribute to nn nlfectionate friend a warm heart, and to ~ive him a cordial Mlutatiou. This mode of spt-aking in the lnn~ungl' of corre.~pon<lcnce, dcrivcd from the Rpirituul signification of tht- hodily or~n;;, in rcfcrcnro to facultics an1l statcs of the minci, is uni,·cl"ul, niul hns exi.«ted in al! a~ To a sagncioua; man is ascribrd a sharp nœe; to no ncutc perception, a kccn cye. Thi.~ important

J>B/?INED.-WlTlf lf,/,U."ITRA Tll'E RIAJIJ'/,ES.


doctrine is tilill furthcr cxemplified in the hmnan counten11ne<', in speech, and in gcsture. How frequcntly is it ohscrvc<l, and ho\\ ensy is it to prove, thnt the foce is the imfox of the mind ; for it chnnges its fcatures nccording to the variations of inward feeling; 11.nd the ~pccch and gcsture, whcn spontnneous, are always outwnrd indications of mental states; for the mind, cxcept where di.cisimulntion is prnctised, nlways flows into and eichibits it.<>elf in the lineamcnts of the countcnance, which is pleasing or clÎl!plcasing, gcntle or tierce, trnn'!Uil or agitatecl, bold or timid, as the minrl within is more or lœ~ inftttenœd by prcvailing p:issions; while i:peech is the form of ft('tive thought, which by correspondcnce flowR into its toncs of uttcrance, which nre manifestations of the feelings and gestur~ which arc expl'CS"Îve Qf the desircs and determinations of the will. Hwc<lenborg trcats this suhject with his u~ual clenrnM and felicity of expression, whcre he writcs as follows :-"Ali things pcrtnining ln man, \\ hether internai or cxtemal, correspond to hcaven; the univcr~al lw:\\'en, bcing in the sight of the Lortl as one man, all things thcrein, cven to the most minute pnrticular, bcing so nrrangNI as to correspoutl to wh:ltcvcr belongs to man" (Ps. xlv. 9; Rev. xxi. 9). "The wholo face, where the scnsoriœ of the Right, the smell, the hcnring, nnd the taste are situate<l, corresponds to the afl'cetions nnd thoughts thcnce derived in gcneral ; the eyes correspond t-0 the 1111derstanding (I sa. xxxiii. 17, 30); the nostrils to perception (Gcn. ii. 7); the cars to hearing nnd ohe<licnce ( .Matt. xi. 15); and the tallte, to the desire of knowing and bccoming wise (Pi;. cxix. 103); but the forehcarl corrcspondl! to the {,'00!1 of love, whcnce all the othc!'ll arc dcrivect, for it constitutes the supreme purt of the face; nnd imme<liatcly includes the front and primary part of the brain, "henœ arc the intellectuul things of man " ( Ezck. ix. 4-). From thœc con11idcration.:;, it is cvidcnt what is significd by the servants ofGod bcing ~raled in tb!'ir forchcads (Rev. vii. 3), nnmely, that "it is to bo in the good of love to the Lord from the Lord, and thereby to be distinguished and ~cparatcd from thosc who are uot in that love" (A. E. 427). Thus the invisible mimi is visibly and rlistinrtly portrayed and emblemized in the form~ ancl activiti~ of the body, both Hingly nnd collectively, because therc exists hctwcen the soul ancl its matcrial frame the strictest corrcspondencc. Now, ail that we lmve thus endeavorcd to expre!'S is cnlled correaponcl<'ncc; for the nbstrnct prineiples of man's mind containcd in his will and understanding and which cm1stitutc his inner world or lifc, 7*



bcing conspieuou~Jy rcprcscnlcd in the orgnns of the body, their moti,·e powers, aJH! their active uses which coustitute his outer worl<l, thcre is a mutual corrc~pomlence an1l intercourse bctwecn thcm us hctwecn cau"C.'I nnd thcir eflccts; the Roui is exhihitc<l in the body as it." une imnge, nnll thcy opemte as one. But whnt correspondcncc is, and "hnt influx, l'hnll be illustratcd hy examples. The variations of the face, which nrc ealled the countt•m1ncc or fcaturcs, correspond to the nffcetions of the mincl, "here· fore the face is vnried a!! to its featurcs as the affections of the min<l arc as to their stutes: t110~e variations in the face arc corrcspondcnccs, co11sequently also the face itself, ancl the action of the minci into it, in orclcr thnt the corrœpon<lences mny he exhibitc<l, is cnlle<l inllux. The f'.ight of mnn's thought, "hich is cnllcd the undcr~tandinj!, rorr~punds to the sight of the cyes, whcrcforc also from the light and fliune of the cycs appears the qunlity of the thought from the und<'rstnn<liug; the 1:1 ight of the eye is correspondencc, oonsequcntly n.lso t hc eye itself and the action of the uuùcrstauding iuto the eye whcrchy the corrcspondence is exhibite<l, is influx. The active thought "hirh is of the understnuding rorrcspouds to the speech which is of the mouth ; the speech is eorrcspondcnoo ns likewisc is the mouth nnd evcrything bclonging to it, nn<l the action of thought into speech, nnd into the organs of speech, is influx. The perception of the minci l'orre<ponds to the smell of the nostrils; the smell nnd the uœtrils arc corrt.>spondenccs and the action is influx; hcncc it is tlrnt a mnn who hn11 iuterior perception is saicl to he of an ncute nostril, or of (jllÎck i'~nt, and the perception of n. thing is expresscd by sccnting or ~mcll­ ing it out. Jlearkeuing, which denotes ohcdience, corresponds to the hcnriug of the cnl's, whcf(•foro both the hcaring nrnl the enrs arc corrcspondenccs, and the nctiou of obeclic11cc iuto the hcnring, in order tlmt man mny raioo the enrs, or listcn nn,J attend, is influx; lwncc it is that hearkcning and hcaring arc hoth ~ignificntive-to henrken and to give car to nny one dcnoting to obey, an<! to hrarkcn and hcnr nny one tlenoting to hen.r with the cars. The action of the body corrotlponds to the will; the action of the heart corrC8pOn<lf'. to the lifc of' the love; nnd the action of the Jungs, which is cnllcd respirnlion, corresponds to the lifc of the füith; and the wholc body as to ail its members, vi~ccrn, n.n<i orgnn~, corrCRponds to the soul as to nll the fonctions and power of its life. From thcse few oh~rvations it mny be seen '\hnt is meant by corrc:;ipondcncc anll hy influx, an<l that whilst the spiritual principle, which hl the Iife of man's will and



ontll.'Nlnniling, llows into the nets which arc of hi;; hody, and exhibits itwlf in a nnturnl cffigy, there is corr('!lpondcncc; and that th us the spiritual nnd nntuml by corrœpon<lences ad as one, like interior an<l exterior, or like prior and posterior, or like the efficient cause ami tho effect, or Jike the principal cause which is of man's ù1ought and will, and the instrumental cause which is of his 11pl'<'ch and action. Such a (•orrcspondencc of nntural thiugs and spiritual cxists not only in all and ~ingulnr the thiugs of man, but also in ail and i;iugulnr the things of the worlcl, nnd the oorrosponclcnces arc cxhihitod hy the influx" of the i;piritunl world, nud all things app<'rlniuing to that world, into the natural worlcl, nnd ail things np_p<?rtnining to it. Thus ail the conntless organs ami forms of the body \\ith thcir numl><'rless U."Œ typify, ~ignify, or correspond to the endlC91 <Jiqtinrt füculties or powers constitntiug the soul nnd ruind with thcir divcn-ifie<l u.scs. It is on account of this corrc;11 10ndrnce thnt the variou~ mrml><'rs and viscrra of the human frame ";th ilieir respœtive o_p<?rat ions anù uses nrc :>11 frt>qnently mrntionoo in the Holy " 'ord, both in rrgar<l to God and tbe soul of man, in refercnce to the laws of wol'!lhip and tbe precepls of lifc, und arc oflcn applie<l to innnirmite thingR, where it i8 ovitlcnt that merc bo<lily organs cannot possibly he mcnnt. Such expres.•ions, ''lien pmlicatc<l of the Lord, not only refer to Him as in Himself an nll-i.:lorious :uul Divine i\fon, but alw 11ignify somc distinct qunlitios of the tlivinr mind, and opcrations of the dh inc cncrgy which would mherni.-c be totally incompreheusible. Of the Lord it is sai<l in fan. xi. 5, "Ri~hteousnœs shall be the girdlc of his Joins, and fuithfulness ilie girdle of hi.~ reins." H erc the prophct is spellkiug of Ùle Lord's mnuifœtcd form, or bis glorificd Humnn Nature, as the very llh-iue gootluess iU<clf nud truth itself, sclf-d<'rivc<l and sole-subsisting, and from wl1ich the church in henvcu nnd on onrth is perpetunlly supplil'd with ail d<'grees of love and wisdom, mul preserve<l thrrcin. And in 7,œh. iv. 10, to siguify his omniprœence allCl all-pervadiug rrovidcuce, by virtue of his wisdom arnl un<lerstancling, it is stated thnt "the eyes of the Lord ruu t.o and fro through the whole carth." In the ~amc sense it is writteu in Pisalm xi. 4 thnt " His cycs behold and bis <.>yelids try the chil<lrcn of men,'' whcrc the Lord's eyes aud hi:, eyelids denotc hi~ Divine Providence nue! omniscience and intelligence, allll the me<liums by which they opcratc, nnmely, the internai and cxteniaJ truths and doctrines of bis " ' ord. Elsewhere we have
.. lnftu:r 14 dcrlved rrom the LaUn won! l'rJ,/uo, t.o lnftow or ftow Ili.



frcqucnt. mention made of the nrm or haud of the Lonl, to Fignify hb <livine omnipotence, as in the following pnssage: " He had horn:> roming out of his hand, and there was the hiding of his p<.>wer" •• (Hab. iii. 4); and spenking of his etcrnnl victories over death nnd hell, for the ac<'Omplishmeut of humnn redemption, obtaiucd hy tl1e inhcrent omnipotence of his own Divine Humnn Nntnre, it is Fnid in th<' P~nlms that " He hath done 11111rvcllous things; his rigl1t hnnd and his holy arm hath gotten Him the victory" (xc\·iii. 1). It wns from this signification of the h:md as denoting power, :mil of the sense of touch ns reprcsenting communication, tramilation, 11.1111 rcception of power and virtue, that the Lord laid his hands upon the ~ick and they recovered; and thnt to accomplish special uses in relation to minh:tcrial functions, inaugurations into the priesthood of the Jewish dispcnsation (Numb. viii. 9-12), nnd also into the miuistry of the Christian chureh, from its very first commencement (Acts iv. 3; Yiii. Il); xiii. 3; 1 Tiro. v. 22), were efiècted as divine order requircs by the imposition of hands. This net benrs the sume signification clsc\1 hcre in the · word, as in the net of ble.s~ing, and on other occni:ions (Numb. xxvii. 18-23 ; :Matt. xvii. 7; l\Iark v. 2ll; Rev. i. 17). "'hen Moses, Aaron, and the elders of Israel have a represento.tive \•i:;ion of the Lord to signify that He manifests himself to the perceptions of his true church by means of his IIoly W ord, it is said that " they saw the God of Israel, and there wns undcr his fcct, as it were, a paved work of a ~npphirc-stone, and as it were the body of heaven in its cleaniess" (Exod. xxiv. 9-11). 'Ve rend also of the Lor<l's heart to denote his di due will, purpose, or love (Isn. lxiii. 4; l\latt. xi. 29) ; of his head, to ~ignify bis infinite wisdom and intelli~cn('e, by which He governs ail worlds; a111l of the hnir of his hefül, to dcnote the ullimate energics of his Divine Providence, by whieh the lowe."t and \'ilest of the hnman fomily may be saved (Hev. i. 14 ). To rcprescut the omnip<.>tence of trnth from the Lord, in its ultimntl' or lowcst activity, destroying aud dil'Sipatiug nll the false persunsions of that self..rightcousness which disclnims ùie nccd of purity or cir""Tl1chanil l• the chief instrument of cx· 1mon acceptation, for the oonvcyanœ of ertlug our strcngth, anil i•. thcreforc, very thcse common idcas. Agrceably L-O thcse properly u-ed to dcnote the power of G0<l." wc are to undc,.,,tAnd the tcrms wbcn np-llm•'ard'J 0Jm11. fm· the Pcslit'<llB a"d 1''aAI• 1•lled hy J~hovah to Hlm~lr. Ry hls arm. oftllr Cii. of E11g., li6l, p.129. thcn, wc arc to uiulel'lltAnd the eztcntof hls "Thca"11 and the lumd arc natural tenn,, power, as hls tlrtlthcd-oot arm, or lnfinite when Rpplit'd to the ability <>fa mRn, whi<'h miglH, reacbes to ail things."-Serlt'• H<>r. express hl& capaeity or reRilh•~'s of l"n1'lT. &>/., p. 139. . . . Tbcsc are figurative cxp~ionsof corn·




cumcision of heart, we are supplicd with the historical relation of Snmson, the· Nazarite, whosc prodigious streugth is said to Imre resided in his hair, slayiug the Philistines, emphatically called the uncircumcised (Judges xvi. 17). In the life of real religion, which reveale<l truth teaches and enjoins, and which i;; exemplifie<! in the ordinary duties of the Christian life, lies thi.s only real spiritual strcngth and securi'ty. This alone conjoins man to the infinite souroo of al! power. On the prcservation of his hair, according to hi.s vows, his strength i.~ said to rcst. Shorn of this-disjointed f"rom omnipotencc-his vows brokcn, and he is but weak and defenccless, like auy other unregcnerate man. ln the highest sense Samson was a type of the Lord as the grcat Redeemer or Deliverer of the human mec from death and hell, and his hair will rcprcsent the manifestntion of the power of truth in the lifü and conduct of his profcssing church. That power is feeble or strong to accomplish the divine purposcs in proportion as men live in obedicuce to the truths of his \Yord. Ifencc, too, wc sce the reuson why calling the prophet Elisha," who rcpresented the Lord and bis \Y ord," bald head " u was blasphemy of the deepcst dye, while the spiritual punishment of such impiety which the daring blasphemer thus induces upon himself, though it appcars to hi:; disordered imagination as the infiiction of divine Ycngeance, is cxaetly represented in the destruction of the "forty and two children" by the "two she-bears out of the wood" (2 Kings ii. 23). How interesting and instructive do theso narratives become whcn thcy are expounded in cvery divine particular rclated ! In Ezckiel's prophccy we rend," I, the LoRD God, will take away the stony heart. out of your fleih, and will givc you a heart of fiesh " (xxxvi. 26), where a stony heart signifies a hardcned will,46 insen~ible to good impressions; for flesh, in this and many othcr passages, signifies goodne5.'!, which is the reason why the Lord says He gi\•es us bis Hcsh to cat that wc may bave eternal lifo (John vi. 54) ; and the
••EU.ha. mcan.s iu Eogllsh the salvation of God. .. "Ba.ld·head is an epitbet of •corn and contempt irtill lL"Cd ln the •;ast, and is glveu to tho"" who are wenk or mcan, whetber tbey have halr ou the head or not. Ilence, the cplthct has ofren becn applicd to C'hrlsllan misslona.ries.''-Roocrlù Orimtal Illukl., 2d ed., p. 214. In tbe splrltnl\l SCll!<e, 11 signifies a dcstltU· tlonofthc 11/lîmalaofrellglon,an<I l•a term or reproa.ch Justly appUed to ail who m.ake the trutb of C'.00 t.nd a moral llfe suto<ervl· cnt to i;elfish purpoo;cs, and who abound in self-concelt. "l'ee Jlr. Rlce's ezœllcnt and lnterestir:g work. liJIUlrations <>! Phywxogy. Boston, U. S., lS.ol. "Tbe lnstrumentl' or orge.os [of the body] ~onslitute the media of communication hc· tween the world without and the world witbln, the ma/cria! creation and the •J1f.l'it· ool."-Dr. O. Noore's Pvwcr <>/ tM Soul <>t'CI' IM Body, 2d ed., p. a.;,




heart, being the centre of vitality, corresponds to the inmost and central affections of the will. In the Psalms it is said, "I will blCSil the LonD, who bath given me counsel; my reins also instruct [correct] me in the night seasons" (xvi. 7), where the reins, or kidneys, of which chastisement is here prcdicated, signify the things which relate to faith and the intellect, or faculty of rcceiving tbem. For, ns the reins in the animal cconomy serve the important office of purifying the vital fluids, so the trutbs of faith, or truths internally believed, whcn practically applied in the great work of man's rcgeneration, search and explore, correct and purify, all things of his miud and life, insomuch that without them the minù and life cannot be examined, corrected, and purificd aright. This process of casting out evil affections and unclean thoughts takes place in the night of trial and temptation, and appears as a punishment till the morning of a new slate of deliverance and joy arises upon the grateful soul, as it is written: "Behold, thon desirest trnth in the inward parts, and in the hiddeu part thou shnlt make me to kuow wisdom" (Ps. li. 8) ; and again : " Oh let the wickedness of the wicked come to an end, but establish the just; for the righteoùs God trieth the hearts and reins" (Ps. vii. 9). The Lord also th us rcproves bis people by tho prophet Jeremiah, for the mere external or lip profession of the truth of religion or ofîaith, without nllowing it to search out and correct the inward evils and impurities of their hearts and thoughts: "Thou 1ut near in their mouth, and far from thcir reins" (xii. 2). Again : in the gospel of Matthew \l'e rcad that the Lord said to bis disciples, "Whcrofore, if thy hand or foot offcnd thec [litcrnlly, from the Greek, cause thee to offend], eut them off and cast them from thee: it is better for thee to enter into life hait or maimcd, rathcr than having two bands or two fect to be cust into everlasting fire. And if thine eye offond thcc, pluck it out and cast it from thee: it is better for thee to enter into Iüe·with one cye, rather than having two eyes to be cast into hell fire" (xviii. 8, 9). In this cxtrnordinary passage, which the science of corrcspondences can alone unfold, the bands, as the chief instruments of phyt;ica.l encrgy and the ultimate of action, dcnote ability ; the fect, :lS the organs of locomotion and the support for the whole frame, denotc the natural or lowcst propcrties of the mind ; and the eyes, or organs of vision, signify the intellectua.l powers. Now we are elsewhere exhorted to have" a single eye"nnd a i<in~lc hcart," and the reason i:; plain, becausc, as with the body, if the sight be not dirccted to the ohjcct bcforo the eyes with



!Ïngleneiis of energy, two objects appear where there should be only one, nnd the view is consequcntly bewildered : so with the mind; if its purpose be not direct and single, it is distrnctcd with the two discordant views of seeking human applause and of trying to appcnr well with God. And singleness of heart is of necessity connected with singlencss of sight, innsmuch as a single nnd direct view of subjects is the result of singlcne.ss of affection, just ns su rely as a double and indirect vicw follows from discordant feelings. Whcn, thercfore, any evil or fuise principlcs in the nnturnl mimi arc, by the prescnce of truth, made mnnifest as the cause of our offcnding against the holy principlcs of the \Vord, we are to rcnounce them and cast thcm from us, for how much better is it for us to enter into eternal lifc "hait or maimcd," that is, impcrfectly instructed and struggling under the effoets of ignorance, rather than, after being well instructcd, having the form of godliness, but, as the Apostle says, "denying the power" (2 Tim. iii. 5),-a hand, a foot, an eye devoted to the world and self, while the othcr is ostensibly in the service of religion. Such doublemindcd conduct assuredly renders man a miserable hypocrite here, and obnoxious, hcrcafier, to the sclf-inflicted punishmcnts of" hell-fire," or the buniing torments of evil affections thus rcndered more furious for having bcen smothered in this world. Agnin: in Jercmiah it is said, "Behold, their car is uncircumcised, and they cannot hearkeu" ( vi. 10), to signify that unwillingness to Jcarn and obey the principlcs of divine trutli, which arises from impurity of heart. Hearkening denotes rcadincss to obey, even in the ordinary lunguage of men; therefore many of the statutes of Israel liad cspecinl rcference to the enr, and the Lord also frequently and solcmuly snid at the commencement or conclusion of bis divine instructions," Who bath ears to hcar, kt him hear" (l\Intt. xiii. 9); and agnin, "1-et thcso sayings sink down into your ears" (Luke ix. 44). An unwillingness to be instructcd in the divine truth, and a disinclinntion to obcdiencc, arising from evil lusts cherished in the will, i9 th us descrihcd in the lnnguage of correspondence by the prophet: "To whom shall I speak, and give warning, that they may hear? Behold, thcir car is uncircurucised, and they cannot hcarken ; bel1old, the word of the Lord is unto them a reproach ; they have no delight in it" (Jer. vi. 10). "They henrkened not unto me, nor inclined thcir car, but hardened their neck: they did worse tlian their fnthcrs" (lb., vii. 26). But turn to the Psalms, where the exultation of the oonrt is dcscribed, where divine blessings are received and acknowl·


c<lgcd, and "here the lifc nnd joy which nnimate the mind, inlcrnnlly nnrl extemally, when it becomcs reccptivc of fnith and charity, nre the suhjccts treated of, nnrl where every l<'rm hns its peculiar anrl distinct meaning, wc rend, "Let the floo<ls clnp thcir hands; let the hills be joyful togcther hcfore the Lorcl" (xcviii. 8, 9); "The mountains skippcd like rnms, and the little hills like lnmhs" ( cxiv. 6); "Tho voicc of the Lord mnketh the cc<lars to skip Jike a calf; Lebanon and Sirion like a young 11nicorn" (xxix. 6). \\'ho can interpret thc.<'c, and a multitude of similar pns":tgCS in the Racred Word, in thcir merci y literai scnse? 'Vliat enli~htcnc<l minrl does not see thnt the vnrious parts and motio11s of the humnn body are in these instan<'ci> cmployed ns significant figures, bccauso, whcn viewod in conncction with their uses, thcy prccisely corrcsponrl with properties nnd stalC$ of the mind? To affirrn, as somc have donc, that thcse and similar expres.•iC'ns are mere ornamcntal types nncl oriental figures, is to rogard thcm as dœigncd onJy to amuse the imagination, and is almOt>t equivalent to a denial of thcir inspiration and solemn verity.







hc throughout its !-'nercd pages "in~truction and correction in righteou~­ nt'SS " - is no spceulntive or vi~ionary thoory, as ~ome have erroneously supposed,, but n. truly consistent, luminous, un,l nnivcrsal method of interpretation. It mn.y hc tru~terl without hc11itntion, because it is founded on the immutnblc hnsis of eternal truth,-on the everenduring lnws of divine order, on the unalternble relation which al! ereated objccts have to their Creator, and whieh ail external objects have to intcrual realities. Corrœpondences nre the only fonns whieh can contain the living truths of God and heaven, eonvcy them into the inmost depths of the soul, and imprcss them permnnent!y there. They nrc universully umlerstood ; they cxist nlike in nll times and under all cireumstanoes; they nre more or le!!S enshrincd in all languages, and nre equally obviou~ to ail. ""'hntso<>ver anywhere appears in the universe," says Swedenborg, "is representuth·c of the Lord's kingdom, insomuch thnt there is not anylhing contnincd in the universal ntmospheric region of the stars, or io the cnrth and its three kingdoms, but whnt in its mnnner nnd mcasm-e is representative; for ail and singulur the tbi11gs in nature ure ultimatc images, innsmueh ns from the Divine [principlc•] procecd the eclestinl things uppertnining to good, nnd from thCile cdcstial tl1ings the ~piritunl thingi: nppertaining to truth, and from hoth the former ami thr latter procœd natural things. Jleuce it may nppear how grü!'S, yen, how terrcstriol, and also inrertcd,

doctrine of the of the Word of God-this lnw THJS hy "hich it must of ne<.'Cl'i'ity expoundcd, in order to yield




hnrnnn reMon is, which n."cribc.s ail and ~ingu hr things to nature 6Cpnrate or exempt from influx prior to iti;elf, or from the efficient cause. . . . .l nnsmuch, now, as ail ancl singular things suooist from the Divine [principle], thnt is, continunlly cxisl, nml all nnd singulnr things thcnce derivcd must needs be reprcsentative of those things whcrcby they ha<l existence, it follows, thnt the visible universe i.<i nothiug but a thentrc rcprcsentative of the L or<l's kingclom, nu<l th1t this latter is a thcatre represcntative of the l..JOrd Himself."A. <.:. 3483. AIl ternis nre of ncccs.~ity modifie<l by the sense of the connection ris well as hy the impcrfcction of lnnguage::i. The snme tcrm iM onen u~c<I in the R oly " ' orcl ns the translation of two or cYcn more distinct wor<ls; nnd, on the othcr bnnd, scveml wor<ls arc oil.en uscd to trnna· latc a single expression. A single word in the original m:iy bave two or more f.'ignifications, either to be delùrmint'd by the context or clcpcnrlcnt on the suhject trcat{)cl of an<l i111licatcd, Mmetimœ, only in the most trifling rlilference in the form of the worrl, or in the 11~ of partiel~ nnd explctini.... ::\Inny wor<IA nnrl ihcir modification~, in the H chrcw, Grcck, mut Latin, h:we no corrN•pon<ling tcrmsor fonns of oxprcf'l..,,iou in nny mod~rn tongue. Thc!<O nircties in the originnl sometimcs occasion pcrpl<•xily to tho renilrr of Swedcnhorg, and gi\·o to corrcspon<lence the npp<•m·ancc ofl)eiug an nrhilrnry nu<l unccrtnin PCÏl'll<'O, which, of coul'!I<.>, canuot be wholly rt'moved without 11omc knmd<'<lge of the originnl laoguages them!'<'h-c.... Nice diFtinctinuR in the original arc not nh\ays capable of tronsfcrrence into othcr

The ancient Ilehrcw is not only the ol<lœt, but the most significnnt lnngungc known, anrl was pcculiarly npproprinto to the purposo of enRhrining tl1c ~cieneo of corn'Spondcn<'Œ in the earlier ages of tho worl<l. The roots of Rcvcrnl of the Scmiti<· lnngunges, such ns the Arabie, ~yrine, Chaldaie, etc., arc so clœcly n..-;.<iiruilnte<l to the IIcbrcw
a ")'mbol or (l)fttrarv ~plrltual m)'!<tcrl<"'.'"11 ).fort'• Cab. JJ<.f., p. 2:.'ll. "The •nmo qualltles, lnfinltcly good An<l pcrrcct ln Ood, may bcoome impr;rfttl an1l evil in the Cl'('ntnni: ll<'cAti.c ln the croatuN'. \Jclng llmlt!'<l and lluite, tbcy mar be <lMlfttl anf/ separalcd rrum one anotber by the C'rea.tnre it.,dr. Thcr<' L• no cvll, no gullt. no •le· For the !'flmr outwar.1 ex11r{''"'"Ht "-t~rlugs fürmlly. ln any creature. but ln lts dfrldin" l"requenlly rrom oppo>ilt' motlvc-."-EP<l!t~ and 8t"JJ11mll~IJ lt><!lr rrom 80mcthlng whkh mr l"ni1H"'11 .A"1J/QfJY hrl1«rn llv "'"'"'"' and <loi! hnd i:fvcn tn be ln union wltb IL".fllpir lttt<Jl lforid~. J>. :t.!. f,111r'1 A1•1iml, l'i>. 24, 4 1. "One and the ,,.1mc Dlltural thl111: tUl\y I><•
<r" f flntl th&t the >llme OhjC<'l J>l't'llChcs trulb• or an oppœlte nature h)· the medium or tho MmC lfYIDhol. '!'hl•, hOll('V<'r, ran <'rc~I<' no conflli!lon, b<•cnn!«' llH' conl.éxt wlll ahvay• dctcrminc ln whl\t llght the •ym!Jol I• to hc ronslrtcred. llut Ir ynn <'Rretnlly ron•ldt•r the human worlol, you wlll flnd th<' NLmc ambigully ln mt•n'• Mtlons.

NO'!' A FANf'IFl·f, OR T'/.';fnJiARJ' 7'JIEORY.


ss often to throw consic lcrahle light on Ilebrcw words and phrasœ, aud to confinn their significntiou. Correspondcnccs nre grounckd in use, rcpresentntives in rituals of religion and human operations, nml significatives in whnt is uttered or writtcn; the whole, however, having the saroe ground ofmcaning, is included in the phrase w~ have so often used - the science of correspondences. Now, it will be seen at once, that, as nll good things arc liablo to.abuse through the perversion of renson, and may ho applicd to evil ns well ns good purposes, so the correspondcnce, the representation or the signification will change, and the object or expression which iu a good seuse <lenotcs somcthing goo<l or true, or somc spiritual ble..."Sing, will, whcn refcrring to or dcscribing a pcrvertcd state, denoto something evil or false, or some blcssiug changed to a curse; for, "If yo will not hear, and if ye will not Jay it to lwart, to give glory unto my nnmc, saith the Lorcl of hosts, I will even send a curso upon you, and I "i1l curse your blcssings" (:\fol. ii. 2). When this lmv of correspondence, rndiant witb celcstial lustre, i,q applicd to those Scriptures which constitute the perfect W ord of God, thcy exhibit one harmouious schcmo of profouud wisdom, reflecting the Dh·ine Mind of its glorious Author, and worthy of his infinite intelligence and go6dncss; one conncctcd series of beautiful, practirnl, vital, everlasting tru ths, suited to the cndlcss progress of the soul in the life of heavrn. It is indee1l "tbo kcy of knowlcdgc" (Luke :xi. 52), which rnn nlone uulock the cnbinct which contnins the priceless gcms of truth, glowing with innumcrnblc splcndors, derived from the pure and precious wisùom of God,- the doctrines nnd preccpts of ctern:tl life. This mode of intcrprcting the Holy Orncles is ns widely differeut from what hns been cnlled "spiritunlizing" as the substance is from its shadow. T11c mere spiritualizer forces his own imnginary, anù oftcn extravagnnt, meaning on Scriptural terms and phr.:ISCS to suit some ingenious notion fabricatc<l in the realms of luxuriant füncy; interchanging and commingling the subjective nnd the objective; capriciously clinnging the scnse, whcncver it suits his purpose, and, in his futile attempts to c:xpound the W ord of God, profanes the truth insteaù of unfhlding it.'" He has not bccn unnptly
•8" To most edumtcd perrons ln the nlnc· teenth century, th~fsplrltualisti<' and arbi· trary] appllcntlougof &rtpture ap1>ear f.>ol· l>h. In wha.tcver dc~l'<'e [this mo<lc of Inter· pretatlon]ls pracU.cxl, it isequallylncapnl.>lc of bolng r educed to auy rule. It ls the luterpr<•lcr's faucy, and fs lfkely to be not lr!<S. l>ut. more, dangcrous and extravognnt wh('n lt acl<I• the charm of anthority from lt• rn•• ln pn.<t a1w•. In lt we as•umc whnt <'1111 ne,·cr be pro\•e<l.nnd an ln<l.l'ument ls introtluced of snch subtl~ty and pliabillty as !Al



rcpn~nted as on n d"ep nnd mighty oœan, without a star to ~uicle, n compn.~ to direct, or a lwlm to r(Cgulnte 11i.q COllr.:!C'. The scicnre of corrc:<pondcnces is the YCI')' rcvcf!'c of nll this, for it r~ls, ns wc have en<l('nvorcd to show, on fix«l dnta, on unchnn~ing lnws. The snmc word, or expression, or phrnioc, in the 8nmc conncction, nhmys hearing the En1tic spiritual signification, or its oppœite, wherever it occurs in the plcnarily·inspire<l books of the Old nn<l New 'l'estnment~ \Vcrc it othenYise, the me:ming would be arbitrary, uncer,t.ain, nnd val·

A!'. men, by virtue of their frœdom, nre capahle of per;erting the tichcst hlcssings into curses, of profaning the holi<'.'it truths by falsifying thcm and connecting them with cvils of heart nnd life, of nbusing u.s well as using God's best gift.s, so numerons opposites <'xii1t in crcation, and conformably therewith thcrc nrc mnny expres~ions and phrases in the \ Vorcl which nre the reYersc of cach other, as light nn<l darkness, day ami night, life and dcath, hrot and cold, summer nnd winter, clean ami unclean nnimals, useful nncl noxious yegetntion, fruitful and barren trccs and land.'9 An<l wc may ensily sec how such perversion originntcs and operatcs in the human mind, for, ns unclcan and voracious animais m:.iy be supportcd by the same kincl of food, or ns wholesome and poieonous vegetablcs may grow in the samc soil, receiving the 11ame rny~ ofhent and light from the sun, but
make the Scrlpturcs mean an)'thtnii,-' Gal· Scrlptur~ llli:e ail other good tblngll. la lia· lus ln cnrop&nlll,' as the Waldenll\'1 de· hie to alm!IC, "'"' thl\t il hath been llA'tually 11erlbed Il; the weathercoclr on the ~hun-h- abu<oe<I, l>oth ln anrlcnt and modem n11:~ tower, whlch IR turoed hllher and thlthcr hy cannot bc dcnlcd.'' "Men of '<'D!!(' wlll e\·erywlnd ofdoctrlne."-J11W~t1'1 R•·1<lV• and comlder thl\t a prlnciple ls not, thercrore, Rei~eu;•, 9th l'<I., pp. 3G9-:m8. to be rcjœt~d 1x'r11u~e lt ls abuscd," (Rl<lhup The rlchest speclmen of thl~ fancll\11, ln· Ilitrcrs 1111. to Pmph., p. 64,) "slnce hnm1tn ~11lou., but altogether uncertAln mcthod erroMS can 11~v1•r luvalldatc the truth, of er exponn<lln~ the Roly Word, 1 probably God."-Bi1h<ip Tforne'• I'rcf. to IM l'llalnu, p. evermtt"lth,hanelaboratevolumueutitlecl vüi., new ed., lltlrl. ")Io""• t·nvellcd," by WIJllAm UuJld, l!lnl'<• Augu•Une a111oea.n t.o h&ve bad a ror· ter ot the Parl'h or King Edward, E<lln- rret idea on 1hl~ 'ubjcct. Ue says ln hl• nbu!'llh. Doc. Cflri•.• Ili. ~. L Ill., par;. L, 42 n, "The "An nnliccnoedlmaginatlon ha.,produccd "8.tlle thlog may sometlmes stand r 1r ~"n· d1 .....,1rou• cfTecls in the l11terprctatlo11 of trarle•. herc ln Il. RQO<l een•e, thcrc ln a poo;i· t'crlpturc.''-})(lrid1011'1 Ilt'1'1IVM1tir1, p. IO. th·elybad one;" and he Instances the leaven For ab~urd specimeo.s or thl• klncl of in· or the Pharl~cC'l, and t11c leaven or the put.erpretatlon, eec Bright, Cummln~. Walb· able: the lion, and the 11erpcnt.-Sec 7't~ lcy, an1l otber commenta.tors' cxf)<,..ltlon• or /or llv Tim,., lxxxlx., p.174. the Boolr. or Rcvelation, Bl•hop Marsb'~ J,u. ".~dam, one whllc, ls the •piritual or lntun•, p. ;16:1-37:1. &nd Dr. A. Clarke'• J,dl.er to tellcctual man; anothcr "hile, the eanbly a .VtllVJlfof /'rf'adler, ln whlch lhl< ln~cnlou• 1 and ramal ."-If. Jlf>re'• Philoaoph. Wrilm~. lrlftlng wltb the lloly Won!, not 10 -ay prof. p. 1•6, London, 1002. anall•>n ot u .. •cred trulh', I• well ex· "C.ball~1lral •pfK•llath'es •taud for lllld u po«ed. well as goo.I nwanlnR."-Jl'(l(ÙQ11'• llùt. ni M That the spiritual loterpretallon of the ~ O:llk La11guOl}f', p. 267.



acrording to their own pcculinr nature and qunlity, so the wicked nnd the good nmong men aliko rcceive the <livinc influences of love 11111.I wi!'<lom from God; but as the unclenn nnimals nnd poisonous Wgc>· tahles chnngc the respcctiYc clements on whicb they live into their O\\ n corresponding natures, !IO the wicked pervcrt the bcnvenly gifl.1<, nnd change thcm, so to spcnk, into their contraries, or the oppœitc qualitie.~ of hell. }'or the J,ord is no re11pccter of pcmons: "He muketh his sun to rÎ!'C on the evil und on the good, and sendc>th rain on the just and on the unjust" Oiatt. v. 45). When the prophet, therefore, is deploring the perversity of Israel, he snys, "Ye have turned judgrnont iuto ga.11, und the fruit of righteousncss into hem· Iock" (Arnos vi. 12). Ail good natuml objecte in the universc, and their oses, exist from the Lord; they are the outbirlhs and infinitely Vlll'Îcd forrns of his love and wisdom; but all r.o noxious things and usC!l originatc in evil, and are the oppœite pcrvertcd forms of goodnc8~ nu<l truth; hc>nce, according to their pœulinr qunlitirs und propertic.<1, thcy arc malignnnt and dcstructh-e, filthy and poisonous. All things mlll!t have hnd thcir origin in the spiritual worlrl by corrcsponding influx, cithcr through henven or hell, into what is homogeneou11, while their forms and uses derive fixity und existenre in the world ofnature.M Whatevcr is accordant with the Divine \\'ill, corre;pond.'! to or I'(>prescnts or signifies somewhnt relating to hcavcn, or just order; and '\hntever is, from any cause, contrary thcreto, exists of Divine per· mission, and corresponds to or rcpresents or signifie.'! somewhat relut· ing to hell, or pcr\·erted or<ler. \Yhatever relatœ to he:wcn has relation also to goodne..~ and truth in the human mind and life, and whntever rehtes to hell hns relntion to evil and fulsity in the mind nnd lifc. The W ord, in its literai scnse, is designcd for the u~e of man while in this world, or in 11 merely nntural state; and man, whilo in this probationary state of existence, is plaœd midway betwccn hroven and bell, so as to be the !'ubject of the influence of cach alike. lfore is the ground of bis frecdom and his capn,city for rcgcneration; hence arises nntngonism in nature and the mind, and hcnce, too, tho oppo~ite mcanings of the snme term in dilfcrcnt part.'! of Scripture, referring to and adurnbrnting the antagimi~tic prindpl<'!I nnd states
..!'ee Gen. 1. 4; vlll. 2'2; Lev. xi. 47; P&. evll. 33-3.5; E7.ck. xllv. 2ll. " "Ruch ls the analogy betwccn th~ •t>lrltua\ and matcrlal worlil, thal tranl!&Cllons


or the hlghc<t lm))'lrtAnce ln the forulCI pa.ss on and cxprcJll! themselves ln the W ter,"° a.• t.o become the ob).,rl• even or 11en-e:
-llrylin, Ltct. T.. p. 3G




of the Church collecth·ely, or the man of the Church indi\·id· ually.u As another illustration, a mountnin, as being one of the most elevat<.'d portions of the earth's surface, corresponds to an exalte<l or inmost principle of the mind, thus to some ruling affection of the heart. This mny be either good or evil. If good, it is " :Mount Zion, the mountain of holine:;s,"61 denoting a state of love to the Lord; if evil, it is "the destroying mountnin," dcnoting a stat.e of the love of self. Of the former mountain,-an elevated state of love to God,-wc rend, " The Lord bless thee, 0 habitation of justice, and mountnin of holiness" (J er . xxxi. 23). And in predicting the glorious dominion of the love of God in the soul, and the divine ble;.<•ings thcnce rcsulting, the prophet says, "And in this mountnin shall the Lord of hosts make unto ail people a feast of füt things, a fcast of wines on the lecs, of fat things full of marrow, of wine on the lccs well refincd" (Isa. xx:v. .6). This signification of the t.erm mountnin supplies the reason why, in ancicnt times, bouses of worship \\ere huilt, worship wns cclcbrntcd, nnd sncrifices were offered on hills nnd mountnins; and hence, too, in a corrupt and pcrvcrted state of the humnn ruind, whcther ns the Church collrctivcly or indivirlually, idolntry set up ils graven and molten images in thousm1ds of monstrous and bestial forms, and burnt incense to thcm in tlic high places and on the bills (2 Kings xvi. 4}-rcpresentali\·e of tbat grœs, sensual, and sclfish worship which is so uttcrly opposcd to the Divine commandments (Ex. xx. 4), and \\hich springs rithcr from the love of self in ail its corrupt, cruel forms, significd by moltcn images, or is füshioned by the graving-tools of self-intelligence, in all its falsc nnd hateful varicties, signified by grnvcn images. Of the lattrr mountniu, a state in which the e\·il love of sclf--signified in its oppositC' scnse by a mountain-is prrrnittcd to llJl8t1me preëmincn<'<', wc rrnd, "Bchold, 1 am ng11inst thoo, 0 clcstroying mountnin, saith the Lord, which d<'Stroycst all the cnrth: and 1 will stretch out mine hnncl upon thcc, and roll thro down from the:' rocks, and will mnko th<'e a burnt mountnin. Ancl thry shnll not tnkc of thœ a stone for
"~œ Il. Il., n. 113. "J('romc, srcnklng of Mount Zlon, affirm• th•t lt ls a füollsh thlnit to cRll nn irratlnnnl and in!'('n,lble mmmlAln hnly, or Ill hellcve ft lo hc 'M>."-/n, Jt:rtm. 1 XXJd. "If,"' I bellevc, and cndeavor r.o prove, tllvtnc an<i savlni: truth• of th<' \\'ord ofGod are eoncealed nndcr the for!Ullof the ftgnn... ,

or parablcll, or prnverlll' of J\atun>, eRn you 1<Crlously ask whnt I• the use of unlversal nno.logy? Jt I• a kcy to the Bible and to Nnture. If you <('(I no use ln the lrey. ynu wlll 11rooobly "<'<' 110 u'IC ln thal whlrh lt 11 Ill unlO<'k. Tn he C'On•isl.<'.nt, you •hould t.•k "hat ls thP u'>E' nf the Dlble. "-i:-v1 on .A l<Ol., p. J;».



a corner, nor a stone for foundntiom•; hut thou shalt be desolate for· enr, ~aith the Lord" (Jer. li. 2:;, 26). In rcforcnœ to this significa· tion of a monntnin, ns dcnoting the love of 1relf and the world, our blcsse<l Lor<l said to bis disciples, "If ye have fuith as a grain of mwtard-ee<.>d, ye shall say unto this mountain, Rcmove hence to yonder place; and it !\hall rcmove" (:\fott. xvii. 20). And nga.in, spenk· ing of the blel<l'Cd nsccndcncy and reign of love and wisdom from lhe Lord, grounded in lrnmility nnd the eternal suhjcction and rcmpval of tho prond and lofty principle of self-love opposed thereto, the prophct cxclnims, "Who art thon, 0 great mountain? Before Zcrubbabel thou shalt beeome a plain : and he shall bring forth the headstone theroof with shoutings, crying, Grace, grnce, unto it" (Zech. iv. 7) A bill is a Jess lofty elevntion of the carth's surface than a mountnin, an<l 11 hen both are mentionoo togcther, as they oftcn are, then a hill "il! Fignify the principle of chnrity, "hile n mountain mil signify love to the Vlrd. Thus we read in the prophet thnt at the day of the Lord's nppcaring or manife:;;tation for the establishment of bis rhurch, "The mountains shall drop down ncw wine, and the bills slmll flow with milk" (.Joel iii. 18). Blœr<ings of cdrstial and spiritual truth, in richcst abundMce, nre here rcpmientcd as flowing, distilling, droppinl?, from the sacred ancl elcvnted principlcs of love to the Lord nn<l of chnrity towards our neighbor; cnriching, rcfreshing, nouri~hing the soul, and ennbling to bring forth nnd abound in the gcnuine virtucs and graees of a Chri~tian life. ..\gnin, trert1tt1ra, in the Wortl of God, sii?Jlify ail that on which a. man'11 heart i~ chiefiy plaecd,-thnt whicb, above nll otlier tlüngi>, he ~ vnlu<'S mMt. I Icnce there are treasurcs of goodncss and truth, and, on the rontrary, treasures of wicked1wss and fnlsity; so we rend, "A goocl mnn out of the good treasurr of bis henrt bringeth forth good thingg: nnd n.n evil man out of the cvil trcosurc hringeth forth cvil things" (Matt. xii. 33). W ell, then, may wc hc cxhorted by our blr~Kl'<l Lonl to "Jay np for ourselves treasures in heaven, whcre neither moth nor rust doth corrupt, nnd "hcrc thievœ do not break through uor E.lcnl" (Matt. vi. 20).6' 1\s nnothcr illu~tration of whnt hns ile<'n n<lvnnced, let us refer to th<' 11ignificntion of natural light• nnd heat, as t'Orrei;ponding in their
"" \\'<>rMly "et.llh 18 bul the me.do"· or "''"" 01111 or c1<'n1ol happfol'Sll berealler."that 1n1c "('fl!Lh \fhlch ouly go<><! men al'(' lfwl'/1 IR/rrpffl••-. p. 2'l2. enrlrh<'d '"ith 1 " " ' ' ron't~teth uot ln ~oltt Ir.)•• J.mlJT f~ mo-.t rertatnly th" unlçen.l and •fhcr, l>ut .,.fth tre1.-urcs of lmowleù~'I.' t>r><' of !H•m~tdfl' or dnrumllralio,., whe\ber




l'xii<tence, their effoc~. and th<'ir nsœ, to ~piritnnl truth and love. Jt "ill then be seen that thcir negntivc~, which ure the conseqnenccs of tlwir absence or privntion, viz., dn.rknes.s nnd colil, signify ignornnco and indiffereucc, nnd that their pcrvertcd oppo~itcs nre falsity and lu~t. This will bo most casily nnd amply confirmcd, by every intelligent rnind, from Scripture tcstimony, from nnalogical reasoning, nud from scicntific fncts. Thus all the qualitics and predicates which nrc. attributable to light arc cqually applicable, in an inner sense, to truth in the undcrstanding. and such as are aseribcd to fire are cqually rcfernhle to love in the will. What glory and intercst do theso corre•pondences al one throw over a large portion of the Holy '\\'ord 1 ThrouJ!h them you will nt once perceive why the historical fact is relatc<l of the Egyptiuns that " they sat three days in darkness thnt might be felt," whilo "the chilùrcn of Israel had light in ail their dwellings •· (Ex. x. 23); and how this natural event was a just reprcscntatfre of a Apiritunl truth nttcsted by the experienœ of men in every age. Egypt was oelebratcd above other natioruz, in nncicnt tim~. for the cultivation of the sciences; the Egyptians, therefore, in a bud sense, represented mere worldly knowlcdgcs and science. The children of Israel represented the membcrs of the Lord's ehurch, drnwing their stores of spiritunl intelligence from the fountnin of li:rht-the "\Vord of God. Now, the visible efi'ect.s of such statcs, with ea<'h of thcsc cln.'"~. are precisely what we find dcscribed in the in8pired history; the former sit in dcspair, surrounded by spiritual clnrkncs.s, the dcn11ity of which makes it sensible cven to senimal disccrnmcnt; "for if the light thnt is in thee be dnrkness, how great is that clnrkncss " (~Intt. vi. 23) ; while the latter have the light of divine truth to bless and irradiatc ail their dwellings,-all the prin· <'iplcs and statcs of thcir minds and lives with henvenly perception ancl intelligence, consolation and pence. Knowing the correspondence of light, among thousands of bcnutiful and practical truths, we shall see the reason why it is snid of the holy C"ity, New J erusalem, seen by John, and which !lignifies the Lorcl'K
of ft4tural, moral, or 11>lrltual truth; for If not, what ls meant by the llgbt ofnalurt, of rtn•on, and of c0t1ttiC11ct t"-E8sa11a on AnalOflll, p. 21\9. "I11 thy Jlght Lorcl 1i.h&ll we sœ llghl." (P<lalm xxxvL 9.) lamhllchu<, Lhe Platon· irt, who Oourlshccl about the rear 3ro, "'Ici that "God had llght ror a body, and trut11 fora &out"


"As the 8llll cannot be tnown but by bis own llgbt,soGod cannol be known but" llh hls own llghL"-I'!olinua. "ln the 1mclcnt wrltings of the F'.ast, whcre the marrlagct of the gods and demi· gods are des~rlbe<l, lt ls &lways sald the ~ere· monr ,... , perfc>nncd ln the presenœ or lhe go<I of lire."-Robnù'1 OrlnL JUIUL, 1'l t'd 1
p. 2 L



true church, that " H er light was like a slonc most precious, even like a jasper stone, clear ns crystal" (Rev. xxi. 11), to rcprcsent the pllrity, the preciousness, the splendor of the hea vcn-dcsccnded doctrines ; und why it is said of the Lord that "Ho covereth himself with light as with a garment" (Psalm civ. 2), to signify the investmcnt of bis divine character in the truth of his 'Vord, accommodatcd to the st:ltes of his creatures. When, again, we are acquuinted with the correspondcnce of fire,56 as signifying, in a goo<l scnse, love-both divine and human-thc love the Lord bears to his creatures, and the love they bear to llim and to cach ot.hcr in various degrees of intensity, we shall underslaud how the Lord defends and protects llis own church, and overy ruember of it, by the cmanatiug influences of his infinite love and wisdom, for this is significd where He says, "I, the Lord, will be unto her," that is, his church, "a wall of fire round about" (Zcch. ii. 5), an encircling sphere through which no enemy eau break. The smuc things are also denoted in 2 Kings, where we read that the young man who was alarmed for the safoty of his master had his spiritual sight opened, and saw a representation of this protecting sphere in the spiritual world surrounding the prophet of God; 'for " Dehold, the mountn.in wns full of horses and cluiriots of fire, round about Elisha" ( vi. 17). How encouraging is the thought that such, too, are the encircling spheres which comfort and protcct the sincere Christian in ail statcs of tribulation, tomptation, and trial, in ail seasons of affiiction, sorrow, and distress. Agnin, to signify that it is the Lord alone who cleanses the human mind from pollution, and imbues it with his own divine love and wisdom, He says that "He wül baptize" truc believcrs "with the Holy Spirit and with fire" (Luke iii. 16); and to denote spiritual purification and protection, resulting from the inward operations of • love and wisdom on the heart and mind, we rcad, "Aud it shall corne to pass, that he that is left in Zion, and hc thnt remaineth in J erusalem, shnll be called holy, even every one thnt ii; written muong the living in Jerusiilem: when the Lord sha.11 have washed away the filth of the daughters of Zion, and shall have pnrged the blood of Jerusalcm from the midst thercof by the spirit of judgment, and by the spirit of burning. And tl1e Lord will crcate upon every dwelliug-place
.... It ls needless to rcmnrk lhat duirt ls ln thls tire wblcb God wlshea sbould always ail laoguagœ compared 10 a flrc."-B/QQm· burn upon the allar of our bearlll."-L<i"~ ~<fs Svnop8is, Am. S., 1 Cor. vll. 9. tm, Arl. Flre. " lly firo IB eomet!me.s slgnlticd love. It is




of mount Ziou, and upon hcr ni<Scmhlics, a cloud nnd emoke by day, :ind the shining of a fiaming fire by night; for upon ail the glory shall be a defence. And thcrc 11hall be a tabernacle for a shadow in the daytime from the hcat, and for a place of refuge, and for a covert from storm and from rain" (Isa. iv. 3-G). Each cxprc~ion in thcse glorious dcclarations would be sccn, had we opportunity of nnfolding them, to be filled with spil'Ît and lifc; but from what has becn nlready advanced, the humble nnd devout Christian will reaùily pcrccivc the gencral mcaning and applicntion of tho entire passage. Whcn we thus learn the spiritu:il import of light and fire, we soo the rcason why in the reprcseutntive temple nt Jerusalcm the fire and light were nevcr suffered to "go out" (Lev. vi. 13; xxiv. 2), anfl "·hy in the represcntative worship so many offcrings to Jehovah were dirccted to be made by fire; for the Iight of heavenly truth must irradiate our understnudings with undying hopc, and the flame of hcavcnly charity must be kiudled on the altar of our hcarts and never nllowed to be extinguishcd. Our worship, to be intelligent, sinccrc, internai, profitnblc, must spring from enlightcned reason and hnllowed affection ; so will our impcrfeet services be acceptable to Him who "rcgnrdeth not the outward appcarance, but looketh on the hcart " (1 Sam. xvi. 7). Whcn, a.gain, wc ndmit that the oppo· sites of truth and love are fantnsy, or imaginary light, or falsity, and burning concupiscences, or soul-tormenting lusts, how transpicuous numerous passages of the W ord of God, otherwise inexplicable, bceome,-as where the Psalmist says, "I lie among them that arc set on fire" (Psalm lvii. 4) ; and whcrc the prophet says, "Behold, ail ye that kindlc a firc, that compn.55 yourselYes about with sparks: walk in the light of your fire, and in the sparks that ye have kindlcd. This shall yc have of mine hand; ye shall lie down in sorrow" (Isa. 1. 11). Agaiu, we can distinctly and rationnlly pcrœive why the chil<lrcn of Israel werc forbiddcu to "light n fire on the sahbathday" (Bx. xxxv. 3), and what is siguificd whcrc it is writtcn that "wickcdness burneth as the tire" (Isa. ix. 18), and nlso why cvil lusts and thcir tormcnts in hell are callcd "unqucnehnblc fire" {l\fnrk ix. 44), "devouring firc," and "cverlasting bumings" (Isa. xxxiii.14). 'Ve sec also the reason why, under the represcntativc dispensation of the Jcws, Nndab and Abihu wcre slain for oflèring strangc fire unto the Lord (Lev. x. 1, 2), or fire not takcn from the golden altar, which had bcen miraculously kindled, and wn:> ncvcr sufforcd to go out. This criminal presumption was significative of approaching the Lord in



Facred worship, not from the holy principle of love and charity, but from the wrnthful spirit of uuhnllowed zcal, or the strnngc fire of sclf~love. Thus the sncred Word is no longer a dcad letter, but is rc11lcte with life. 80, a.gain, to represcnt the grnncl idcn thnt Gocl cvcr wns and is, ns to hjg iumost essence, di\'ine love itsclf, H e revcnlcd Ilimsclf under tho l\lo:;t Ancicnt, the A ncient, the T~rncliti.~h, and evrn the ChrÏl!tiun dis1x:u~utiou by firc; and as diYiue luvc, when acting upon whatcver i:o coutrnry to itself in men or evil spirits, is felt by thcrn ns tonnenting ami dc:;truetive, thereforc the Lord is also c:llled "n. con~uming firc" (Deut. iv. 24). 1"rom this signifiention of firc mnny commou forms of expression arc derivcd, as that we say of a mnn, ho is iuflnmcd by angcr nnJ wnrmed by love; heated by controvcrsy and cooled by rcflcction; nnimatcd by the glow of philanthropy an<i torpid a.s affection grows crJ d; and thcse mental changes arc oftcn plninly pcrccived and cor· ro,ponùently indiented in the blu,hcs or palenc."8 of the countennnee and the wnrmth or coldne~s of the skin. Iicnce it wn.~, without douht, that lire, nmong the Orieutnl nnt ions, from the most nneient times, wns so univcrsnlly regnrdell Ill! un emblcm of th<l Lord, who is love itsclf; and that in a more eorrupt nge, whcn the truc signification wns lO:!t, ronscerntcd fircs becamc the ohjects of supcrstitious adorntion to the l'~J?~-ptinn~, Chal<leani;, A8l!yrin11s, Pcrsians, and othcr nations of the
1' . ~n. . t,u

Once more (for this portion of ou r subject is mo>t important to be uuderi;tood), the element of water may be adduccd as another illusIn the religion or Zoroast.er, lt W8.8 d e· claf\'<l a. crlm~. punlsbablc wllh dcnlh, to khltllc Ore 011 the a.1tar oraHy ncwly Crc<'lt.~1 t.emr•le, or Il> reklndle it 011 any altar when lt had tx.oeu b)'at.,.hleulP.xtlngul,he<l.exrcpt "ith fin: obtAlne<1 hom 110me othtr temple or Crom the suu."-A..dlo"1 Pi.et. lJibb, \'Ol. i., p. lil . •·Tin anr'lcnt Pcrslan• comecrak'<I flrt' a.• an oblatlon, thcm0<>ta11al<>b'OD~wthcneturo ofG<>d. Thn<.as\\efiudbynnln'C'rlptlon on an F.11n>U•11 obeU.k, the •un WIU! >tylt'd the t'l"arncr or oplftrcr the world. The re11re· '!Cntotlw bc<•amc the object ()( worohlp, and the antltyr~ w"" forgotten."-EUNb. dr prtp. E"'11lg., 1111., C. 12; Dr. Ldafftr1 Ad1'<mll10" q/ ,., Olril. 11..... , VOL 1., p. m: ."<rlt'I /Tilt. Salit, p. 817. • Bra) ""Y' that ln the curlou• and and,.,.t poom (iU<Jodio, Ule IOO'l!d Jrc, ncu Uic cur-



sns of Rtouebcnge (on F:nllsbury plain), fs cnllcd 'llie tu~I ftre,' and remarks ln e. note tbt\t 8t0ocbengc was & temple of Il><' Sun, aud fire wllll lo\'1Lriably used in the 1> 0rsbip of Il• d clty.''-1'Jrl qf lkron&Airt, \·oL L, p. 137. .. Ou the rclfl(ioo or the 1Lndeot .\-..yrlnn.. lAyard exp"'""'" hl• belle! Illat, origh1ally, lt was pure Sabœeul~ro, tu \\bir.b the hca,~.. enly bo<li<'tl were wo,..hlp[l('d a.. mcre tri"'• of the pow~r and attrlbotCA of the Supreme Ilefty, and tbere I• a ~troug probability lhat thls fotm of wor.blp had itl! orfldn among the lnhe.bltants of the Ai«yrlan plain. The fire-W011>hlp or a !~ter Ol(C was a ~orruptlOll or the rurer form or ~.~nigm, and lhen1 are no tnte,,,. or Il u 1>0n the ee.rliest mouu· mcn&&,n-l'au.(f ,\'nl<i•4 11"4 l'l:ntpolil, J\





trntion of the bcauty nnd ffinsi.~teney of the •cicncc of corrcspondcnccs. · This tran~parcnt liquid is often mentioncd in the Racrc<l Scriptures to ~ignify, in a good •cnsc, nntural truth or doctrine dcrivc<l from the letter of the 'Vor<l, and ndnptcd to the externnl state of ail men :1• to their füith and obcdiencc. Pure water, when applicd to wnsh the fcet or the body, clennscs from defilement; so the truth of the litcrnl sense of the W or<l cnu purify the miml and lifc from the stains of E<in. "If J wash thee not," i>nid the Lord to the A po~tle Peter," thou hast no part \\Ïth me" (John xiii. 8)." Whnt water b to the weary trnveller fainting for thin;t in the parched dcscrt, ro are the doctrines of the ord to the l'tpirit thnt dcsircs and sccks for them-ehcrishing, invigorating, lifc-giving. W nlcr is cs.•ential to the existence, l!rowth, nn1l fruitfulne~ of ail the vcgetable tribcs; it supplies a refrcshing hevernge whieh, scrving to m01lify the solin food for the purposes of digestion, is also inrlispens:iblc to the support of animal lifo; so the knowlcdge of external or doctrinal truth, rcccivcd hy faith in the understnnding, and obcyed in simplicity of hcart, sati!Sfies spiritual thirst, nnrl is cssential to the pre!'errntion nnd rcnovnl ion of spiritual lifc in the soul. Thus nt the command of Jchovah, l\loscs struck with his ro<l the rock in the arid wiltlemess, and water in nbundancc streamed forth to supply the fainting congregation of lsrnel (Ex. xvü. 1-6). So when the soul in a wil<lemes.s state is nppn.rently hcrcft of comfort and rcady to sink in dcspnir, Io! füith, in obedience to divine direction, strilccs the rock of the W ortl on which the Lord stands, and the refrcshing waters of consolation gush forth in life-restoring strcams. W nters arc sometimes spoken of as bubbling fouutnins, nt others as flowing strenms; somctimcs in large, at othcrs in small quanti tics; as living and lifo-giving; as desolating and destructive; ns swcet and hiltcr; as tmuspnrent and ruuddy; as existing nt one time in rich ahunclancc, nt anothcr a'! rlistressingly dcficient. 'Vhcn the mcruiiug of \rnter i!S unocrstool, how full of iru;truction, how numcrons and vnried arc the lcssons of wisdom thus <füclosed to our view, nnrl how cusy of ap1>licntion by nll l In the Book of Gcnesis we rend thnt " a l'Î\·er wcnt out of Eden, to water tl1e garden" (ii. 10). A garden, or guarde<l plot of grouml, reprcscnts the preparcd nùnd, and the vnrious trc('ll, plants nn1l flowcrs cultivnted thercin, with thcir hlossoms, fruits and frngr1rncc, will signify ail kinds ami dcgrees of intelligence and rational dclight. But" the river "-the strcam of ct(•rnnl


• "To wuh the feet ls IO cleansc our acllous."-Lc111rclllf, .trl. Fat



truth from the Word of lifc, that "founlnin of living watcra,"-must flow through it nn1l upon it, or oJl man'R intelligence and iutellectual plcnsures are nothing worth, n1;d must wither and perish. When, thereforc, man is dcscribed as rcceptive of natural truth, nnd obedient thereto, thus, as cnjoying the rcfrcshing and perpetual flow of hcnvenly delights. through the medium of the Word, it is sairl, "And the Lorrl shnll guide thee continually, nnd satisfy thy soul in drought, and mnkc fat thy boues: nnd thou shalt be like n wntcre<l garden, whœe wateri; fnil not" ( Isa. lviii. 11). And again: "Their soul ~hall be as n watered garden; and they shall not sorrow any more nt all" (Jer. xxxi. 12). The plenitude of divine truth, flowing ctcrnally from the Lord by hi~"'ord, is hence repre~ented as "a river of unfüiling water," and Ill! descending showers-" 1>howers of blc~~­ ing," rcfreshing and making fruitful the Lord's ehurch in gcnernl, and ail the principlcs of the huronn mind in particular, like a.s water irrigates nnd fertilizcs the pnrchcd and thirsty soi! through which it gliclc:!: thus wc rend in Deuteronomy, ")f y doctrine shnll drop ns the rain, my ~peech Fhall dÏl:til as the dew, or be as the smnll dew upon the ten· der hcrb, and as the 8howers upon the grnss;" and in the Psalms," Thou visitest the earth, and waterest it: thou greatly enrichest it with the riv<"r of God, which is full of water: thou prcparest thcm corn when thon nast so provided it. Thou wnterest the ridges thcrcof abundnutl V: thou !'<?lt!C!lt the furrowil thcrcof: thou makcsl it soft with ~how~rs: thou bl~est the springing thcreof" (lxv. 9). Fluch tn1ths or doctrines of the literai seui;e of the Won! ns are gen· uine in tbcir outward fürm, and lead to the reformntion and rcgulatiou of the motives, ns wcll ns of the lifc, n.re denomiunted "living waters" (John vii. 38), and" waters of lifc" (Rev. xxii. 1); but when t hc internai aml spiritual truths of the ord revea)od through the lettrr are tn'alc(l of, the mental foct is rcprcsented in that miraculous <li~play of didnc power, reconled in John ii., whcrc water wns con· vertcd into wine. This l'ignilic~tion of water, in a good ~n.-.e, is moreover positively nffirmcd by the Lord H im.•elf," For," f:llj'S He," as the rnin eometh down, nud the ~now from hcaven, nnd returneth not lhithcr, but watcrcth the enrth, and m11krth it bring forth and bud, that it may givo ~<!e(I to the ~owcr, and brend to the ctlter: so sl1all my Word be thnt goeth forth out of my mouth" (fa'\.. lv. 10, 11); lllHI 11gain He graciously promi~C!', "I," the Lord, "" ilJ pour water 11pon him thnt Îfl thirsty, ami lloods upon the clry gronn1l: I will pour my 1:1pirit upo11 thy secd, nnd my hlc:,.-;ing upou thine oli~priug: au<l 9 u




thcy shnll !tpring up ns nmong t hc grass, 1\1:1 willow1:1 hy the water. courses" (xliv. 3, 4). Whcn it is !ll'<'ll thut hy i;eas nnd floo<ls of water.; arc i,1ignificd in a henveuly 1<e1i.~c·the collection of divine truths in the Holy " ' or<l and in the humnn minrl, then wc shall know why David, in de..,cribing the ~ccnrity of the Lord't1 church in hcnwn and on enrth, was inspired tu i:ny, "The earth i,, the Lord's, and the fulncss thcroof; the world, nu<l thcy that dwcll therciu. For Ile hath founded it upon thescas, aud estabfühed it upon the floo<ls" (Pt1. xxiv. 1, 2).59 On nccount of the correspoudcncc of water, whcn applicd to purposes of purification, the .Tcws wcrc commnnded to institute varions kincls of ablutions or WMhings; nn<l, for the ~ame rca.~on, the tmcred ritunl of baptism wns institutcd, to be a standing and solemn mcmorial of rcgcuemtion, which i~ucs in the purification of the mi!l(l and life; for thus is the prophecy nccomplishcd, wherc it is "rittcn, "Then will I spriuklc elcnn water upon you, and ye i;hall be clenn; from all your filthiness, :md from ull your i<lols, will I cleansc you " 60 (Ezck. xxxvi. 25); and, ngain, in that divine promise that in the fulnCM of timc the truth of the Holy Word ~hould be unfol<led for the 1>urposCR of spiritual purification, the Lord saya, "In that day there !'hall be a fountain opened to the house of DM·id and to the inhabitauts of Jerusalcm for sin nnd for unclcanncss" (7.ech. xüi.1). " Therc is a g('tleration that are pure in their own ey<'I!, and yet. is not wnsh(.'<l from thcir filthines.'I" (Prov. xxx. 12). An<l so the .Apostlc
""And the Church whicb He 1Chrl&1) hM willu.tarnllng it.• prl"'l'nl ~upe"tltlou• &&0· fountlcd, wc hcholil lt a• 8itti111t u1><>n mnny rlatlons,ll('Cmg to ha.vu hccn unquc>llouably water>, 111••" tbc l!'!t'al oœan uf 1rn1b, frou\ rlcrh•e<I fl'<lm aucicnt limes, whl'n the >el· "bcncc "' èry ..iream that ha.• at ail or at cnce of corre>ponrknct:'< was \\ell ltuo... u; any timl' rt•freio.lwrl the earth wR• origlnally for wbcn the midwlfc lmmcl"el thcm ~be •Ire.wu, aud to whkh tl dutcou,ly hrlng11 H>ys, • Hccch·c the water; for the l(Odd••'s lts water. agalu."-nmcll'a llulM'a11 Serti., p. CbalciuhrueJe ls the n10thcr.' • '1ay thls 170. wnter clcRn-e the •pot.' wblch thou wa!X"t •"Ablutions appearto baye lx.'\:11 amonl:"t from the wo1ub of ll•y mothcr, rurlfy thy Ule oltlc•t t·eremonic• practlscd by rlilfereut heart, an<à g\•·e tbee a iood 1u11I rcrfoct lite: nations, ami are still wn1ociatcd wilh ncMly ln anoth<•r 11<1rt of the cN·emony, •he says, ail r<:llglona. The gityptlau prk•t• ba.d Ulctr •May th<' Invisible <lfl<I de«œnd u1>0n thl$ diurnal a.nd norturnt.1 ahluUons: th" Greeh \\&ter, ami clcan•c tltC<' ot evcry •ln &ud lm· their l'J)rlnlùlng'I; the Homan- lhclr lui.Ir&· 1•urity, and frcc thce from e•il fortune.' tions a1ul lavation'; the Je"s th~ir freqnmt For furtbcr partlcula"' of t11i.s lntcre•tlng "ashlngs and purlnretlons. Whcncc coulll c<•rcmony, ~ce the .AllW C!ovigcro'• /118'.. qf this unlvcl"81 rrartk" arl'c but from a Mez. The llrnbmln• of lllndo•t.an al!<O l>Ap· knowle<hrc of the 'l~nlftcanre ofw.,,1Jing?" 1 the thclr cbii.tren, an1l mark lhem with --.l.:ee J>r /. 1ù1e11lry'• .Yuü1 W l.N \f,lf't. _vn"'· n.-.1 oinunt·nl. sa.yin,,• O J..ord, wo preseut qf Mm11wn11lu, p. ;i.-.'.!. 1 th!> chilrl, born or a hol)' tribe, ro thee and "The lllcxlcau•, orlgln i•invoh·r1l thy11Crvl1•l'.' ltlselcanO!l'<l wllh 1"1tter,11nd lu ob&<·urity, bath•' tbclr chil<lrcn the n10- anolutcd wlth oil."-t;r..oe Lord'• Banian Rel. ment thcy are !.>Oru, a cn>wtu "hl<-h, not ch. ix..




Puul, ~peaking of the purification of the Lord's Church, both gencrnlly nnd iudividually, from dcfilement, nTites to the Ephesinns as follows: "Christ lovcd the church and gave Himsolf for it; that H e might sunctify and clennse it with the washing of water by the Word. Thnt He might present it to Hirnself a glorious chnrch, not having spot, or wrinkle, or nny such thing; but that it should be holy and nithout blcrnish" (v. 25-27). From ancient limes men plungro them..«elves into the Ganges, the lndus, the Euphrates, the Nile, anù the J ordan, nll rivers esteeme<l sncred, to rcprèscnt and signify, in n good sen.se, purification from sin in the streams of divine wisdom, hy honest endeavors to apply its sncred truths to the romoval of evil from the lif<', and thus reformation of the charaetcr. John the Ilaptist came os tho Lor<l's forerunner, and, for a similar reason, baptized ail who came unto him in thu boundary river J ordan, "unto repentance, for the confession and remk~ion of sins," representative of the only effcctual menus of cleantiing the soul from spiritual dcfilement, through the doctrines of repentance and reformation which arc found in the lctter or cxtemal boundnry of the "'ord, and thus·of truly prepnring the way of the Lord. Whcn wo thus undcrstand whnt is significd by water, how full of cternnl interest nnrl prncticnl instruction does the Lord's eonYersation with the Samaritan woman become, as H e sat on Jneob's ~ell. That fountain wns deep, anù reprcscuteù the Holy Word in its outwanl lettcr; but the Lord, sitting upon it, reprcsmted the saine Word, hcaring tcstimony to Iliru as the God of Jacob, und filling its internai scnse with living water from Himsclf. "If," said He to the woman, "thou kncwcst the gift. of God, nnd who it is th1\t saith to thce, Give me to drink,"-for IIe tl1irst11, and is only sati~fied wheo his crcaturœ frcely partnkc of bis ble.:;sings,-" thou woulde:1t have asked of Him, and H e would ha>e gh-en thco living water. Whœoever drinketh of this 'vater,"-the more doctrinal truth of the letter,-will find it fail to satisfy the inmost cravings of the soul, and "shnll thirst again; but whosoever drinketh of the water that I shall give him,"-the pure, eternal, life-giving streams of divine truth, rcvenlod to angelio and human perception in the internai or spiritual scnse,-" shall neyer tbil'l!t; but "-if ho inwnrdly supplicntes it--" the water that I l!bnll give him shall be IN 11 ui a well [or fouotain) of water springing up into evcrlnsting Jife." It will satisfy cvery \1ant of the soul; it will be M!garde<l as the W:;t gif\. of G00 to hi:> cn:aturcs, and beeome



a sacred medium of pcrpetual communion with Him, nud a perenninl source of comfort, bcatitude, and joy (John iv. 6-30). Though evcry incident in this bcautiful and divine narrative teems with significa.nce, we have only spucc to in<licate the nbove general idens. A defect of water, therefore, will denote a destitution of truth, and a thirst for water an earnest desire to receiv.e it, as in Amos, "Behold, the days corne, saith the Lord God, thnt I will seml a famine in the land, not a famine of bread, nor a thirst for water, but of hearing the words of the Lord" ( viii 11). "If any man thirst," saith the Lord, " let him corne unto me, and drink. Whosocver drink.eth of the water that I shall give him shall uever thirst; but the water that I shall give him shall be in him a well [or founta.iu] of water, springing up int.o everlasting life" (John vii. 37; iv. 14). But, in its opposite sen~, water, as we hnve already seen, will signify truth perverted or falsified,-man's sclf:Jcrive<l intelligence and " carnal wisdom." This profünntiou of truth is meant in the internai sensc by the miracle of :Moses, when "he stretched forth his rod over the waters of Egypt, nnd they became blood" (Ex. vii. -19); while the contrary wns represented by his making the bitter waters of l\farnh swect (Ex. xv. 23-25). The substitution of self-depcndeuce for full reliance on the divine aid and Spirit, in the attainment of truth, and of self-intelligence and perYerted reason in the place of genuine wisdom, is significd by these words of the prophet: "l\1y people have committe<l two evils; they have forsaken me, the fountain of liYing waters, ami hewed them out cisterns, broken cistcrns, that can hold no water" (Jcr. ii. 13). Henec, too, tcmptations, which are the result of the activity of fülse principles, in connection with the powers of darkness and evil, thrcatening to overwhelm and destroy man's so11l, are siguified by the raging flood, from whieh, under divine guidance, the ark of sitlvntion can alone delivcr him, agreeably to that most gracious promise in Isaiah, "Wheu thou pa...:sest through the watel'il, I will be witb thce : and through the rh•ers, thcy shall not oYcrflow thcc: when thou walkest through the fire, thou shalt not be burned; neither shall the flame kin<lle upon thee" (xliü. 2); and to signify the direful tonnent whieh such as wilfully reject or pervert the truth induce upon their own rnindi;, aùd which, in appearanc.-e, is attributed to the Lord, He is said to " hiss for the fly in the uttermost part of the rivers of Egypt, and for the bee in the land of Assyria" (Isa. vii. 18, Hl ). So, al:;o, in likc statei; of affliction, the Psnlmi.<1t complains 11.nd says, "The floods of ungodly meu macle me nfrnid" (F1:1. xviji. 4);




10 l

" Decp rnllcth unto <ll'Cp nt tlu• noi.~e of thy wall•r-1<pouts: ail thy wn\c>< and thy billowii nre gonc ovcr me" (xlii. 7); " I sink in dœp mir<', whcre there is no standing; I nm comc into dccp waters, whcre th<' floo<ls overflow me. . . . Let not the water-flood overfiow me, neither let the deep swallow me up" (lxix. 2, 15). On nccount of this signiflcation of water, a river, or flo11ing stremn of" nter, fertilizing the lamh! through whieh it rolll', exactly corr<'~1>0niling, in n good ~cnse, to the inflowing of heavenly truths in rich al>undnnœ into the mind, renovnti.ng all its powers, anrl causing it to hc fruitful in intelligence nnd good works; but in nn oppœite s<>u!'e, it signifies n desolating stream of fnlse persunsiom1, indu ring ignoranrr nn1l cleath. Thus, in the prornixe mn<le to the faithful, it is snicf, "Thou t1halt mnke them drink of the river of thy plcnsnres" (Psnlrn xxxvi. 8); nnrl where the IIoly Word, ns the fountain of intelligenc<', i~ dœcribcd, it is said, "Thcrc is a ri>er, the strearns "hereof iohall muke glnd the city of God, the holy place of the tnhcrnacles of th" ~lo:•t lligh" (Psalm xlvi. 4). And again, "For thus ~th the Lord, Ul·hold, I will cxtcnd pence to her like a river, and the glory of the Grntilcs like a flowing ~trcam" ( Isa. lxvi. 12). The divine promise of hcnvenly truths and intelligence in ail nhnntlance, to the humble nncl preparcd soul, is al~o thus expres...oed, "Whcn the poor and nee<ly 11eek water, anà thcrc is none, and their tongue füileth for thinit, I the Lord "ill henr thcm, I the God of Israel will not forsnkc them. 1 \\ill open ri>ers in high plnce>!, and fountaios in the midst of the valleys: I will makc the wilrlerness a pool of water, nnd the dry land Springs of wnter " (Isa. xli. 17, 18). But an exubernnce of fnl~e principlcs, overf:lowing nnd dcsolating the mind, is signified whcrc a river Îli spoken of in its oppOô'ito sense, as in the Psnl ms, "If it ha<l not bœn the Lord \1ho was on our side, now may Israel say, then the waters hnd overwhelmed us, the stream had gone ovcr our soul : thcn the proud waters had gone over our soul" (cxxiv. 1, 4, 5). And in I~aiah, "Go, ye swift messengel"ll, to a nation scntwred nnd peeled, t-0 a people terrible from their beginning hithcrto: a nation meted out and t rodden down , whose land the ri vers hnve spoiled" (xviü. 2). Aml in the divine expostulation with mRn, in consequence of bis fürsaking the Lord's 'Vord as the ouly fountain of truth, and \'ainly dcpending on his own self-deri>ed intel· ligcnce, fancying that thi:;i is true wi.sdom, " H ast thou not procul't'l.I thh< unto thy:5elf, in tlmt thou bn.<1t foraaken the Lord thy God, when Ire !cd thee by the way? Aud now what hast thou to do in the way



of Egypt, to drink tl1 e waters of Rihor ? or what ha<>t thou to do in the wny of Assyria, to drink the waters of the river ?" (J er. ii. 17, Hl.) In the sublime prophetic vision of the holy waters procœding out of the snnctuary, or "\Vord of God, the prophet dœcribes their outgoings as successively reaching to "the ankl~,'' "the knces," and "the loins,"-the waters and thei r varying depths denoting the tniths of the W ord necommodated to nll stntes of perception; the nnturnl nml sensual state and it.s perceptions beiug signi6ed by the a nklt•s, the spiritual-natural state being signified by the knœs, the c;piritual state beiug signified by the Joins, aurJ the celestial or highest state being i;ignified hy waters to swim in, for this intelligence and wisdom i~ so for nbove the natural man n.s to be ineffable. These statcs of exterior, intcrior, a nd inmost perception are necessarily opcned as the prophet mea.fürcs a thousnnd, denoting the quality of rccrption, that it is full and complote, because applied to the life and conduet. And beyond that highest state to whieh man or angel can attain, the inmœt spirit of these waters, thcsc vital truths, i.., secn and acknowledged as" a river that cannot be passc<l over,''-waters whieh carry h<'alth and lifc whithersoever thcy corne ( E zck. x lvii. 3-9). Now prcci.Qcly tho flame kind of reasoning is applicable, and similnr proofa might be nd<luced, in refcrcnce to most othcr terms and cxpr('!I· ~ions used by the inspired prophets and cvangclists." The W ord of G<>1l, in its inlernnl sense, clocs not tre:it, then, of inclividuals ami nations nud the annals a nd statistics of the human rnce, nor yet of the'obje<.>ts of uatural hi.~tory, uor yet of times and' A<'flsons, light nml heat, wnr nn<I pence, citics and couutrici<, birds and he:ists, fishcs and
""Dy findinl\' 1i.pirllual ..-noe [in the Wortl lltlnr)' Will O'llOl!ow that hl•t.orll'ftl \\cnkcnetl or d1.->1trnyctl." " l n thl" IJ<;glunlng of our \l'\•fttlM• wc wnr ne<I oth<'n< al(llln•t suppu•iug thnt we 11t•traet<'d fmm the 1,..11.. r ln tran<.'U'tinn• h)• k•nrhini: that tlw thlnl:" lhem•<·lH"' rontah11~1 wlthln th('m the uut...,lnl!'of '<llb!<"!n<·nt realitiœ."-0""· '""'' on ,\(all. Yll., p. (;10. Cy rll of All'XAn<lrla al"'' hel<l thatalll1nnl'!h thl' ~plrllual •en.'" he 1.~••i n111l frultful, y<•t what 11 hMorlN\l •hou hl l><' ln ken a. [trnl'] hl•tory."-lbmmmt. in B"l1t,li1J. l.,ornt.4, vol. li., pp. 11~. 114. Tbr'"' analoi:;esare "'><'!car and lntet"l"ltlng, that rou l'&n .Cat('('ly hook on relil:Ïon• "uhJt·,·t.., "here tbt•y llrt' n'>l ln on<' way or other lntrodu<'cd; thm1, the CJwûtlan wu,.,., (Xo. Ni, p. r.a) '"llA'r M}"ll: "Thcre are many >tri king nn<l lx'Butlf\Jl annlnglC!! betw~n thr 1111tmi\I and ~plrltunl worlds. Fact•ailfl J>l•t•· 11111nl'nn in tll(IOll<'Areoflm uf!<'d ln lh<' ~rlp !Urt'!. to ilhlktMlt<' thl' truth • of the ollwr. Thcr<:' i• a M'('d·llm<> ln the worl<l of mln<I A.• os ln th<' world of mattrr. The 1:"11 Ut' 1ll'ws di<tll, ami lh<' carly all<l lnt"'r raln• <l<"<('l'nd. both ln thr world of nature 11ntl ln the world of gnll''. ln the beautiful lantru11~c nflnspirullnn, tbe lnllurnœs of<lo..P"l l!nl<'<' jnnd tn1th)nr<:' n•11n'!K'ntc<l a• t•otnhll(<ln\\n llkc rt1in Upôll th<' l?fd.'11!, and llke ~hOWCN thllt wnlt'f lhe t»trth. Whcn thl"!C n•fr<'•hlnl( and fortllizinl( ln6ucnre• llJ'(' "ltl11l raw11, thcn romcs dro111:ht and bllrrenn..,.. l.oth ln thl' natural and ln the •piritual world ."

O( !:0<1 ), tnllh J~








reptiles, plants nnd trccs, flowcrs nnd fruits, islands and lnkcs, rivers and seas, wind and floods, rain and dcw, hail nue! snow, and nll the objects and phenomena of the naturnl world ; for these, in their rncrely literai acceptation, are not the subjects of inspimtion nt al!, nor, if they were, could any knowledge respecting thcrn irnpart righteousness nnd tranquillity to the soul. But the 'Vord, in its holy internai, treats of the Iufinitc Jchovnh-his wisdom and his will, of spiritunl subjects and cvcrlnsting realitiœ, of the propertics and qualities of the humnn soul, of rcpcutnncè and rcgeneration ; for of these all crentcd things nre but correspouding types. Nor, agaiu, does the 'Vord of God trcnt, .in its interior and heiwenly scnse, of the chronology of kingdoms and empires-of the gcnenlogy, nomenclature, and biography of their rulcrs and hii!tory of their people, nor of thcir religion nnd laws, their rituals and ·ccrernonies, their customs and mnnners; for though, in their liternl sense, the things recorded in the historical books of the \Vord were actunl occurren<.-es, yet, as such only and having no highcr refcrence, how can they contribute to snlvation, or be snid to have heen written by the plenary inspiration of God? But ail these worldly fncts and occurrences, without exception, represent mental stntcs and spiritual conditions, inward and outward facts nud opcrations of man's cxperiencc, and are the images and symhols which adumbrntc the objects of an etcrnal world, and the attributes and perfections of the Godhcad. Nor, lastly, was the Word of God inspired to reveal to us the proverbs and sa):ing.:i, the exhort.'ltions and discourse, the promises and thrcatenings, the counscl and experienoo of mcre men, however "·ise or distinguished; in its holy internai sensc all thC!<C forms of ad<lrcss are significative of truths nnd doctrines appcrtaining to the Lord, to the son!, and to eternal life. 1 " itl1 thcse cxaltcd views, the \Von! of God cornes to us invœted with e\·er new and irresistible unthority, so far as our will coïncides with the Divine will; it interfercs not with our freedom, and it commends iti;elf to our highcst ren~on. J t is no longer fille<l with dnrk, inexplicnhlc my11teries or historie fallacies, or regardcd in rcfcœncc only to by-gone timl'S and people, with some incidcntal refercnccs to mornlity hcre and therc; but it tccm!I with inte'rest nnd importance, conveyiug to us n. grand conucctcd serics of' unchanging rules of lifc, evcr uufülding more clcarly to our vicw, as the clonds of the lcucr nrc penctrntcd, and having in cvcry page and Jine, in evcry "jot aml tittle" (Matt. v. 18), the most direct. rclfitiou to our souls and to the





great intercsts of an etcrnnl st.ate.62 Thus the historien}, the prophet. icnl, the <loetrinal, the devotional, nnd the ethical portions of the W ord
et Bishop warburton AA)"ll, "the prophctic literai me11nlng, but that lt requires llh1ne •tyle seems to be a ipeaking ltiei·og!IJPh~.''­ ald in ordcr to understnnd, lu mnuy places, the fundamental of the letter; and thus wo DiP, Leg., b. IV~ l · •· "The Thcrapcutre.," writcs Bruuo, "inter· find D1wld pr>l)'l', •Open thon mine c)·cs, that pre~ the Scrlpturcs of the Old Ti::;tamcnt I may behold wonderful thlngs out of thy allegwlcally, and being wont to scck the lllw' (l's. cxix. 18). If King David bad bœn ~plritunl mcanlng of the Law, thcy more able to understand the Word of ü0<l by his rcndily embmœd the Gospel than thosc who owu inquirics, be would not have Um• looked no furthcr thnn the outwnrd lctter." pmyed; but his suI)plfcnUon was w c·om1>rt~ -De Therap., p. l!J3. Pliny Sll)'S that Ibis hcrnl the secret and hlddcn mystcrlcs of the aect hnd bccn in existence •e,.cral thou- Thomh. To this ctfcct nro at'o the words of snnd ycall!.-Nat. lfül., lib. v., cnp. nlll. The the Sohnr: • Woe to the man who nsscrts thnt na me mcans a physlrlan; nnd Philo 54)'8 the Thornh ;, a mere record of hlstt>ric•nl they wcre w callcd becnusc the)' curcd men'• fuels of ancien! tlmcs, nnd eontnin~ Lut a souls of the dlseascs wbich tbcy hu vc Mn· narrative of common things; if this werc the trartcd by thclr passions and ,;<'CS.-Phllo casc, lt mlghl also be eomposed in the prcsde n:ta C<»tf.emp/.o.lit'll. They hn ve bcen SUJ>- ent time. Dut the narratives and subj~'t'ts poscd to be the Essencs, an nnclent scct of containcd ln the holy wrltlngo; nro only U$1kl the Jcws, or probl\bly a division of that.scct, ns fi~1res for the mysterics dœply hidclcn and callc<l Tbcrapentœ from the strktncss under the letter.' And whocvcr con.•ider.1 or thelr morals and the purity of thcir con- the primai')• scose as the principal objœt of duct.--8ce Jenning'e Jt:Yish .A:nliq., p. 320. the Scriptures, ls gullty o! dentb, and forfcit.s ln The J>o'cw Baptist J!agazine for April, 1827, nll ~lnlm w a future ~tatc. Thcrcfnre lill)-S thcrc is in"Crted a lctter from M. Mnyers, at the Psalmist, 'llght.cn mluccycs' (l's.xli!.~); \'lcnua, gh lng an account of a moi;t rcmnrk· thnt ls to that 1 might dlsœm the llCC'ret~ able scct of Jcws in Poland, cnlled aller thelr hldclcn undcr the lcttcr of the law, 'le>;t I foumler, Sabbntbia Zcw;, Sabbathlaus, an<\ slec·p the slccp of dcath.' In 11nothcr pAAo;ngc also Soharltes, ou account of the yencrntlon lt ls rcmarkc<I by tho Sohnr, •If the Thornh ln which thcy holcl acabalfstfcal work,cnllcd wcre ooly to be ta ken ln a lltcml FCuse, why Sohar. Ou thelr establishment ln Poland, should David so.y, "Tho lnw of tho Lord ls lh<'Y dcclarcd thclr total rcjeetlon of the Toi· pcrfcct., more to be dt'Sircd tha.n g0ld, yen, mud. They arc <fütingulshed for.thelr strict thnn much fine gold" (Tu. xlx.). It is thcrcmorality and lutcgrlty. In the Q»iftMlon of fore undenlnble thnt great and many mysr'aith whleh thcy have published, among terics are hldclcn under the lcttcr of the othcr remnrknble thlng>i, they 118.'!Crt thclr Thornh, tQ lnqulrc lnw which lt is the duty bcllcf respC<>tlng the Jloly Scrlpturcs, as fol- of C\'cry one who wlshcs tQ bœomo ortholows :-" wc bclicve thnt the writings of lllo- dox.' "-See also CrU. !Jil>., \'Ol, lv., p. Z'>7. &><,the Prophcts, nnd ail carlier Tcn.cheri;, This rCCQg!lition ofan lnwnrd scnsc ln the arc not w be ta ken lftcrnUy, butllgurnUvely; Word of the 01<1 Testament, closely RS:!lmiand ns co1>talnlng n secret •euso hid under latcs, as für as we arc able tQ judgc, to tho the merc let.ter. Thcsc wrltlngs are to be doctrincs of the Thcr.1pcutœ or E'!Scnefl, nt compared w a beantlful womnn, who hidcs the time of our Lord's incarnation, rcferrcd ber cbarms unclcr a \'Cil, ancl <·xpects her to ln the prcvious note. Though, from the admlrcr.1 to tnke the trouble of lifting it; undoubtctl tcstlmony of œclcsiastical wrltcrs whlch ls nlso the case with the Word of God, of c\·cry age, numbers of lcnmcd and plous hdng hiddcn uncler the vcil Of u llgurntifü ("hrlstlnns, to which many \'encra.hie nam<'tl ~cnse, whlch cannot be Uftcd evcn with the· of modern timcs mlght be addcd, have bcl<l hlghe•t hnman lngcnulty, and great.<•;,t de· fMI the doctrine of lln lntcrnal sensc in the gn.oe of \\is<lom, wlthout the assi.tnnce of Sncrcd Serlptures, but thC)' bave hnd, how· Dil'illC graœ. In othcr words, the thlogs cver, no definlte ldc>L~ of the laws of corrc· •p~kcn ofln th!l Thoruh (Word ofGodJ, must •J>Oudcnce, uow so mlraculously uofulclcll lu not be takcn llterally, acconllng to the merc the writings of Swe<lenborg, nor )et of the phrn.'l(.'Ology, but wc mu•t prny for the tcach- ùlstlnct books in which that scnsc enn alono ln!( of the Divine Spirit, to be cnnhled to dis· be sought with suœess. "Ali the expressions in the Word arc slgecrn the kemel whlch lies hld 1111dcr the mcre •hdl or hu•k of the lctter. Wc there- nlfirathc of hrnvcnly thi111r.<, n11d ail the lorc h<'llcvc that lt I~ not "'1ffici~nt m~rcly to things arc rcprc>sentntlvc tbcrcor, and tilla rood the words of tht• pruphct>. Io kuow the C\'Cll tQ the lctL>t tittlc.''-A. c. 5147.




of God are nlikr written nc<'ording to the invariable ~cicnoe of corrcsponclcnces. This i.~ th<' only fixed prù1ciplc on which it cnn be cxpouncled nnd successfully <lefende<l from the cnvils of infidelity and the inconsist.cncies of a fuise faith ;-the only rulc which, togethcr with the aid of the Spirit, rcmoves all difficulties, reconciles ail con"llollcying ln tM words of my Lord Jesus -JYealb Mvollcal and LUcral InterprtJuti111' Chrl<I, I do not tblnk tht\t th('!'\' l• a jot or of the halma, pp. :m, :r.u. •lttlo ln the law auil the propbct..• whlch i. "Wbat do we nwan by a literai lnterpl'\'ta· dnolcl of my>krlC11.''-Qrigt11, JT-. 1. (R Uon T One in wblch wo!Yl• bave the <Aftlt >.z••I. 'IClllll' a~rihed to thcm "hlrb t.hcy U<>JOlly .. Jt œcru:ne us to b<'llcve the i;acrcd !'<'rl{>- l>ear ln th\lly lite. Now t.hl' L< oue-balr uf tUl'<'S, not to bAvC one apex or Ulllo \Ol<l of the t.rut.h needcd for 1\ rlght. lulrrprctatlun Ill\' wi-.lom of 00<1."-/b., Jfam. 2, illJtr.,clwl oftbc f'criptul'<'S. The Wonl nfG0<l ls n n•v· (11 Jl11nmtr'a lïtw of A11Uqt<lll/, p. 231. !';oo clatlon to ruan. To bc ""'"ul to men lt tn1H }lftlt. v. IR; Lukc xYI. 17. be dc0n1tc an<l lnlellll(il>lc, ancl lu lhû. ... n • "SL Auiro:;Unc \\rote a wbolc llook nndcr lite ml. Jlut it is al.<ol a l'\'\'Cllttiou from • ;,., Ulc tille of Lrlkr n11d .~plril, in whkh b e hns Now to be Divine, lt mu.•t N>Utn.in hldu-r ~hnwn thnt not only the lll•torlC!I, l'~p18, trut.hs, u <>hler tboughUo, more full l\lld d•..-p I'• mbll-s, and Fli:nrt"! of the Old Tr~trunent, rontoeptlon~ thnn surJ1 a.11 mttu <'Otn•cys to 111" lmt th°'e of the New, are to be both lnter- Mlow-mcn. Thcrcforc,hl cmploy1n1; hUIMll 11r"Wd spirltunlly of the opcratlon• of Goà IAnguai:r. lt must cxnlt nnd CX["111<\ lh•• (11 f'llrùl, aud BPl>ilc<I tlh.O by Faith and the meantnii of the tcrms \\hkh lt c mplO)'"- H l'"••r of the Jl!)ly Oho-t w '"" ~1itrlt., to bclongs to thftt tin~m of <;'XI wlilth <'l'i' m• ke Ill! u1œ .. i'<' "l'i ri tuai; othcn•i-e the bath not "'-'<!D, ndtbc r hatb lt enttrc<l huo "holc \s but IAt ~ùr 111411'ilklA, au<I not the the hCllrt of man. H eu"" an Il• me•'"~""' 1'1•lrit thatghclb llf,•.''-IJ<lllowarf1 Ltt/c'nnd œ.>r lb!• Mme chamrler."-Rirk'• 1''irl<t Kit· ~)1irll, vol.!., Int., p. xlvill. tnt:nl of Sal"rro. Prophecy, 11. 2.'iO. "Ir f:cripturc hn~ uot. on undrrturrcnt of "Natural lhing;s, peNon~, motion", ancl R<'· nwnntng, double, triple, qundruplc, or ('\·en tlons,deelared or lq)Okcn of lu "eriptul't'. ail· )'tt more manlf·1l1l, l ronfCS'! 1101 only that mit or al-o many lime. a 111)'11<-ll.l, m ...mt, or my work is a mt:f'\.! wa<tc or lahor, tlmc, and allCl!Orltol 1 tnow thb splrilual • 11-<' l"'Jl"r, wbicb \\oUld compamllwly mau..r i~ &tli ~'n.11.L n. foot to ~me faint and un~ht\" Unie; bnt it 111'11 follows tbnt ail primitive lng h!'tlrlA M "•P<'(:tre. Dut lt i, a lhln~ nr and mcdlœml Commcntatofl!, from tho llrst knowll'<ll!('<l by the n10.1 wlsc, most plou•, t'\•ntury un the ReformAtion, havo more or and m•ll<I rational of tM Jf'U'18h Docto111. l IM bcen dccclvlng the Churcb of Ood,-have wlll 1m.1Anre ln one wbo b ad in.<101' om Htu... l>N'n gul'<;titullug lhclr fun<'lcs ror hls lm- Mœes A4o'1>tlus, who compares the m,·hic 111111tlhle verltles,-hn.·e ndopled the s)'1!1Cm Orllclt"I 'IO Appltr Qf Gold ln pirlt<rts <If Al· wbkh is alite th<! off•prlng and 1be parent t-er.' For tru<t the 0\111\'t.rd :S-ltor b ,., ry of error,-that tbelr foliœ have tw.•11 a hln· romely. a_, c;:ilYer<'uriou.~ly rut tborou~h &nit dmn<'e 10 the cnu..c or trulh, and the lnl>Ors wrougbt; hut the inwar<l FplrilUal or my•tl· or Uieir lovcs nu llL"ilt to the gcnulno prin· rai Sl'noe ls the G<>ld, more preelou• an<\ rlr•h'S o f lntcrprclatlon. Tnko for llll!tnnco more bcaullful, 1bat 11:U.ten1 lbrough lh"•" cuttlnl('I and artlfidal car>1n!l" in the lcllcr." the t>nowingcxtrtlcta: "The Mysli~l lnterpretatlon or f'crlpture, -II. Jlor(1 ])(J. of~ Cbbalo, lnlrod., p. Ur., a.• n·cry one will allow, ù u., •li6tioquilhift0 ed. lr..-.3. nork of di§erav1 bdK'""' QJl("1û at11t ORO<ltm "TI><> anoient lntcrpreters of the RI hic "" re l'l"•••rnlator.. To the fonnt•r tt" n1 the very pcl'<ua<lt!<l and fimùy hell~\·cd that lt !'<Ill· 1 ltfl', nlllnow, <."'~\'O<'O,vf Ood s,\'onl; theker~ talnt~I, ).)('!;ld<'S the plain and oln·iotll! ml'nn· iwl, of which lhc llwml expoi;ltlon wn.s the lng, rn)'Sl4'rious an•l concealctl truths; lh••i• 1hrll; the Je" cl, 10 "btch tbe ou MM llnd thought 11\at in a book~ holy, and 1•mul111( wrl.oll &lgnlfi<'allon rormro the •hrinc. Dy Crom lhc Pountain of an \\1"1om, there rt111 th~ latin li hft• onlver.ally bo·cn held n•.>t JMJMlhl)· be a n.>dundJ;.nt "on.I, or e\·cn a ln equal conttmpt and Abburt\'lll''. It ha• "''P<'rftuon. lett.r,or a gtllmmatlcalanoDlllly: b<'CD llffirme<l Io ht• the art or fn\'olvlug and ron..-quently, whencver ~uch <lo apr• 4r, e'•'l'}lhlng ln u11ccr1a1111y, to tak•• "''Il>' an t1Jr)' mn't have bccn <k• llfllodly intm<lm""I flxt••hu't:s of 10.cnnluv, to tu ru ~t•riptun.1 tnto \\llh R. vh•w of tmlkntlng flome uuknf"lWI\ "rcpository of httnll\n f1u1cit•i;;, t.o )t4 1 f'IUb\l1r· truth.' -1/unrif• ".1';,,.n11 "" Il~ U.Un1pir<d ' '"'or au ex1\t'lll11<h', and r.ttul t.o all lmth." /,Urrol.ur,, vJ tht lll'brtu,.."





tra.<lictions, an<l, impre!'Sing cqu11J value upon what may appenr trivial as upon the most important portions of the 'Vord, irradiating the whole with the bright benms of infinite glory. Undcr this mode of interpretation Scripture truly becomes the interprctcr of Scripture, perplexity an<l doubt are banished, an<l it is at once demonstrated that the Holy W ord is, like its Author, di\'inc-that his spirit fills every "jot and tittlc" of it with sublimity, sanctity, and lifc, and distinguishcs it broadly from all human oompositions whatsoever. Mosheim, the ecclesiastica.l historian, fro~ among "a prodigÎl>tt$ nwnbel' of interpreters" of the early ages of Christia.nity, mentions Pantœnus, Clement the Alexandrian, Tatian, .Tustin Martyr, Theophilus, Bishop of Antioch, Origen, and others, who w<>re illustrions for their piety and Jearning and love of truth, who "all attributed a double scnse to the words of Rcripture; the one obvions and literai, the other hidden and mystcrious, which lay concealed under the vcil of the outward Jettcr;" and that "the true meaning of the sacred writers was to be sought in a hidden and mysterious sense arising from the nature of the things themselves."-.Eccl. Ilist., note 50, cent. II., p. 2, c. iii., 4, 5; cent. III., p. 2, c. iii., 5. And Bishop Horne, speaking of the same testimony of ancicnt Christian writers and expositors, distinguished alike für tlieir Jenrning and piety, says, "They are unexceptionahlc witnesses tous of this mattcr of faet, that a spiritual mode of interpreting the Scriptures, huilt upon the practice of the apostlcs in their writings and preach· ings, <lid univcrsally prevail in the church from the beginning." -Comm. on I'salmR, pref., pp. xi., xii. (new cd. 1836.) Primitive language, in fa.et, had no other expressions than thosc 'ivhich wcre grounded in a certain intuitive perception of correspondences, and thus, at the sa.me time, God was seen and adorcd in his glorioue workmanship, and man was divinely instructed in the things of eternal life.63
.. Theauthorof1'rarl3forlhr Times, lxxxix., 1only in \hc proph•·tiNll writlnl;ll dothey find "Thcrc ls no discl'('pnnoy betwccn the our Lord ond hl~ Gœpel cvcrywhPI"('; not tonc of the Ap•1'tl<•s and th1tt of the Churt'h only clo tht•y tmoe lhroughout the ,,..,;tionl ln 1t!ler ùtiys, in relp\"l't of thclr l>oth ns- scn•fcts the cxnmplc nnd •hadow of the fU•11mlng, clenrly anù dcllbcrntcl)', n certain turc hMvenly thln!l", bnt they dcnl al'° in omn~,;punùencc, lntcndcd IJ)' the <.:r<'lltor, IJe. the •nme way wlth the re<:orùs of h!story, twt'<'n the mnteriitl and Kpirltua.I worlds" (J>. whcthcr Pntriar('!111l or Jewlsh" (p. 11~ 11<1). And agnln," Wc n<.>ed not, pcrhnJ>", h<""" An old Latin wrlter, clted nnd trn11"lntc<l itAt<.' to admit ln the mOt<t nnre-«>rv~cl "ay,- by JI. JI. I'. in the Aurom, \•ol. l., p. 7~. mnkt• lndccd, lt mlght be hsml t•> lind uny one who the followlng lntcl"('8tlng ob«<'rvations: "I hns cver denlcd,- thl' unlv~rs>\I ncloptlun, h)' nm of OJ>inion thot the fi"'t At'Tnon• of th!~ the t>arly f:hri,tlan wrltcl'l<, of thl' nllt•i;:orlcnl [llicroglyphla] wl'"1om Wl're notfrom F.lfypt; war of cxpoundlng the Old 'fc.tumcnt." ••:<ot for (If we cr<.'<llt the tt.-stlmony of Alt•xnn



When, in consequencc of man's fnJJ from this state of intelligence and purity, it becnmc needful to provide him with a WRI'l'l'EN record of God's will and wisdom, adapted tô raise him from his lapscd conclition, and restore him to the paradise of wisdom and happiuess, the certainty is, that it would be written in the only universal and unchanging langunge, the language of corrcspondence; for, while the arbitrary words of human languages are perpetually changing, both in sound and sense, for want of some unalterable standard, the language of correspondence is as fixed and determined as the unfrerse itsclf." H ad divine truth been revealed to man in mere didnctic phraseology or preceptive forms of speech, it would have supplied no positive evidences of religious truth, no fixed basis for internai com iction; nor could it have becn translated from one langungc into another without losing much of its intrinsic clearness anrl force; nor
der, ln his book of Jewi•h history, as wcll mates, are moulded and fixed ln ail the obosof Enpolcmus, thc author of a book on the Jects or the vJslble world, whtch 1,, as lt Jcwi•h kin~) Abraham lived ln Heliopolis were, the chaoe coutaining the corre<'t('(J with the F~yptJan prlcsts, and the seed• of lYP<-"' of ail written language. The W1111ds srlcnc<" scattered by Abraham (some of and the signs may be dUferent, aecording to whlch he profeAACd to have becn handed the states of dllîerent nations, but the l!Ubdo\\ n to him by Enoch) were not wantlng "'"""" lhey lnvolve is the same in ail lan· ln thosc •)-mholical and enlgmatlcal 1'dls guages. Plato (ln Cralylo, pp. 383, 42S, ed. undcr whi.ch the wisdom of the ancients was Sorranl) bas well S\lid that language i• of ooncealed. It !s aùùed, that tbis world, 1divine Imposition; that human rœson, fmm crowdcd wltb such varlous objeets, antt a defcct ln the knowled!(e of natures and llùorncd with surh beautlful lm~ry. was qualltles, whlch are lndleated by names, prc!Ot'ntcdbyGodtothevicwofthefir.tmon, conld not dctermlnc the cognomcna of fn or<ür that through tlw$< ot1t1vttrd ttprutnla· tblng.. He maln!J\ln.• that namcs are the tlom, they might pcrceit-e, as it wcrt tltto1<gh a t'Chict1/a of •ubstanccs; that a fixcd analoJ(Y faint cloutl, llUJ bright rays of ditoinUy 1vMcl• (correspondcnœ) exL•ti belwœn the nome sMnt 1l'ithin. It wns not wlthout reason that and the thlug; that languaire. therefore, ls Epletetu• obscn«-d that therc existe<! ln the not arbitrary in lt.• origln, but ft"ed by tho mind• of men, "117"boù of Ood, wh!cb He lm· laws o f annlogy: and that God alone, who pl't'SOOth upon ns by the surroundlng repre· knows the nature of thingi<, originally im· -cntations of bimselr; whercfore lt may eas- ['OSCd nomcs•trictly exprcsmve of their quai· llybebelic,·etl,thatthevarlo\"ohJcctswhlch lties. Of the same opinion were the !'tolrs, arc IJ<'helù on the fncc of the carth, wcre re- suh!<tiluting only nature for God, as the cre· gnrded by Adam, by Enoch, by Nooh, and atlng llnd nomiunting ~nt. Zeno, (,1eanothers of the primitive af(('S, as •o many let- thcs, Chryslppu•, labored to provethatW1tnd• tcrslllumlna!A'd with thcdhineglory,whcrc- wcre origlnally cxpn.-sslve of the nature of h)' tbc Etcrnal Mind clid stamp the lmprœ- th in~; ami that uo word or sounù coule\ be slon of his 11.nme on mnn. I am the readier wlthon.t.. snch original. That not <mly the to nCCl'<I<' to thls opinion from the cust.om of cye and the ear, but the touch, the taste. nncl thelr pœtcrity, who so oflrnlimc• """""'1r<l the 1m1cll, wcre Mnccrncd ln dctermining the mylllcric8 of T••tgùm 11ntkr gymbo/.3 a11d fig· thcm. They who may desIre to sce a full a~· ures thfci 11ul.ldng .,..,. more commm•. And, ln· eountof lhelr system and opinions, may con· dccd, the e.neicnt Hcbrews so hlghly vaine<! sult G<*n de T>crffl, llippo. Plato, lib. il., .Yigi· the flg11ratlvc mo.le oC SJl<'<'Ch, thnt whnt- d1us Agel, l<hS, Labt. 7-3, l'a= de Ling. Lat., ever wa. •1>0ke11 shrew.tlr and rraui:ht wlth and Dion. Ha•. <le <bmp. l'crb. The profounù wlsùom, was CAlled Mn."<'hal, an a1>rellA· and cloquent rommentary of Hlerocles on tion whirh prn)l('rly ....1at.t.'S to pnrables and the"""""' of Pythagoras, will al80 l\Jmi•h ar· •imllituùcs."-De Symbollca .lf:gypti<m"'' 1'1<1- g11nwntand ilhL<tration lnalmœtcvery~ v~ta. Hde Gia.. 1':.d. lif>G."-R. K. c. N<t<N:h1J.1'CJ. " "The rormB of divine tmth iu its nlti· man. p. 235. l'hiladclpbia.



Nmld it havc bccn hamlr.l rlown, from ngc to agr, in the pure state i11 which wc poo.~css it. The laws of correspondcncc nrc bascd on the in~cparnble conuection which exÎSL'l between !lpÎritunl cam~cs aml natural efi'ectfl; they pr<'l'crve and pcrpetuate ail the >isible works nf crcation, :md are ncccs.'larily interwoven with al! human expcrirurc, mental nn<l matcrial; the inspircd ord, thcrcfore, enshrined in the Jangungc of corrcspondence, has retainecl, nnd must retnin, it.'l ~i;tnificance und authorit~·, its comprchensÎ\•encss and grandeur, through all gcnerntions, nu1l in every ton~ue in \\hiC'h words are nppropriated to the objccts of the outer world and the operations of ils inhnhitnnts.'~ From this divine source mun mny contiuually cnrirh hirn~elf with new and unfüiling treasu rcs, at the samc time thnt he


Pain<' thowhl v.as wantlug. To my ru;tonishment,Ju.•t as the abovc note wa.• hclng printcd (l•t t•cl,), J met wlth nl')(n· mcnt.s •ubstnntlally th11 very snmc, and rttl· culnk'd to •Ub\'crt thr dhinity,,.,\J1Ctlty,a11d aulhorft)' of Lhe Wol'I of Ood, ad\·orah~I ln the Publin Ret-W, for lktober, 1147, one of th<' lll""t iufluenllal ol")llln• of tilt> Uoman Cathollcs. The pa...age occutS ln a )'8)>er agaiMI the mdiscrlmluntc rcadlng of the ntblc. "Il was lal1l <luwn," says the wrlkr. "Ûll\l falth W8.8 111 /fring J>ITtQ1'8; but th!.' Dlhlc IJI a mero material book, uot pO'."C'<....,l or Ill<.', ml'llpable of motion, ami nnabk hy any pcnwr of llS 011 n evcn "" murh Il' to proptll't' lt>self für bclh'f. Rut it v. Ill ht• Rn· •wcr!'<l that, "hen auy one Issa Id to rt•ncl ancl hellc\•c the Rible. •uch Il pcl'>lOn n>nlly IH'llt•v..• ln Christ.. whtl'«• worth and rc\'<'lntlon art.• fomJCl ln the Rlblt'. Y<"': but ho\\ do )·ou kno" thnt hi• won!• arc f.>und ln th<' Rlhle? lt 1, nuw elghtœn l1u111ln'<l rean ldn1~· out 2'.17. !'.whmr au\l his llJMl'lllC• wcrc on the carth. l'aine, ln hi~ Aor qf Rmsun, sa}·~." The !<Ica If thclr rcvelatton v. AA commlltcd to n l•JOk, or hdlef of a \\ Ol'l of God, cxi•tlng lu 1irt11t, M rnu 811pposc. how <Io you know thnt ln th" or1nwriting,orh"l""-'<'h,i,iu!'<m•l•wntwfth l'OUl"leof tÎIDc thlR book ha, not lx...,n fü1"1· it«'lf. for lb"'<! ""'"'"'~ 11mo1ig many others: fi('<} 1 llow do )'Oil pnn-.• the i<lcntlly of lhc thr "antof a unher"ftl lnngu&I:(', th~ muta- Dlhlc of the nlnc~tb century "ith the h11lt)· of lnui:uagc, the crrors to whlrh tmn•· Bihit• of the llrsl?" lnllon' ure M1bjcct, the [lOS.•il>llll)' of totAlly To the dcvout and refl(>('th·e mln•l, "hat 11 '"Pl•l'C,,,,ing Ml<'h 11 Word, the prohnblllty of 1 powcrn11 argument •houl<l the nbovl' 1•x1rnct nllt'nn~ il, or of fllhrlcating the wholc and •upply (<'omiug a• 1t <101.'11 from the l"C'pr<''41'1l· lrn)""'"i: it upon the worlcl."--tl\'O '-'''·• Jhll!, tatlH·k of a large proportion of the Chrl,!11111 1•rl 1., p. :li. worl<l 1for the ab<Oluw nt't'~tyof the mode 1·h,.....- 'Jll'<'IOU• obl•'<'tlon<, tn whkh, in the of l11u•rprctatlon nov. l"l!Walcd to m11nklntl, ronnnon modl' or ('xpJaluinlr{ the Jo,t·r1ptur\.'8, unie.,,, tndt?eJ, wc arc prcparcd to N.'\.• the 111> '<•tisfartory 11n•w••r cver hn• or ran !Je foun<l11t1ons of l\ll truth un<lenn1nrcl. IA't J?lv1•n, are <ll"IJ*\l••<l bcfurc tho gro•nt prln· tht• n'll•kr contra•t il wlth tM followlng riplr, of lutcrprt.•tlnl( the ora1·lt·• of God <lc<'111mllons of thCl Wol'l ll-.clf: John 1. 1; acht" >llt'<l al""'" llkr <lnrkn<'... nt the rl•ing Luko lv. 4; Isa. xi. k; Pl<. cxix. ~•; rlll. :.'O: oflht•!-un. ~otonrufthemha4'tlh'"'luulo\\ Matt. xxht. 3~,: llark xilL 31; )licah 11.7; i,fa •uppnrton whwh to rt.~t. llrl\' l' the John \i.G3; xi.31.

c. Wh11t 11n lntclll~cnt author alllrt1L• of fll(umti.-e l~ry I~ fnr mon' truly 11nd corl"C'Clly ap1)1ieable to the !><'lcncc or corre•pon<leuces. "Il •• the cxeellcnro of tblll mode of •Jl('Rkln1t, lhat it I• not 1•oaftned tO the p<'OPI<' or 811)' partlrular llRltCJll or l•lllKU•t,'\', but n11J1li"" IL"t'lf l'<1nully to ail l11e nations Of the <'ftrlh, and ;, uufvcrsal. lt wa.• not 111t1·nd<•I f.Jr the Ht·hn'w or the t:1.'yplin11,thcJcworthcGreek,lmt for mon; nnrl thcrcfore it nhtnin• equnlly 1111\kr the 1'11trlnrchal, J1•wl>h,nn<I ChriKllnn nl,1ierusa· tlm1' RD•I i' 0( t'<lmmon bcll~fit lO ail ~S antl nll pla<'.... Wul'I• arc chanir,•ahle: la.nll'U.llC\' hns lJ<-cll rouf.mndc<I; and men ln dlncn'nl part• or the world are ui1l11tcllilrlhlt• tn one another Il.< l>arbarlan•; but the vi•ll>lc works of nnturt.• arc not ~uh)•'<'t to any '°"'h confn>lon; the)' "JX'>lk to n• uow the samc 11.• the)· 'l)l)kt• ln the earllc-l ab'("., 11nd th,.ir lauguagp wlll la't a• long a' the world •hall remaln, wlthoul IJelug com1ptt'<I."li'. Jo11c1, Lut•. Oil IM Fig. Lang. qf .<;crip., p.

"•<1li"N"oal kttigu"O"" ,. hlch



t races in liYing charncters, amid the boundless works of creativc energy, the divine Iovo nn<l wisdom of their all-glorious Auihor. As the objects of the outwnrd universe arc th us contemplated, they awaken dcvotional feelings and kin<lle heavenliest aspirations, and the divinity of the W ord becomes, ns it were, identical with the grent laws of creation and life; its truth is established beyond ail controversy nnd doubt.œ
"Theauthorof'JTa&/<lrlhtT!mes, lxxxlx., spcaking of the pccullur pbm:seology of Scripture, says (and bis arguments woultl have been still more weighty nnd oom·indng had he bcen Q{'qunintcd with the Sl.'ienNl of corrcspon<leneell), "Nominallsts arc rcady enough to say, •[thnt this mode of wriling) I• the lmix-rlèctlon of language; the Al· mighty hlmself, eondesccndlng to makc use of hwnan words und ldloros, eould not othcrwisc eom·ey ideas of the spi rituai world than by Images and tcrms tnken from objccts of sense: Or a~in: • It i.s the genlus of orlcntalism; if God vouehsafed to addteoi1 the men of any partiouln.r Ume and country, He would adopt the modes of speech sulted to th1<t lime aud country.' Or, •The whole ls mere poet· ka! omameut, the veblcle of moral or bis· torl~al truth, framed to be beaut.lfied and eognging ln lts klnd, ln merc Indulgence to the lntlrmity of human nature.' "But would Il not be enough to say, in imswer to ail tbœe stntements together, that cven if granted ln fact, they f.UI as explana· lions, slnce the qnc•tlon woulcl immcdiatcly O<'CUr, who made Ianguage, or orlcntall•m, or poetry, what they respe<'th-cly are? Wns lt not One who kncw bcforchand tbat He sbould adopt !hem one day as the rhnnncl and conveyance of bis trnth and hl, wlll to manklnd ! Surcly rcason and picty IA.'l\Ch us lhat UOd's provi<lcncc preparc<l languftl.."C in gencrnl, e.nd csperiAlly the languagesof Iloly !lcrl1>turc and the bu man styles of ils severnl wrltcrs,ftS fltm.fflla througb which his !<11pcr· natuml glorles and dcaUngs mighl be dis· cerne<!: and if they be so forme<\ as nc~s· snrlly to givc u.• notions of a œrtain corn:· •1.oudencc betwccn the supcniatural and visible, we ean bardly hclp eonclw.ling Chili such notions were lntendcd tu be formcd by

The same writer p=eeds tbus: "If the whole werc mere nccel<'ity, ari.Jng out of the impcrfert!on of human speech, or if Il were oriental boldnC"8 of phrase or pœtl<'al omrunent, the •>-mbols would prol.ihly he more varie<\ than we find thcm to lie-the
sa.me extcrunl object wouJd nutso constuutly

O(...'CUr to




lnvihtl>lc thiug,

through so large a collcct.lon of compœitlons, so wldely dlffcring in style and tone. As to the Imperfection of human speech, wc ail fcel every ho ur how it causes us to modlfy and alter our Images; we 1.Bkc the be>t symbol whlch œcurs to us at the lime, but "e use il in a kind of re• tlcss, unsatlsficd way, likc pcrson• owore thnt lt ls notslmply the bcst; and by the lime we necd lt agaln, we have llghted, very likcly, on somcthing far trncr un<l more vivid; nml thus we go ou ln conversation or in \•tritin", h.nprovin~ or marrlng ou r imagcry, os the cru.e mny be, 1>11t stlll lettlng lt be fèlt that it is l>y no mcans fixed and uuchangcoble. Aga.in: ns to poetlcal ornamcnt, vnriety and veniatility of resource, il is obviously a grcat ingredlent of that sort of cxcellcncy: to be always re· l'Ort.lng to the samc similitude or am\IOjzy would rathcr, of course, betra)' waot of ski li or power. The third solution, lhatofor1cnl· afüm, mny sccm at flrsl sight to be more •!lt· isfactory as to this partirular eircurostnnce of the salllc figure constant.ly n.-pcat.c<l. Grnntr ing, howevcr, that the lik'rnture of Ulc Eubt.em nntlons is, in some respects, Uke thcir mttnners, more flxed and monotonous tban ours, and acco"lingly lhüt it U""8 to exprN<S lhings out of sighl by a certain uniform lm· ngcry, s11ggesting the notion of a scllie<I and urnlers!Dod imagcry, yct, in the flrst plaoe, wo know not how für this lltcraturo may have been origiually modellc<l in the Ilcbrew !'orlpture~. instee.d of tbcir takhii: any tonc from ROmc prcYlous fonn of lt1 the very existence of whleh, aftcr ail, ls l>llt c"nj~tured. Next, su('h a Ftatcment would put fn a strooger light the f1l<'I of that klnd of style hnvi11g bccn adopte...:! h)' the lloly Ghosl, whercby lts symboUcal words would sœm to be rnised to the rank of dl vine hlcrogl)"Ph· le<!, so to rall thcm. "The fixednc><', therefore, or the Scriptural imager)· d0<...,, not sœm Io be sumciently nc~ount~'ll for by uny criticisms of Ibis klnd; but it. ls neoouuk'<l for if we :<uppOSe thé mut<'rlctl worhl orlglnnlly oonstrucl<.'d wlth n ,·lcw tol the snc<M analogies whlch tllil •yn>l••licnl nlphul..-tof 13cripture (If we mil) «> dcno1uioatt• it) e,u~?Csta."-Pp. 171-S.




If the Word ha<l been written without a litera} scn~e exnetly cor· rcspon<ling to itR inward spirit, a medium of co11ju11ction bctwccn heaven and earth, ange!~ and men, would have lx.>en wanting, an<l thcre woul<l have bœn no ground or basis on which divine truth rnuld have rested, so ns to remni.n fixcd with man. Att.endaut angcls eau perccive the spiritual seme while man peruscs the letter in faith nn<l sinrerity, evcn whcre he is not acqu1ùutc<l with the internul sen.."C, nn<l be eau claim a holy state of a<ljunction with them ; but when the gcnuine doctrines of the lettcr an<l the truths of the internal l!cnse are acknowledgcd by him, and rcceived in aflèction, he may then enter into a blesscd state of u.ssociation and coujunctiou with thcm. "The lit<I'lll sen~e of the 'Vord is also a dcfcnce for the genuine truths concealed in it, lest they shoul<l suifer violence; tui<l the defence consists in this, thnt the litera} scnso can be turned every way, in ail directions, and be explained according to the rendcr's apprch<.>nsion without its internai being hurt or violnted, for 110 hurt ensucs from the litcral sense being un<lerstood differcntly by <lifferent people. But the danger is, wben the di vine truths wbic h are hiddcn therein are pervcrtc<l, for it is by this that the W ord sufl'crs violence. To prcvent which, the literal sense is its defüncc; and it operatœ as sueh a defenoo witb tho:;e who are undcr the influence of rcligious crrors, and yet tlo not confirm thcm in thcir mimis; from these the 'Yord suffors no violence. The literai sense, acting as a guard or defencc, is significd by the ebcrubim in the W ord, nnd is nbo describe<l by them."-D. S. S.,


Swedenborg cluci<lates thii; intercsting point most convinciugly, \\ here he :,iays, "That the \\' onl without i~ litera} scn..coe would be like a palace without a foundation; that is, likc a palace in the air aud not on the groun<l, which could only hc the shadow of a pnlare, and must vanish away; nlf'O, tbat the 'Vor<l, witbout its literai i<rnse, would be like a temple in hieh there are mauy holy things, nud in the midtst ù1ereof the holy of holies, without a roof and walls to form the containants thcreof; in whicb ca."C its holy tbings would be plundcred by thieves, or be violated by the bea.~ts of the cartb and the


"ln readlng the Blhl~ for Word of Godl. you cannot afold p.·~·l\'ing tlutt all the prophets and all the i;acr.:·d wrltN"! """ the ll1;urntlve langunge of 1mrable. lt I• the lnnguage of lusplratlon ami the 1<ymholknl language of nature.'' "l be >pcraUons of

the >pirltunl and morfil klngdoms in man are typifi<'d, '" tcto, by tbœo of tllc JdnŒ· 1 ù<)ms of nftturu, as lt i• i.-rmro by phtl060phcrs."-&aa11 on Univcrl<ll A~, pp. 15,

:)1), :li!.



birds of heav<.'n, ami thus hc 1fü~ipatecl. I n like mannC'r it woul<l ho like the t11bern11cle, iu tlw inrnost pince wheroof wns the nrk of the tOv<.'uant, und iu the mi1hllc part the golden enll<llestick, the golden ulttu' for iucelll!e, and also the table for 1<hew-breml, which wcre iU! holy thinjt8, "ithout its ultimates, -which were the curtnius antl ,·eils. Y t'a, the Worù \dthout its litera! scnse wonJ.I ho likc the human h01ly \1 ithout its covcrings, which are called skius, au<l without its supporte~. whieh are callcd bouœ, of which, supposiug it to be clcprivetl, it..., iuuer parts mu~t of ueœ&;ity he clispel"O('(l and pcrL~h. I t would ul"'' be like the hcart and l uni,'1.l iu the thorax: deprived of thcir N>\'Cr· ing which is called the plwra, nnd thcir supporters which nre calll.'cl the rihs; or like the brain without its covcrings which are calle(l the dura 111aler ancl pia mata, and without its common co,·crinj!, C'nll· tniunnt and firmament ''hicft is callod the skull. Such would be the ~tate of the Vford without its literai ~euilC; whereforc it is saie! in I~aiah, that 'the L ord will croate upon ull the glory a covering'" (iv. 5).-S. S., o. 33.


LITERAL SE'1Sl: OP THE IloLY Wono Exl>LAIN.&D AXD 1LLi;,,'Tiut·t:11.

mnny parts of the sacred Scripturos,61 however, particulnrly in the Go~pelt<, we fü1d truc doctrine plninly revealod for the ~iwple in hcart,-"thc babes in Chri.<;t" ( 1 CQr. iii. 1; 1 Pet. ii. 2); but would we behold the hidden splcndors 0~1e1wcn, which fill the inner ('ourts of the sanctunry, "the everlasting gntcs must be unfolrlcd,"11c must enter through "the \·eil," and as wc mcclitate on whnt we l'l'C, wc cnnnot fail to ndopt the exclamation of the patriarch, and ""Y· "ThL'I is none other thnn the house of God, and this is the gate of henvcn" (Gen. xXYii. 17). Xor let it for one moment be supposoo thnt the internai :1em•e of Scripture invnlidntes or injures, in the elightcst degree, its cxtrin~ic meaning nnd nuthority. On the contrary, as the soul nnimnte~ nucl confer" <lignity on the body in which it dwell~, !<O the :1piritual ~ense gi 1 ·cs life to and exnlts the literai ~en~e, which is arknowledgccl to be cruinently holy in conscqu<'nre of the he:wmly mcaning of which it Î8 the rcpository, and which, far frnm bcing dispnragod, is prcservetl by it and for it with the mœi srrupulous exactn<.>;i,.<:. Of the \ Vord of Go<l in both senscs it mny he truly ;;ai1l, in the lnnguage of the nuthor of the Epi.~tlc to the Ile""Therc I~ a •triklng 1111.•S&!{C ln Augu.'<- 1lng not only Io floed all wlth obvlou• trnth, Une," say~ th<' author or 'I'radsfor IM TimCJJ, but nbo to <'Xcrcise nml pro,·c an hr lh11t lxxxlx., p. n, ••w!Jl<'h t'olke~«.as ltwcrc, lnto lrut.b whl<'h l• n·molc li'<>m vicw: 11~' 1111? in & !>'>iul, lbr rnufe<-.<ion• on tbls he&<l o r C\ery !t.n-a<y p&rt.<\1 hntcver Il• haro part.sroutsln. i,-eawration oô b<>licvcn: 'The Mylc !t-elf ln llut k.-t belu-: opeu to 'lcw, tbcy Fhoultl lnwhkh lloly l·'<·rlptnro I~ framc<I. how open <'urrontcmpt,thcl!ltmc lrnlhsagainare nuvlc I• Il to cvery one's nrprollch, how lm1JOS•I- <k~lmble hy Nmeealment; to mecl t.llc tleblc to be O<'Al'('hcd ont hy any bull\ \·t•ry few ! ~lrc, they Il'(', ... Il w<•rc, J>rodo<'Ctl 1111cw; \\hat lhlni:- Il <'Olllllln• thot arc ob•l<>usand an<l tiein~"' n:ncwcd, thcy fnslnna!A.' lhemop<>n, the<t', llkc a fnmlllar frfcnd, lt •pcah 'cives wlth a kfnd of dcUght. Thu• "hole1>fmply to the h~'flrt, 11oth of unlcnrn~<I and somc correction ls providcd for <'ornapt h·a.rned. A• to those, 1111 the othcr hnnd, 1nh1d•, wholcsome nourl~bment for ft-cble "hlch il bldl'• ln mrtcrk,., nelthcr rloes it minci•, a.ntl wholœomc cujoymcnt for l!l"CAt ekvate lhrm by Ion» •r<.~h. ~u"h M mlght mlnd"- Thal mlnd alune J.s set •~>11ln•t tltls ch·t..r !rom a uean•r approoda the dnll 110<1 kttching, lhat, dthcr lhrough crror lrnows nntuughl mimi, as R p<•ir m11n ><nuNlmc- 1 nnt lts hcalln1: 1>0wcr, or through flfclcne!<S r.•11r< to npprc•11•h n rlrh 011c; but !'t•rlr>turc lnnthe& lins rocdlcinc.' "-J;'µ.137,i 18, 1. li., p ln\•ites an Il)· a Io" i» kl11d of •pcca•h, lutcull- alO.



API'A.RE.YT ,t,\'D RE.J.L 1'Rl/T/lS OP SC/lll'1'l'RE.


bre\\8, that it "is 11uick, and powcrful, nud i<harp<•r thnn any h\O·

1.'tl!,"'" sword, piercin;: evcn to the <lividing nsuuder of 8t>Ul and spirit, und <>f the joints a11d mnrrow, und is a discerner of the thought:; ami
intcnts of the heurt" (Ï\'. 12). The lt'ttcr is com1=1.'<i !IO as to engage the attention of childrcn and to arou~c the in<lifforencc of the m0:-t ~upinc. Herc the ru11imcntnl elemcnts of truth und goodnes1" arc 0Jfrr1. >d for acceptnncc. I t calls "sinncrs to repentance" by cxcitiug thcir hopcs aJHl nwnkcning thcir fcnrs. Externnl promil!CS nre nnncxcd to obedicncc, tbrcntcnings to disobe<lience. To adapt its iuw:ml 11pirit to the lm1œt nud weakœt, nppe:mmccs of truth, or truths ns thcy present them~clve- to the natural under~tnn<lings of men, are oftcu ~ubstitutcd for gcnuine trutllî', things relative for thiugs nlm>lute. W ithout impairing the intrin~ic verity, the vnluc, the purity, or the efficacy of the Wor1l, in the l!•nst, the most snlutury lcssons arc prc.-<!•nted thereiu, und<'r cwry l)()l;"iblc diversity of forin, and so wondcrf'ully and mercifully Î!I the\\ holc nccommodated to <'very chnrnctcr, u111l brought down to the level of cvcry apprehen~ion, that all mirnl~, both ~impie and intelligent, the illitt'rate and the lcarncd, mny be {('r:tdnally lcd, by menus of it, from the ~la very ofsin fui propcn.sitic.~ arnl hnbits, to the liberty of hc:wcn,-from spiritual dnrlrncss to God's murvcllous light,-without injury to thcir frceilom. Thcsc adaptations of truth to the vmieties of humnn perception may be compnred to lcn!'C!' of Yarious power&--eonv('x for one, concave for anothcr. Thcre are aL"O numerons instan<'G' in \\ bich genuiuc Ùo<'trinc couccrning the Lord, and the essentials of Palvation, llhine clcnrly and u11mi><t11 knhly, evcn through the cortex of the lctter.ee T hese agr cc in e\"cry respect with the <leeper truths of the iuward 11pirit, nllll ma.y alwuys be unive!'l'ally rccognizcd. Ai; the miwl re<'civcs and ohey>', it becomcs expnnc lcd and clevntcd, prepared for higbcr dcg~ of ~1>iritual light and 1t:;<!fulncss. It is likc the dawn wbich preccdcs the ri~ing of the sun, or the spring which heralds the coming ycar. Nor must we omit to notice the fürt thnt ail the grcat doctrines of
"'l'l'<' Mattxxil.lfi; '""" xlv.2!; Mati. xfx. 17; ,John xh·.9.10; Uc\·. >.~U. l:.!. .. \l't' h&çecompan-d tl1r MU'roCUle Wurd oC<;.)(j to the •ldn that c·oçeN !be body, &IHI Il• hfdden Mntcm' l<'I the lntrrior on:sna and mcmbc>rs; . . . hut to ilhimate the l't\'l!l"nt rubjcet. tllc lloly ll'ord may be romp11red to a b<'11ulil\JI f1•mnlo cJothe<I ln m'l'Omlngdropery, hnt wh•1'1<' fc«e And lmnd< remain untvwered: thu._, \\hHt' tht> ~att•r part uf the lctter of the "<'rlpture< Mn.-1'<1• oC truth• \-Cile<I o~cr by natural ll:n~.

wh!rh rRnnot be dcclpbeml wfUlout al.t'y, t.hethlng'lmcJF.t fndi"penuble tl> be kuoy,n un• npt'nly<li<playecl."-•\"OOle'• PleA. /UIJ>., p.

~o .\ugu.<tine,clle<l hy Jll•hopllall,1.«1ert.., "Tlu•ro i• notFO mucb clU!Jculty in thc!'cripture' toeome toth.,..ethl11,.. whfrh arenc<'C!!· Mry to 'alvation."-Rp. a. And ln anotbcr plnr<'," In the""' thinl!"' "hlrh arr op<'nly laid •lO\\.U Sn ~ripture. an• foUll4l all thœ<' thlnp "hlrh rontain our /ai'A and ru/a of life."De Doct. Cf<ri1., IU., c. 9.





the Christian religion, those which iuvolve the firsl steps of moral <luty nnd nre cssentinl to salvation, must clenrly and lcgibly be 1lrawn from, and supported by, the liternl scn~e of the " ' ord, in which divine truth lies couched in nll its fuln~s and power.• lt is the "hem" of the Lord's outer garments, whence henling virtue Îll<lues forth on every side (l\Iatt. xiv. 36). Just as appcaranccs in the works of God are to bo explnincd by the asccrtaine<l de<luctions of scientific rescarch, so the appc.arnnccs of truth in the letter of the W ord of God must be expounded by the fo.cts of true doctrine in or<ler to harmonizè with genuine wisdorn.10 The fallacies nrising from primary impressions on the mind are " truths in the time of ignorance," anrl hnYe to be rcmoved or disi;ipnted in the progrcss wo make in ail kinds of knowlcdge. Nor, constitutod ns wo arc, capable of an everlasting ndvuncemcnt in intelligence, il; this :my imperfection; on the coutrnry, it lies, in r<'ality, at the root of all improvement. 'Ve arc surrounded with füllacics and nppenranet-s of truth, unturnl and mental, which obl'Crvation, cxpericnce, an<l rcflcction only can cxplnin and correct. Thus ail things nppear to originate from more nature. The 11un uppcars to move d11ily round the eart11, to rise in the cast and to set in the WCl't. It appe:us to us as though we behclcl objccts out of the
"!'ce Rom. 1. JG; Ps. xxix. 4 ; Lute lv. 32; [ecrnoc.i]; whéreos the plaNll! whcrc lt h .Us· l 'i&. viü. 20. clot1e<lnro uncqulvocal,nmlngree only\\IU1 '""The truths of the lltA!ral ..cnsc of the the spiritual sensc."-l'll.4rhal'8 Tlwugld&

Word ftre, ln oomc ra.<e<, not nakl•I truths, hut only appcaraucM of truth•, an<l nrc lilœ •lmllltudes aud com11'llisons Ill ken from the obj(.'<'IS of nature, and tho.s nt'<'ommodAted and brought do\\ n to the npprchen8lon of •lm pic miuds and of 1•hlldren. llut whcrcas th1•r are at th!.' ll'lmc tlme rort'Cllpondcuœ.~. thcy art' the l1'c<:pt:11'11-s and nh()(lc><of g1•nu!ne truth: ancl tht•y are likc cont:1lnl111C \'CA·

"lt ls tho nuumcr of&>rlpturc," snys Hrcg. ory of Ny...a, "U> d<"lt'rlllOl what a111iror11~ be instca<I of \\hatrec1lly 1".''-Ep. d~ M•tm, p. lr.O. "Or ln othcr words," adds Dr. Jlavhl,.,,n, "the tllcUon of U1c Ulblc de'!CrH)('l< clrrnm· stAnrcs and physical truths optitally, M'rord· lng 11> the popula.r opinions and rlll!tomary phrascolOIQ' of men," lthout stril't ~lcnUfic IU'rnrary."-&ur!'rl li• rntrn(U/i('•, p. 11~. "An ••d"o-likea cry<talllne<'up contalnlngcxœl- obj('('t -n in t\\O <lllTcrcnt m1•lh1ru• 11.ph-nt w !ne, or o ~ih·1·r tli•h coutalnluir rich 1ican crooked or broi., n, ho...-~\ cr 'tnllJ.:ht mcnts: or th1·y are 111.:e gt1rmcnt< clulhlug arnl en tire it may be lu ltself.''-A•lilixtm. the ho<ly,-likc ~wu1l11llng-doth••s 0111111 in· "f:»cn the mostadvanced languni,'t' i. 1101 fünt, or nu eh'gnnt 11,...:;s on a h«t1ntlfl1l vlr- yct, nntl ncver wlll l>c ail-Or all, more t111in gin; the)' nre nJ,.1 llk•• the srlt•utlnes of the the lnugue.ge of n111•·ar&11res. Th~ vMble untural man,-\lhkh romprclwn•I lu thcm \\OrM, much more lhl\n you sup1•..c, ls a th•• pcrcepUous nnd affections of truth of the Jl".'"'lng 1hadow, 11 •r1·or of lllu•lon• aud of phnntoms. What you ('al) a rcallty I• •tlll ln •plrltual man." - .<;. S., n. 41J. "Wh••n the Worrl of <">Oil (whlrh ls truc) füelfbut a phcnomenrm coosidel'('•\ ln relA1' lltcrally fuise, lt ls splrltnally tmc. This lion to a more cxaltcd reality, and to an ul· ~plrltu11l scn'c ls covcrc<l by anotlwr, lu a wrlor unalysis. .•. 'rhc cxprcs.,ion or np· v..t nnmber of 1111l<'l'S, and uncov~rcd ln f'C"lf&llc<'S, aœordln11ly, provldcd lt t..• ex""'"~.-ra.rely, lnd,~, bot ncwrth!'lt·<s ln art,!~. arnong m~u. phllOflOphi<'ally t'Ol'l\'<·t, •uch a ml\nncr thut the plat'•·• "h••rc lt ls ami what it beho\·cd the "criplltl'('• 111 l'ID· conccakd nrc<·quhocol,and agrw w lth bvth 1ploy.''-Qa..-n'• Th"'Jmciul?t, pp. Z:~l.



eyc or nt n di~t:mce from u~. The !!ky o\·cr our hcnds nppcars conc.we, the enrth hcncnth our foct ns a plaiu. The~c nppenrauces \\ith mnny othcrs nre so <lcscrilwd in the lettcr of the Wor<l; but the gcnuinc truth obtnincd by ~cientific invc~tigation nnd rntionnl analysis, i~, we know, the revcl'!!C of nll this, when wc suhstitute stntes of lifo for spncc and lime. To spenk nceording to apparent truths, however, JJe;t !!Uits the univers.'ll form.s of ordinary intercouncc, and is sufficient for nll the prnctical purpœes of life, bccausc lll'!lt n<lnptcd to the apprchension of nll; and whcn tlie renlities and gcnuinc fuels arc un<lcrstood, tbis mode of speech is attended 11 ith no difficulty wlmtcvcr. To spcnk according to appearancc,s hns hccn well <lescribc<l hy Grimlou ns the grc~t {aw of la11g1wge, "becausc nll lnngungc <lenli; pritnarily with ultimntcs nud cxternnls," or whnt ill firsl presmtcd to the outwar<l scnscs and to the npperceptions of the exlernnl min11. Nay, furthcr, the Jangunge of nppcaranccs is equnlly well, and in some cases, perha~, fur hetter and more unfrersnlly, adnpted tl) the exprc:-~ion and apprchemion of truth thnn the correct tl1eory aud nomenclature of science, which are alwnys chnnging, or the strict lunguagc of i1hilosophy, which would be unclcrstood hy fcw unaccustomcd to abstract iuquiries. Even in rcligious doctrines many follacies exist, which expcriencc alune cm1 rectify. For instance, it appenrs to ~me, cvcn honc~t, mimis, thnt faith alonc saves man from sin, and to others, thai b'nod \\orks alone are the ground of acceptancc with God. Frmn the rucre appear:mccs of the liternl sen!JC of Rcripture, many hayc inferred that Go<l is nngry and vindiclive und delights in puuishing the sinncr for bis transgressions; that the !'OUl is a merc vapor, and the spiritual worhl a mysterious voi<l; that the body will risc nt somc future day from the grave, and the earth will be sublimated into a hcnvcn, and thnt hca,·cn and its joys arc the cnpricious gifül of God, and will ewn horrow confirmation of thœe opiuiolll! from the Jettcr of the \Yorcl. But ail su<'h view~ are the ott;..pring of appcaranr<'l! mistnkcn for l'\':llitie::s, ::m<l of su hscquent füllacious rcasonini,rs thereon, which eau only be correctc<l and 1füHipnte<l by n right dil;crimination bctwecn apparent and genuinc truths, according to the rulc of interpretation hcre nclvocatcd. It is even ao with natural knowledge. \Vliile one mind will perceivc a 8CÎcntific law in its native lustre, auothcr, without a c1ue~tion of insincerily, will have but an oh:.cnrc iùca of it; a third '' ill regnr<I it ns a fnllnty of the sen..<>e>, and a fourth will cntirely rejcd it llll nbsolutely faL-e nnù untennblc. Heucc we arc snpplic<l

11 ith


nu incontrovcrtible :ugurncut in füvor of tho uccesi;ity of the \\' or<l of God, as wc fincl it, bciug outwarùl) suitcd to the early statCll of all for whom it Wl\8 <lcsigncù. Ail men are first cxterual au<l carnal, and hy nature incline~) only to what is evil; yet thcy have to be imprcsscd with the indi-.peu.~bfo truth of God's exüitencc and governmcnt and the hatefuln!.'811 of r:;in, 0cfore they eau trust lùs guiclancc, be rcclnimcd from iniquity, attniu ncwn~ of heart and life, becomc spiritually-mindl-'<I, and have correct iùeas of spiritual things. "Howbeit,'' saith the apost.le Pnul. "that was not first which is spiritual, but that "hicb is natural; and nfterwanl that \1hich is spiritual" (1 Cor. xv. 4Ci). "But tho naturnl man rccciveth not the things of the Spirit of God, for they are foolii-.hne-~ uuto him; ncithrr rnn be know thcm, becau:<e they arc spiritually disecrucù" ( 1 Cor. ii. 14). A child, for instance, scc:i nny givcn truth rcluting to the lifc and concluct mercly in ita !!Împlo nppcnrnnce, 110 that parental affection will as:-ume the form of :m~r, and parental instruction the form of cruelty; but a young man will pcrccive the same truth in a Jess irnpcrfcct sto.tc of the int~llcct, ancl i:ce it in anothcr light; mature a~, howcver, will ngain strip it of man y a<lventitious covcrings; whilo old age will look at it in a bigher clcgrcc of light, aucl sec it in a totally ditfcrcnt point of view, :md will from long cxpcriencc and oh~en·ation adopt tmù enforœ only \\hat Îl! l!enuine." 'Vhcn the deludcd sensualist, thcreforc, npproachcs the Divine "'ord, he 500.'I, as hc only can see, no furù1cr than the mcrc appcaranccs C>f the letter. Ile is warne<l to escape "the "rnth to corne." Ile i:i threntencd, thnt bis nntural fcars and bopes may bo awakcned, nn<l thnt hc mny be im11~ with bis awful <1tnte by nature and by choicc. He looks at the Lord as "nn austerc man" and a "bard m11Ster." He is thus, mny be, incluced to seek deliv"Take ns an lllu•tmtion the peUUon ln the 1 nn<t be pray11 for light and kno'\ lcd,,. ln· Lord·• l'l'ayer, "cave us thls day our dnily ~t~nd of the literai focKI of hlij chlldhOO<I bref\!!." The chll<I uucn Il. and la taui:bt An<I still on, when intclll~'l!nco hua .,..,. fmrn lt that all thnt hc cn)0)11 is a'b1o•lull'ly kelll'fl hls un1lcrstandl11g, hc~ the nœd or 1;ivcn t.y the Lord. Jlut M <'hildhoocl ptl''('!. FJllritual wlMlom, and bc•~ru; to •<.'ftn:h für lt nway, hc di•00\ cl'8 that hl• food an<l clothes 1 ln the Word of<lod, to n"gcncrnto hl~ h~l\rt are the results of the labor of bis JIOl'l'nl.., An<l llfe. Ilt> •tlll u""' the same words, lmt and now he pray• for llfc l\nd lltttnllth for pra)• for lnl('rlor Jighl. And whc·n th!• ls thcm. In youtb hc l<·aru• thnt though thP)' rnu<'hsnf<'<l. lt knchM hlm lhat beyond all lahor, lt is "Oo<I who ~1·es the lnrrœwt lhl• he hM another 11ml a hlghcr nt'<'d-tho and hf' nowpray• fur tbchlt"'81ng of the lJ:>rd low of (lot( ln bl8 .oui-and at the divin."" h I• own wnrk• n• "'rll M on hi• Jlllrt·nl5. f•ioMool of hl• Jo'alhcr he -eelcs an<\ "'"' f.ir Whcn ynutb JW-·<'~ and mnnhoorl cll\wn'. hc thl\ love ln the wur<I• of bis rhlMhooc1'1 begin6 to f<'~l tho nred of lntelllgrnN> to pril)Pr. "Glv~ u• titi~ day our <lally brea<L" .:uidc him srli;:ht, an<l now hc thlukK or 11 -Eo. oplrlrual bread on wbkh hl> M>ul can live.



eranee from evil and error, and, in dependenee on Him who is" mighty to save," is eneouraged to take the first step in the path of repentance. The simple in henrt and mind np11roaeh the same W ord, they read and un<lerstan<l its doctrines,. and ubcy its preeepts in simplicity, and partake of its un~peakable eonsolntions, rejoieing ns from time to time they see "greater things thun thcse." When the intelligent, who have made some progress and aequired somc cxpericnec in the rcgenernto life, rend the \Vord, they ean more cle.'lrly and rationally see the unfolclings of the interna! sensc; and, as they advanee in goo<lncss, will have still <leeper mysteries and more glorious wonders displaycd to their delighted view, until "pcrfect love <'asteth out fear" (1 John fr. 18), and the light shining brighter and hrighter upon thorn revenls the open day, and euables them to discern truths in that light by which angels see. (Prov. iv. 18.) "For we know in part," says the apostle Paul, " and we prophesy in part. But when that which is perfcct is corne, then that which is in part shall be donc away. When I was a child, I s1iake as a child, I understood as a child, I thought ns a cliild; but when I becamc n mun, I I)Ut away childish things. For now we see through a glu.~, dnrkly ; but thcn, fnce to face: nnw I know in part; but then shall I know evcn as also I am known " (1 C-or. xiii. 9-12)." So also the Lord himself, who is "the snme yesterday, to-day, and forever" (Heb. xiiL 3), is perceived and acknowledged, ns to bis Divine chnracteristics, just in proportion as truth is unfolded and purity of heart is attnined. He is regnrdcd in man's first efforts as a stem teaeher, before He can be secn as the God of all wisdorn and whose laws all proceed from his unbounùcd love; but whcn mnn has made advanced progress in the regenerate life, and hns beeome pnrtially aequninted with the influence of love upon hL~ henrt, in ail its benutiful and tender varieties, then, and not till thcn, can be sec God as He really is, love itself and wisdom itself. And these changes of state are obviously finite, and attaeh only to the creature, and in respect to God him:<elf are but appcarances of truth. 11
,. .. Now, we sec by mee.us of a. mlrror re· 1slgnltic11tlon) is se.id to be Uke appla of ()<;là fl<'<'tlng the lmai:cs of hcavenly and spirltunl ln 11rt·fflwk of Bllt'<'r, the mca.nlng ls. thtlt the th!ngs, ln an cnf~atiral mnnner, Invisible e:tltTlor scn"C of such word I• s:ood and pre· thlngs bclng rer?'C"Cntc<I br vlsil>lc: •plrltnnl rfous os ti!m", but that the i""1Wr' ls y<·t hy natural; etcrnal l>y t.cmp<>rol."-Dr. A. mueh more cxcelle11t; thls bcing ln romC/ltrkès O>mment. )Wlfl"ôn or the o/Nr, prop<>rtionably ru; gold
13"You know,"obsf'n·Cfoi ;\Jnfmonldcs. "who.t 1s to tilt~ in value. Nor ls thL~ nll, but it

the wl..c man says ( ProY. xxv. 11): A uV>rd ha.~ y~t this fa.rthrr mMnlng, vlz.. that thon• i)>Ol:cnaœording to hl• Iwo fare•, is os appk• likewlse I• somethlng ln the e:tter/()7' '*'D«', <>f gold '" net-work of <Jlver. Thel'\'füre. !ha~ natnrnlly lea<1' IO a closer in•J>e<'lion
when a worrl fiJ'Okf'n flNhnlln.n tol.Jflll• ilfl jtuv~ 1:rn•l <'Ontddf\rntlon of the lntcrlor. without (lbat IB, according t.o its c:itcrior and lut.cri ir whi<-h lhi• would not be ol.iecrvcd. ~·en tUI



In accommodation to lnunnn di.•cernment, the lcttcr of the sacrc<l W orù sometimes spcuks of the Lord as huving hÏ.'! dwelling-placc above the outward fir1Dn1Ul'nt; a.s plea..<>etl or disp]CUSC(} with cvcry Hcparntc action and thought of cacl1 single indiviùual; as changing his min<l; as capricionsly sccming to grnnt admission into hen.ven for n rcwar<l, and as nrbitrnrily casting into hcll as a punishmcnt Lo chn~lil'e mnn for trnn.•grc:-ilions ngninst hiR prc<'cpl:;; n111\ as nttrihutiug to H im e\.il as well ns good,-clecting !'Orne nn<l rejccting otherR, ru1 nJ.,,.ent nt one time nnil prœcnt nt nnother, roming down an<l going up, sccing and not sccing, kno"ing nnd not know ing.1• In such Inn· ~uage of mere nppear:mce is the truth prcsent<>il to us in the l<>tt<'r of tho W ord, and thus adnptcù to the stntes of the unrcflccting and 1hc sim1)lc; but thœe who have advanced in Hlntcs of intclligon<·o may plainly perccive thnt the kingdom of J1cn\·eu is WJTIHN (:lfntt. xii. 28; Mark i. 1.); Luke xvii. 20, 21); t11nt Go<I cnnuot p<>"~ihly hu\·e any favorites, for Ile is justice it.•<>lf nn<l is no respecter of ])('r><ons (2 ~nm. xiv. H; 2 Chron. xix. 7; Aets x. ~4; Rom. ii. 11; Eph. vi. 9; Col. iii. 2.3; 1 Pet. i. 17; James ii. !>); that He imputes cvil to no one (2 Cor. v. Hl) ; thnt He is omui~rimt and omnipr<'SCnt; that as sin on mnn's pnrt nh~trnets uothiug from his infinite perfcc· tinns, foi· Ile is go0<hWS.'l ihmlf ( Ps. cxlv. 9), and truth itsclf (.John xiv. 6), and unehang<>nbly the snme (?!fol. iii. G), tberefore both !IÎn nnd it.s torment mul"t origiuntc with man; for ns man nccepLs or abjures the invitation~ of the ~nviour, be sccurcs the things bclonging to his eternal pcacc nn<l joy, or, on the contrary, is the nrtificcr of his own misery, and brings upon himsclf the eondign punishmcnt he suffers. The grent and gcnuiue truth, eonfirmcd by wisclom nml cxprricnce, is, that thr mimi forms its 0\111 heuvcn or its own hrll
an anilr of gr>ld M'l!red (u aforctoa.lolJ tt.iJh a tby of n OtrUitian."-Ciùti. b11 Jia/Jbwa11, .. 1rrr nt (ll'<Jrk, If you !!Wtd loO für off, or do ter and Sjiirit;' l'i'· 4, ~.


not look att.cntivcly at lt.. ~Dl!I to })('an IÜ· H "lt 1,.. N\)"I ClrC'ro, .. the oommon opln "''· Dut whcn the &tlcntfon of one "ho ion of ail phllt•1pben, ofwhat sœt f'O('V<'r, ha.. good ryca. I• attrart.cd lty tho tt.·orth a1><l thnt the ])('!ty cnn ncfther be &n<(r)' nor huri bffluly of the •iJttt, to look more nl'1\l'ly al lt, anyborly."-1* O§icli, lii. :n. he dl,<l'rlll the golden OJllilt that 11<'1! 1Yi/frl Ail ancknt Pngan writcr hM com)>Ol"'<l a 11·ilhin. Ao oncnlimCl! [he m!ght hM·e Mi<I tli•('(>lll"l'<' to show thnt the .\thef,t. 'vho 1lcnhv1>y•) RI'<.' tbc wordsof the proJllll't•. 'fh<'lr ni('ll a God, lllm lœ< d!shonnr th11n thr r;it, rW.. pnrt.' pre!<Cnt thtngg m~ny 11 R)'>l tt>«'· mnn who own• hll\ bdni:, but nt the Mm<' rut an<I <'X<'<'ll1•nt.. cithcr für <liN'<'tlon nltont Ume bcliev<>0 llim t.o hc cruel, ha.rd to plcnoe, montls, or for the outwanl ll'Ol·<•rnmmt of an<! t.crrlhh· to humnn nature. "For rny own the Chnreh, nml othcr likc gond rn.....-• pnrt.." AA)"~ hc, .. 1 wnuld rather lt •honld ]l(' an<! n""'; whllc thc int••rit"lr flllrt. nr ,.,,;,,1 .a.l<I or me. tltnt tltcrc """" ne,·er any 1'1t<h of the •am<', l• of su~rior <'XN·ll<'nrr. I<' man ns r lntan·lt, titan that Plu!Af('h w:>• Ill· buil<I up thcm thot bellr,.e ln th1• outllnr nnlnn'<l , Mlt>rlclnu", lnltuman."-.d•"•,.. a» mr•<·rl<"' 1>( t'nith." "Thl• I• thr <xJ>O"illon 1 nid., p. 7G4. of thll.l Jrir, and ls an cxpo~!t!on not onwur·




in time and to all etcrnity. The sympathies of our nature, our affections, and our thoughts, purified, elevated, and refined b I the opcrations of the Holy Spirit in the work of regeneration, "il! be forevcr active in promoting the wclfüre and ministering to the ha1lpiness of othcrs, and in that glorious and ever-enlarging work finds a corresponding reward in the approval of conscience, and in a perpetual incrcnse of wisdom, love, and blcssedness; and, on the othcr hand, if selfishness rule the mind and destroy thcse sympathies, and corrupt thcse affections and thoughts, the scnsual appetites alonc remain, wbich always ministcr to clisappointmcnt, wretchcdness, punhslunent, and wrath.15 "Tribulation and anguish upon every soul of man that doeth evil; but glory, honor, and pence to every man thnt ·.~orketh good" (Rom. ii. 9, 10). "llehold," saitli the Lord, "for your iniquitics have yc sold yoursclvcs" (Isa. l. 1). "They that plow iniquity and sow wickcdness, rcap the same" (.Job iv. 8). Ami again: "Your h1i<1uitics have turned away these [blw:in~], and your sins have withholdcn good things from you" (Jcr. v. 2.)). Nor is therc, as it at first sight might be supposcd, anything <lcrogatory to the character of God, nor the slightest prevarication or perversion of the truth in sueh fonns of expression; for man is horn into n.ll kinds and degrees of hercditary tendency toward evils and errors, aml it was essentinl to his frecdom and advancement in the life and light of heavcn tbat truths relating to tl1e Divine cl1arncter and O})Cmtions should be clothed with appCllrnnccs in the"'ord to suit his lowest states of thought and love. On this suhject, Swedenborg thus writes: "A further rcason why it is pennitted to think that Jchorn!_ t11l'lls away bis fuce, is angry, punishes, tempts, and even cm'Scs and kill~, is in order that men might bclieve that the Lord alono gowrns and disposes ail aud evcrything in the nnivcrse, even evil itself, pnn· ishment and temptation; and whcn they have rcceived this most gcncral idea., those who eau be further fnstructcd might aftenrnr<ls ll'nrn how, or in whnt manner, He gcvcrns nnd disposes all things, and that H e turns the evil of punishmcnt and the evil of tcmplation into good" ( A. C. 245). Thus iu Isa. viii. 17 an nppn.rent truth i.s
"" Ml•cry ls the natural lnevltablc eonl<!'- 1 bntlon of wreth and jcalousy Io thclr God qucnœ of mcn's voluntary eorr111>tlon of rould only be a figuro of speech; and what lhemoelves; and thcy who l'Mlllve all the i• \VOr.<e, il I• diffioult to persuade n>any with the vule:nr."-JJW.op .Brawn·• Dirin• of the lkbrcw Jitcrature ha\'C b«n orysta\· MWO<I!/, p. 3.'19. lizo<l into Christian dœtrlnc."- Wit3ot1, b "The Jews dld not peroelve tba.t the attrl· 1oay• an«. Rwirw., 9111 ed., p.171.

pnnl!~hmcn\am1 tni!-.{'rlt'\ltOfanotht'rllfe lnto (''hristian.9 or the sa.me Udng, and solcmn a pnrely [>O'<ltlve lnttietlon of ClO<I. do think . lnfercnoe• from the figurative expre1•don1



prcsented, calculatcd to awa,ken the attention of the mo;:t cnrelc~ readcr: "I will wnit upon the Lonl, that hid<.>th his face from the honse of Jacob." It can only be in appearnnce that the eYer-pre::..ent .Jehovah hi<les his face; just as the natnral sun appears to withdrmv when hidden by a cloud. The trnth is, that just as a clou<l rises from the earth and shrou<ls the sun from view, so do the gros.<; thoughts and persuasions, significd by a clou<l, spring from the earthly mind or carnal nature, intercept the mental vision, and prevent the be;ims of mercy, significd by the Lord's face, from being pereeivcd. As it is declared by the Lord Himsclf, "Your iniquities have separated between you and your Goa, and your sins have hi1l his face·from you" (Isa. lix. 2). Here the genuine truth glcams through the lcttcr, and becomes manifcst; the cloud is dissipated, and the sun shines in ail his effulgence. So also, in Genesis, we rcad, "God did tcmpt Abraham" (xxii. 1). This could only be said in appearance, for the A postle James states the genuine truth wherc he says, "Let no man say when be is tempted, I am tempted of God; for God cannot be tempted wit.h evil, neither tempteth He any man; but every man is tempted whea ho is drawn away of Ms own lust and enticcd" (i. 13, 14). Agnin, it is said, " God is angry with the wicked every da.y" (Psalm vii. 11). This representat.ion of the Almighty must be an appea.rance arising from the disposition .of the sinner bcing opposite to the nature of infinite love and zeitl, and not from any angry pas- . sion burning in the pure bosom of Deity. 'Vith the wicked, God appears to be angry "evcry day," or in every stnte, because of their wilful opposition to his 'Yord ; thcrcfore, we rcad, "'Yith the merciful th ou wilt show thyself mercifu 1, and with the upright mnn th ou wilt show tllyself upright. With the pure thou wilt show thyself pure, and with the froward thon wilt show thyself unsavory [or frowa.rd]" (2 Sam. xxii. 26, 27; Ps. ~viii. 25, 26). The Apostle John, thcn, affirms the genuine truth, whatever mny be the appcarance to the contrnry, whcre be says, "God is love" (1 Eph. iv. 8); and wc are m•surcd by the J,ord Himsclf that "fury is not in Him" (Isa. xxvii. 4 ), and that bis nature is unchangeable, "the same yesterday, to-day, and forever" (Hcb. xiii. 8).. It is man that hates his God, and rog:mls bis service as thnt of "n hard master" (l\fatt. xxv. 24); but God, being immutnble love and goodness, cnn ncvcr hnte the crentures of his band. "As I live, saith tl1e Lord Go<l, I have no plcnsure in the <lenth of the wickcd ; but that the wickcd turu from bis way ami live" (Ezek. xxxiii. 11 ).



1'hus, true doct rine makCR the liternl in hnrmony with the intemnl all<l reroncilcs evl'ry difficulty. l n the Piullm~ wc rea<l, "no not I hnte tl1cm, 0 Lord, thnt hate thee? I hate them \lith perfoct hntrcd, I cou nt them ruine eneruies" ( cxxxbt. 21, 22). H ow plain it i~ that the!"e words must have an inward spiritual sen.se, el!IC they c:mnot ho consistently understood, anrl would be unworthy a book whOll<' Author is love itself, and \\ho hns taught us by preccpt nnd cxnmple lo love even onr cnemiœ, \Tho, then, arc our encmies that wc have to hate? Th!) Lord tells us, •·If any man corne to me, nnd hntc not his fnther, nnd mother, nncl wife, anù children, and brcthren, and sistcrs, yea, nncl his own lifo nlso, he eannot be my disciple" (Luke xiv. 26). Whnt an cxtraordinary declnration i~ thi:;, eonplcd "ith the other ! What says the Apostle John? "He that hatetb his brothcr is in darkness" (1 Epi.st. ii. 11 ). Turn to iii. 11), "Who!'O<'ver hntcth bis brother is a. murdcrer ; " nnd in the 20th verse, " If a mnn sny, I Joye God, and hntctll his brother, be is a liar." Whnt snys the di\'ÎOC comrunu<lmcnt? "Ilonor thy futher and tliy mother: thnt thy day:; may be prolonge<l upon the lancl which the Lord thy Go<l givcth thee" (Ex. xx. 12). Ilow cnn nll this be rcconciled, unie."'~ we nllow thnt the Scripturcs contain a holy internai scnse? In tho literai scnse of the fourth commandment we are taught the doctrine of cxternal ohcdicnce, to honor and obey our natural parents; but in the spiritual and henyenly sense we are commnndccl to honor and obcy our hcavcnly F athcr, the Lord Jcsus Christ, nnd our spiritual mother, bis Church, "the bride and wife of the Lamb;" or, in unothcr scnse, t o celcbrnte bis dh·ine goodness or love, und bis divine wh<dom or truth, by a. life of or<ll>r; then will ou r days be prolonge<l, or, according to the spiritual idea, then shall wc ncquire a fitness for en<lless life in the he.wenly Canaan. In nn opposite sense, our o" n füthcr ru1d 111otl1cr, and the cnemie::s YVhom we have to hate with perf1.>ct hatrcd beforc wc can become the Lord's disciples, nre the unclcan and unholy hcreditary prineiples of cvil and fabity in the unrcgen· cmte mind; for they nre the parents and kindred of its impure gratifications, whcrcin its J egradcd life consists. This fnthcr and rnothor, to~cthor with ail thcir corrupt ofilpring, yen, and our own impure lifc nl~o, wc are to bate, to ahhor, to cnst out, nnd to destroy their dominion \\ithin us, ns it is "ritten, "J<'or 1 am corne to set a man nt variance agninst his fatlwr, and the dn ughtcr against hcr mother, nncl the dnught<•r-in-lnw 1tgninst hcr mothcr-in-Inw. And a mrm's fo<>.;; shnll l>c thcy of hi:> 0\111 houS<'hold. Ile thal findcth hi,; lifü



iihall 10110 it; and he that loseth his lifo for my sak<' i>hnll fiml it" (1\fatt. x. 35, 36, 39); and, again, " H appy i:hall hc be that tnketh thy Jittle ones," 0 dnughter of Babylon, "nnd dasheth them ngninst the stoncs" (Psalm cxxxvii. 9). In Genesis we rend that "it repcntcd the Lord thnt H e had mn<le mnn on the earth, and it grieved Him nt his heart" (vi. 6). Herc, ngain, \l' e have nn apparent truth, reimlting from mnn's rehcllious disobe<licnce and obstinnte impenitence, mcntioned in the previous ,·erec, nn<l h<'nce a change is ascrihcd to the Di,ine Being; but He dcclnres his own truc chnrnctcr where He says, "God is not n man thnt He i>hould li<', uor the son of man thnt He should repent" (X um. xxiii l!l). So, ngnin, wc rend, "the Lord hardcned Phnraoh's hcnrt" (Ex. vii. 13). This nlso is expreiiscd necor1ling to the appearnnce, nnd in nccommodntion to the stntc of the Isrnelitcs, who suppOl'ed thnt whnt the Lord permittcd H e willc<l. The genuine truùi is IL""ertc<l in Ex. viii. 13, 32, where it is twice snid, "Phnmoh hardt'ncd his own hcart" (sec also l Snm. vi. 6). By grief and repcntnnec, when prcdicntcd of ,Jehovnh, nre signific<l, in the interna] scn~c, the operntions of hi." <li\·ine mercy and \\ i8dom, which nrr spok<'n of so as not to transcend finite conception~. in agreement with the nnture of mercy and forgiveness a~ C'x<'rcûi<'<l amon~ men; and for the snme rcason human propertics und characteristics arc so often ascribed to the Lord. On this part of our rnhjeet, Swedenborg thus writœ: " ' Vhosocvcr jq clispos<'fl to confirm folse prineiplcs by nppcnran<'<'S, nceor<liuJ! to whieh the"'ord is written, mny do so in innumcrnble instances. But there is n cliffcrence betwC<'n confirming fol!'C ])rinciplcs by PM'ngcs from the \\'ord, nnd hclieving in l'implicity \\hnt is Ppokcn in the 'Voril. H e who confirms fnl!'C principlcs, firi1t n!'sumc.q some principle of his own, from which he i~ unwilling to ùcpnrt, nnd whosc nuthority be i~ <letermined nt nll ewntq to support, for" hich purpose he collects and nccumulntc<1 eorrobornting proofs from cvery qunrter, conse•111cntly from the 'Vonl , till hc i.'! so thoroughly self-pcnsun<fo1l with rc1-rnrd thcreto, that he cnn no longer see the truth. But who@o<.>ver in simplicity, or out of n !<impie heart, helieves what is spokcn in the ' Vor<l, 'lo<•s not fil'f't assume principlcs of his own, lmt thinkR what i~ i,.pokt'n to be truc, becnu,:c the I ..<ird spukc it; nnd in C.'18(' he is in~truct<'<l as to the right umleri:tnnding ther<>of, hy what is ;ipoken in other parts of the worcl, he instnntly ncq11ic'SCes, and in liis henrt rrjoiCCR: nny, rvrn ~uppo«in!! n JWl'!lon, through simplidty, to hclieve

AI'I'.tllE.Yr AKIJ Rr,11, rnrr11s ni M't111•rrnr:.


thnt ,the Lord i~ wrathful, thnt lie puni.qhcs, rcpents, grie,·es, etc., '' hcreby he is rci<trnincd from evil, und !cd to do goo<l, such belief is not at all lrnrtful to him, inasmuch us it lcads him to believe also thnt the Lord sees nll things both gencrally nnd particulnrly, nnd when he is principled in such bclief he is nfterwnrds capable of bcing enlightcncd in other poinl!I of fuith, at Jca..,t in nnother life, if not beforc: the cn11e is dilfcrent "ith thœe who are self-persu::ulcd in consequenœ of preconceived principles. nnrl who are rivetcd in the helicf thereof through the pernieious influenc,-e of solfish nnd worldly lovc."-A. C.,
n. 589.

AJmin, the snme author saya, " In many passng~ of t.he 'Yord we find nngêr, wrath, nnd wngc:rnce attributed to God, nnd it is saiJ thnt Ile 11unllihes, ca.."U! into hell, tcmpts, with mnny othcr cxprCRSions of n likc nature. Now, whero ail this is believcd in a child-likc simpli<'ity, nnd made th<' gronnd of the îear of God, nnd of care not to olll.•n1l Ilûn, no mnn incurs cond<'mnntion by SU<'h a sûnplc hc.Ji<.•f. But whcre n man confirms hi.m...-elf ir1 sueh notions, so as to be pcrsundcd thnt nngt-r, wrnth, vengeance, b<'long to God, nnd thnt IIe puni.-hcs mankind, n.nd cnsts theru into hell, unùer the influen<'e of such angcr, wralh, nnd vengeance, in this case hi.'1 belief is eondcrn!lntory, becauee he hns destroycd genuine trulh, which tencliœ tlrnt Gex! is love it.!lclf, merey it&-lf, and goodness it11clf, nnd, bcing thC!'C, thnt He <'llnnot be angry, wrnthful, or revengcful. "nerc such cvil JlllS>'Ïon.s, then,nrc attributcd in the W ord to God, it is owing to nppcnrance only. I t is the snmc in many other in.stnnccs."S. S., n. 94. Truths aecommodnted to ou r gro~s perceptions nre, for the mœt pnrt, apparent truths; but seen in spiritual Jight, Uieir appcnrnnce is changed, a trnn~6gurntion, so to speak, takcs pince; they are inve»tecl "ith ncw ~plendors, and nrc i<piritunlly discerncd. Let 11.-; "not judj..,"(', thcn, ncoording to the nppeamnce, but judgc rightcous judgrnent" (.John vii. 24); for, from mnking no di!<tinction whntcvcr betwl'en the apparent nn1l rcnl truths of Rcripture, which corrœp()ndence thu~ opens nnd explain.., nll the fül~e nue! hercticnl doctrines which han• n;::itated and divi1lcd the Chri~tinn worl<l hnw "pr ung. Hen('(' \H' PCC the importance of truc doctrine to enable 11~ ri~htly to unde!'l't:u1il the revenled W ord (Aee, for illustration, Gen. vi. ï ; Ex. xxxiii. 1:.! l 4; .JC'r. xvüi. 8- 10; IIœ. xi. 8, V; .Joel ii. 10-12; Jonah ii. 9, 10: fü•v. X\'. 1-7).



cruel wars, and of eithcr in a. good or n bad scnse, rcpresent stntes of spiritual warfare, and describc the instrumentalitics by which they are carricd on, appcar in the letter of the "\\'ord to be snnctioned and applauded, and nre sometimes rcpresented ns eommnndcd by Jehovnh; as," Tho Lord bath sworn thnt the Lord will have wnr with Amnlek from generation to gcnerntion" (Ex. xvii.16). Nothing can be more abhorrent to the Divine chnracter or revolting to Christian feeling than the ferocious spirit of wnr; and yct the Lord commanded the children of Israel not only to exterminato the Amalokites, but the inhabitants of Heshbon an<l B:i..,han. In Deuteronomy we read how this wns done: "And the Lorrl our God dcli\·ered the king bcfore us, and we smote him and hi~ sons nncl nll his people. And we took all bis cities nt thnt timo, and utterly destroyed tho men and the women and tho little ones of o\·cry city; wc loft none to romain" (ii. 33, 34; iii. 6). Whilesuch rcvolting cruelty wns pcrmitted on account of the degcneracy of mankind, and was even nttributed to the Lord, becausc it wns, as in ail oth<>r similnr cases, a lcsscr evil for n grcatcr good, it must be evident thnt it wns recorded by inspiration for some more hid(lcn menning thnn the mere history, though thnt history be true. Let us cal! to mintl "the foes of our own housebold" (:'llatt. x. 36), the nù,·crsnrics lurking in our own bosoms, the enemics of our eternnl pence, and how bcautiful is the lcsson of instruction with which we are at once sup· pli<'ll ! How deeply intcrcsting is the comman<l to dcstroy, by the power of truth and )o,·e, nll our bitter nntagonist", our selfish pn..<1.~ions and unclcan pe!'lluasions, to let not one romain! l3oth in the Old and New Tc~tnmcnts armor nnd instruments of war are continually mC'ntioned in r<'ferencc solrly ro th<'ir internai significations. Turn to Joel: "Prrpnrc wnr," snith th<' L 1ml; "heat your plow~hnrcs into swords, and your pruning-hook~ into -;pcnr!I; let the wenk s.'ly, ' Jam

llTB frequently rend in the Holy ·word of VV wcapons of war, which, because they al!,



strong'" (iii. 10). Now rend Isa. ii. 4:" They $hnll lx·nt their swords into plowsharcs, and thcir spcnra into pruning-hook~; nation shall 11ot lift. up sword ngninst nation, neither shall they lcarn war any more." Wc have here, in the literai M(lnse of the 'Vord, two divine corumnncl~ and prcdictions the vcry opposite of e:i.ch other. Thcre is another striking instance in the New Testament of a preciscly similar description, nmounting to an apparent contradiction. Jn Lukc it is said that " the Lord bath visitcd us to guide our feet into the way of 1:ieace" (i. 79); nnd wc read that the nngels sang nt bis nnth·ity, "Glory to Godin the bighest, and on carth pcace, good-will to\\nrds men [or to men of good will]" (ii. 14). Ilut what docs our blœsed Lord ltimf<Clf i<ay? " Think not that I am eome to scnd proce on earth ; l cmno not. to scnd pe:icc, but n sword" (:Matt. x. 34). Bqually inexplicable in the lcttcr only arc two pas.sages of similnr import, which the Lord spakc ncnrly nt the snrno p<.'riod to his disciplcs, one of wbich is rccordcd in .Matt. =vi. 52: "Ail thcy that tnke the 1>word shall pcri.;.:b with the sword;" and the other in Luke :llcxii. 36, where H e sny;.:, "IIe that ha th no sword, let him rel! bis garmcnt and buy one." Ily the merc letter · thesc apparent contradictions ncvcr cnn be hurmonized ; the spiritual sensc cnn nlonc rcconcilo them. Every othcr modo of intcrpretation len\·cs thcm uncxplnincd mystcries. How iutcrcsting and instructh·c, how plain and simple, how pure and truc arc ail ~uch pnssngœ when their hiddcn menning is unfoldcd by tlic gr<'8t lnw of CQrl"C-"pondcncc ! A.~ we rend them, let 11!' contemplatc that triumph ovcr sin and folly, in intention, thought, and decd, which mlll't ever prcœde astate of intcmal pence, and whieh devout ami humble faith in the "'ord of God, our armory and our "quiver," an<\ rcady ohcdience to ils commands, always gives; for doing tliis we hnvc "our fcct shod with the prcparntion of the go~pel of peaco" (F.pb. vi. 15). L<!t us think, therefore, of our spiritual warfnre n,,,<>uiust evil and hell; "for wc wrcstlc not against flesb nnd bloo<l. but ngnin.st principalitics nnd powcrs, against the rulers of the darkn<'SS of this world, ngninst spiritual wickcducss in high plnœs " (Eph. vi. 12). Let us think of the panoply of 11trength roquisitc to givc us victory over ail our inward foes and persccutors-" the hclrnct of salvation," " the brcnKtplatc of righteousncss," "the shicld of fnith," "th.- ~word of the Spirit," "the spear" of truc doctrine, the sharppointcti nrrows of truth, and "the whole armor of God" (Eph. vi. 10- 17); clothcd and nrmed \\ ith which wc hnvc to wagc this inward combat, destroying, by the power of faith and love, ail our spiritual
11 *



young and old, before we cnn i-it down in trnnquillitybcfore the Lord Jesus G'hrist can impnrt to our i<ouls "that pence which the world can ncithcr gh·c nor take a\rny," and ail becomcs at once luminous, intelligible nIHl prncticn1, and in the inspircd Jan. guagc of the Psalmist wc are rendy to exclnim, "Plead my cause, 0 Lord, with them that strivc with me; fight ngainst them that figl1t ngnin~t me. Tnke hold of shield and buckler, nnd stand up for my help. Draw out also the spcnr, and stop the wny against thcm that pcrsecute me: say unto my soul, I am thy snh·ation" (Ps. xxxv. 2, :J); "Gird thy sword upon thy thigh, 0 most mighty, \\ith thy glory nnrl thy majesty. Thine arrows are shnrp in the heart of the king's encmies" (xlv. 3, G); "Blessed be the Lord my strength, who tencheth my hands to war and my frngers to fight" (exliv. 1), and to ascrihe from the heart al! the power nnd the glory to Jlim alone. "Thou, 0 Lord, hast given me the shicld of thy salvation: and thy right hand hath holden me up, nn<l thy gentlcn01S bath made me gro.'lt. Thou hast enlarged my steps unrlcr me, that my feet did not slip. I have pursucd mine cnemics, and overtnken thcm: neither di<l I turn again till they wcre consumed. I have woundcd them that they werc not able to rise: they are fallcn un der my fcet. For thon hnst girch·d me with strength unto the battlc: thou hast sul)<lued under mo tho~e thut rose up agninst me. The Lord livcth; nnd bl~ be my rœk; and let the Lord God of my salvation be exaltcd" (Ps. u;ii.

35-:J!), lG).
Agnin: tre.-iting of the final destruction of ail our 1<piritunl enemiœ, the sncretl prophet, nddrœsing his divine tlelivPrer, in whose nnmo anù by whose strength the rcgencrating Chri11lian evcr " cornes off more than conqueror," says, "Thou (0 Lord, by thy \Vord] art my battlo·nxe and wenpons of wnr: for with thec will I break in pieccs tllc nntion:1, nn<l with tlicc \\ ill 1 <lcstroy kin;;rloms; and with thec will 1 break in pieces the hon;o and his rider ; \\ ith thee nl~o ";n I break in pic<.'<.'S mnn nncl wonrnn ; nnù with thce will I break iu piccl'S olil nnd young; and with thœ will l hrenk in piec·c:; the young num and the muid; I will also break in pieccs with thl'C the shephcr<l ntul his flock; nud with thee will I break iu pieccs the husbandmnn nn<l his yoke of oxcn ; and with thce will I break in picccs eaptnins nnd rulers" ( J cr. li. 20-23). I t is in this, the truc inwnrd seuse of tcmptation conflict, thnt the apostlc Paul cxhorts Timothy to fight the goo<l fight of faith and lay hold on ctcmnl life, am) ms no cncourngement sets bcforc him his own cxample and expericnce at the clo.,«e of bis



ministry in these touching words: "I am now rcndy to be offcred, nnd the time of my departure is at band. I have fought a good fight, I have finishcd my course, I have kcpt the fnith: henocforth therc is laid up for me a. crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous judge, will give me at that da.y; and not me only, but unto nll them also thnt love his nppcnring" (2 Tim. iv. 6-8). In connection with this spiritual signification of warfnre, and in furth('r illustration of the science of correspondcnccs, let me recnll your attention to the battle fought by "the chilclrcn of Isrnel witb the Amalekites;" anù I nlluùe to it thus spccificnlly, bccnusc in thl' internai scnse subjects of the most edifying tendcncy nre prescnteù bcfore us, which yet do not nppenr on the surfüce of the history. Without some deepcr menning thnn thnt of the lctter, it is nothing more than the narration of a battle and a. victory, a dœcriptivc scene of strifo and bloodshcd, togcthcr \\ith a most rcrunrknble intervention of Divine power. It is thus stnted: "Then cnme Amalek., and fought with Ismcl in Rephidim. Anù :nœes said unto Joshua, Choose us out men, and go out, fight wifü Amalck : to-morrow I will stand on the top of the bill with the roù of God in mine hnnd. So J oshua did n..~ .Moses hnd snid to him, nrnl fought with Amulek: and :Moses, Auron nnrl Ifur went up to the top of the bill. And it came to pnAA, whcn Moses heltl up bis hnnd, that Israel prcvailcd: nnd whcn he let dowu bis hnnd, Amnlck prerniled. But Mœt'S' hnnds wcre hcn vy; nnù they took a stone nncl put it under him, nnd he snt thereQn; nnù Aaron nnd Hur stayed up bis bands, the one on the one sicle, auù tho other on the other side; and bis bands wcre stearly until the going down of the sun. Anù Joshun discomfited Amalek and his people with the edge of the sworcl" (Ex. xvii. 8-13). In the spiritual import of this sncred history, it treats of a statc in man's rcgeneration, or the graduai process by which he is saved from cvil and hell. Th<> Ju>o;U\ of lfrncl signify, collectively, the Lord's church, and, i11divid11nlly1 cvcry sinccre member of it, wbo, in coru;cqucncc of the indcfinite number of affections nnrl tbougbt.Q, fncultiœ and powcrs, con~titucnt of the humnn min<l, nn<I the nbundant principlœ of goodnCRS nucl truth of which they mny be rcceptive, is cnllcd "a host." Tho nrmics of Amnlek" signify thosc spiritual :ulvl'rsnries which, with den.dly animosity, oppose our progrcss towarcl~ the kingdom of God, or in the nttainment of a heavcnly state of minci a111l lifc, represented
,. .AlllOlà 111~111, ln Enall!h, "a •tritini; or sm.lli.Di people."



by the lnnd of C:maan. Th1 'c implacable l'ncmici; of our ::nh-ntion induilc not only "the principaliti<.'l' and powen. of 1larkn~,'' but nll thr'ISC fal~c pl'inciples nml ~clfish persuasions sprin~ing from the lo\·c of evil,-those disor<lcrly tcmpcrs nn<l unclcau thought!<, thosc malicions di~po~itions nnrl cruel lnsts,-in which thcy dclight to dwcll. The battlc, therefore, in every particular recor<lcd, wns so dcscribe<l in the "'onl of Go<l as to rcprescut the spiritual couOict bctwccn the powcrs of hcaven nnd hcll which is wagcd in evcry bosom in lite COUl'Se of rcgenerntion; the menus which can aJone be effcctually employe<l for the soul's <leliverancc, and the certain victory to ho obtninccl through persevcrnnœ in the Christian coun;e. The füct of Joshun mnl'shalling Israc!'s hosts, and, under the direction of l\Ioscs, leading thcm forth to the combat, repl'esenteù the nuthority of the truth ndnpted to the nnturnl man, which arranges nll within tl10 min<l in duc order, under the immediate direction of the truth, adnplt•d to the spiritual man, dcrived from the spirit of the Holy \\'or<l, signified by ~Ioscs. The battle wns fought in a vallcy, and n vnlll'y menus the low state of the natural miud, whcrc oppœition to hetl.vl'nly things is ahrnys to be met, and which i~ callcd clsewherc "the vnlley of decision" (Joel iü. 14). The snccess of the battlc is not mn<lc to dcpen<l either on the persona! vnlor of the combntauts or on the military skill of lheir leader!', but on the singular circumstanC'e of the bauds of l'iIOl:lôl being "held up" townrds heaven or "lt't down" townrds the earth, as be stood or snt on the top of a neighboring hill. The hnn<ls always mcan ability or power, both of the unùerstanding and the will,-the former licing i<ignified by the lcft hand and the latter hy the right; and the hnnds of Moses signify the power of truth <lerivcd from the 'Vord whcn rt'ccived in the min<!, nncl nll10 the fnculties of apprehcuding und oheying it. A hill, in contrndi~tiI1ction to a valley, denotcs astate of chnrity or love actuatcd hy lofly or henvenly motiYes, in oppoi;ition to ~uch as arc low, camai, or grovelling. This is the hill of ble~sing, the wurce of nll ;;piritunl strcngth, that gir<ls us for the bnttlc. " I will lift up miuc cycs to the bills," saith the Psalmist, "from whl'llce comelh my help" (P!!nlm cxxi. 1). The holding up of the hnnd:;; of l\Ioses was an impr<.>Mivc figure of the lifting up, by the p o\\W of truth, of nll the inward fncultics of the ~oui townr<IB the Lord, thnt they may be C<lll· stantly rcncwcd and invigornted hy the didne cnergy and lifc. " IA't us lift up our heart:i with our hands unto Godin the heavens" (Lum. iii. 41). llut the lctting clown of his )1ands will rl'present n declino

W.WS A/OJ J.ll/'LE.llES1'S 01" WAR.


of the mrntnl fncultics tm1 anis the earthly nnture, or towards thoi;c ol>jc<·ti; of !'Clf nud the 11orJ.l, "hi<'b are bcneuth,-tbu~, the substitution of !'(')f-11ill for the DiYinc Will, of self-intcllig<.•nce for the Divine Wisdom, and of self-<lepcmknec for the Di1·inc Proviùencc. The hc1wine~s of the bands of l\fo~cs dcnotes man's proncncss to rcst ou bis 011 n power, in the hour of ùnnger and tcmpt!\tion ; anrl that cven truth, however vh;d mny hc il!I impression on the memory nnd intellect, i~, in such n scnson of sclf-reliance, dra11 n <lo11 nwards towards cnrthly objecti> and scusual pur.mit~, an<l is thrn po11erlcss agaiust the armics of Amalek, which, notwithst.'\nding its prf."'t•nce, prevails ovcr the hO>lts of Israel. "Aaron and Hur," thcrcfiir<>, we lenrn, "took a stonc nnd placed it umler ~lo~cP., nnd stnyed up hoth his bands, till the goingdown of the sun, und Amalck wasdiseomfitc1l." Aaron und Ilur, the s<>rvm1ts and priests of the l\fost Iligh Go<l, rrpre:icnt the vnricd priuriplC'S of fnith, aecommodatcd to the outward nnrl to the inwnrd man,-thc truth believed from affertion ancl rntionnlly pcrccivcd. Th~ arc the ministcrc; of the Lorrl in the soul,-thc ouly prinriplcs thnt rnn nid ancl support the sinking, the dcbpomling mind, in the lime of 11piritual warfürc. They nre the reactil'C ng<>nts, in unison with the opcrations of God, for the promotion of ou r P.nlvation, Cî'Sentiul mc<liums of spiritual victory in the hou r of trial. The stone placcd undcr )foscs signifies the truth, which incukntcs a lifc of orrler in the use of the scn.•c;., nnd Î.« thus a support to tho dh·ine lnw in the "'ord, 11 hirh rests thcreon, and i~, in the lettcr, oftcn mcant hy a. "~tonc " or " rock." Su ch a. rom•istcnt lifc is the rcal prop and support of ail imrnrd tn1th and goodn~, ancl is absolutcly cssentinl t-0 pr~cn·e thcm from bcing wastcd. The ltands of 11Io~œ being firmly sul!tnine<l till the going clown of the sun, signifies thnt such clevation of man's inwnrd powers and ~ifts, both of rea"on ancl frecclom, of thoughi and will, mu:-;t he pe1"4cvcringly maintnincd, till the state of ttpiritual conflict hcrc treatc<l of is terminatcd. Then our encmiœ IX'ing vanc1uii1hed, we i:hall lmil<l, like thé triumphnnl and grateful T toraclitcs of old, the altar of truc spiritual wor!'hip in our heurts, illl'cribing it with the holy name, "JEIIOYAU NIS.~J" (the Lord ruy banner), in the heartfelt ncknowlcdgment that ail power to rcsist el'il und do good comesfrom the Lord alone, who has solcmnly proclaimccl that " Ile will have war with Amalek from generntion to generntion" (Ex. xvii. 16)."
1TOf11:\'D ll'f""l" Io ba\·c bat\ a Jl('rttpllon 1f.>r ..,me opirlLual p•1~. not apptlrcnl Ill lb&\ lhc "'''Onl of Ibis battlc w1n •l..-l~1wJ the lt!ucr; for, >Jll'&klng of il, hP. ohsenœ.



bcc'n 11ttcre<l hy lhc Uni)' l'pirit?"-In Lib. And Rnmabn.s, in hi• <''<f\l&• 1111tlu11 or the Mintdt... ~y-s, .. The llftlnit UJI or lht' hn111l' of :llOI><"' stgnitles the nrrll<·,,. ti,.,n or th~ IAw lu it.. bighc.t meanlni;. l•ut the 1'-Ulni; dn'l\D or hl• bands sh;nlftl'!IA lnw, nncarthly,andalltcmlcxpoeiUon."-Dtlïl-t
R1g., Mf'. xx.

.. I woulcl h<·rc J'l\11-C a llttle, sud n•k th<l"t• who arc not wllllni: ln undcl"tnnd the reis· tlon splritually, but only llC'COnllnl( I•• the ltttcr, whether lh<'y eau P"'~lbly think thal the Ahnlghty God C'ould baye rc~lcd the han•l' or M""''S ln ~· lng the \klnl'l" eith~r tn Isrnd or to Amakk. as lbcy wcrc m1'4)(1 up or let run T 1 would ask such f'<'l'!!Ons wbcthcr thcy tblnk Ulis worthy of havlni
u "Are not the two !m\n<I vit.ni orgnns, the hrorl nnd the tung•, trnly annlogou~ ln mnn)• lmportnnt point' t<Ythc two vltnl systems of thc '""''• ,.1 •. , the minrl, or •ystem of thought, and the moral nff<'C'tlons of the bcart [or wlllj? "-F•l'OJI on Annlog11, l'· l'i-,. F\tr &n al'J{Ulnt'nt on the eexual A~""1.cm, which "'' t•xtcn•!vcly t'Xl•l• in the animal an<I ,~tallle klnJldom•, - an lutcrertlm: and ln,t ruNh-c wnrk hy L. Il. Grlndon, en· tillNl 17,~ .'V;nJ(1/il11 of ,,·,1111~ This lutclll· ~nt writrr Ol\)•, ln hl• 11:cncra! iutroductlon, p. 1. u NRtu~ b1 a l-i~·<iet<'m or nupUaJs. EY<"f')·· lh!nit ln N'\•ntlon partAkL ~ eithcr of ma!'<'u· llnr or f<'minloc qualitics ;-animais nnd plants, carth, air, water, rolor, hcul, llght, musl<', thonght, •Pl~"h, the scnse of the benutlful , the nd11vtallon of the soul for hcn\'cll, nll cxl•t as the otr<prlng of a kln<\ of mRrrlngc. Hl'tltrletcd commonly to the ln•tltut!on of wcdlock, Il.\! !t cxlsts amonp: mnnklnd, tlle word 'mnrrlagc' rightfully hol<I~ 1t moonhu: für wl<ler. lt dcnolrs ail unlon•nnnl<'R'>ll• I" the humnn ln the hist•>ry O<lth of malter and >pirll. A• unh·ersal laws, M.'X 111111 muri&i..'<' rank R<'L'Ord!ngly wlt~ the m<.,t hn1.,rtaut 11nd coruprcheU>h·c >UIJJœt• on'l\hlt'h'«'lcneeanf\1•hll0Mph)·cancmploy thrm."Chc-<. lnnumcrabk phMlomcna, both of millier ami minci, are ~xphùu"<I by rcfcr· cnrt' Io thcm 115 a central prlnc1ple; "hile in the lmmcn•lt)' of their empire, and ln 'fJlen1\id unlformlly or thc!r rn11itr, thcy ofln the i:randc>t 1noof U111t man is :-<aturc cnn<'t·ntruWll,nnd :Sature,ruan dilfuscd. They con><tltule n ltmul of affinlty, whlch certifie!! cwry 11<1rtof rrcnt!on to oo of '"'"'~on (Jrigin and pl1111, the manlfuld cxpr=1on of one prlmltl\e !<lea." "Lovt"I ami marrlngcs," says Dr. :Mason Good, "are cmnmon to ail unture." "(Jod il bolh a man nnd an lmmortnl mald."-l>l]ih. Fmg. Whkh 1.s the Mme lhin11 a.' a....•rtJng thnt ile is pcrfcct wlsdom and Jl('rfe('( good111"'& l n th<' mnot anelcnt bàt.orlcal limes," "e >ball tln•l l'\·cry nation, notwitJu.tanding the ,-arll·t)' of nam''" a~kno" ll'(!Jrlng the samc dclllt" and the 'ame ~).,,lem of throh'l':Y; and, ho"<'wr lmmbJ,. nnrofthe deill"" may av1J11,_•ftr Jn thf" Pantht'OH o(Grl~CC arnl RQmP. each, "ho hn• any clalm to n11tl•1uJtr, w!ll ~



foun<I ulllmntely,lrnot lmm<'<llatcly, rrw>l'l'nl.>ic lnto one or oth<'r of two primcv1ù prln· clpl<'l<, the itrcat god nnd goodC'<!l of the Gcntllc•."-<:bry'a Mythol. Rnq., i» 6. Mrthol•'!(IC'lll b<'hlh'l! nrc ail dlvldcd lnto mn...cullnc n111I fcmin!nt'. Davis, lu hi• Jiu· IOTJI of thr ChifVIW', !<'Us us that thC'y have &mnni: llll'm "frni:meuts of tra<l!tlonnry lu1owll•l1:C AS<'rlbln~ the pnxluc·thm of IJ1c un ln:""' ln tht' c<>ôP<'raUon of the ncth·c and J1R.'•iH', or male a11d fcmalc, principlc. The et•k..ilal prln<'lplc w11~ male, the tcrn,,trlRI \\'a'4 ft•malc. ~; all animatc and tnantmntc na~ ture "M ai.o dMlngufahl'<I luto ma._"<'ulinc And c,•mln.loe. Nor do they ("(lllfine thls di•tinction tn the anlmal nn•l Y~table worl<l only, bnt cxtcnd lt t.o cwry part of nature. Numbcl'I! thcmsclvcs ha,·e U1c!r gen<lc.-; n unit nllfl cvery ood numbcr be· lng mnlo, two and cvcry evcn numoor fo· mnle." ·• 1r reai.on nnd trutb [thnt is, the under· f!Ulndlng] be the moststrong and mu!cfacuU11 ln humnn unture, and If llentimcnt or lo\•e [thnt ls, the "Ill rrlnclrle] be the mc.»t IJCAU· lll\ll 11nd /trnnlc pan.. of the •&me, thcn lt is C\ l<knl tbl\l e• cry mnu is in him<elr botb mah! and /nnulr; ancl w likewisc is C\'ery \\001an. 1hc 1<rt:nl d1sti11ction 1,,, tlu\I. ln woman tho rcdlng ht•art pre<loml11att", llO a.• to i:hc a g~u<:ral <'hnl'll('terl..tlc, and 111 man therntloual mlnd orh<'ad prctlomlnalt.. !na llkc dt•itrt..,, so a' to f<trmn churnctcrl•lic. .•• 1( "e extcncl our ,·lews 8lld refll.'<'t!ons ln llke mannt•r to nny and ail the varlous ,~stem~ of thl' \lslblc crcation, whcther an!mate or l11a11!11111tc, "e •hnll, I bdlcve, tlntl the 11111ne trnths llhu<trnt.cd conl!nunllr ln mole a.id fmi<1lrt.cprenion."-Euavaon Analouv. pp. 2:."7, 2:!9. "Whlebtwogreati;exesan!matctheworlù." .Miltcm'a furadi~ Lo8I. In the Hebrcw lan~age, mO!.t obj(!('ts that are rlouhlt• hy nntnrc or art, as the cy~ the hand<, the r•..,1, etc., are expl'C!O'ed hy the dwol 11uonl..-r; •uch tenns generally rcfer to the "'" <"llC11tl111t- or the life and mln•l ln t'onju1wtlun-thc Jen t•yc or hand denol!ng the 1••rC'C'11lln11 an1l p<>wer of the intdlt'(-t, and the rlght cy<' or band the pcroeptiou unù I'°""' of the wlll·prluciple.


r11HERE are two distinct departmcnts of the humau 111ill(l which
we are taught is a fiuite resemhlance of the Divine Mind. These arc the will, or voluntary principle, which is the sent of nll the feel· ings, affections, and dcsircs, and the umlcrstnnding, or intellcctunl principlc, which is the repository of ail the thoughts, ideas, and opinions. The former is internai, the latter cxternal. Th~ two facultics in man are the reccptacles of 11 continuous flow of life from t.he Lord, ami, in their scparate and unit.cd activities are, in one way .>r othcr, constantly refcrrcd to in the sacred volume. They partakc of a distinction like that of sex, and to which, indecd, the masculine and fcminine principles cxnctly correspond, both in God and man. They are hoth e:;sential to conscious rational existence, mid their uuion, corrcsponding harmony, and rcsulting offspring, are always represented in the ' Vord by the union of male and fen1ale, the nmrriage covenant, and the parental relntionship. The diverse constitution of the sexes correspond ; a man thinks more from the undeJ"· standing, n woman thinks more from the hcnrt; the male nets more from the dictates of reason, but a woman nets more from the impulse of affection. Hcncc they are helps-meet for ench other, and, in truc heavenly marriago, "are no. more two but one flesh." 78 (See p. 130.) Because man from crcation was thus endowed with these two facultics, he is said to have been formcd "in the image and likeuess of God " and to have had breathed into him "the brcath of lifc" (or, more corrcctly translated from the Hebrew, "brcath of lives"), "and man," it is addcd, "bccame a living soul" (Gen. i. 26; ii. 7). For, when he is restored to order by regeneration, man is still an image of God, by virtue of his iutellectual gifts and their rcccption of truth and intelligence from the Lord, through the inspircd life of liÏ:! divine wis<lom; and a likcness of God, by virtue of his voluntary





powcrs :mil thcir reception of g001lncs,; from the Lord, through the inbrcathin1.,rs of the lifo of divine love. Whcu the:-c principlc:; nre rcccived in henrt and 11oul, nnd rcproclucc1l in the conduct nn<I conversation, man thcn hct•omcs both an image and likene~ of God. And as marringe b(•twcen one man nu<l one woman is, in a good sense, the true type 11n1l rcprcscntative of ail kinds of intcrnnl union of love and wisdom, charity au<l faith, in the soul, thcreforc il i." Holcmuly cujoiued, "whnt God has joincd togcthcr, let no man put n.~uncl<'r" (.Mark x. 9). 'l'he1'\! nrc two e;;scntinl attributes of di,;ne exi;;tence--divinc love nrnl divine wi~dom. The former is the vcry divin\.' c~~ence or substance und the latter is the vcry <lh inc form of God, und ncither coul<l have hein~ or cxitllcncc without the othcr. 'l'heir infinitcly pcrfcct union, mer~y, ami operation con~titute the third es."Cntial in the thrcefold chnra<'kr of the divine nature. "'ith man," ho i8, 11.'l wc have nlreacly S«·n, crcatcd in the image of God, finite Jo,·e and finite wi.;:dom are the two correspoucling nnd (';0.~<'11tial attrihutcs of mimi, who;;c united and imieparnhlc activity, in the outwnrd lifo and conduct, co~titule the tltird C'l!>'ential of humnn l'xist<'uce. It is to be obscrved thnt the whole nnturul univcrsc, with its indcfinitc contents, was crented from infinitc love as the <livinc ernl, by mcnns of infinite wisdom ns the instrumental cause. The ohject.s of the vi,.ihlc unh-ersc nre the ultimnte or lowcst effccts of the combincd opcmtion of God's love and wi.sclom, and nrc the eorrc::pon<ling finited images of nll the realiti~ of the !'piritual world, which nets in nnrl upon the natuml world ; "hile, again, the ohje<·tis of both m>rltls nrc, t•ollcctivcly und singly, imngc:;, more or IC:'s n•mote, of the innnmcrnble füculties und principlcs cxisting in man, and of the infinitc nttribute:; nnd pcrfoctions exi:!ting in God. En·ry man, both in his minci and in the eorr<.,,p<1nding forms of his body, i:o, thereforc, an image of his grcnt ~Jnker, anù also a univc~ in its lc.'1-.<:l furm. :For in~t:mce, the two unh·cn-al clement,; of primordial ereation nrc light and hent; the two unhen;n] attributcs of nature are timc nnd ~race; the two universal ehuructeristics of hodit'l! arc substance mul form. AU thcse correRpond to the two univcrilnl füculties of the will and the under::tnnding, nntl thcir finitc propcrtics of freedom and re:\$lm ns constituent of mimi, and to their t110 nniversal, though e\·cr-\·:irying, stntcs of ntfcetiun nnd thuuglit ; n.ncl thClic, again, arc the finitc corrc-pon<ling im11J?e:< and forms of thl' infinitc cs.~ntinls of Divine goodncs.; and intelligence, which arc the activitics and out.-



growings of the Lord's inflnitc will and un<lerstnnding, and of his incommunicnblc attributcs of omniprcsence and cternity. In like mnnner the heart, with its vital motions, corresponds to the will and ils activitics, and the lungs, with the powers of re~piration, correspond to the understau<ling and its operations, nnd these are the two universal receptacles of life in the bodily frame. Now, between the primary departments of the mind, their combinod activities, and the things which they receive, there is a mutual relationship necessarily cstnblishod, es.sential to the existence of each, like thnt which subsists between the chief organs of tlic bodily frame, the heart and the lungs. Thus the will and understanding, in agreement with man's frccdom and renson, may become receptive of goodness and truth, or their oppœites, evil and falsity, which are their respective perversions; nnd between goodness and truth, and nlso bctwcon evil and falsity, there is a. mutual affinity exactly repre8entcd by a marriage. Hence, by a marringe, in the 'Vord, is always signified, in a good scnse, the internai union of some principle of heaveuly love or charity in the will, with a corresponding principle of henvenly wisdom or faith in the understancling; and, in an opposite sense, the infernal union of some priuciple of cvil in the wiU, with its correspond· ing principle of falsity in the undcrstnnding. And since the Lord's reciprocnl conjunction with mnn i.~ the effcct of the prcvious union of goodncss and truth in the soul, so it is oft.cn called a marriage covenant, in which the Lord is dcsignated the bridegroom and husband, nn<l the church, the bride and wifo (!Ios. ü. 16; Rev. xix. 7). On nccount of this twofold constitution of the human mind, hoth in gcncral and in particular, we find that all the bodily orgnns are likcwisc double, or arranged in pairs. For the same rcnsons, biuary forms of expression, in sc,·eral parts of speech, arc fouml so frequcntly in the sncred 'Vord, which, in appcarancc, nrc synonymous, as, scarch and try, void and empty, wildernC'SS and dcsert, briers and thorns, rod and staff, babes and sucklings, nations and people, poor and nocdy, righteousncss and faithfulncs.s, thief and rohber, sin and iuiyuity, joy nnd gladncss, mourning and weeping, anger and wrath, justice and judgment; so, nlso, wc find nnmerous corrclativcs nssociatecl, as, man and woman, hnsbnnd nnd wife, fathcr ami molhcr, sons and dnughtcrs, hrothcr and com11anion, kini,'8 nnd priests, bridegroom and bride, ploughmcn and vine-drcRScrs, flocks and hcnls, thrcsl1ing-floor ancl winc-prcss, hcart nnd ~pirit, flesh and bl<)()(I, hun· gcr aiul thirst, eating and drinking, bread and wine, bills nnd valleys, 12



land and sca, hcat :md light; or two things arc joincd together \l·hosc prop<!rtics and uses are susceptible of union, or are mutually depcnd· cnt, as, sun and moon, tire an<l flame, gold and sih·er, bra..."S and iron, wood and stone, Zion and Jerusalem, Judah and Israel; two words are also associatcd together, as, "take and eat," "strait gate and narrow way," "wide gate and brond way," "spirit and fire," to labor and be heavy-la<len, ploughiug nnd fooding cattle, etc.; and somctimes the samc tcrin is simply repented with or without adjunets. Now, in ail these cases, one of the terms (or the parallclism in which it occurs) refers to some principle or chnractcristic of the will, or to somc quality or stnte of the affections, <lesircs, and actions thenrc dcrived; and the other has respect to some principlc of the unrlcr· Ftanding, or to some quality or state of the thoughts and mcmory, and the words which rcsult thcrefrom, wbether holy or profane. One tcrm bas reforcncc to goodncss, or some good state of mind, and, in an opposite scnsc, to evil, or some evil statc of mind, as the contcxt will show; and the othcr tcrm bears the same relation to truth, or, in nn opposite sensc, to fnlsity. One will be pre<licatcd more or Jess of somc cclestial truth, or of some particular love nnd its dclights, or its opposite Just and its pleasurcs, and the other will be prcdicate<l more or Jess of somc spiritual truth, or its opposite falsity, or of somc spocific thought or idea, cithcr pure or unclcan. For in the divine Worcl thcre eau be nothing uselcss, nothing supcrfluous. These conclusions nre confirmcd by thnt wonderful passage, among others, in the prophccy of Jeremiuh, where the J,ord, by the mouth of the prophct, in trcating of the omnipotence of divine truth cmnnating from Himsclf in his W ord, nnd active for the rcdemption nncl si1lva.tion of the human rnce, says, "Thou nrt my bnttlc-nxe nn<l wcapons of wnr: for with thee will I break in picccs the nations, nn<l ll'ith thoo will I clestroy kingdoms; nnd with thee will I break in pie<'<'>l the horse and his rider; and with thce will I break in picccs 1hc chariot and his rider; and with thee nlso will I break iu picces 111an ancl womnn; and with thœ will 1 brcnk in pieces old and young; au•l with thec will 1 break in pieces the young mnn ancl the mairl: I "ill break in picccs with tht-c the shcphc1·d nnd l1is flock ; and with thce will I break in picccs the husbanclman and his yoke of oxcn; and with thec will I break in picees captains nnd rulcrs" (li. 20-2:1). H erc the varions pnrticulars descrihcd signify the <livcrsified prin· ciplcs constituent of man's will nnd undcrstanding, 11ffcctions and thonghts, mimi and lifc, mHl are aP.'!oriatO!l in pairs. Ali kin<ls nnd



degreœ of evil in the will, :llld of falsity in the undcrstnnding, must be dispcrsc<l, or destroyed, or subdued, by the power of God's \\'ord; and the union of ail kinds Md dcgrces of goodness n.nd truth in the heart. and mind, the affüclions and thoughts, the inward motives and the outwar<l conduct, muiit be cstablished and confirmcd by the Lord, in accordance with his Jo,·o nnd wisdom, if He is to reign over us. Thcn, and not till thcn, is the divine dcclaration accomplished in Christinn cx1>erience, " Mercy nnd truth arc met togethcr; rightoousne:is anil 1icacc have kis.<ed each other" C Ps. lxxxv. 10). Ag-.iin: cating and drinking are bodily nets rcquisitc to the nourishrucnt nnd support of the natural frame.'' Thcrc are, also, two kin<ls of food provided for man's support, liquid a1ul solid. Thcsc t110 opcrntions and two sorts of aliment arc constantly alluded to in the Word, nnd signify, in a goo<l scnsc, the two distinct kinds of spiritual nourishment rcquircd und providcd for the support of the soul, viz., goodness and virtue of various dCl?l'(X'!I for the ,dll, denoted hy the varictics of solid food, nncl '' isdom and knowlcdge of vnrious kinds for the unrlerstandiug, clcnotcd by the varictics of liqui<l food ; and the wholo process of cligEll'tion is, in every pnrticular, significative of that spiritual proccss by which the mind inwnrdly "lcnrns and digests," or rcccivcs and npproprintes that nourishmcnt which recruits our spiritual strcugth, nnù more and more pcrfects our growth in the regcncrntc life; or, ou the contrary, if the will nud understanding be of an infernal qunlity, then the food which is de<ired for its sustcnt.'\· tion con~i~t!t of eclfish grntifimtions nnd erroneous persuasions, which arc rcprcscntcd by unclcan animais and noxious plnntR, by mixcd hrcnd and adulterated wiuc, hy unwholesome fruit and bitter water, and it is snid of them "the wholc head is sick and the whole heart fniut" (fan. i. 6). To cat. brcad or flesh ~ignifics, in a good sense, to receive from the Lird, to npprchend, nllfl spiritually to incorporntc cel~nl nud Yitnl priuciplcs of love or goodnœs in the will ancl afîeetions; and to drink winc or bloo<l is to imbibe from the snme divine ~ource, to comprehend, and spi~itually to nppropriate hen.yeuly and living principlcs of wisdom or t r uth in the undemtnn<ling nnd thoughts. Bread, in n
"'"l'bc annlotzy betwccn hody Rn•I mfn•l 1llkewl>e did thcy ('C)nfound thelr sexes, l• very jl(cnrral: and the p&l'llllcl "Ill bold maklng ~ome •ll>lllM or hoth 11ex... 1101100 A• to tlwlr roo<l M well u any other partie· il ls tbat the Oreck• u"<'<l the \\ord e<ot, b<•lb ular."-lmtn'1 Lij<of IJr.Jüll-m,l,r 1,,,..f'tll, ror gods and glldd...-..:~; an<l a~r the .ame ml. t .. p. :.'li. manner wa.• the \\Ord flt'w• usod by the "A• thé hMlthrn made $Ueb a mulU1•lh·lt:r Romans."-I>r. TINR'fll• ;\'ota Io the i>l<mi ef godl out or one and l.be ,.,,,e fl"l"!!On, ao .Ytoocltûo. ef Jlal"""'ida, p. 3S7.




good sense, alwnys represcnts divine goodncss or love, nnd winc dh;ne wis<lom or truth; for goodneii!s and truth arc the ~piritual nncl ('\'Crl11~ting substances which nourish the ~oui unto ctcrnal lifo, prcciscly 11.q bread and "inc support the naturnl hody; hencc we arc tm1ght to pray for "our daily bread" (~lntt. vi. 11), "the brcnd of hcnven" (Psalm cv. 40), and" to buy wine without money and without price" ( faa.. lv. 1),-the "wine that mnkoth glnd the hcnrt of mnn, and hread which strengtheneth man's heart" (Psalm civ. 15). In the opposite senqe we read of "defiled brend" (Ezck. iv. 13), and of " wine which is the poison of dr:igons" (Deut. xxxii. 33), wherc it is ~clf-evident thnt the corruption and profanation of gooduess and t.ruth, or, what is the same thing, the vile and impious principles of evil and fülioity are dcscribc<l. How plain, how interesting, and how edifying does even this short exposition mnko a multitude of otherwi.se inexplicable passages of the inspired Scriptures ! I need only refer to one or two, and evcn without a verbal explanation you ";n be surprised and delightcd to sec liow much you may understand respecting them. In John vi. 51 the Lord said to the J cws in the synagogue at Capernaum, "1 nm the living bread which came down from heaven: if any mnn cnt of this bread he sl1all live forever: and the bread that I will givc is my fle11h, which I ";JI give for the life of'the world." The Jews, who only understood these words sensually, askcd in skcptical dcri~ion, " How can thi.s man gi,·e us his flesh to eat ?" to which the Lord, without further explnnation, immcdiately replicd, "Yerily, verily, I say unto you, Exœpt yc eat the fl~h of the Son of man, and drink hi~ blood, ye have no lifc in you. Whoso eateth my flesh, and drinkrth my blood, hnth cternal life; and 1 will raise him up nt the lnst dny. For my flcsh is meut indeed, and my blood is drink indced. He that eateth my flesh and drinkcth my blood, dwelleth in mr, and 1 in him" (53-56). Herc the Lord's flooh signifie.-,, his divine love or goo<lnel!s, and bis blood, culled " the bloo<l of the Xew Testament" or covenant, can signify nothing clsc titan divine wfadom or truth, '' hich is ''shed for man y, for the remis~ion of sins" (:\fott. xxvi. 28). This Eeems, alM, to cxplaiu what the Apostle Paul mcans in 1 Cor. \. 7, whcre hc say~, "For evcn Christ our passovcr is atzrrijiced for us." The original Grock wor<l, hero translatcd sacrifice, cvi<lently menns "l!lain;" for tho pnssovcr wns not a ;,acrifiœ, but was eatcn by the people. So, hy parity of rea.."<ming, the Lor<l ,Je.,,us Christ was 1<l<1i11, or 9lorified lii& /111111anity, that ull Chrî:;tian bclieven;, " having thcir



hcnrts sprinkled from an cvil conscience" (H cb. x. 22), by the blood of the ncw co\·cnant, or the divine truths of the Word of God, might pnrtnkc of his flesh and blood, his divine goodncss and truth, nn<l incorporate thesc blcssed principles into thcir vcry nature, or spiritual constitution, as the Lord S11id (J ohn vi. 57), "As the living Father hath sent me, nnd I live by the }'ather, ao !te t/1at eatetlt me, ei>en !te 1/tall lfrc by me." Jt \la.~ to rep~t this internai communication of ~acred gift.'l and virtu~ by the Lord, aml thcir rcception and appropriation on the pari of man, that the Holy Supper Wll.'l instituted as a pcrpetual mcmorinl reprt'S<'ntntive of the Lord's glorification, and nlso of man's rei,rcnera· tiou, and as a powerful mcans of a.dvancing it. For Swedenborg distinctly and truly tcachcs thnt "the greatcst power inhcrcs in cor· re~pondenecs, becausc in thero hcaven and the world, the spiritual and the nnturnl, are conjoincd, and therefore that the "'ord is writtcn nccording to mere [or pure] correspondences; whereforc it is the conjunction of man wilh henven, thus with the Lord. T he Lord, by tbis mean'I, is in first principlcs, and a.t the same timc in lasts, whcreforo [ehurch] sacraments (whieh arc the holiest forms of ail wol'l'bip, and n snbstitute for ail t he rcprcscntntivo ceremonies and ritunls of former rlispensations of religion] nrc institutcd on the principlcs of corrcspon<fonce, in which, accordingly, a divine potcncy resides" (Sp. DiaMJ, pt. vii.) . The Lord macle bis humnnity Divine, and perfectly unite<l it to the indwelling Father , by the successive incorporation of infinite principles of goodncss nnd truth ; henœ H e Mys, " I h:we ment to eat that ye know not of" (John iv. 32), and this divincly mystcrious process of glorificntion was the exact pattern of man's rcgcn<>rntion, in which work mnn becomes, in his finitc degrcc, frccly nml fully rcccptive of living principles of goodncss and truth from tl1c Lord, which induce upon him the divine likenc.<:s, conjoin him with the only source of ail lifc, bl~ess, and power, and open up to him Il i;tntc of eternal ndvanccment in wisdom, love, and use. Agnin, in Ezckiel we read : " T hus saitb the Lord God, Spcak uulo evcry fenthercd fowl, and lo cvery bcnst of the field, As.'lCmble your· selv<'s nnd corne; ga.ther yoursclvcs on every sidc to my sacrifice thnt I do sacrifice for you, cv<'n a grcat sacrifice upon tlto mountains of Î Rrncl, th nt yc may eat 8c.sl1 mu] drink blood. Y c sho.11 ent the Üc>.l'h of the mighty, and drink the hlood of the priucœ of the carth, of rnm~, of lambs, ami of gonts, of hullocks, ail of thcm fatlings of Ba· 1lu1D. And ye shall cat fut till yc be full, Md drink blood till ye bo



drunken, of the sacrifice '' hich I have sttcrificcd for you. Thus ye shnll be filled at my tahlc "ith horses and chariots, with mighty men, nn<l with nll men of wnr, iinith the Lord God" (xxxix.17-20). An<l similnr descriptions nre in the Revclation, whcre J ohn says, "And 1 snw an nngel standing in the sun; and he cried with a loud voicc, saying to nll the fowls that fly in the midst of heaven, Come, nml ~:lther yourselves together unto the supper of the groat God; that ye may cat the flesh of kin~, and the flcsh of cnptains, and the flcsh of mighty men, and the flcsh of horses, and of thcm that sit on them, nncl the flcsh of nll men, hoth free and bond, hoth small nnd grent " (xix. 17, 18). Without the inwnrtl lifc and spirit, how enn the divinity, the holiness, the rensonableness nnd prnctical tendcncy of thcRr pn.<.:.~ages he comprehcnde<l? But when that 11cnse is perceived an1l ncknowlcclgcd, nnd the !lignification of cating, drinking, nnd the elcmenl'! of food is umlcrstood, they are no loni;cr mysterious prcdic• tions, hut tcem with lcssons of infini te intelligence, are replcte "ith the unfol<lings of unchanging love, radiant wiùl the bcams of sncrccl glory, aml nro nt once secn to be truly worthy of their omniscient A uthor. In a general scnse we are taught hy thosc words that the T,oril has providccl riehcst fcnsts of pnrest and holiCl!t blcssings and satisfnctions in his 'Vord and kingdom, for nll who are preparccl ta partnkc of and npproprintc them by fuith and love. J<:vcry thought capnhle of clcvation into the atmosphere of hcavcn, signified hy thr fonthert'll fowls that fly in the midst of the firmament, and cvcry nffüctio11 inspirccl with tho lifc of love and chnrity, signilied by tho heu~ts of the field that walk upon the surface of the ground, nre frcely nml carncstly invitcd nnd entreated, hy the ycarnings of infinitc lo,·c and compn.qRion, to partake of nll kinds nnd degrecs of ~piritnnl nourishmcnt and dcli.L(ht prepared for the understanding an1l the hrort, that man may wo~hip the Lord in "the benuty of holincq,q,'' and ohcy bis commnrulmrnts with a chccrful mind, and conscqul•ntly hc re>ple>nishe<l, strengthe>u<.'d, au<l reno,·nt<.'<I \1 ith "fcasts of fat things antl wiue'I ou the lce!I," the J,ord's "sacrilko on the ruountains of farnrl," "the snpper of the grent God ! " On ncrount of this ~ig11ificntion of two prrsons or things, whrn a.~so<·Î!ltc<l in the ord, the Lord sent forth the ~cventy disciple:; hy "two and t wo" (Lnkc x. 1), to prcach the glacl tidini.,'l< of rc<lemption nml "alrnlion in hi., name. For the wholt• t':l"CllCC of the Gospel may be re>gurclccl ns the lovr ancl wi--dom of the J,or1l ; nor, unless thcQc divine principlc.~ arc unit!'dly rt'<'l'i,·ed in the will aurl undcrstanùing




of man, eau the Gospel become to him "the power of God unto salvation" (Rom. i. 16). There must be a reciprocity of action and reaction established betwcen the infinite will and the finite will, and between the infinite un<lerstanding and the finite understanding by the procœs called regeneration, if the human mind is to becorne a cohcrent one, and live forever in conjunction with its 111aker. Thus both the love and wisdom ernanatiug from the Lord must be reccive<l, an<l, ns it wcrc, reflccted back ugnin to their divine source. To reœive nnd rctain a given truth in the umlerstanding only, is to combine it with erroneous persuasions ami with selfish affections in the will, thus to profane and defile it, and destroy its virtue. He who does titis iuduccs upon himself a state of hypocrisy with its dircful tormcnt. Henœ such impure as~ociations are so strictly forhidden in the W ord by a variety of fo.ws, made obligatory evcn in their litera! acceptation in the reprcsentative economy of the Jews, and the infringcment of which subjccted aggrcssors to sevcrcst penalties. Ilut in thcir inwar<l mcaning these laws and penalties arc filled with instruction of the most solcmn import. Without some internai significancy an<l cnpacity of application to the human ruind, such laws and penalties cannot be sccn in rational light to yield nny wisdom worthy of the supreme La";giver.llll For this reason, thcn, it is, that we nre forbiddcn to sow with divers sced, to plow with an ox and an ass together, or to wea.r g:umcnts wovcn of mingled woollen and linen yarn (Deut. xxii. 911); 81 for a truth received in the intellect must be yoked or unitcd
*'Oue would l~ne thnt nol!Crioos pcl'llOn 1ogy /Of' IM Jl<><krn Theo/IJul/ of ~ant Gercould rend the Mosaie Jaw, and beUcvo lt t.o many, ~Il Et'(lm<nt, p. :;a. be i'!'JJ'ired qf God, without pcrceivlng that, ln rercrcnce t.o tho samo sobjcct, Orlgcn ln cvcry pnrticnlar, lt must have bcen de· fllrther says (in LetJU., cap. vil., tn Num., cap. ~ned for bolier purposes, and IO convey a xvl., x:xJ., et fa Malt., cap. n:iif.) thnt" hc ls a loO.lcr mornlfty, thnn what appenrs on the Il hlgh·prlcstunt.oGod who boldstho(spirltoal) snrfitce of the lcttcr; and that lt could be science of the lnw, and under.itands the n?R· only in its lnward and hca,·enly !ICU!IC that sons or evcry mystcry, and wbo is acquaintcd the l..ord Jcsus sa:;s of it that "no! <nie titUe wltb the Jaw both lu the spirltnnl aud literai thercof slwulà /aa" (Luke xvl.17). 80111!0:" but that "ail those who Utcrally ex· "Mœœ," mys Orls,'Co (Ad•. C<ls., 1. 18). pound thclnwnrcvaln pret«'hers." For"tl1cy "nevcr wrote anytbing wltich hnd not a truly ma.kc the Jaw an Old Testament who twofold mco.nlng. If in titis spiritual scnsc undcrstnml it in a carnnJ ronnncr; but t.o us, wc say thnt God promnlgatcd the law, thcn wbo understand and expound lt splrltnally ltapJ)Clln<" rode worthythe Divine Majci,ty: aud ln il•e,•augelfcal sensc,lt lsalwaysNcw.'' but if we rcst in t.he lcttcr, aud undcl'ltnnd 81 Dr.Townley couslders thattheso hetcrocc·
what ls written in the law as the Jcws nn<l noous mixtures, whethrr or gannc.nl.S,

cornmon people do, tbcn I blmh b> •a11 that Goo ~11ch lm<1$.'' "Nor was thi• princ1ple, thnt w~ mo,'t pnt•uehascnsc upon the wnrds and the~~ of Serlpturc as ls worthy a divb1c prodnetlon, ]>C<'ulinr t.o Orii;en only; but it was also n<lopU'd by Angustlne and maoy others of the füthers."-llrascltnel<lcr'• A1>0l·


or nnlmals, were C\·ldeutly Corbldùcn t.o pre· yentldolatry; or accordlt1g t.o Thorons A qui· """ (PrinL &c., 1111. 102, art. 6). out of hatrcd Io lùolatry, bceawie the F.gyptfans made mlx:· turcs of this nature, ln seeds, animais, and ganneuts, t.o rcproseot the dlllercm conjunolions or the planell!.



toits own proper nn<l corrcsponding principle of goodness in the heart, if it is to be preserve<l from profanation, nn<l thus to be succcssfully eruployed, not only to promote our usefulness in this world, but our prepnrntion for a heavenly stnte. ln order to represent to us more significantly the above twofold characteristic of the Lord's divine proceeding, as consisting of infini te love and infinite wisdom in indissoluble union, there are, both in the Old nnd New Testaments, two terms or names conjoined, as, Lord God, ,Jehovah God, Jesus Christ, the Lord-God nnd the Lamb, the Fnther and the Son, etc., which names are not, as might be supposed from the mere appearance of the letter, appellations refcrable to some distinct dunlity and individuality of person in the Godhead, a supposition equivalent to the monstrous and intolerable idea of more gods thnn one; but they are designed to mark the distinction recoguized by human thought in the one true God, between divine love and divine wisclom, or, whnt is the same thing, bctween divine goodncss and divine truth,-the two ~ntial constituents of Godhead coëxistent in the divine Mind, the ground of infinite ·perfection, and the abode nnd source of nll the attributes of Deity. Rcnson testilies that it cnnnot be otherwise. The terms Lord, or Jehovah, Jesus, and Father, geuerally signify, in the Roly Word, some quality of the essential divine principle of love or goodness; and the terms God, Christ,82 and Son, for the most pnrt signify some characteristic of the other divine principle of wisdom or truth, according to the subject or state under considcration. How immeasurably above mere reasoning and vie"'s which are dependcnt on the bodily scnses do such enlightened conclusions nn<l instructions as these clcvntc the soul, freeing it at onœ from all cavil, doubt, and inconsistency, directing its undivided adoration to the one truc and holy God of hcaven and earth-the Lord .Jesus Christ, in bis own glo1·ified Human; and because He is thus infinite lo\'e or goodncs.'i itsclf, and infinite wisdom or truth itsclf, the apostle Paul bcars this most explicit testimony respecting Him, tha.t "In Hm [the Lord Jcsus] dwcllcth a.Il the fulness of the Godhc.W. bodily." Tho Fathcr scnds forth the Son, ns hcat scnds foi th light; and as heat and light nrc one in the sun, so love and wisJcm1 -the Fnthcr and the Son-nro one in the glorious pcrson of the Lord Jcsns Christ, the "Sun of righteousness."
"The Hcl>rcwword Jm13, whcn tmn•lat<.'<l J 'l'hc Hcbrcw word Jftl/'iah and the Grr••k :nto J-:ni:lî$lt, mcans dtllvtrcr and rovfuur. word CMm meàll anoi11ltù, and hcncc l:in11.




E have seen, in tho former chnpter, that tho will and undcrstan<ling of man nre the two primary coustit.ucnt powcrs of tho humnn mind. Yet man i1:1 not a complete image of hhi Creator until be brings forth the ends of bis "ill and the causes of his understnn<ling into thcir proper eJfects, narnely, words and ,,·orks; thœe, thcrefore, form a third essential constituent of his nature. By virtue of po&CSSing nnd exercising this power, fixity and idcntity are impartecl to ail the intcrior principle& of the rnind and life. Now, the thrce corresponding principles of the Divine Mind are, the infinite will of God, compri.sing divine end~, the infinite understnnding of God, com· prising divine causes, and the ctcrnnl activity of thcsc two principlcs, iu 1ierfcct union, cornprising ail divine effccts. In the Sacrcd Scrip· turcs the all-begetting principle of love, prooecding from the diviuo "ill, iS dcsignated "the Futhcr;" the all-producing principle of \l"Ïs· dom, procceding from the divine understunding, or "the "'ord made ficsh," is dcnominated " the Son ; " and the eternal cncrgy and activity of tbcsc two principlœ, now proceeding from the Lord's glorificd Ilurnan in perfect union, are called "the R oly Spirit.''ss Thus
•In the cthkal philosophy or the ancrent Ezyptlan_-, the flr<t principlc of lbc m!nd I• l!Rld Io bave bccn iftldl«:t, lhe lll'l'On•I vil/, and the thlrd, whlch was the Jolnt t'ftlux or th...e. toll<'Ord, or hannmtr qf Q('tlon.~""e &Tk·• Jlor. Snl., p. 331. "l'l&to had no doubt or a grenl my•tcry !>oing conocalcd ln lloseo' accounl or the tht<'c men who appearcd unto Abmham." -1.Je S<vr(ftcffa tt dt Abmhanw, p. 31\7, cll.ed l'll Jl0<h.tA'• Nof'I t.o ~"'Orlh'• lnl. !111•.. vol. li~ p. 3Z7. "The lh~ namesofthe Deitymcntlonctl ln Sacrt'd Wrtt, 1 Am (Jebo,-ah), God (F.lohhn), and Lord (Adonal), are referrod hy l'h!lo to lbe lhrtt divine natures for .-.nua~] haro • hlcb hc dlvld<'S lbe Dclty."-Ib., p. 32!1. "The Pin tonie byp0thC'<e!l oeem to be rcal!y notb!ng erse bul lnftn!te goodn.,..., loflnlte wisdom. and lnllnltc active J>Ower, nol .. mere qualltlC'I or at'<'l<leuL-, but a.• rut.tan· tial thln~. all concurring too::ether Io mako up one e«o•, or Dh·!nltr."-Jb., p. 4!lll. The inl'Crlptlon on the groo1ohelislt of lhe Ml\ior Clt<'us was, "the great God, the IJo. gotten or God. the A!l·rc'plendent." llcraclitus mention~ an !nMCrlptlon whlch was a tri&d: "FIM Go<l, lhcn the Logoi;, &nd the ~plrll wllb lbcm; but all tbcsc uoited oy nAture and unltln!f ln unlty." "The ef'"ll or an angcl I• that whlcb l1 callcd hl• !Oui hla cxl•t.ence i• tbat '!rhleh ls <a!lcd bis bodr. and the prOC'~ln11; fmm botb ia tbat wblch ia called t.he llJ>here cl






divine love from ctcrnity willc1l, nrnl divine wi~dom, ni; n. rnu~, opcr· atcd the work of croation, nnd c-.uue forth in time a:> the "i:sdom, or
hls lifc. Dy thl• trine an nngcl is an Image Pallas, or Mlnerva, ln Grcccc, and hy the o( God."-S>«drnborg, Ath1111<uian OrCC<l, lS, go1ldc.<s llfythcu in PCl"la. The thlrd prln· clple the EcrypUans called Oru.•, the llrœb, Apolloorlkrculcs,and the Per>il\1i.MiUlru.•. This latter J•coplc, who had ncithcr tcmpl!'ll nor •latuc•, odoptcd only thrœ prlnrlJ)AI dl\'Lnitics. h1dced, Mr. Ram..ay I• of the opinion that all the i;od• of the h•·nthrn :1'2-~G."- TV. Jonl'8, qf Saylrmd, 1m Ille Tri11ilv. mytbology nro but dlfTcrcnt fonn• of \hC>iC "Th1• llcbrcw lcltcl'l! whlch l'Olll!>O"C the thrw, vlz., 'une •uprcmc i;o<.1, tlw principal tri S)'ll&IJlc namc Jr;U0\'.\11, nrc cxprc'l'l\'c or ail hein!('<; a go<\<!1~,. his \\If•". •i>tcr, or of lim~pas, timl! pre.•Nll, nnd ti~ to romc."- d,111::htcr; an•! a mi<l<llc god, """ 1, bis 8'>n, sec .llaimonù.le. ,!(or. ,'i(!I!. hl~ rcpre>enlJltl\'e or vlcci;creut.' 'This, with "OC the i11jlnite u(f-exi811'tll c~BCll"t! lmplled •olnl• qua.llfi<•ations. may ,·cry probnbly bo by thl~ name it 1, lm)>O""lblc Cor u.~ to form tn1c."-D. ll. JL, Am. .\'('lb Jer. Mag., vol. n full aod atlf."IU&te idea, bcca1Lw wc. aml X\ Ill~ p. 3i 1. nll other cl'Clltore•, ba.ve but a j!nilt, drrfraThe oroclc c!Wd outof Dnmn..,.ln• the phll· tfrc e."l!cncc •.• , 'J'hc wor<l JAH (ns ln l'i!alm œophcr, by l'l\tritln,, t1.•'1l·r~ th11t throughout l:'t\'ill, 1) 'tan<l' •lm pl~ for th1• dirlrU! e~otnre, the world a trlad or triuity •hln<'• forth, or for llfm u:ho 1•, and""" neœssnrlly>u-"1' which resolv~ IL~lf lnto a monad, or J"('r· be...• 'lite tcrm EuJAH OCClll'I! no1'hcrc but fe{'t unity; and nl<0 that U1is d()(trinc ln ~:x.111. li, and llll?an6 not only ll lm who tho fundarocntnl prlnriplc of the Orpl1lr ncccR•nrllr u, but who ncCCS!!nrilywill be. It phlloeophy. Vo.~lu~ ol~rvcs thnt thl• i<l<'I• re:;nrd> th<" future cl<"rnal,aud demon>tratcs hl'l1l a prlnclpnl pince ln the mythology of the lmmutablllty of the dh·fnc exbt.:ncc. the anclcnt.. -F<.-c Cl1du•lfllt's Jnt• .<:t11.. vol. 1., The tltle JEJIO\'All, whlch conllllns the p. 4!tl; Prit:/10.r.ra Anal. qf l'qyp. Jlythol., pp. othcr two, lncln<lc' the pas!, the 1)'1'('3"111, and 3'J, 47. lh<' /u/11re Elcrnnl, tb&I. ;., a~eording tt> our "Fir<I God, tben Ule \\'orrl an<l !'pirit, ail ~'One<.·1>11011•; for ail thln!l", and evcry dl\.i· unltlng in Ono whosc power <"\JI nc\'crend." sion or tbot dur!\lion whlch "e undcrotand -r>ra.U tif,<;, rnl'i., Suftlru; <œ J\mtC'111'1/ù hy Ume, nre prc,,.•nt wlth lllm, tho111:h M1C· 111/ltorv of Omrla, l'r.iO, J.:ng. <"<l., p. Il. et."'lve t.o 1'hus tho ln>pired AJl<)Stlc 'fhe auckut J%'YPlll\ns bellCVl~I in the (fü1dintt 110 wnr<l ln Grœk to repn...,:ut the unlty of the ~beo•I, ami cxpn:""Cd hl• idel\ Of the I!ehrcw) U!oe' perlpl1111'!•, or attribut.es hy tria<!'<. Aw•nlln1: Io l'ythll'(· comment on the word, antl <"Xpl'C•'<'8 the oru, the 811u1hm phllOl'opher, tho syml,nl narM Ji;uo\'AI! by 'He thnt ;., thnt v'<l~,111111 of ail thin~""• or fuln\"<1, \\ns th<" ~fonad, or tbnt i• l'I come' {Ucv. 1. 4)."-..'itrle'a Jlur.."'11., attlvc princl11lc, or l'athcr; th•• Duon, or l'P· 1 ~. p..,lv.: princl1•le, or llf •th<r: au<.1 the n."'nlt "JEUO\'AlldC>«•cndcdt<>llccome Jl)<t•fur ornpcrntinn of bnth unltc<\. lt I• rc mnrk· 1lwlr [hls child!'<'n'•] l'&kc~. And H:.•1·• ls nhlo thnttlw uncient trlnltlcsoflhe llin<.10011, Jt:UOVAll, or Ile <"ould nnt be 'the Mme aq \\ cll ns th» Jiro'ptlan•, cmblcmntlzt.,1 the Y'-"terdny (1. e., Crom etcmlty), llH!a11 (1. c.. male or J)Al<"mal prinl'lple, th" ft•malc or through nll tlnw), an<.1 for11tr (f. e., to ctcr· ntl\t<"mol prlnflple, and tbc ofT,pring, und nity), ail which the namc Ji:1to\'AJ1 lm plies." lhat thls ls lù<'ntical wlth the enrly t'lliucw - lb., 11. 7. phllooopby. "The threc grand attrihuk's of God: lnli"Amonrt the nnelent Chln~ chnra<"tcrs ni te pltuJtudc of llfc, infinlte knowlcdge, whkh h1we~n prcscn·ed. W<' ftlul one likc aud lnfinlte powor."-Dru!tliro.l Triad. th<" Greck drlta (t.). Arrordlng to the C'hinr.t .. •. w!Mlum, and power l>irtim1ar11, Kang hi, tllls rbnraewr •h:nlfic~ "ll<·muse goo<lnc. arc the tbrec r«.,.ntlal dh·lne aUrlbu~ uni"11• .\ccnnlintr to Ovmroum, Il ~le1Jn1t1'<l thercfurc the Ddty was orlglnally rcpre· "11rk, ~ '' 111~ tmilêJ in DIU!. The U"'"' "<'ntcd hy the anrlcnts undcr th~'C prindpnl rlum tiing h•"71, wb1rh I~ 1\ mtlon&l and Conn•. The prlnelplc of the 1lhinc goodnt>ss Jenrncd cxplnnntlon of nnrlent chnrarlcr:<, wMn•11n...mtc<l amoni:; the F.gyptll\n•hythe •11r•, ·~ ,1.,.111ftC" lntlmatc 11111011, bnrmony, god t>-.lri,, amonirthc Grec ka by Jupikr, and tlw rhil•f ,.,..,..i of man, of the ht·&\'<'n antl among llll' Pcn<lnn' hy Oromll/.C». 'l' hc dl· or lht carth: Il h tlw un Inn of the thœc.'" vine wl....tom, or >«~·•md prfnrlplc, wn.• n•p- - J>r. A. <Y11rkt'1 Cbmna., J•1hn 1. n.'SC'nkd Ly tùc gnd!le;,, l>I~ in t~1•t. by Numl.ICrlt·'• tJGuthcMlc s uix• ...UUons, ni> p. 43. "Fnther.~on. nnd lloly Gho•t a.re nnt rcprescnw•I t\.~ somnny 1mml.,., butas 011e1111me; the one divine nntureofGrnl IJcing no more dh l<lc•I by tbe><e thrœ than by the ~luglc namc or JtluJroh thrlcc re!'C"tro ln l\um. vi.





Ward incar1mtc, in the person of Jœus Christ, an<l accomplished the wotk of redemption and the glorification of the a.ssumcd humanity; and the Roly Spirit is continually striving to go forth in "the spirit and power" of the 'Vord, to efièet human regeneration and salvation. Swedenborg, trenting on this momentous suhjeet, clearly and beautifully unfolds it a.s follows: "In every divine work there is a first, a rni<ldle, and a last, an<l the first passes through the mi<ldle to the lnst, and thereby cxists and subsists; hence the last is the basis. The first, also, is in the rniddle, and, by rneans of the middle, in the lnst; and thus the last is the containant. .And because the last is the containaut and busis, it is also the firmament. The learned reader will bo able to comprehend the propriety of ealling these three, end, cause, and effeet, and also e88e (to be), fieri (to bc.,><:ome), and existerc (to exist). He who comprehends this reasoning will cornprehend, also, that cvery divine work is complete and perfect in the lnst; and likewise that in the lnst is contninc<l the whole, because the prior things arc contained togetber in it. From this ground it is, that by the number thrce, in the 'Vord, in its spiritual scnsc, is signified what is complete and perfect; and also, the ail or whole together. Becausc this is the signification of that number, therefore it is so frequently applied in the W ord, when that signification is intcnded to be cxprcssed, as in the following places: Isa. xx. 3; 1 Sam. iii. 1-8, xx. 5, 12-42; 1 Kings xvii. 21, xvii. 34; Matt. xiii. 33, xxvi. 34; John xxi. 10-17; Jonnh i.17; John ii.19; l\Iatt. xxvi. 39-44; Luke xxh'. 21 ; bcsidcs mnny other passages where the number throo i;; mentionc<l. It is mentioned whcre a work finished nn<l perfcct is the subject trcateù of, because sueh a work is signified hy thnt number." -S. S. 27-29. And again: "From the Lord proceed thesc principles, the celestial,
sur<! co.mogoules, and oonfuscd notion.., etc., wcre fouudc<I on the eom1ptions of Ibis phil· osophy as lt became more dcbwl~'<l nud licen· tlous. "The numbcr three wns hcld •acrc<l hy tho anelents, hcing thought the mom pcrfcct of ail numbe,,., as baving regaro Io the bcgln· nlng, mlddle, and end.''-Dr. T/iQrnltJn'a Eelogtta of l'irgi~ p. 507. "Threewasasll<'r~d o.nd myi.tlcal numhcr among the Dmid.<."-J)<wW• Jtul.Ml. of the BritW.. Dn.citù, p. 79. "The Hcbrcws expf'C2!'11y acknowkdi::cd füe pcrfcellng propcrty of the numbcr IJirer; (or with tltem the lcttcr shin, -='• "hich is lu lt'K'lf n trident, denotcd the numbcr IJirec, or the utmost rierfectlon ot everythlng."-7Tipt., vol.i., p. r,2. "The grcnt majorlty of the Hebrew rooll 8l!Sume trl-Utcral comblnatlons as the average Conn, and t11e saine number of letters arc, hy m0>t phllologlsts, ascrlbcd to the original Greek n10ts."-CbnybroTO'• Lect.. 2d cd., app., pt. Z, p. 301. "The ancien ta had o. singular prcdilcetion for the uumber tltrce; hence thcy took li as a divlsor prefcmble to the 1norc rational mode of hnlves. Of thls takc an ln•tancc from Livy: '.l\JUSdem rel cao<;I\ ludl magni Yotl a:ris trcccnlls, trli;.1ota, tribus millibu...' •



the ;;piritual, and the 11atural, one after anothcr. 'Vhatsocver proeeeda from his divine love is callcd eclcstinl, and k; di,·ine good; whntsocver proceeds from his divine wisdom is called spiritual, and is divine truth ; the natural partakes of both, and is thcir complex in ultimates. The divine principle procccding from the Lord, in its progrc."S to ultimates, desœnds through three degrœs, and is termed cclcstial, spiritual, nnd nnturn.l. The diYiuc principle which procccùs from the Lord and descends to men, descends through those three <lcgrecs, and wl1en it has dcscended, it contnins those three <legrecs in itself. Such is the nature of every divine principle proceeding frorn the Lord; whcrcforc, when it is in its last <legrce, it is in its fulne;s. Such is the nature and quality of the Word; in its lnst [or lowcst) scnse it is uatural, in its interior sense it is spiritual, awl in its iumost wnse it is cele8tiu.l; a111l in eaeh sense it is divine.si The distinction betwcen thcse <legrecs eannot be known, except by the knowledge of correspondcnce; for these three degrees are altogether distinct from each other, like end, cau80, and effect, or like what is prior, posterior, nnd postreme, but yct make one by eorrespomlence; for the naturnl <legree or principle corresponds with the spiritual, and also with the celestial."-S. S. G, î. " H e who does not know the regulations of divine order with respect to dcgrces cannot comprchend in what mnnner the heavcns are di~tinct from each other, nor even what is mennt by the internai and cxtcrnul man. 1\Iost persons in the world have no othcr ideii of things intcrior and exterior, or superior and inferior, than as of something continuous, or cohering by continuity, from n. purcr state to a grœscr; \1hcrcas things intcrior and exterior nre not continuous with respect
""The celestial [or !nmœt] scn•c of the Word eannot eas!ly be uufolded, not bclug so much e.n object of intcllcctual thought as of wHl-alfoctlon. The true ground and rcnson wby tbere ls ln the Word a scn-e l'till more lnterlor, whlrh is called eelcstial, l~, becau'e from the Lord proœed Divine Good an<! DivlneTruth-J>ivineGood from hisDi· vine ÎAl\"e and Divine Truth from bis Divine \\'l•dom; each ls ln the Wor<l, for the Word ls the divh1e pr<X'ecdlng. Jt ls on lhls account that the Word impart.s llfe to those that read lt undcr holy Influence. The marrlage of the Lord w!th the church, ancl c'011''-'l"ently a marrll\g(' of gcx><lnc'" aud trnlh, I• con tain cd lu cvcry part!cular of the the spiritual sense have relation to Divine Trulh, and the contents of the ~-ele1>tlal !.Cil'>(: \o Dh·lne Good."-1~. S .. n. 80. "[Evcu] the literai sense of the Worrl is throofold. Ylz., hlsWrlcal, prophelka.I, nnd cloctrinnl, cach whereof ls such thnt it mny be npprcbendcd C\"Cll by tbœc wbo arc ln cxtcruals."-A. C., n. 8-132. "The Word ('()ntalns in itsclf all prior prln· cl pies, c"en from the firf't, or all >uperlor prin· cl pies, e\•cn from the supreme; the ultimatc beiog wbat lnclndcs and contalt1s !hem. 'l"hl• fulneso of the Word may be <:ompn""d wlth a common VC""el of marblc, ln whlch arc innumerublc lc:>'<èr \"C!<SCIR of erptAI, and ln th(••e •!Ill more innumcrablc of prccion~ stone«, ln whkh and about whh-b arc the \rom:'-..~. l·t.., n. 19. "\\'har ù<•longs to the spiritluù ~<'me of m<»-t cxqnl;itc dellca~ies of henY<:n, whlcb the \\"<ml brui more pr•rtleular rel11tion to nrc for tllo..e wbo !rom the Lord perforci the churrh; and whnt belongi; fil the <'l'i<'•· noble U!l(?S."-A. E. 1087. lia! l!('nse, to the Lord; the ronteut.s, at,o, of

TR/N,f/, lJJST/1..-CT/O,V IN GO[)




lo C'ach othcr, hut <liscrclc. Degrœs arc of two kimls, thcre hciug oontinuous degrc<'S and degrNJs uot continuons. Coulinuous degrees 11ni like the degrcC!' of light, dcC'reasing a.~ it rece<lœ from ftame, which is its "<lurce, till it is lrn;t in ohscurity ; or like the dcgrccs of visual clcarness, dccrc11.~ing as the light p:1Sses from the objccls in the light to those in the shade; or like the degrees of the purity of the atmosphere from its base to its sum111it,-tbcsc dcgrees bcing determined hy the respccth·e distance:.. But degrees that are not continuous, but ùiscrete,es dilfer from eaC'h othcr like wlll\t is prior and "hnt is posl<..'rinr, Jike cauee and elfeet, and like that which produccs and thnt "hich is produce<l. Whœoever investigates this su bject will fiud thnt in al] the objecto of crcation, both gcncral aud particulnr, thcro are such dC'grccs of production and compo1iition, and that from one tl1ing proceeds another, and from that a third, and i:-o ou. He thnt ha.s not acquircd a clear npprehension of these degrccs cannot li<> acquaiute<l with the diflèrcnco between the vnrious hcavcns, and bet\\een the intcrior and the extcrior fücultics of man; uor cnn he hc ac•1uniutcd \\Îlh the differeuce bctween the spiritual world au<l the naturnl, uor bctwecn the spirit of mau an<l bis body; nor, consequcutly, eau he understaud what correspoudcnces aud reprœentntions nro, and thcir origin, uor "hnt is the nature of influx. Seusual men cannot comprchend thesc distinctions, for thcy suppose incr~e nucl dccrcnse, evcn ''ith resp<..>et to these dcgrees, to be contiuuous; on which account they eau form no other conception of what is spiritual th1111 as somcthiug more purely natural. Thus they stand, as it wcrc,
•"Ill~ ls a phlloeopblcal term sii:ol- 1 d~trlneoftrlpled~.,wblrb lslndi"JlCn· fyln11: "lJ'll'OV, and lt arpl!ed to two or more gable to a jll!ll. ,;ew of the dh lne cba!'M't~r thln"" that do not run 1010 one anotl1cr. but, and exMence, to a corrCC't l<lea of the n•tur.i tbuugh contiguou•, bave cnch tbelr d1<tlnr1 o f the human mind, and to the acrurato 1J<>1111ùary."-.Yol>'l. Ju1owk'<lgc Of the SCit'll<'C of <'OfTI'@J•lllff· 1'h1• ""-'' imvortnnce of thls dl•Unctlon of enceii, and tbus to a tnie lnwrprclAlll<lll of d<'<;•<'t'• wlll be al once pcrcelved, If w• Nltl- the Won! or God, & few addition&! cxtnu·tti •l<lu that the erronoo>u, a.-.mnpUon that ail are 11:1\·en ln the APPL'<DIX, l'rnro the hn11lu 1..111 ... and lhing!I haw proœt'ded forth <'OO• able wrilln•'ll or S\\edenbnrg, "ho be., ...., tlnuou.•ly, or by d~ o r contlnult)', !rom amply and «> clœrly unfolded Ibis g,.ud the rentre to the r!rrumferenee of ait <'n'fl· subjt'<'t, on whleh, lndecd, the la"s of 1·urllon; thus, that the l'Oul and the btldy, Ood rcs1Kln<11•1we• may be &lfd to rr.<t. A fcw of tuuJ man, ti:pirlt an~ me.ttrr. are but \1arlous the lnnnmrrn\Jle roufirmnt.lons,nltd Illustra· l"fAt1nUons, and that God i~ an all~xll'\.nde<l tlotL" f'tom other ~un~~. arc al"° given. •11lr-1A11t'e, exi'!llng tbrou~hout •po.N', ha.• The t'""'lfl'I 'If lmtitm, and the ~('e('Ut ... r<iwn blrtb, ooch ln anc!cnt arvl mndem tioo• or Jienvln and HuxlfY on l'l'Ol:Tl'."' ln tlm1-.. t-J t'very hf'l~nl~ueou...~ ~y...tem of put· dc\·("lopm<>nt.. are fn&ml"fl UJ'4\n tml/i1n•f,l•t <l•·· Uu. j... m, m•teriall"'m, and ee<"ularlcm, v. hlc•h ~'~ h•:n<-e the1r f;:~·k>u~ errol'f', thdr l•l· luOMI phllo•ophy, an<I an erronMu• the<Ni· lae~•U• r<•aM>nlnl:', thclr ml>laken amrniteph), have lnvented. ln or<ler. thcrtfon\ f\1r- menL' of fürt'I, anrl tht•lr mt...c·hlevous roll· lhrr t;i ru;.i,t the eanu••t and llltclll~1·11t ln- rtuslon•. t<·nding to mt'fe materi1tli<m an( qulrN ln hl•sca1th Rnrrtruth,~n<I L>~n•lll~ . Athcl•m,an<19fo~·lt)' torn1l11a1ing thero iiliu more elearly to com1>reh~od the C""'t ' 13 ~


146 H. H. 38.


without the gate, far remo\·ed from al! that constitutes intelligencc.""The essential Divine [principlc] is in the supreme sensc of the Word, because therein is the Lord; the Divine [principle] is also in the internai scnsc, be.cause thercin is the Lord's kingdom in the hen,·ens, hence this sense is cnlled celestial and spiritual; the Divine [principle] is also in the literai sense of the Word, because therein is the Lord's kingdom in the earths, hence this sense is called the extcrnal, and likcwise the natural scnse, for in it are cro.'!S appearances more rernote frorn the Divine [priuciple]; nevcrthcless ail and singular things therein are Divine." "The case, with respect to these three i<enses, is as it wns with the tahernnclc: its inmost, or what was within the veil, where the ark wns, containing the tcstimony, was most holy, or the holy of holies; but its internai, or whnt wns immediately without the veil, wherc was the golden table and candlestick, wns l1oly; the extcrnal, also, wherc the côurt was, was also holy."-A. C. 343V. In further elucidation of the subject of degrccs, the sarnc enlightened nuthor clscwhcre says: "It is discovered by mcans of the investigation of causes from èffects, that degrccs arc of two kinds, one in which are things prior and posterior, and another in which are things greater and Jess. The degrecs which distinguish things prior and posterior are to be called degrees of altitude, or discrete degrees; but the degrees by which things greater or less are distinguished from each othcr are to be called degrecs of latitude, and also continuous degrees. Degrees of altitude, or discrete degrees, nre like the gcncrations and compositions of one thing from another; as, for examplc, they are Jike the generntion and composition of any ncrvc from its fibres, or of any fibre from its fihrillœ; or of nny piece of wood, stone, or mctal, from its parts, and of any part from its particles. But degrees of latitU<le, or continuous dcgrecs, are likc the inerements and decrements of the sa me degrce of nltitu<le \\·ith respect to brefültli, Icngth, height, and depth; and as of large and small masses of wood, stone, or mctal."-1. S. B., n. 16. "The science of gcometry tcaches that nothing cnn be complete, or perfeet, exoopt it be a trine, or a compound of three; for n gcomctric line is nothing unies;;; it berornes au nrca, and an nren is nothing unlcss it beeomes n solid; therefore the one must be multiplicd into the other in order to givc thcm existence, and in the third they coexist. As it is in this instance, so it is likcwise in the ca!'e of ail and cvery crented thing, thcy have their liiuit and tcrmination in a third.


14 7

Jieucc we eee 11hy the numher 'fHHEg in the Word ~ignifies whnt is complete nnd pcrfcct."-T. <..:. R, n. !l~7. '111ere nre, then, throe degrces of Jife"6 in e1'ery man, constituting man in the image, and ennhling him to attnin the likC'ncss, of his .:'lfakcr. Thœe dcgrces arc discrete or distinct, and arc nppropriatcly rrprcsented in the well-known ::mcicnt nnd cxpressh e tri ad of the hcart, the hcad, and the !tand. The first encl is of the will or Ion-; the mediate end, or instrumental cau»e, i<> of the undel'!'tnu<linit or "i&lom; nud the ultimate end, or effort, has respect to u~e in the lifo. Tla~e dcgr<'C!l, though thcy arc discrctcly distinct, and cxhibit thrcc di--tinct cln.s..."CS of phcnomenn, arc, umlcr the influence of rca."on niul cunscicncc, unnnimous in thcir acth itics and conjoined hy corre<pond. cncc. Enrh of thcsc degrocs, howcver, is cnpnhle of cmllcss muti~­ tions in itself, wbich are callcd continuous dcgrccs. Tl1csc are the varintions of inten1>ity a.ud dcnsity, or a grcntcr or lc.-s clcgrcc of rcmotenœs of statc, ns progressions from Jight to shade, from hcnt to cold, from soft to bard. But discrcte dcgrecs arc distinct, ns the i.piritual world is distinct from the nnturnl world, or the soul frorn the body, or a cau!IC from the effcct, or the pro<lucer from the thing pro<luced; an<l. it is only bctwoon this latter kind of dcgrces that corrcsponclenee exists. Ail things, howeçer infinitcly yaricd, manifest in their end nnll œscnce the di vine love, in their form and en use of existence the 'liviue wi~dom, nnd in thcir operation anù use the divine power, or the unitcd cffect and energy of both love nnù \\i:>dom. lu the I.ord thcse tbrce essentials of deity "are distinctly one." That somc truc i<fon of this doctrine wns cxplicitly hcld in the earlicr periods of Chrislianity, wc have the m<ll't direct testimony in . the 6rst epistlc of John, whcre it is written, "Thcrc are thrce that bcar record in hcaveu, the Fnthcr, the ".orù, and the Holy Ghost: and thcsc tlm'c nrc ouc. And th<'re arc thrce thnt bcar witncss in carth, the ~pirit, und tl1c \\atcr, and the bloo<l: and thci:c thrœ ngrcc in one" <Y. ï,X ).'' Now thcre is nothing that exi~ts throughout the thrce kingdoms of nuturc but what, evcn as toits particulnrs, bcars witne.ss to this trinity
... l...t•. O..iri.. antl lloru, romrrl"' ln Dlony.!u•, tht> .enatoTof Alhens. the hll(h· thouc;ht the wholc "l"IA'm of F-1<i·11UAn my· l'!ot plt.œ or <11-gl'l'e l• gllen t•> the a11i;t•I• of U10111gt." llh the exœ1>Llou, perlUlJW, or Am- lon\ whi<'h an.• tA.•nned ft"Taphi'm; the J4t•<•o111l mu11 •n<l Kncph, lhc cune..elcol g.•I an•l lht 10 the ftnl(t'l• or light.. "blrh a1') U>rmro c""'th11r J•>\1cr:·-11.,..•.n·• E{n/p(• 1'•1« m rhcrublm; an1J Che follu\llno; place lu lbe l'nir. l/ùtor., p.. 413. arn::ets or pol\('f aud minl~try." What lla<·ou a..,.,n.. I• nota lllUc r<'mark· 1 "The loug, l'r\-qucnt, an<\ l•amcd <ll•1>u •!Jiu, ,·tz., thot ·'Ill the cclci.11~1 lucrureby of tul1ons rCf>p<:cUug tlie authcntlcity aud gcn



in God, nnd thL'I triple life in the soul ns G0<l's imngc. It is revcalcd to us thnt in the spiritual world thcre arc thrcc hcnvens, which heing discrctcly distinct correspond to each othcr; and ù1cre must Jikewisc be throo bclls as their opposite$." All out\\nrd nature is ilireefold, and this is derived from correspond· encc. Thcre is the great univcrsnl trine of ncriform fluids, liquif.1s, and Mlids, or utmospl1crcs, waters, and carths. The impondcrnhlc
ulnenC&'I of the l!CVl'nth verse, ln uo wny nffœts the 1in.'M'llL argument. l may hcre ol» acr1't', thut lt J~ Jh>W gcnerally allowed to have h<'Cll •purlou,Jy lntroduced luto the Epl,tle of John. Jt cxlst,, howc»er, ln one or the Grcck .Ml'S. lrnown by the lltle of • 77u: (bita Jlon{furtii," lu Trhùty Collegc, Uubllu, whkh .Martlll of l'trecht rou.•ldcl't'tl to be as old 111 lbe clevculh ccntury, but wblch nr. A. Clarke rcgardcd as a produc· lion of about the thlrteeuu.. I' occurs in theGN'<'ktra11,Jatlo11ofLileAclsoflhcCoun· cil or Lateran, btlù .o.o. 12n. li is insertcd ln lhc J.alin \"ulgntc, a ynluable,·crsion made br Jl'n•me 111 the lourth century; lt ls cltcd IJy \"lglllwi Tapwt~•ls, a blshop nud J,ath1 11 rit.cr in the latter end of the fifth; an<l 1s founù ln Latin Ml''l. o~ cnrly as the 11intb or tenth. Accordlug to nr. A. Clarke, somc of the 1.ntln \Hllcrs hisert lho pa'sage tlrns : "Thcrr arc tbn.'\' thnt benr J'\."\'Ord lu hcavcn, tl1c Fat.hvr, Ibo \\"on!, n11d tho Holy llh<llit: and th~o;.c thn:c arc one ln Cnn1><T JC"n." The thrcc dcgrec.-aof luitlation lnto the endent Dl>"l<-ri1."< ''' ~n•t. Grcccc, etc., \\ere, wlthout <l•>ubt, dcrin'<I from theobovcdo<."r trine of dl...,n:lc dci:re<."S. Among variou' uatlon' the numh<:r three rom·c)'S lhe ldca or fulnC!!S and 1icr!C<'tlon. J ta ke the l>l'\.'IO'UI op110rtunlty of obF.enln~ thal the 11lg11•, '>•nbols, aud thrœ dci,'fecs of Frec·.Mt\lttllll'l arc a J>eeullnr compound of a f~.,. \'OTrl""l"'IH!c1H"C•, adoptcd Crom the ancicnt c11n·rn my•l<"rl~, ruo.-,t prooobly from thO!'<' or the H1111-won-hl1• of llcllo1~•lls, aucl phrll"l'S aucl figures ùorrowed from the sym· bollc l!('ulpturo, pal11tl11g, etc., of more m0<l· cru Ume,., an1! h1l·or1~•l'tltl~l into œrcmonics whil'h, on mere n ....mupllun, wlthout the &lli;hl1...,te1 lclent•c, art.,•n.ld lO haveorlglnat\"<1 w lth tlw IJullcllni; of ~ilomon·a temple.~<:t"\' the \\ork~ of llutrhh1'on, l'reston, t"apt. H. !'miLh, J>r. ,\.,hc, I>r. OIJ\"er, etc., on Frtt-Ma· upon 8'lmc fündful as'!OClatlons or r~m­ blanc\"<, whlch l"lrlicular objccts nn<l thclr hnhltu<ks. mybtlc words and sign!I, arbltrary mark~ 11111! comblnnlions, the fonns nud pr11pcrtlC'< or the '"t"lmcnts, utcnslls, nnd In•trumenl• COlllll"\'ll'<l with religio11s \\ 01'>hlp, nncl the varlowi professions and tradt-<, et<·., 11ere •ul'p<JM.'<I. Io bcarto œrt.nin moral rult.. ancl wnthnculh, =ar<lt'<l as n ece..-,ary for tho rlithl dlrC<'tlon and governmcnl of U10 con· ùucL This i.ymooll•m was furtbcr u<ed to dc•li;natc t11e p1Uumed or admittro qnnll· lies of penwms; or was applied to disti~hh thcm rrom ench othcr. Il" as al<-0 crnployeù M a troplcnl whlcle of doctrinal rurtcrlc.1 and motUL>tle prorc..,ions, vows, charms, l'll'., Aud für the llUl"J>t»e'! of•ccrela.'«oclatlon ancl l'("('()j(nltlon.-l'oo Glcmarvo/ A~chücclu~. nnd l'rofCf!HOr l'Ul(hl°s tiplenùid Gloaaarv of Ec® 6/a•tiral Ornamml uml ('01<tume. "Ail Mtyks of architecture ore hlcrQl:l}·ph· les uron a. mrge SC'alc: exhibltlng to tho hœc!rul l")'c, for1us of wor>Jii1• widcly difTerJng rrom carb otbcr; and vro,·iug, that in alm<"I cvcry l't'li~'1on \\lth \Illich we are ac· <1ual111<..i, the fvnn of the temple was the /1tn"<'fl'Grt1 of lts i:-KI, or of the pœuliar OJ>ln· lo11•of lt4 \'Olarlc-.."-Dardtrdf& Ttmpln, p ..;.>. "ln the roo.t 11ndcJ1I mouumcnlS of lndla and f«ypt, as ln tbcwre ot the middle &l;'C", 111'('hltœturc, hlatuary, and painting are tbe mnterlal exprc,.,lons of rcllglous tboughL"!Vrlllf• J)<1 Coulrurf SJlmbolique&


Th<' hrlctu"\' ofrorrc>pollllenœs helng Jc.,t, tho nbfltract ethl1•s of ('hrbtlaulty wen.• thm sought to be cxt.•n&i\'ely Jm11rh1l<'<I 011 tho mem11ry and rmL'!<"lcnce. lu corre;1>011tlè11co thcrc ls notl>ing arhitrary or fauetrul. The thlng Mh:nlnecl nmot be the proxlmntc 1·nusc of that to whlcb it t'<Jrl't'Sponds, oud ho re<>· <>1;1114'<1 hl 11.1 fürm aud use. The fürni<.'r m11>ot lh1', IO to ~pcllk, wlthln the 111Ucr, u• the 'Oul lin~!S ln the body. or as tbougbl t>n· """'l" •hrine11 Ji.dr ln •Pl't'eh, or as the lnC..11<'<'1 The <"hrbrllau •ymbols of the middle ...,...,., cxlol• lu tbe cyc, or "" the allècllon• of tll\' with the exe<>jlflon 1>! >0me CO!Jl('Jdcnce.., hcart animai.. the roootcnancc; ail whkb m<)'<t llkl'ly &t'l'l<lcntal, \\ere nol rorrœpond· a~L hl!-'l'lhN a.• <.1llL"C and tlfc:ct. Clll"l'll 111 ail, l•ul onlrcnigm&llcal rom)lftrl· .. li,,111. xxxll. 2l; 1 Klngs \"Ui. !!7; J'l.alm !!Oil•, oflt'n »ery obMcure. .\larire proportlon lxxx' 1. 1~·""' .f.,tlxxlll. J; )fart 1.10; Lnke of thl'm wcrv clcrlVl'<I from the hentht>n my-1xll.33; A<Lil li. ::.1, vil. OO, 2 Cor. xll. 2; llcb. thologla The rcmalnder \lere tuundcd 'Il. :.!G.



agents :ire thr<'<', hcat, light, and elcctririty; and the lnttcr is agniu a trine, compri~ing electricity, galvnni..qm, mul mngnetism. The ntmœphere Î8 thre<'fol<I, con~i..~ting of aura, ether, nnrl air. The ohjccts of the world are dh;ded in general int<> thrce kingdoms, the animal, the vcgetnble, nn1l the minernJ.• Animais, ngnin, subdivide themselvcs into three grand ordcrs, bcn~ts or tcrrcstrial animais, birds or aerial animais, and fishes or aquntie nnimah:, in refor<'nce to the threc clcments whirh thcy traven<e. Agnin, tcrrœtrinl animais arc divilll'<l into thrce cl1Wcs, cnttll•, wiltl bcasts, and r eptiles; aerinl animais nrc <listiuguishCtl into bir1lK of the air, wntcr-fowl. and lnnrl-birds. Clcan animais 11.re describc<l in the Mœaie law by throo ehuracteristics, as parting the hoof, clownfootcd, an1l chcwing tlie cuù. C'Ican fi~h~,'° with fins and senlc~, arc divided into three kinds, those inhahiting waters or oceans, sens or lnkcs, and rivl•rs. (Lev. xi. !l, 9.) Aquntie animais arc dividcd into three kin<ls, nnimnlculœ, amphibiœ, arnl fi~hcs. V c;::ctablcs, or th r pro<luctiorui of the earth, are also dividcd in the Rcripturcs into thr<'<' cla.•,es, gru."!', h<.>rbagc, and trees. If we select a tree as a furtlwr il111stration, in r<-gn1-d toits g<'lleral form wc bave the root, the trunk, o.ncl the brnnc·hc11, aucl in rcfcrence to its prodncts wo have !caves, blossoms, and fruit. Even the animal kingdom comprchends, ns W<' eaid, in gencrol, a tcrnary ru-rangement of ga._"4!<lus, liquid, and solid bodies; and the Intter, agnin, into earth~, ston~, ami mC'tals. Ail motion hnii hecn resolvCtl into n trine. In the minerai kiug1lom it is the angular, n.~ sœu in the erystnl ; in the nnimal king1lom it i~ the circulur, ns Eecn in the orgnnizntion of the body and the circulation of its fluidd; and in th<' mental world it is the !>pirnl, "the type of the spirit i!J'IClf," asccmliug in true order, and nn cternal syswm of gyrations, towards pcrf<w~ion. Throughout nnimated lifc, and ev<'ll among vcgetable forms, thcro nre th<' mru;culinc prineiple, the feminine prindple, awl th<'ir ofIBpring. The varieties of races among men are thl'C<'füM-tbe Caucasinn, th<' Mongolian, and the Ethiopinn. The Ethiopinn, ngnin, prcsents threc pcrft><'tly di8linet speeit.'t!, yiz., the A fricnn, the Malay, and the Americnn.
•"The nicmbcrs of the animal klnttdom .,.. ~ortatp0udenc:l'tl ln lhc firn [or h!gbei.t) dl-~'l'ee, bœause tht'f llw; tboo.e of llw \«gela· IM klngdom aro com-spondt·nrN ln lhese~· ond (or mld<ll<·] •ICI(\"\.<:, lx~"aU•c they only ~row; and tbœ<• of th<> mhwral klng,Jtml ore cortt<poll<l1"11<~ ln the lhird [or hJ\'<1'1] dc-

groe, be<'•woe thcy nclthtr lin nor grow."1;o·.,,.,.,trnborfl• IT. H .• n. IOl.
11 t9 Among the ane1ent. Romnn!ll. it wa~ no' lnwful IO t1'r jlsl• trlthuut ~ ln th~ fcM1• of the god•; forwhkb l'ltny. I. xxxll .• ~.Il., QUOl('O .. IM\ of Nnma."- ll«n-ü'• Nat. IJllL qf Ille JllUt, Arl. J'Wa, 7WiL

13 *



Like as the mind Ï!'J di:;criminnted, in geueritl, into three degrcee of lifc, naturnl, spiritual, nn<l cclcstinl, so the füculty of tho underElanding, in particulnr, compri..."CS "hnt is scicnlific, ration ni, nu<l intcllcctunl, and the will what is of plensure, nffoction, nn<l lo>c. The dutics of Jife are ah;o threefol<l, ciYil, moral, and rcUgious. 'fhe humnn body is the outwar<l form of tho mind, n.nd, from the coll8titution of the latter, we shoul<l nt once concludc thnt multitud('s of trinal forms exist in the former. And soit is. In its general form the body is a trine, compœcd of the hcnd, the trunk, and the extrcmitic.-s. The scnscs arc threcfold, sight, hcnring, and feeling; the lo.ttcr, n:i:tin, is a trine, inclu<ling smell, taste, and touch.' 1 Speaking of the interior constitution of the body, its visccra, etc.,
"MrtholOftY R<"<'rls the triple orli:in of the accountorFather,i:on,and Holyllplrlt, thcy humnu ro~. Cu\ Ier ll&ys thnL "ail the race>i han• some undeftncd lden or Importance at-

or mnnkind, howcHr divcrslllt'<I, arc ln· tnchcd to the triple numbcr, and thcy obdudcù under thrœ prim•lr)' divisions: l~t, serve many cuKtotn.!I wtth respect to lt, wltllLh~ l''air, or ()au('aslan varll'llca [dlstln- out ('xactly knowtng the reason, for ~u~h a i:ul•h<'d for lntell~tual po"erj; 2<1, the llnc ol ('Ondu~L ... )l&n, ln hlm.-elf, ls an lllack, or Jo..'thloplan (remarkabt~ for the ac- !maire or the trlune n&ture or the J>dty, for tl•it)· or the wlll, or the atfo<.:tlons or pas- hc ts lriune in hl• nnturc an<! rh11rnrter, •lm!s); and 3d, lhc Ycllow, or lllongollan bt'tng <'Omposed of body, soul, ancl •plrlt, 11nd (whœe chic! chnractcrl~tlcs nrc Jlhy•lcnl ne- yct hc ls but one man; and lu thls wny I 1111· tlvlty].'' Pril"11ard, nlso, dns.'<CS the vnrlc- de.,,tand that l"1"111>:r lu Gcn. I. ZI, 'l'o God tll'l! or the human race lnto thm section•, crcatcd man ln \lis own image, ln the Image 11rrau1-""1 accorcllng to the prcvalllng torm of God crcalro hc hhn.' ~i~l!yln1>: hetthy or the eraninm, &nd differlo111 ftum eu,·ler a <'omplete onen~, or ldentity h) thls m:ri>only in nnme.~"'œ Otlt'liT, Pri«hord, Jamua, tcrlows and !n<'omprchm,ible unlou. And nnd Tripltcity. FJ\rh of the abo\ c rac~s nre, thu' \\C rorre<'tly•l'<'110melhingof the trluue ln ail probabllily, aga ln divisible lnto a sub- chnractcr or the Orrn TJivlne, omnipotent, lnm<ltnate trin<', a<, for lns!Auc<', the Ethlo- comprchcnslble J..ortl nod."-Marc11s, ·"<olùt pian," hl<'h lllnmenbacb dlvl<l<'8 luto, 1, the Bmwo, ""SJrill and l'nrlcrlltanding, pp. 4-1, 46. Annc·nlau; ~.the· X<'gro: and 8, the Mala>'· The Pagodn<, or Pa1~n templ<'li of lndln, P)·lbal!Ora.• plllM'd ail Jl"rf•'<'tlon ln the con.-1'1 o! three dlvl<lolll!. The 11,..,.t r.irws numhcr thne.-{!'<'e uotc, p. I 13.) "Thra: was the main body, nnswcrlnii to the 110,·e of our a nnml"'r ln hls:h estimation am<111Jl>t the calhrdnlls; the scconcl, lbe ~anctunry, an· Grrcb, the Romntt•, and even amou;r;t nll s"cring Lo the choir: and the Lhlrd, the nation.' \ ci\'illzt'd and barbarou•."-,Yullall'8 1 <'hllp<"I, wl1cre the -·rccl Image ls k<'pt, auAr<htf'ul. IJ/rl. ll•nce mail)' of Lht'ir dciUeo rncrlug to the chan<>el.-See BarW/omeo, b1 wtrc repre-t•nt~ù wllb thre<' Cnrr, or lllree 1Johnlllm•, p. 62 hettrJ,, Thr Jucl<:<.;sof the dcad, tlw rates, the "!look upon the Bible llkc the<'OUrt.oofthe furl,-., and the ron.s of !'nturn, among "bom temple. ,\Il lsallkemere<I: bu111 b ln lheinLhe worltl w11.11 dlvlcled, were thra. "The mc"l~'C'<!-lhelJolyorllolies-thntnod repowt•r of nlmo•t 1111 the gods ls shown hy a sld<'!!."-7'ucker's /;crlptuN' studi~, Prc•f., p. \'I, lhrt1fold cmblml, \·lz., Jupil~r·• thrc'<' rorked "Do you ask tu whnt the pcrft'<'tlon [of thunder, Xcptu1w'• tri<lt•nt, !'lut.•'• d<'I! with minci, or or mtellle(•Ul rrœllon) rori-1,l<? I thl'C<' b<'.'8d<, bc<'a11>1•all Lb ln~< are •·011U1i11ed an'""'• ln ~lgr, ln /ore, and ln ortirifv. ln lbe numt.·r thrce:·~~·iu on l'irgil• That mind, whlch hu a wlde mu1e1• or Eighllt &log11e. thouo:ht. knows m11ch of God ancl or hl' wis.. I lmow that my brethrcn (the J <'W•],geu- dorn, and loves "hnt lt kno,n,-" hlch i• l'mlly, objcct to the ldea of the 'l'rlnlty; but bound hy n strong nffœllon to lt• <'rentor why shoulil wc flnd any dlftkulty ln l'('('dv- nnd lts fellow-helnw<, nnd ael• n, wcll as lng that whi<lr th<' "c'rlplUrc'!! r.'\t·<ll. fi is lon.,.,-wbieh put• ftlrth ail lt• powel'!>,ema rem&rkabl<' f1q, thal, notwllh•tamlin~ lhl' plop ni! ll• kno" ll•li:r ln the 9el'\ lre orr.od, ob)ec.:tions of m) bn-th"'11 to th<• l:'<:rlptural an•! ln blcssilt&' hls crealul"CS,-lhat mlnd il





Swedenborg tbus writes: "No scries ean be comp1ete or effective without involving at lcast a trine, tbat is, a first, a middle, and a Jru;t. These three must be so ordered that the first term disposes thll second, and disposes the ultimate both mediately nnd immediately. Thus there is a trine that purifies the blood, nnmely, the spleen, the pnnercas, and the livcr. A trine that sccr!'ltes the blood and scrum, namely, the pancreas, the omentum, and the lh-er. A trine that circulatcs the secretions, namely, the p:mcreatic, the hepatic, and the cyi;tic duels. A trine that prcpares the chyle, namcly, the stomnch, the :<mail intestines, and the ll\rge intestines. A trine also t11at secretes and excretes the worthless parts of tho scrum, namely, the kidnoys, the ureters, nnd the bladder. . . . N othing can be bounded, completed, or perfect that is not a trine. Sometimcs even a quaùrin~ is necCS!'nry, or a still more multiple series or sequence, exactly nccorrling to the ratio hetwecn the first and the la.st term, that is, to thcir 1listance from eacli other and the nenrness or rcmoteness of their relntionship. Mennwhile, whatever be the relation, there must be at lewt a trine to procure ho.rmony, otherwise no termination or conclusion is possible. To instance only geomctry, nrithmetic, pl1ysics, rational11, and logic. In geometry, two linenr extensions alone take in nothing and concluùe nothing; a third thing is respected as the concluding agent, and therewith as the conclusion, whether in a triangle, a body of trine dimcruiion, nn algebraic equation, or nny othcr thing of tbis cl~ In arith111etic, two numbcrs form only a ratio, but \\ hen a thlrd tcrm is ad<lcd, or generatcd by the two fin;t, we have then an nnalogy, either conterminous, or harmonie, or of
4 pcrfcet mlnd; and il 1$ 118 h•Pl'Y A8 Il b "Three WWI a AACl'('d and mystlcal numbcr pcrr1-cL lfA bapplocss partakcsor the purlly among8t the nruldl!."- .Davfa'• Mlflho!. Q/ fht and OIUl<'titY or the divine reUclty."-C/ta,._ Brililll Dritl1ù, p. 711. 11i11~• vol. i., p. r.;;. "The Hcbrewa exprt"'1J' a.clmowlc~ Theul<ljflam of &lmO<t every cr.ed hnc the perfectlog prop<'lty Mtbc number thrtt: t\<lntJl<.•l lhc number tbrœ Io dcnot.c fuln<'-'< for with thcm th<• MtN Sllln (:-), "hlrb IA ~nd P< rfC<'tlon. The Cbal<tœu rcspttU'd ln ltsell a trl<Jcnl., dcnoted t11e numller illn't, 11. L• t.elng lllu<trau.-e or Jqtlrt, ltghl. ancl 1or the ntmœt rerrcctlon of cYcry thlng."arfitm: the F.frYJ>tlaM. or malltr, /<mn. ""'I Ttipl., vol. 1., p. G2. ''""""': the l'cl'!llans, or pal/. p......,.!, ancl •The ancleuu had "•lngule.r 1>redile.-Uon /tdurt: Orpho1L•, or light, liJc, and u;•dm•: für the number lhrt.e, henr~ they took li Ma the Ql'('eb, or IM god, Q/ h'""'°'· 1/1< fl'HI 'Il dMsor prefcrablc to the more naturel mode 1111' mrlh, an<I the god, Q/ Ille - : the ~Rrly 1 of halves. Or thl• takc on Instance !'rom Crcttl.Jl•, or llJt, c<J'U$e, and ei""'tn1; an<I th~ t.i"Y· •Ejo,.km rel eau"" ludl magnl vofl HindOOll, or J)f>IM", ullller8tandl11g, t.nd lot~. a:rb tr<:C'cntl!J, trlorlnta, tribus millibus \Lib. "Tbu nnmher lhrttwas beld AM'l'\~I by the xxll., c. 10), trcct'ntl._ trl{(lnta, tribus, trirnte: t.llel<nl•, belng lbooght the mo.t 1~ rrcl'l or Jtm'!<'ria bubu• IO\ 1 \l'e('('ntls. Tum lectball uumbeN, as bavlng regard to th•• b<i:ln wmium per trl<llum bllbltem, d~mwrb ntn_., m\dcUe, and end."'-J>r. T1wntt•ltll't f".:1::- Yn'Omm<"urantlbu.~.." 0 -Pud;n1o•"•Eaa.r """"'q/ l"irgfl, p. f1111. Jledaû, \"OL l., p. !VIS.






eome other kind. In pliysfr.~, two powers or forces regnrcled ns cnuS<'.s nlways likewise respect some third, whereby an effoct is produced, and in this a fonrth, or fifth, and so on. In rational'!, nothiug which deservcs to be cnlled a jndgment, such as ought to exist in all the conclusions aud determimitions of the will, enn possibly be formed from two rensons,-there must nlways necessarily he 11ome third. In logic, two premisçs are requisitc to oonstitute n full syllogistic fonn, or a full argument; more thnn two in a sorites. Whnt is at lnst conduded from two becomes the property of the conclusion itsclf, but this it derives from the premises. So in every science and art, the binary is ever the imperfoct; hence some third thing is always involved, either tacitly or openly. This is unfrersally the ClUlC in the nnatomy of the body, which is the mirror, prototype, and complex of ail a rts and scicnces."-An. Kingdom, vol. i., p. 315, n. 229, nnd note. And this threefold discrimination, could we extend our inquirics, might be traced, or demonstrated to exist, througl1out tlle indefinitc particulars of which the universe is composed. Thus every ohject of humnn thought appears under the type of a trinity, emnnating from the very fundamental laws of nll existence, and constituting nll finite forms, more or less remote, of the infinite source of infin ite goodne..~ or love, unerring wisdom or truth, and almighty power. The Divine Word itself is, as we have seen, adnpted by a threefold characteristic, both as to its inward sen.se and outward letter, to communicatc nutriment of goodness and truth in cndlcss variety to the three grcat classes of the human fomily, both in heaven and upon earth; viz., those who a rc more distinguishcd in their mental character for the predominnncc of affection, those who are preëminent in their intcllcctunl cndowments, nnd sueh as are remarkable for their simple nnd child-like obedience; and nlso to the threc discrete degrees of life in every man, as they are successivcly opened and brought into activity by the influences of hca,·cn. The prohibitory injunctious of the \Vord enforce a threefold shunning of evils ns sins against God, evils of oonduct, e\·ils of thought, and evils of will ; so the religion which is furthcr taught therein rcquires thrce essentials to constitute it gcnnino in its quality and siwing in its cfficacy, which, agaiu, exactly correspond to man's thrccfold capacity of rcception. \Vith man, tho iumost of ail things is love in tho will ; lovc cl<>thes it.self with wisdom and power in the un<lerst.anding; u.nd both <letermine to dce<ls and l:ords, as the outward form of their existence. In ordcr, thcrcforc, that man mnr inl't11"<' ]iis ct<'rnnl sniYat.ion, it is not only neccssary for



him to receive n principle of love in his heart, and of truth or füilh

in his intellect, but thesc principles must hccomc fixed in the soul by
bcing hrought forth and made manifest in a holy and righteous lifc. Hence it is nevcr taught that man will be judged according to his faith or his love, but in accordancc \\ith his dccds, for in tl1cse only have faith and love any pennnnent existenee within us. cnev. xxii. 12; Rom. ii. 6.) A man may, indced, appear to posses:; thcm, but they are not nppropriated-not incorpornted into his nature as hL~ own, and in the judgment they are dissipated, ngrecably to the Lord's own dcclarntion, where He says "Whosoever hath, to him shnll be givcn; and \\hosocYcr hath not, from him shall be taken away even that which he seemeth to have" (Luke viii. 18). This great doctrine, when npplicd to the Divine W ord, will enable us clen.rly to understand n large portion of its sacred contents. "Theresoevcr triplicate expressions occur, thcy have an almost invariable refcrencc, either in a good or evil sen.se, to this trine of discrcte d<.>· grecs. Thus, the throo essentinls requisitc to the existence of e,·cry solid body, length, breadth, and thickness, precisely correspoud to the threcfold union of love, truth, and their active powers, which arc nlways requisite to the existence of any spiritual object. Hencc, of the Lord's church as being one complete whole, deriviug a threcfold lifc of wisdom, love, and use from the Lord, it is said, "the length, and the brendth, and the height" of the Holy City, described as being a cube of thrce equnl dimensions," wcre cqual" (Rev. xxi. 16). The ark, which, 1lS the apostlc Peter says, was a type of baptism ( 1 Epis., iii. 21) or regcneration, to reprcsent the triple constitution of the liumnn ruind as being nn image of the Divine l\find, was constructcd with lo"'er, second, aud third stories (Gen. vi. 16); and the temple nt Jerusalem, for a like reason, hnd an outer court, an inner court or holy place, an<l the inmost chnmber or holy of holies, with nppropriate fittings and furuiture, and sepnrated from the inner court hy n veil, which none but tlic high-priest lifted and pasSC(l, and he only once a year, with ccrcmonies and iucense, was the immediate dwelling· place of the Shekinah, or the Divine prcsence. From this the Lord's humnnity is dcnominated the temple of hi~ body (John ii. 21). And as the Lord in hi5 divine humauity wns the " 'Vord made flesh," so the temple represcntcd in a subordinate sensc the Word of God, conBtituted,as we ha,-e shown it to be, of :m outer, inner, and inmost sense."
tt The abnef,.ra.Uon or renunrintion of self, j pn1<lence, RCJf.fntclligence or C'Oll<'eit. tmcl 111 illl thr;,efold fonu o! sclf·rca.'>Onlug or ,,._.1r-rli;ht..ousucss or \"l\inglory, 1$ strikiugly



So in the <livine parable of the Lord, designe<l to represent the threefold process of man's regeneration, in which divine truth is first received into the mcmory and undcrst:mding, in the. next pince is elevate<l into the affections or will, an<l then brings forth the fruit of well-<loing in the life and con<luct; nncl, further, that this is to be done by man with the same enrnestness as though he did it of himself -as though, "working out his salvntion with fear and trembling" (Phil. ii. 12), ail depended on bis own energies; yet with the inmost ncknowledgment thnt ail power and glory corne from the Lor<l to whom alone they belong, it is said, "The earth [the human mind, or church] bringeth forth fruit of itself; first the blade, then the ear, nfter that tl1e full corn in the ear" (l\Iark iv. 28). The Lord has not only revealed Himself to man as a triune Deity, but bis thrice-l1oly name, Jmt0YAH (Isa. vi.), is a trinal compound, expressive of the character of Him "who is, who was, and who is to oome" (Rev. i. 8). His infinitc operations are threefold. He is the Creator from eternity, t he Rcclecmer in time, and the Regenerator forevermore; and He hns assume<! a threefold series of double terme, dcscriptirn of the infinity of bis divine love, wisdom, and power, where He proclaims himself "the Alpha and Omega; the bcginning :md the end; the first and the lnst" ( llev. xxü. 13). The Lord's glorification of bis humanity, as by temptntions and victories IIe remove<l from Himself nll the hereditnry ten<lencics, voluntary and intclleetual, whieh were entniled upon Him by bcing "made of n woman, made under the law" ( Rom. i. 3, viii. 3; G:ù. iv. 4; Heb. ii. 9- 16), was a threefold, divine proccss, by which He forever uuited the indwelling Divinity with his hnmanity; nnd thi<>, in evcry particular, \Yns reprcseutativc of tlie threcfold work of human rcgeneration. Both thcsc works arc trcated of in the 'Vord at the samc time nnd un<lcr the same imagery. Thus, "Behold, 1 cast out devils, lll}(l I do cures to-clny and to-morrow, and the third day 1 shnll hc pcrfccted " (Luke xiii. 32). To cast out devils signifies, in refcrcnee to man's regenerntion, to cxpcl cvil affections and false persuasions from the minrl by the power of divine truth; to do cures to-d:ty and to-morrow i;ignifics to libcrnte man from the infestations of hell,
d!•plnycd tn the prophrry of Iloeea, whrre, an.er the in,pire<l "<l<'r cxhorts the l>ack· •l1'ling and rcbcllious J.raditcs t.o rctum un!J> the T.or<l, 1m<l t1'6d•l'' th(•m how to ap· pro•wh Hlm IL<'<'••ptably,nnd 1Mnd with Ilim ln praycr, Uwy art' ln~tnt(·U!•I furtlwr to &1y,
"Ash11T sliall not save u•: we wlll not ride



to th<' vxwk

für in thl'c the fütherless fiudcth mercy" (xiv. 3).

of'''" hand•, Ye arc our gods:

nritlwr wlll


<;ny any more

TRJNAJ, J)/S1'JNC1'f()N IN. GOT> ANT> ,l/AN.


thus the restoration of the whole mind from astate of spiritual discnse to n stnte of spiritual honlth ; nnd the crowning perfection of this \\Ork of the Lord in the soul is described (lS tbat of the third <lny, and signifies an eternal confirmation in goodness nnd truth, nnd an everlnsting ~tate of eo1tjunction with the Lord himsclf, ns the result nrnl reward of outward conformity to the inward dictates of charity ~ucl faith. That the graduai procesa by which the Lord ohtnined victory over hell and made his humauity divine was in ail respects siruilar in k ind to thnt of man"s regenerntion, H e himself testifies where Ile says, "To him thnt overcorueth will I grnnt to sit with me in my throne, evèn as I nlso overeame, and am set clown with my Father in bis throne" (Rev. iii. 21); with this amazing difference, however, in dcgree, that in the Lord the work was infinite, in man it is finite. He wa." indee<l "tempte<l like as we are tempted" (Heb. ii. 18; iv. 1°5), but unlike us in this, that no man could convict Him of sin (John \'Îii. 46). He, by bis own power, perfectly glorified bis human nature (John xiv. 30) ; and if we pcrpetually depend upou his restraining and upholding mcrcy, He will perfcct our regeneration by a corre11ponding process. The Lord's divine purpose in this threefold work of man's regcneration is to secure the eternal hnppiness of his crontures by an entire renc\rnl and renovation of the heart, the understanding, and the life, and this change is called in the Scriptures a new creation or new birth ; for "exccpt n mm1 be born again hc cannot see the kingdom of God ""' (:\fott. iii. 4 ). I t is sometimes dcscribed by three tcrrns, which, unless tliey have a discriminated meaning, bear the appearance of uselcss rcpetitions, as in the following text: " Every one,'' saith the Lord, "that is cnllcd by my name, J luwe created for my glory; I have forme<l him; yen, I hn,vc made him" (Isa. xliii. 7). Ail such are again <lœc1ihed negatively, where it is written that they are "horn, not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of mn,n, but of God" (.John i. 13). Agnin, sineere desircs and earnest efforts, first for the dcsccnt of principles of heavenly goodncss from the J,ord into the will, with thcir rcccption and appropriation; Recondly, that principles of spiritual wisdorn may be imparted to tJ1e undcrstanding, with their acceptanee and adoption; and thirdly, that the conjnuction and unite<l operation of such holy desircs and
• Grœk, l><m• from nbove.



heavenly thoughts as are thus communicatcd and cxcited, may <lctcrmine to n life of obedience, which, under the united influence of patience, porseverance, and watchfulness, never fails of success, bnt sooncr or later opens up an ever blessed state of conjunction with the J,,ord and association with the angels of his kingdom, is thus imprcssively taught by the Lord himself in the language of correspondence, whero He says, "Ask, and it shall be given you; seek, and yc shall find ; knock, and it shall be opened unto you : for cvery onè that asketh recefrcth, and he that seeketh findeth, and to him thnt knocketh it shall be opened " (Matt. vii. 7, 8). Here to ask and recei,·e has respect to the will or the affections and goodness; to scek and find has rcfercnce to the undcrstanding or the thoughts nn<l. to truth; and to knock and have opened has rela.tion to the conjunction of goodness in the with truth in the understnuding, and to thcir activity in the life and conduct, or words and works. The divine marringe song recorded in Psalm xlv. trcats, in the inward scnsc, of the subjugation of all the enemies of the Lord's church, and the complote and eternal union between Himself and bis people, resulting from the outflowings of his infinite mcrcy and compassion. In n more specific sense it treats of the marriage-union of love and wisdom, or goodness and truth, in every fnithful mind, together with the endlcss and ineffable dclights which are the rœult of the removal of every obstacle to its completion. The threefold <lutics of the nuptial covenant of the church towards ber true Lord and husband, on which, with cnch membcr of the church in particular, the union of love and wisdom in the soul and the po..,cosession and enjoymcnt of such beatitudes depend, are thus described : "Hcarkcn, 0 daughter, and consider, nnd incline thine enr; forgct also thine own people and thy father's housc; so shall the king greatly desire thy benuty; for IIe is thy Lord, and worship thou llim" (10, 11). To henrken to the Lord is, in the spiritual sensc, to give attention to divine instruction from the 'Yord; to consider is to digest such counsel in the mind, so as to pcroeive its reasonnhlcness and truth; and to incline the enr is to obey its injunctions without rcserve. Thus we are taught that to learn, to perceivc, and to do the truth, or, in other words, to understnnd it from cnlightened thought, to perccivc it from hcnvenly affection, and faithfully to pcrform the duties which it makes obligatory upon us, arc the rnenn!! of attnining n stnte of eternal conjunction with tl1e Lord, nnd ns a oonsoqucncc c\·erlasting blessednc.qs. Thcn, indced, may it be truly




said that, fol'g(!tting our "own people" and our "father's bouse"dÎl;Solving and disowning al! conncction with our inhcrited evil and i;in, and relinquishing al! association with falsity and folly, the berod· itary tendcncics, inclinations and persuasions of the natural mind no longer prevent the marriage-union of goodness and truth from being consummated in the soul. When this work is accomplished, then llJan puts on tbat spiritual benuty or eomeliness of spirit which the K ing is said "grcatly to de.sire;" and in reforenoo to the full acknowlcdgment of the Lord ns the only truc God, in bis glorified Ilumanity, it is added, "for He is thy Lord, and worship thou Him." The same throofold connection of idcas occurs in other forms of expression of similnr import, ns whcre the Lord says," Take ye hœd. wntch and pray" (:àfark xiii. 3~ ) ; and ngain, nt the conclusion of the parable of the sower, Ile added, "He thnt rcccived seed inlo the good ground is he that heMeth tl1e 'Vord, and undcrstandcth it: who nlso bcnreth fruit, and bringeth forth, some an hundred-fold, some sixty, some thirty " (Matt. xiii. 23). The sower is the Lord himself; tl1e good ground is the prepared mind i the seoo is the divine trut h of the Word; to "hear the Word" is to attend to its divine teach· ing, to "understand it" is to disccrn its truths and doctrines, and to "bear fruit" is to regulatc accordingly the externnl mind and outward comluct undcr the combincd influence of internai principlcs of love and wisdom : in which case man is enablcd to elfeetunte ail kincls and degrccs of good works by the Lord's presence and power in the soul, the eomplctcness of which is represented by the "hundredfold, the sixty. and the thirty." The motions and positions of the human body~ are significant when as<;umed as reprcsentations of conditions and emotions of the min<l; but when they agrce with the inward thoughts and affections which prompt them, they are then the corrcsponding images of mentnl states, either progressive or fixed. Where,·er they arc 118Sociatcd in a trine, like other trin<ls, thcy refcr to the ahovc degrees of the mimi n.n<l life. Thus in the P~alms it is writtcn, "Blessed is the ruan that wnlketh not in the counsel of the ungodly, nor stnndeth in the way of sinners, nor sittcth in the scat of the scornful " (i. 1), whcrc wnlking denotes the activity or progression of thought groundcd in intention; standing bas relation to the life of intention grounded in the
"" lt may be ob.erved that al~ verl>s of J ,1gnlli,caU011. Jl<l'lRlfe or g<><>t11ro, as~> #and, to 611, to g<>, to krughl • Prdim. IQO/k, etc., in good Grcck wrltcrs, have the

or e...e, or ~e. to
&aay•, 1v., p. ffl.





will and its :<tability; :md sittiug, wltich i-i a po;:ition of rc~l. i::ignifiei a conformable and determinate state of the iumost mind and Jifc. IIence it may at once be seeu what is distiuctly i<ignificd by "the counsel of the ungo<lly," "the way of siuncrs," and "the seat of the scornful," namely, a confirmed state of error and edl, in thought, intention, and will, thus a coufirmed state of hatre<l against goodncss and truth; au<l that true blesseduc~s cousists in uothing less than bringiug nll the active power:; of the understauding, the will, nncl their united energies, into subordination to the sacreù influences of wisdom, superinducing an nbhorrcnce of wickcducss and folly, and a supreme love of goodncss and truth. Again, when the Lord would teach us how thcy that wait on IIim, by worshipping Ilim, and by obcying his commands,-thus consecrating their whole souls to his scn•ice, should renew their strength,-receivc continually from Ilim fresh accessions of power to elevate the understanding towards heavcn and Himself, to enable the affections to make unwcaricd progrcss in the paths of goodness, and to givc a mighty and unshrinking encrgy to itll the lower facultics of the soul, He says, "They that wait upon the Lord shull rcnew thcir strcngth; they shall mount up with wings as eagles; they shall run, and not be weary ; and they shall walk, and not faint" (Jsa. xi. 31). The faithful Christian receives from the Lord three degrees or kiuds of goodness, as the precious gifts of his unspe:iknblc love. Thcsc arc, cclcstial, spiritual, and natural, and are grounde<l in love to H.im, in charity towards the neighbor, and in the love of morul and ci\·il usefolness and excellence. These degrees are above, or rather within, cach other, likc causes and their effccts, and mnke one by corrcspon<lcncc. Though by birth evcry one possesses the capacity of recciving thcsc livu1g and lifc-giving prû1ciples of goodness, still, man must adva.nce in the regenerate life, by succcssiYc states of illumination, repentance, and obc<lience, bcforc lie i;s preparcd to rccei ve them. W'hen these principlcs of hc:wcnly gooducs.'S, with the sncrcd truths which thcy inspire from the \Yord, vivify all the affections, thoughts, and activitics of the mind and life, thèn man i::; replcni•hcd and enrichcd with evcry possible satisfaction and delight, nnd is introduccd into the cncircling spheres of heaven. Thesc sphcres, in whkh the fullest and frccst confession is made that such ineffable hlessings eau come from the Lord alone, are typificd by the swcct fragrance of inccnsc and the ascen<ling odors of sacrifices, which Go<l is rcprc.-.cntcd as percciving, and with which He is said to be well ple:tsed (Gen. viü. 21;



Ex. XX:'t. 34, 3.5 ; P hil. iv. 18). Hence thi:1 humble, dcvout, and truly just acknowledgml'Dt i~ prcsent in all henrtfclt supplication for diviue merci~. and in Hev. v. 8 is callcd "the golden 'liai full of 0<:lors, which," it i~ n<ldcd, "ore the prayers of ~nints." 'Vlien, thereforc, the Mngi, or wnu: MEN from the East, led by a star,~- instructed
•. "Hl• ~lugular," mys Hukhl11Nm, "lhnt lil(lon~ kncw the ecnsc an•! truc meanlng of the llagi <'f Matt. Il. 1 Ill ren<lcred by an thcm," hiM the vulgarand unlnlliatcd wcnt l r1ah ve"'h1u, J)n)l)i~. the lJruhls, or the uol'urthcrthan th~ out\\&nl and vlsiLlesym· truc "-i.e men. Magl in the ÜL•I, Drul<I ln IJol,andmd.l&'cmMonlytbe barlt by\\hlrb the Wa<t."-0111. q/ 0..lRbtT/alfd, vol. Il., p. lbcy were c<n-ero<I.''- Orlgm, Oint. <lû., 1. 1, p. 11. l!IJ. "The l'CT>lan Magl, wbo wcrc be>t lnltl"What the l(agl wrrc in l>crsia, the "3mc 111<>! luto the Mllbralc my•tcrlcs, admiUOO a were the Druid~ ln llrltrun. The l(.~tlmony ddtysu!'crlor to the suu us the truo Mlthrn.., of i'liny ls conrlu•hc on thls P"int: • Why but lookcd upnn the sun n.s the mœt lh-cly •hoold l <.'Ommcmomtc,' "''l1l hc, 'thcsc thluw< lnuige of thls dcity, ln whlch lt wns wor· wllh regnrd t.o an art 1>hl~h has pa~l ovcr •hlp11C<I hy tl:em; as lhcy wol'!lhlppW tho the se8'!!, an•! r.•nch<•I lhe bound• or naturo? 11\mc dclty •ymbol!œlly ln fire, aa Mnxlmn.s Drll&ln, evcn et thls Ume, relebrntcs DruidTyrlws lnfurmeth us (J>iM. 3•, p. :ra, IJ:l'l'<.'à- lsm with m"ny won•lcrful r.eremouics, bly to "hlch ls that in the llilll!I nl'S('h.. --., 1hat .iic ~>ema l<> h&• c taught lt Io the Pt•r· romm<lnly 1111crlbtd, l!tl)'S llœhcim, Io ZO. siAns, and nol th~ l'Cnil•m Io the Brlwns • !'('('. Z, v. 2!>, p. 117!1, ln FlAnlci"a 1r.. (l!h. xxil.). The Drul<l• "ere the lla.:i of the t,,,., •J/ J•hO""'flh!I): •Ali 11\lnga are the oft'- Drltons, and h4•1 11 grcat 11umh('r of rit<"' ID •1•rh111 or ono rire; ll\Al 18, •or one •uprcme rommon with the 1•r,..lans; the lerm Nn{llU. Delly.' •.. The Perslnn MltllrM wu• rom- among the nndcni., <11<1 not •lgnify n rnn· monly cnilcd threcfol<I o r triple. ThuK Dio- qlclan ln th<• modern ~cn•c, hut a eupcrinny>lu• (J}m. 7 at Pblvcarp, I'· 01 w 2opp.), the tendent of sacrc-d nn•I n11tuml knowlc<lgc.'' l 'l!(•udo-Arcupaglte: 'The ro,.,,lnn llngl to -1J<Jrla1!4• Antiq. qf f.l>mirol~ cxxl., p. Ill!'. llù• vcry duy celcbratc a fc.<>th'al Aolcm111ty "Amoug the Pc.-lnn•," wrltcs Porphyry, ln h<>nor or the Trlplaslan (lhal !s, the lhrcc- "lhœe 1t'lae f"T"'"s who wcrc employcd lu fuid or trl1•lle.atccl) Mltbr88. . . . llcrc l• n wonshlp werc u.lll'l Magl."-Unlv. HW., \'Ol. 11lAulfo..,.llndlc11tlonora trlnlty lt1 lhel'c,.,.iun .-.• p.163. tbroi<ll;)" wh<ll!C dlstlnctl•c cbarack,.. are "Magiamongthcl'e.,.lansanswerst.o~o+•u , "'""'"""• • ll<lom, and povxr.' ••. And now or among the Green; S<Jpil'l•t••. ,,-c bavo p~ the tbree prlncljl&I atlri- among the Latina, Dr'll.idl, among the <inul•; but..a o r the J)clty. The fin.t "hcrrof ts in- vJlfl'MeOphill•, 1UMng the Indians; and lluilo goodncM, wllh fecundity: \be ll('C'ond, l'rû;m, among the t:GYptlans."-/. S. F., Dt· infinlt.o knowlcdge and "l•dc>m; ami the mono!., p. 96. la;,t., lnflnltc, &eU\'e, and pcrt'<•plh·o t'<>WCr. ~foorc, ln bis IIW<>rJ! Qf Irclond, dcrlvœ tho From whlcb divine attribut.es the Pythal:O· worù Druid (rom I>rooW, ln Irish signlfylng rcnns &Utl Plnbini•ts •œmcd to bu,·o framecl a cunning or wi-o man. Tho .. Maglclnns of th<'lr trlnlty of areblcal h)'PO'lln.-.()11, HlCh "" Egypt •· i.s rcndcrcd ln the Irish vcr<lou, ha\·c Ibo naturo of princlplcs ln the uni· "The Drulds of J::gypt." Hl"O, ••• \fblCh Pyihagorlc \tlnlly f''<'tn• "The !;('ICD<'e or c<>rr<"'PQndences an<! n'f>' 10 be lnUmalcù by Arl•tnlle ln thft<.• """l" n.-sentàtt1>11• \\8• thé prlncl1111I science of •As tho l')·th~rœns &OO say the unh-cnte Ul<l'C limes IUO'll~l th<' Arabians. the r.thlnud all lhlnl:'l•re dctcrmined and coutalnt!d opialll!, an•\ othc"' ln the Ed.<!. Whcrt•f•Jl't'. b)' lhn.-e rrlnelplcs: "-Ottdwmth'• 1111. s,ia, Ill'<>, ln the Wonl, by ,\rabla, J::thlopia, ami wL t., 111>. 317, 47, 48. lbeooosof the E.R•t, ln the lntl'malsense, arc Polyrnrp ..ays· .. Amongi;t tho t\•rolan., rneant th">' "bo are ln tbc lmowleclgt'!I or lh<M \\ho"""" skilful in the kuowll,li..-eor hcavenly thinl('. Rut th!• science ln Urne 1110 D\'11)', &llfl rcllglOUS WOr!!bljll)('l'S Of lhC perlshecl, iuRMllll('h a• WhCll the guod Of iife samc, "''rc ral1!'d )lagl."-lhi .ibcrt., !lb. iv., t-cusc."1. lt wus turncd lnw mnglc. Il wns liNt p.!(,\, <'llcil ln Cudw<>rih'a InL SV•·· vol. 1., I'· oblitemll'tl auio1111>t lh~ l•raelilish nation. 470. 1 andaf'ter.rnrtloarno111N lho r ci<t; andatthl• Magf. "Ail the eastcrn uallons. tlw P~r· day 1' i- oblltcrat..d 1•1 >ll<'h a deg~. that 1t •ians. lhe lndlans, the Syrlans, ronr...•lecl li; not e,·cn kn.rn n lhat J<UCb a i;clcnre e x· en-t m)Ph1l'!t under hiemto:lyphi<'ll •>ml)fll~ iW<; inOQmurh lhat. ln thl' t1lrlstian \\ orld, aud J!ftr&blos. The 1CÎ<e llV1l li.li thoo<' r.-- if lt be ..i•Hhatall and5lnl!'1lai'thiJlG"of tbe







hy the light of hcavcnly knowledge, derivcd from nncicnt revelntion, of" hich thnt stnr was a true figure,-went to Bethlehem for the pur· J1Q!I() of worshipping the new-born Raviou r, we reacl thnt they brl)ught an<l opcncd ancl presented to IUm three kiu1ls of eostly gifts, "gold, and frankinccnsc, and myrrh" (~Iatt. ii. 11).• Thi11 homage .and thcse gifts reprcscnted the adoration an<l frce-will wor:iliip which tho truly wÜlc nnil humble Christinn pre!'cntfl to the Lord when, so to r;pcnk, H e is spiritually born and makes Hinlllelf clivim~ly manifœt in the rcgcuerating soul, prepared to rcccive Uim in sincerity aml acknowle<lgo Ilim in truth. He cornes in lowly guise ns the W ord, or Hon of Mnn, shroude<l in the appcaranccs of the litcral sensc. He di8closcs Him~clf to the intcrior naturnl nflèctions, in tbat stnte reprcsentcd by Bcthlehem.t1 The bright star of bcavcnly knowledge preœdcs and bctokens His prœence. The pure and preeious gold, more ductile and le;.;; susceptible of corrosion thon the other ordinury metals, the odorous and costly frankinccnse, from the earlicst agt'S dedicatcd to spontaneous worsl1ip, nn<l tbe fragrnnt myrrh, uscd in the process of emhalming, and distiuguishe<l for its antiseptic nnd preservative qualitics, rcprcsent the frœ-will offeriugs of the heart and mi111l from the gooci principles of holy love an<l chn.rity, signified hy gol<l (Hev. iii. lR) ; from a living nn<l enlightencd füith in the instnictiom1 of the Wor<l, signified by frankinccnse (Rev. v. 8) ; and from both loYe nnd faith presen·ed in the adoration of grnteful worship an<l deyout extcrnnl obedience in the lifc, significd by myrrh (P snlm xk 8). The pcrfumcs exhalcd from thœc aromntic gums (Mal. i. 11 ) denotc the ncccptableness of such wol'l!hip, bccnuse they correspoml to the hcavcnly sphercs emnnating from such blC5.'Jed principlcs; and which, like the oclor of Mary's precious ointment of spikcnar<l, fill
Won! ln tho llt'nHC or the lcttcr, from <'Orrc· "1nft6much RB too anclrnts werc in reprc spontlcn('t"' •1Knlfy t'Clc...tlnl thingi<, ami thAt 1wnt11tlvcs nnd glgnlJIC'flti'•cs of the lAlr<l"• hc11<'t' I• lt.1 fntcrnl\I l!<'llW, ft ls not Jmown kfngdom, ln wbleh kfnKdom is nothlng but wbat thl• m<•11ns."-A. C., n. 102.32. (The fll'l!t c~l<"thll and Hplrlt1111I love, they hil<l olliO volume or thl• gn'llt work wa.J publi.5hed in dootrln111s, whlrh tn•Al(•<I wlely ronccruin~ the ycnr 1719.) Iovo to Ood an•I rharitlc"' toward~ the nt•lgh· "The orh•ot11l• wt•ro l'xpedlng the Lortl'• bor, !rom whlrh doctrlnals they wcrc callcd aclvrnt, rrum the r<'P""'<'ntatf\-es of won.hlp wll<C."-A. C. 3119. and or ~tatut<-. "hleh rC'tllAincd with them; 1 "Jn Arabla thero was :ibund~ or gold antl hclnit acqualn!OO wltb the knowledit<"or 1 fr11nklnrcn'k'. and myrrh.-.l'fi11. IIV.t. ,YaJ. : , good antl truth, Wt~. on lhataœount,t•lltd vl., c. ~ Golrl wns the mMt precious metal ·men or the En•t.' That the .\rabians were thcn known; anrl "111\nkinœnsc," my~ Tl<·loc, iO calll."1, ftj•)l<'ll!'> rrum what LI Mid ln Jere- "WU or ail t><'•l\une<i the mc..t <"'lœmcd mli\h ronccmlntt Kedu tllld the ldn),'<iolllll by the ancleu1&"-JI<r<>d. T/wJ.~ cvil, '"'" or llanr (xll:r. ZI!); and tllllt Job was the J:l."1. Jtrt'llW-t or ail the m<•n of the East ts evldcnt 1 "Heb. Ilou« qf lwead. frllm what IM 1tAld orhlm" (l.3).-A. E.,n.ai.

1'RINA/, DIS1'/NC1'/0N IN


AND ,l/AN.


OT p<>rvnrlc the'\\ hole hou~e or mind \\ hcrc the Lonl is prescnt, affect· ing with inmO"t joy and gladnc.."S ail in hcaven or on carth who are within thcir exhilnrating influence (John xii. 3). On account of this signification of ~Jd anrl spices, it Î5 recorded that the Queen of Shebn alro prcl!Cnted them to Solomon, when she came from a far Gentile oonntry to hcnr his wisdom and bchold his glory, because, in a gOO'l rcprc.qcntntivc character, Solomon was au eminent type of the Lord Himsclf ( 1 Kings x. 2). Somctimcs (as above, Psn.lm i. 1) a trinal connection of idens occurs in an opposite sense and application, in refercnce to the perverted will, undel'!ltanding, and life of the unregenerate man. Thus, thrce degrees of malignity agairut our neighbor, and abstrnctedly from person~, ail degrees of oppœition to the henvenly principlcs of charity, or brotherly love, signified, in a good l!Cn.oe, by neighbor, may be dct>eribc<l ru! bntrcd from corrupt thoul?ht, from evil intention, and from a confirme<! !'tnte of deprnvity in the will. The;ie three degrces of lmtrcd arc !<aid to be followed by three corrcsponding dcgrees of chastisement, for, according to the unchangenblc law of eternal order, every evil hcnrs its own punishment: "But. I ~ny unto you," s.'lith the Lord, "that whosocver is nngry with his brothcr without a cauro, shnll be in danger of the judgment: and whosoevcr shnll sny to bis brother, Raca, shall be in danger of the council: but whosocvcr shall sn.y, Thou fool, shnll be in danger of hell fire" (l\Intt. v. 22). Agnin, the thrcefold effects or states of inward tribulation and clistre,:>, nrbing from the deprivation of truth in each of the three dcgreœ of the mini! and life, are <lescribc<l by the thrce distinct expressions of" lamentation, and mourning, and woe" ()fatt. ii. 18), "here, if thcse terms wcrc to be regarded as mcre repetitions of the same iden, and of no further use thnn to increusc ils intcnsity, they would be utterly unworthy of a pla~e in a divinely inspircd book. 'Vherevcr, thcreforc, the names of persons nnd pinces, nations and couutrics, occur in the historical portions of the divine ord, they ure not mcutioncd in refercnce only to individual men or specifie nations, or particular localities on the earth, but in respect of their spiritual !lignification, and hence, nlso, they arc olèen nssocintcd in triple ordcr." Thus, thougb the three pntrinrch~. Abrnhnm, Isaac.


• H.,...,. Trf...,, 9(..J,.. IA•J~ht tbat "the Su· 1diffcrent nllll<S, &ttordhlR l.o bis propertl.,. premc <">t•l-Ui.- f•uritAln An•I orhrlnAI o f an•I OJ'('r&Ucon•."-·"-~ Rcr"°1/'• ThcolOflll awd cwry lhln.r. th•• llN 1•rlndpl~ or 111 lblus:-, JtvtiHJlovlt of Vv: f "'71n~. the •plrit whlcb pru<IUCCll al\ lblnt,.,.,-hua l'l&lo dcn1J1Uinrt1Ald the triual ~ntia1'





and Jacob, wcre rcal pcrsons, whose posterity constituted the Jew1sh church, yet thcy, ns wcll as ail other persons and things spoken of in relation to that people, bore a represcntati\•e charact.er, varying according to the circumstances predicate<l, but having constant relation to the church on carth and in heaven, yca, to the Lord Ilimself. }<'or this rcason are these patriarchs so often ruentioned iu the W ord, and even among lus most splendi<l appellations the Lord nssumes the significative title of" the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob."" In the inmost sense these nnmes relate to the Lord Ilimself, as to the assumption und glorification of his Humanity, the degrees of lifo receivcd from Him in the heavens, and his threefokl OJ>Cration for our redemption and salvation: Abraham signifying bis supreme or essential divine principlo; Isaac, his divine rational principlc; and Jacob, the divine natural, or, so to speuk, the last and lowest principle of his
Jerome observes thnt "the frequent rcpet!tion of• 1 am the GOD of Ahrahe.m, the Goo of Isaac, and the GoD of Jacob,' ls not wlth· out lts meanlng."-1Iiero1'- Cbm. in Marc. xi!. 26. vol.i.,p.~. "St. Ignatius, in his Epütle l-0 the JfagneWhcrc the name LoRD ls printed ln the 00118, says, 'The moo;t divine prophets Jh·ed authorlzed version of the Dible ln capital accor<llng to Chrbt J esus, that is, they, ln letwrs, the reader should rcmembcr that in their ptr8Qll8 and !i~-eA, represented wbnt the orlglnnl Hebrew it ls JEHOVAH; and ChrL't Jesus was Io be, ancl l-0 do.' "-Hol. Wwhen the Hebrcw word Adonal ls also trans- "''<ly's Leller arnt Spirit, vol. 1., lnt., p. xxvlll. Jakd Lord (llS in .l's. ex. l), lt stands ln com"That the prophcts rcprl'Sentcd the stnto mon ehnraetcrs. J&HO\'AH AOONAI is fre· or the Chureh to whleh thcy bclongcd, with quently tnl.D•latcd Lo1<0God (a.. ln Gcn. xv. J ). respect to doctrine derived from the Word, Jo, Jaw, and Jovc wcre heathen appella· and wlth respect to !Ife 'lCCOrdln~ to such tlons, sUpJl"ll!cd to have bccn dcrivcd !rom doctrine, is very evldent from what ls sald of the sacre<! trlsyllablc name, whlch has bcen tbem, as Isa. xx. 2, 3; Ez. xfl. 3-7, 11; Hosea vnriously pronounecd by dllferent nations. i. 2-9, iii. 2, 3; 1 Klngs XX. 3.>-38; Ez. iv. 1-17. The original meaning of Adonai ls a ruIer, ln ail these, and other passages, they 'bore; or disposer, or a basis and support. Our Eni:· by rcpresentation,' the lnlqulticsofthc housc lish word LtYrd. has a simllar signification, of Israel, an<l the bouse of Judah,' and thns htLving bt,'Cn derived from an old Saxon polnted thcm out, but wlthout explatlng word, LoJ=I. whlch is by intcrprctatlon a thcm; and the very snmc ls taught or the Lord our f<aviour, whm it is said, 'Su rel y He l>read gluer, or Mlainer. The Hebrew El means power, and lts plu· hath borne our grlefl!, and earrlcd our !!Or· rows' (Ii;a. !Ili. 1-12), and wblch prcdiction rai Elohim, an power or omnipotence. "Abram and Abraham mcan in Engllsh, ls declared ln the Gospel to have bc~n ac· a ltigh falhu, and falhcr qf a greal mttltilttde. compllshed, where it is written, • When th~ The asplrate, or lcttcr h, thns added to the e,·en wns come, they brought unto Jcsus ni\me mnrks the distinction between the many that were pœscsse(I wlth dcvlls; and Lord's Human Essence and hls Divine F.s· lle cast out the spirits wlth bis word, and senœ; and ln refercnce to man, the stat.c be· h('a\cd au that were slck; thnt lt mlght be fore and the state aller rcgeneration. Isaac fulflllcd whlch was spoken by E.<nlas tho mcans lauglder: denotlng the afl'cl·tlon of prophet, sariug, 'llimsclf took our lnfirml· truth, and its intorlor dcllght; and Jacob tics, and barc our slckne.,o;cs' (lllatt. vfll 16, roeans a supplanter, and tlie heel, which is the 17), for He endured the assaults of hcll, that lowcst part of the body, aftcrwards changcd, He mlght open up a way of salvntlon to ail by divlno authorlty, to Israel, meanlng a bclievers."-T. C. R. 2.>l. firill~ of Ood: or, prcval/i11g wllh God. of Delly, "'Ayd~" [the Good], "A"Y<>f" [the Word orTruth], and "i'vx~" [the Splrit].-Jb. "Names ln Scrlptm"e are express deslgna· tlons or natures, attrlbutt>s, qualltles, conditions, etc."-Hollotcal/'8 Ldter and Spirit,



ANI) .l!A N.


divine IIumanity. This may be confirmcd hy the literai me:ming of the names, und by reference to the nuroerous passages of the " ' ord in \\hich they nre mentionecl. In a respective !!ellse, these three pa· triarchi; signify '~hnt is celestial, spiritual, and natural, in regard to mnn, thus they reprei:sent the Lord's church on earth ; nnd, in n par· ticular sense, nll thosc who nre receptive of his divine love in their hearts, of his divine wisdom to enlighten their renson, and who per· mit the unitc<l influences of both to descend into nnd regulate the lowest principlcs of their minds and lives. These, as to their externals, their internais, and their inmost principlcs, are the true followers of the Lamb, "ho is the Lord J esus Christ in his glorified Humanity, or, in other words, they have attnined hi.s likencss. They are grounded in the love of obedicnce to bis truth, in the love of their neighbor, nnd in the Joye of Him above all things. It is consequently sai<l of tbem that they nre "with Him, and are the callecl, and the chœen and faithful" (Rev. xvii. 14). The Lord's covenant, or evcrlasting state of conjunction with ail such faithful believers, and ita irreverl!ible confirmation, is therefore signifiecl by the covenant of an oath, which he declare<l to have "sworn with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob." That the angclic heavens in general, as well as the regenerate hum an mind in particular, together with the infinitc and unutterable joys and delight.s derived immediately from the presence of the Lord, are also reprœented by those three distingui8hed personagcs, is evident from the Lord's words, where He calls heaven "Abraham's b()l;()m" (Luke xvi. 22) ; and still further where IIe says that " .Many shall corne from the enst and west, and i<hall 1<it do11 n with Abraham, and Ioaac, and Jacob, in the kingdom of God ''. (.:'!Iatt. viii. 11); and in Luke it is l!aid thnt "They shall corne from the cast, and from the west, and from the uorth, and from the south, and shall sit down in the kingdom of God" (xiii. 28, 29). These divine forms of expression Rerve to dcsignatc and comprehend all the so.cred principles of goodnes1>, wisdom, and intelligence, with their perceptions, delights, and joys, which constitute the felieity of the angels, and of consc· quenee universa.lly prevail throughout the thrcc orders of Jife into which the heavens are arrnnged. In thcir inmost sense thcse patriarchs signify the Lord Himself, from whom alone, as thcir divine S1J11rœ, ail degrees of blcsscdnœs and sati.~faction procced. The four cardinal poinL~ of the hea.\·ens, or the quartcrs of the world, from wlienœ th<lbC nro so.id to corne who are preparcd to enter into the kingdom of God, siguify, in o. good sense, the vnrious !!tates of spiritual


lifc. The cast, being that portion of the hcnvens in which the snn appcars to risc, signifies the highest degrcc of' cclcstinl love nnd wL;dom, in which the Lord rcvent:i his glorions prcscnœ to the inmost perceptions of the soul, ami, in its snprerne sense, the Lord .Jc,,,us ('hrist, ns to the primnry opcrations of his love arnl wisdom on the mind, for the promotion of man's r;.alvation.' 00 Thus in Ezekicl'1; mngnificent vision of the temple in he:wen, we rend that "the glory of the God of Isrnel came from the wny of the cast" (xliii. 2); ami hcnce nrose the ancicnt significative practicc of worshipping with tho face towards the cast, which was eveu continued undcr the Christian dii:pcnsation.101 The wcst, bcing the cxtrcmc point of the he<weus over ngainst the cnst, wherc the sun nppears to set, signifies the infcrior statc of clmrity and foith. The sou th, in ~l'hich quarter the sun 'S the highest stntc of nttnius his meridinn power and splcu<lor, signifü. intelligence; and the north, which is over agnin<1t it, a statc of obscure knowledge,-n feeblc stntc of hcavenly lifc. In the inwar<I sense of thcsc pru;;sngcs, therefore, wc are mercifully tnught that all who are in nuy dcgrcc principled in love and wisdom, or charity nnd faith, will be admittcd into the kiugdom of God. To sit down thcre with Abrnhnm, Isaac, and .Jacob, dcnotcs a blc.oSCd state of confirmation, au cterual conjunction with the Lord, an everlasting n!'Bociation with "the i:pirits of the just made pcrfcct," an endlcss condition of rest, and pence, and joy. 'l'o represcnt the fülncss and perfection of such beatitudes as are the invariable results of a rightcous life,-and to signify the froo ae<-'CSS thereto through the J>Cnrly gates of spiritual kno,,·Jedgc nu<I obcdicnce achlptc<l to all, and which all are invited to entcr,-the Holy City, New J erusalem, which siguillcs heaven and the church, is describcd as ha ving "on the east three gates ; on the uorth thrce gates; on the south thrcc gates; an<! on the west three gntes. Aud the gaks of it," it is said, "shall not he shut nt all by day: for there shall be no night therc" (Rev. xxi. 13, 25). In the opposite scnse, by the cast will be denoted the love of self, which is oppose<! to the love of God ; by the west, the love of the world ; by the south, sclfderivcd intelligence; and by t.he north, a state of fal;:ity and evil (Isa. ii. 6; Ezek. viii. 6; Pimlm lxxv. G; H os. xi. 10; .Ter. i.14, vi. 1).
100 ln Luke !, 7~, the J,ord JC><n•, "" th~ !<Atoi ~·c Aml1rmir, Jn.onyp;itf~ Ar('t)]>., fh'i(Jen. , fn viour, lsrnllNI the "llny-sprlng," lit<:rnlly, the llb. iYm11 .• /umi. 5, Rpfpltanitt8 Adv. OM., Prvr <a.1,- thc ri.tnu f>f tlV' .<:un.-" ORIEN!'," 1'11l- chorous in vil., John, c. :;, Clement Strq,,.., vll, oote l·"awn, and l>au:.,on's Le.ticon.,-" OR· p.:>23. rt:s," Swe<knbl)T{J. Sec Mal. lv. 2.



It was on account of the above spiritual signification of pcrsons Ilhat the Lord, whilc Ho sojourned on tho enrth, wlcctcd as his more immediate 1md constant followers the thrce disciples, Peter, Jruues, and John. At the timeof his transfiguration on .Mount Tabor ( Matt. xvii. 1-8), in bis agonizing visit to the garden of Gethscmane (l\Iatt. xxvi. 37), and when He entered into tho house of Jairus, tho rulor of the synagogue, to raise his daughter from the dead (Mark v. 37 ; Luke viii. 51), "He suffered no man to follow Him, save Poter, m1d James, and John." If we exclude the idea that this solection was grounded in the represcntative character of those distinguished apostlcs, no i<atisfnctory reason can pœsibly bo assigned for it, and the evidcnt signifi<'ation of the act, deduced from its frcquent occurrence, is cntirely lost. The twelve apostles, like the twelve patriarchs of the preccding dispensation, represented and signified ail the heavenly principle.s coniltituent of the Lord's church, both univerml and particulnr, and sometirues their contraries, and each apostle in particulnr represeuted and signified some specific gra1--e, or its perverted opposite. Thus, Peter is a Greek word for a rock or stone; he was also called Cephas, or Kephas, which is a Syriac word with the same me..'\ning, and Simon, or Rimeon, which is a Hebrew word for hcaring, and is always first mentioned when the names of the apostles are given. From these particulars it ma.y bo gatbered that Peter signifies the J,ord as to divine truth, and abstraetly a priuciple of faith; faith alone, or separated from the Lor<l and from charity-which is a perverted füith, when he tempted and denied bis Lord nnd Saviour; but ou the contrary, fnith springing from love, and eonjoining ltim to the J..ord, when he confessed bis divinity, and nccompanied Him with James and ,John. Of a perverted an<l dclusive füith, which enlightens the nm\erstanding, but leaves the hMrt uncbanged, the Lord Rpake whcn He addrcssed Peter, and sai<l unto him, "Got thee behiml mP, Fatan; for thou art an offence unto me" (Matt. xvi. 23 ; :Mark \'iii. 23; Lnke iv. 8).1°' To a sincere and devont faith in the Lord, and confidence in his 'Vorcl, "the kmJR of tlie kingdam of Tteaven" are always f!ÏN'n ( Matt. xvi. }!)) ; thnt is, power to open the soul to an iuftnx of the prineiples nJHl life of hcavcn. On the confession of this glorionP faith in the Lord .Jesus Christ, the C'hurch is crccted as upon a rock, nnd defics the omnipotent boasts of her angry nssailnnts. •James and ,John wcre brothers, the sons of 7..ehe<iee. Like Peter,
'"' ln the original. the wonl t1111i.latt•d Satan 01caus an a<.ll'ersary; such L• the eharactcr of JaUh al<>ne, or a mcre per1uMive Juith.



who sometiml?s rcprcsents faith alonr, ancl a boasting self-confidence, so thcse two disciples are at times spoken of in a low sense, as rcpresentative of mistaken zcnl, and its claims to undue authority; or extcrnal charity and goo<l works, with the arrogation of self-merit, procec<ling from the promptings of self-love (~fatt. xx. 20-28; Luke ix. 53, 54). In a good sense, however, James was a type of the Lml's love, or, abstractly, of the principle of cha.rity, or faith grounded in affection; and John was a type of the Lord's operation, or the works of charity, or faith deriving ardor nn<l activity from the pure love of God, nnd macle manifcst in humility, gcntlcness, benevolence, nnd nll kinds of good and uscful dceds and words.1œ The specific siguific.'ltiou of the apostle ,John may be abundantly proved from his persona! history, as recorded in the Scriptures. He had the privilege of lcaning ou the Lord's bosom at the institution of the Holy Supper (John xiii. 23) ; he was pre-eminently distinguished as" that disciple whom Jcsus loved" (,John xix. 26; xx. 2; xxi. 7, 20, 24); and to him, more th:m to others, rcvclntions were vouchsafc<l rcspecting the church in hcaven and upon earth. These remarkable circum~tanccs nud charactcristics serve to confirm the significntion givcn as gcnuine, for all such ns mnnifest thcir füith and affection by n good lifc, are truly the bcloved of the Lord. Jnmes, bis brother, therefore, must be a type of spiritual charity, or of faith rccefred in the heart. In the regenerntion, this principle supplnuts and expels all selfish feeling. Fnith in the heart and füith in the life, or charity and good works, arc brethrcn ; they spring from the same divine origin. The selection, then, of thcso three apostlcs by our blessc<l Lord, on such frequcnt and memornhlc occasions, teaches us, in the internai sense, most cdifying, invaluablo !Cl'Sons of divine wisdom; for thesc disciples reprcsented the pcrfcct union of divine love, wisdom, and thcir resulting lifc, in the L<ml .Jesus Christ-thus that He was God in human form. They nlso rcprcseuted every regenerating mnn, and tench us that, unless the cssential principlei of the regenerate Iife, reprcsented by Peter, James, and .John, arc prcscnt iu the soul, an<l accompany the divine cncrgies, wc enn receive no spiritual blessing. Faith must be impnrted to tho 1111<lcrstnmling, faith must be implnnted in the will, and faith must hccome active in a good and ohcdient life; or, in other words, faith, charity, and good works, the thrce constituents of heaven and religion, mm:t be cngrnfted in the soul and mnuifcstcd in the life and conduct,
""' Jnmcs means ln Engll'h a "'1>pla>iter or mainlainer; John, the gift of Goà, and mcrc1J111 or graciotu; nnd Zcb<'dee, a tlowrv.



or the Lord can do fcw or none of those mighty works in our behnlf, on the accomplishment of which our eternal salvation depends (l\fott. xiii. 58; ~[ark vi. 5). l\foroover, to represent to us the energy nml zeal of truth, whcn it procecds from a principle of celestial charity, and is grounded in goodness of life, James and John were surnamed by the Lord, "Boanergu, which is, The sons of tliunder" (l\Iark iii. 17). I have already remarkcd, that the human un<ierstanding, when individually considered, is found to be discriminnted, like the other faculties of the soul, into three degrees of intellcctual power and excellence. The lowcst of these is the scientific principle, or the power of acquiring and rctaining worldly knowlcdge; the next above is the rational principle, or the power of di~cernment and discrimination, as bctween varions kinds of truth, and between truth and error; and the highcst degrec of intellectual power is. that which enablcs man to reccive spiritual intelligence, or wisdom and its perceptions. Thcsc three dcgrces succced eacl1 other, or are successively opened, by an orderly arrangement in the work of rcgcneration ; for man is first natural, then he becomes rational, and afterwards spiritual. Without this t rinal intellcctual capacity, man could not be elevated above the science of the·world. Ilence, spcaking of the church and of e.'\ch regenerating member, in ordcr to portray the threefold blcssings which would attend such a union and subordination of the intcllectunl facultics as would propare man to receive the Iight of hcavcn, to irradiate the whole mind, the Lord says by the mouth of his prophet, "In that day there shnll be a highway out of Egypt to AsRyria, and the Assyrinn shall oome into Egypt, and the Egyptinn into Assyria, and the Egyptinns shall serve with the Assyrians. In that day shall Israel be third with Egnt and with Assyria, even a. blessing in the midst of the lnnd ; whom the Lord of hosts shall bless, saying, Rlessed be Egypt my people, and Assyria the work of my hands, and Israel mine inberitance" (fan. xix. 23-25). By Egypt, that land of mysterious wisdom, wherc knowledge wns so extensively cultivated that it was frcquented by the sages of ail nations for the acquisition of science, is signified the scicntific principle itself, together with ail external or naturnl truths.161 Egypt hns either a good or a
l!eroctotusdœ<'rlb<"! the lnhahitnntsof the ~ulth·al<'d portions of Egypt a.. the bco<t tnfvnned, or m•l!lt tcnrned. or mnnkln11. ln one of bis lu.t work• Throphra.~tu• u..00 the Mme expl"e'i.Sion!'-B·unsen.'• F.g111)f4 l'Wct in Uni~. Ili.al., pp. 1, 2.


"ASllyrla ls that rnlse stnteofee<'rnlng bap· pin,..., nnd power of wlckedn-. wblcb ls c·all<'<l the klnl(dom of dnrkness. And thi~ ls the mo•t noble object of fortllude. to rlc· "lmy the )IOWCr l)f lbtS kfll~dom Wllhln OUr' selves.'"- M<Jrt's lkp. of Cabala, p. 168.



bad signification in the 'Vord, ns su ch knowledge is S.'lid to have been applicd to useful ends, or pcrverted to idolatrous and magical purposes. Assyria, from its relative position to Egypt, and from the tendency of its inhabitaflts to metaphysical speculation, denotes the rational principle, the reasonings of which are either true or false, as the reason is enlightened from heaven, or draws its subtle conclusions from the fallacies of the world and the senses; for the renson is an intermediate and conjunctive principle between what is natural nnd spiritual, and, according to man's state, partakes of the quality of both. By Israel in the midst is signified the spiritual principle, or the interna! of the understnnding, gifted with genuine intelligence and wisdom ; and in an opposite sense, the profanation of the intellectual faculties, and the truths they receive, to the vile objccts of sclf-derived prudence, commingling them with the deceitful and lurid glimmerings of self-love. In the passage I have quoted these terms are all used in a good sense, and by a highway, which serves to con· nect distant countrics and places, is signified the orderly arrangement and subordination which unîtes by correspondence every dcgree of intellectual excellence. Thus the mind is gradually prepared for the rcception of those celestial and spiritual influences which illustratc and govern the perceptions, rensonings, and thoughts, and make man the work and inheritance of Jehovah Zebaoth,-the Lord of Hosts. In an opposite sense, by Egypt is signified sensual knowledgc, and by Assyria cnrnal reasoning. Thesc give birth to false principles in extremes, which, like flics, spring from the river's corrupting filth, and become a tormenting plague; and also to fülse rensonings thence derived, which, like becs, when spoken of in a bad sense, suck their stores, indeed, from rich and favorite flowers, and find sensual plcasure thcrcin, denoted by their honey-stores, but carry with them venom and a sting. When thcse principlcs are permitted to insinuate themselvcs into the church or the human mind, they bring with thcm certain dcsolation and inevitable misery. Tliey are the rcsult of the falsification and profanation of truth and kuowlcdge in the soul, and the abuse or perversion of the intellcctunl and rational facult.ic. 'S. Hencc, to describc such an awful state, and the complcte and grievous <lcsolation which necessarily succoods, the Lord snys, "It shall corne to pnss in that day, that the Lonn shall hiss for the fly that is in the
ln the hi•tory of the dosœndllnts of the 1 rom mou nnme of the khll!'I of F,g-ypt up Io p11trinrch11, thnt of ~ypt is alwny~ more or the flnnl destruction oC the monarcby by les• cl<:>Sely interwoYen. l'h1\raob was the Alcxnn<lcr the G1'.>al.



uttermost part of the rivers of Egypt, and for the bec that is in the land of Assyria. And they shall corne, and shall rest all of thcm in the dcsolate valleys, and in the holes of the rocks and upon all thorns, and upon all bushes" (Isa. vii. 18, 19).' ~ The vast importance of this distinction of degrecs will be at once perceived, if we consider that the erroneous nssumption that ail beings and things have procceded forth continuously, or by degrecs of continuity, from the centre to the circumfercnce of all crcation; thus, that the soul and the body, God and man, spirit and matter, are but various gradations, and that God is an all-cxtcndcd substance cxisting throughout space, has given birth, both in ancient and modern timcs, to every heterogeneous system of pantheism, materialism, and secularism which infidel philosophy and an elToneous theology have invented. In order, thcrefore, further to assist the earncst and intel· ligent inquirer in his rcsearch after truth, and to enable him more clcarly to comprehend this great doctrine of triple dcgrccs, which is indispensable to a just vicw of the Divine charactcr and existence, to a correct idea of the nature of the human mind, and to an nccurate knowledge of the science of correspondenccs, and thus to a truc intcrprctation of the W ord of God, a few additional extra,cts are givcn in the APPE~DIX, from the invaluable writings of Swedenborg, who hns so amply and so clearly unfoldcd this grand subjcct, on which, indeed, the laws of correspondence miiy be snid to rest, and also a few of the innumerable confirmations and illustmtions from othcr sources.

1œ !'>ce ScMlegd, Phil. of lfiN., vol 1., and AP· "on the Hlerogln>hlcs or Egypt." "Evcry one mny see that the historical relations of the pntriarehsare such thnt thcy may lnd('('d be ocrvlccable ln regard to the C('(')~•lru;tlcal hlstory or that timc, but that th~y are vcry llltie •ervlccable ln regard to spiritual llfc, wblch ncl'~rthele&• is the end wblcb the Word was lntcndt'd to promote. Add to thls, that ln some plares we mcet wlth notbing but mcre nnmes, ru. of the J>O<!· terity of E•nu (Gen. xxxvl.), and so ln other chnptc,.,., in whlcb, so far "" regards the 11\cl'l' hlstorical relations, there is so lltlle or nnythlng divine, that lt can in nowlse be !lftid thal Il is the Woro of the Lord, dMnely lnsvll'(.'I as to evcry partlcular cxp~on, and even as to evcry dot aud t!Ule, that ls, tlutt lt was !lent down Crom lhe Lord thnmgh hcavcn to man. by whom thosc relations werc writtcn: for what wu~ ~~nt dO\\ n from the I.ord mu" nced be divine ln ni! and •lngular thlngs, thu.• not •• to hMorical•, as bcing the tmnl!ftctions or men, but only by 15

vlrtue orthose lhlngs whlch lie deeply hid and concenled thereln, nll and ~lngular of whleh trcatofthe J,ord andorhls klngdom; the hlstorlcaL• of the Word ure in this par· ticulnr distlnguÏl<hcd abm·e all othcr hl~tori· c-als in the universe. tho.t thcy invol\'e in thcm such bldden coutent•. If the W.:ird was the Word merely as to hi>torirels. thnt is, a.' to the externo.l or Htcral scnir.c. thcn all the historicals which are thercln would be holy: and what is more, sevcnd pcrsons who .are spokcn or tbcrcln would Il<' c•tecmod ru. saints. and it would romc to ptts."j, as in the case wlth many, thnt lhey would be wor· i;hlppcd as god11, bœanse lbey are 1reatcd of ln the moqt holy of all wrlthigs: when, ne•" crthclCAA, all tbcse were men, and some of thcm were littlc sollcitoQq about divine wor. ship, and hnd nothlng about tbem above the common loi or men. Hence. then, lt mny r•lnluly appcar, thnt the cxtemal or literai 1$ the Word only by \'irtue or the ln· tcmnl or spiritual aense, whlch i• it1 lt, and from whlch il ls."-A. C. 3z.?~. 3'l29.






-THE Bible," or W ord of God, in the just and forcible language of Professor Bush, " rises undcr the application of a as

and invoxiable as the law of creation itself, with which, in fact, it hecomes alm.<>st identical, into a new revelation, clothed with a sublimity, sanctity, and divinity of which we had uot previously the remotest conception. It stands before us the living Oracle of Truth, which we no longer separate from the vcry being of its Author. He is Himself in his own truth. New treasures of wisdom glenm forth from its pages, and the most bnrren details of history, the recorded rounds of obsoletc ritmds,106 the driest catalogues of names, the most
100" ncrnldry is, in fa~t. the tast remnant of the andcut symbollsm, and a lcgltlmate ùranch of Christian art; the grlffins and unlcorns. fesses and chevrons, the vcry mie· t = or cloins, arc nll symbolicnl,~ach bas IL~ my.Uc mcnnlng, slngly and ln corobinR· tl<>n, and th us every genuine old cont.-of-arms prenches a tes.wn of chl\'alrlc l>onor and Christian pr!uciple to those that inherit Il -truths lltUe suspected nowadays in our hcralds' offi<·es."-Lorà Lind.$ay, on CltrWian Art, Il., f>. 49. The rlch color of gol<l is thnt of hcnt, the color of sil ver is tbat of light; the fürmcr is applled to the splcn<lor of the sun, the la.ttcr to the l!ght rcficctcd by the moon. Pol!shed bn\HS rcscmhles gold, and polhhcd Iron rei;cmbles sil\'er.-i{'C Isa. "Cclcstinl rosy rro, love's proper hue."


MiltO•l'I furadil!e IAtL

Yellow was ln hlgh cst.eem among the andeut Indians; rcd, among the Egyptians; purplc, among the Syr!ans nnd Romans; an<l white, among the Jcws. "Colors hnd the snme slgnlflcntlon amongst au the people of high antiqnlty. This con· formity indkaie. acommon orlgin, whkh attaches iL,cl f !A) the cradle of the humnn rnce, and tlnds lts greate•t cnergy, or active !Ife, ln the religion of l'crsla. The dunli•m of lii;ltt and dnrkncss offers, lndeed, the two

types of the colors, whlcb bec'.aroe the sym. bols of the two prlnciples, the bcnevulcnt and malevolent. The anclents only admit· ted two primitive colors, white arnl bl<u-k, !rom whlch ail others wcre derlved; ln like manner, the <ll\'lnltlesofpaganl•m were the emanatlons !rom the good and the evil prln· cl pies. "The langunge of colol'$, whl<'h ls Inti· matcly <'Onnectcd wlth religion, pns,cd from lndln, China, Fgypt,o.nd Grecce to Rome; lt was agaln revive<! ln the rnlddle ai:es; nnrl the palnted wlndows of tbe Gotlllc cathe· drnls ftnrl their explication ln the books of the Zend, the Vedas, and the palntlnb'S ln F.gypt!an temples. "The ldcntlty of the •ymhol, supposes the ldcntityofthc primitive creeds. ru propor· tlon as a religion is rcmovcd !rom IL• prlncl· pic, it dcgmdcs and mntcrio.111.cs itsclf; lt forgets the •lgnificati<m of eolors, and this mystcrlous !B.ngungc rcnppee.rs wlth the restorntlon of f<'ilglous truth. "ln mytholngy, Iris was the mœscngcr of the gods l\lld of goo<l tldlngs, and the colors of the girole of Iris, the ralnbow,are thesym· hols of reirencrnt!on, "hleh I~ the <'ovenant or coojnnctlon bctwœn God and man. In Egypt, the robe of Isis •parkles with ail et)\· ors, and wlth nll the hues whlch shlnc ln nature. (}Jir!s, the all-powcrful god, gives lli.ht to Isis, wbo modifies it, and trnnsm!UI



trivinl spccificntions of dntes, places, and cnactments, once touche<l with the mystie wand of the spiritual sense, teem with the riches of angelic conceptions. The cosrnogony of Genesis beeomes the birthregister of the new-born soul. The garden of Eden srniles in every renovated mind in the intelligence and ajfection embleme<l in its trees and fruits and flowers. The watering streams are the fruetifying knowledges and truths of wisdom whieh make increase of the spiritual man. The Tree of Knowledge, the Trec of Life, the wily serpent, are ail within us and within us ail. The scenes transncted in the parndisinc purlicus nre more or Jess the scenes of our o\\·n individual experiencc, and the nnrrativc ecnses to be looked upon rnerely as the chronicle of events that transpirod thousands of years before we were born."-Reply to Dr. Jr'Ood.~, p. 66. The prisrnatic raya of the sun are elearly divisible into a trine, for lhcre are the caJorific rays, the colorific, and the chernical, haYing relation to love, wisdom, and use. Colors, as well as ail other phenomena and appcarances of nature mentioned in the 'Vord, are rcprescntative, nnd allusions to thcm are very frequent. They derivc their innumerable tints and hues from the refractions and reflections of the rays of hcat and light from the sun, in varions degrecs of intensity, combined more or Jess with darkncss, or blackncss, and shade. A beam of light refrncted and reficctcd by a prism on a dark screen, or by drops of water descending from a dark cloud, at a known angle, will cxhibit an appearance of seven distinct hues, as in the rainbow. There are, however, but two fondamental elements of eolor,-red, which is derived from the flaming light proeceding from the heat, and white from light. Ail colors are modifications of these
it by reflcctlon to men. Isis is the cartb, o.nd her symhollc robe was the blerogl)'Phlc of the mawrial and of the •pirltual worlds. "The painted Windows of Chli•tlan churche•, like the pointings of Egypt, have a double signification, apparent and hld· den: the one is for the multitude, and the other I~ addrcssed to mystle erœds. "i>ymbollc science, banlshed from the churcb, takcs refuge ln the court; dlsclalncd by painting, we ftnd lt agaiu ln heraldry. The orlgln of armorial bearlngs ls lost in an· tlqulty, and appears to have orlglnt.ted wlth the fll'llt elemcnts of wrlllng: the Egyptlan hlt•r<l!(lyphlcs, like the Attce pnlntln);$, ln<ll· eatcd the signification of asub)e<-1 by•!l('ftk· tng <"mhl<'lll!i or ann.s. Jt ls snffieicnt to eon· siderthe Mexlean pletnros, and the explanat.iou of thcm wbieb hns bcen prescrved, to banlsh &lldoubton thlssubJect."-See.Rtttt1fl dt ThtrenOI. "The selam, or nosegay of the Aralls, ap· pearsto have horrowed lts emblems from the language o f colors: the Koran glves the mystlc l'CllSOn o f IL •The eolors: says Mahomet, 'whleh the carth dlsplays to our eyes, are manlfest signe Cor those who thlnk.'-Koran, chnp. xvl This rema"rkable passage ex plains the ehcquered robe whlch Jsl~. or Nature, wore, conceived as a vast hleroglyphlc. The colors whlch nppcar on the eartb, correspond to tho colors whlch the seer bcholds ln the world of spirits, where eyerythlog ls spiritual and, conscquently, significative. Such ls,at toast, th~ orlginof the symbolical m~nn­ lngof rolo,. tn the hoobof lhc prophetsand tho ApocnlyJl'l<l.''-.Porl<ll'• dt1 lWlcurt ~­




with obscurity or blackncss.101 Colors, then, represent the modifica· tions of the intcrmingling rays of spiritual heat and light by those principles and things which have respect to the natural mind. They denote the vnricd qualities of the respective principles treated of, both as to the intellect and the will, the thoughts and the affections. The irradiations of wisdom and truth in the dark clouds and appearances of the literai scnse of the W ord are the reflections of heaven's own splendors,-adaptatious of the ben.ms proceeding from the Sun of Uighteousness to the ever-changing states of the human mind in tho process of regeneration. In the time of trial and temptation they are "the bow round the Almighty's throne" (Rev. iv. 3), and the "bow in the cloud" (Gen. ix. 13),-a token of God's eternal covennnt with his faithful children, a memorial in the clouds of ignorance and error, in the mere appearances of truth, and in the dense vapors which sorrow and suffering cast over the natural min<l, of his unchangiug
"" The thrce primitive oolors, derlved from others: th us, the red ls the caloriflc or heat. the light and heat of the sun, aro red, blue, lng princ.iple; the yellow ls the luminousor and yellow. From them, and their inter· Jight-giving prlnciple: wh!le it ls ht the bh10 mingling and cliversified shadCll, are pro· ray that the power of actlnism, or chemlcal dnccd the beautif\11, brllllant, and e'•er- action, is found. Now it ls thiii trlnity of changlng colors we behold, whethcr in the red, yellow, and blue which constituics, lndcflnitely varicd and harmonlous hues of when oomblned, lhe unlly ot ordhmry or the threc kingdoms of nature, and ln the white llght. When separatcd, thls uulty ot rlouds of the atmœphere, or as cxhibltcd ln Ught ls dhided lnto the trlnlty of colons. the splcndid tint' of the rRinbow. Although one and the samc, neithcr can ex· TH& 1'RllllTY 011 LIOHT.-ln llght we ha,·e lst wlthout the othcr: the lhree are cme, tlu a mO!\t rcmarkahle Illustration of the doc- one {s lhru. Thus we have a unity 111 trlnity, trine of the Holy Trinit)•, which I~ an article and a trlnlty ln unlty, e>:croplllled ln llght of fülth wlth many, of doubt with some, and ltself: and "God is lli:ht.'' l'lants wlll live ofdisbcllefwlth othcns; but lfweean pro,·e and grow luxurlantly under the lnftucnce by oculnr demonst.ration that thcre cxists lu of the rcd and )'ellow mys; but, howe1·er nature a trlnlty in unlty and an unlty ln 11romlsing the nppearancc, the blossom dies, trinity quite as marvellou.,, it ought to oon· I and no fruiHa.n be produeed without lhcen· firm the falthf\11, convince U1e doubtful, and l lh·enlng power ot the hlne rays. When this ovcrthrow the sophL•try of lhc unbclh,wer. ht\'isible action !s wanting, the trlnlty h1 An im•estigatlon lnto the laws and propcr· unity ls inoomplete; llfü is unproducti\'c un· tics of llght will enable us to do so. J.Jght ls Ill the tbrec, united ln one, bring all thin!(S cnslly ll('pnrated lnto lts eomponent colors, U> perfection. Thus ef\('h mcmhcr of the by tmnsroitting lt tbrough a glass prism, trlntty ln unlty of light has !ts t'!<pcclal duty wh<.'rc lt ls rcsolved lnto n,'(}, orange, yellow, to pcrform, and ls ln Cll1i.w-tnt 01icraUon, vl!'grceo, bluc, Indigo, and vlolet, whi<'h ('011· ibly or lnvisibly, nlthough only one power. Rtitute, whcn Mmblned, white or ordinary Even f•tr bcyond the vi•il,>l<' violet ra)' of the ltght. This baud of 1•011.•ns ls ceJlcd the pris· prismali<' i<pe<'trum the spirit of at'tiuism prem11tic •pectrum. Now lt wlll be pcn'<llve<l vnil•; ils chemknl inflnrn<'C <'BU be prO\'~'<I Umt n,'<I, ycllow, and blue arc its prl11111ry or to cxt.end bcyond the lhnfts of our vl•lou. <''™'nti11J <'olon;, theothel1! belng tMrel)' pro- Tlnm thcre is hl llght an Invisible agenry dlll't'd by the admlxtore or overlttpplug of alway~ in action: 11n<I the more the ~ubjt'<'I two M\joining primary coloro: thn8, orange fs lnvestigatcd, the more strlkJ ng ls the lllnsls found hctwecn the rcd an<! ydlow, green trntlon bctwecn the Holy ~11frft of Or•! made bctwccn the ycllow and bluc; "" thnt, ln manlfc.<st, and the wonderful propcrtlc• of fntt. we hn1·c only the three prlmnrr colors lll{ht whlrh have bccn gradually unfolde<l to <Irai wlth, each of whlch hM its pccnlil\f by the n•se11rehesof man.-.fl'om Tempre Bar, propertics and aUrllmt.ce distinct !rom the for January.




loving-kindncss and faithfulnœs, bringing hope and consolation to the . human hcart. Colors, in general, signify truths derived from good· ncss, and their various modifications ; or, on the contrary, different fal111cious appcarances of evil nnd error, in the constantly varying • states of mental perception both as it respects the intellect and the will.108 They consequently denote the quality or state of which they are pre<licated. So far 11.'l they partake of red, thcy dcnote the quality of a thiug or state, 11.'l to good, or love, or to its opposite, the obscurity of evil, and have an immediate reference to the will; and so far as they partake of white, they signify truth in it.'! purity, and its purifying influences, resplendent from good; and, in the opposite sensc, trutb without goodness, or faith alone, and have more immediate relation to the understanding. (See Isa. i. 18.) But it will be at once secn that nll shades of black, on which the vnricgations of obscurity depcnd, denote qualitics originating in cvil and folsity. }fonce heavcn is represented as an eternnl state of day,-for "there is no night
'"' "Colors bave an lnfl11cnce on the slons, and tbcy, as wcl\ as their harmonies, have relation to moral and spiritual affecUons.''-St. Picrrt!a Sl.u4.Qf Km.. p. li6. Swedenborg illustrai.CS thls reoondltc snbJcct as fo\l()\fs: "In ordcr to the existence or oolor, thcre must be some 8Ubstance dark· lsh and brlghtish, or black and white, on which , whcn the raysfrom thcsun fall, there exist, accordlng to the various tcmperlng of the darklsh and brlght.lsb, or black and white, from the modification of the Influent ray>1 of llght, colors, somc of whlch IAke more or lcss Crom the darklsh and blnck property, some more or le!<'! Crom the brlght· lsh or white, an<\ hence arises thelr dlversity. A resemb\ance of \bis exlsts ln SJ>lrltual thlni;s. There the darklsh propcrty ls the lntellcctua\ propr!um or man, or the f:llsc; and the black property 1s the wl\l pruprlum, or evil, whlch absorbs and ex tingulshes U1e rR)'S of llgltt; but the brlghtlsh and white property ls the trut\\ and good whlch man tblnks be docsofh!mS('\f, whlch reOects anrl t\\rows back Crom ll110lf the rays orUght. The raysof\lgbtwblch Call Oll and modlfy these are Crom the Lord, as from the sun of wlsdom and lnte\111.-encc, for suc\\ are the rays of srlrltual llght, and \bey arc from no otber source."-A. C. 10.2-3. "Black and w\1lte belng varlous\y tempcred by the rays or llg\\t, are changed luto beautlful co\ors, as lnto blue, yellow, 1>ur1>1e, and the l!ke, by wblch, aecordlng to thclr arrangement, as ln 6owcrs, divers tonus 'Û benuty and agreeab\eness are exblbi\00,

pa.,- 1whilst the black and white, as to t\Jclr rool


and ground, stlll remalu."-A. C. 731. "Between the troplcs, where there I$ scarcely auy horizontal rcfractlon, the solar l!ght, asvlewcd ln t hc hea,·ens,dls11\ays ln a serenc monllng ftt,. 1>rlmordlal oolors. ln the horlion, whcre the sun ls Just golng to cxhlbll bis dli,c, a dazzllng white ls visible: a pure white at an clcvation of torty-flve de~: a tire color ln the zcultb: a pure bluc fortyfive dcgrees be\ow wward the wcst: and ln the vcry west IM d<lrk i-eU of light stl\l llngerlng ln the horizon. You thcre see thOSl<.l five oolors. \\1\h thelr lntermedlaleshadcs gcneratlog caclt olhcr. ~h of thO!'e co\ors sec ms to be only a strong tint of that whlch procedes lt,and a fltlnt llut ofthat whlch foUows, tho11gh the who\e togetbcr appear to be only mod11latlons ofa progression or whlch u:l1iU ls the first tcrm, red the middlc, and blad the la•t."-St. Pierrt'• Slud. of NaL, Il., pp.108-112. "lna!mnch M rcd signifies the quality or a thing as Io good, therefore, a\so, names, and things whlcb are named Crom the same expl'e'!Slon ln the original tongnc, signiry the good ln wbich lheyoriglnate. Thus red, ln the original tonguc, ls called Adam, whence ls dcri\"ed the nrune Adam, and a\so the name F.dom: and hencc, a\so, man ls callcd A<lam, and the ground A dama, an~ tlte ruby Odsm: thus these namcs and thœc tbltlgll are rrom red.... That Edom was so callcd frorn re<l,see Oen. xxv. 30. •. . That the ruby or carbuncle l.s aise !IO call~d Crom re<l, seo Ex. xxvlti.17; xxxix.10; Ez. xxvlli.13."A. E. SIH.

15 *



~here" (Rev. xxi. 25),-procceding from cclcstial fire or love, which vivifies the inmost of the soul; while its iuhnbitauts are dcscribcd aa "clotlied in white" (R cv. vii. 9). But, on the other hand, bell is · describcd as an evcrlusting statc of dnrkness and sorrow and terror, procecding from infernal fire, or that unchanging state of malice and hatrcd which tormcnts. On this ground of the rcprcscutath•e mc.ming of oolors, they aro often mentioneù in the \Yord, in both senscs, nnd nre somctimcs arrangcd in a trine. Three of the most splendid and cxpcnsivc colors were commandcd by the Lord to be used in the construction and embeŒshmcnt of the Tabernacle,-" Blue, and purple, and scarlet" (Ex. xxv. 4, 5; xxvi. 1, etc.). Thcso three colors serve most accuratcly to discriminate the thrcefold quality of the sincere worslùppcr, wl1ose minù is reprcsented by the Tabernacle and its beautiful furniture. Blue is descriptive of the quality of celestial light or truth, and its splendor as seen in the firmament of the intellect ; purple, the quality and brilliancy of celestial heat or love in the affections of the will; and scarlot denotes the quality and warmth of enlightcncd faith and mutual charity reflccted in the outward life. The brillinnt colol':i of the costly gcms set in the brcastplate of Aaron (Ex. xxviii. 30), und of the precious stones which formed the foundations of the Holy City (Rev. xxi. rn, 20), signify the indefinitely varied modifications and qualities of heavenly wisdom and intelligence, beaming forth from the W ord of God, transluccnt nnd shining with the celcstial and spiritual rcsplendencies of heu ven, signified by the precious gems. Tbcsc bright and priceless truths of the Holy W or<l are the source of ail just judgmcnt, and are, also, the firm and glorious foundations on which the church is erected.109
'°'The twel\'estoncs ln the urhn and thum· ' wcre worn upon the hcart to slgnlfythntthe mlm arc rcprcscntative of ail the varfotlt>S of COl'Tt>Spondlng princlpleo:. must be l'('gllrd<'<l di\'inc trnth ln the Iloly \\'ord, which shi11e wlth lnl.llœt affection. They were dl\'lded with surh b<!auty and glory in the minds int.o four orders of trines, distinetly signift . of tlie faitbful.-brilliant, tnrn!'J)arcut, bpe.r- estive of the twofold cont<tltutiou of the ln· kling, glo\\ ing with inwerd radiant prhwi· tcrnnl and cxternal man; eacl1 trine Juwlug plci; of 10,.e, cbarlty, goodncs.,, and Lencvo· ci.pccial relation to the thrce degrces of tl!e lence, of which tbey are but the outward 1nlnd and the lifc, and the slgnifirotion of fonns. They were ordercd byexpress Divine each &tone being tletenulncd by lts color and command to be arrange<! in trines, and worn it ~ plare. Thlsmayl~seen ruoreclearly ftom on the brea.;t, or ovcr tile heart, of the blgb· the following arrangement (see Gen. xxlx., pricstwbcn heentcred the tabernacle. They xxx., xxxv.): lst row. Sllrcllus. Topn>., Carbuncle, {signifyingnnd reprefleutingthe threedcgrce11 of œlœtial goodul">!! ln the Internai wm, Reuben Simeon J..evi ' ' ' with thelr purity an<I bnrnlng brilliancy. slqnlf)'lngand repre8<'r.tlng the thrœdcgn.-e• 2d row. F..mcrnld, St1pphirc, rnamoncl, lof <'•''""tlal n!Miom ln the Internai undcr· Judah, Dau, Naphtall, ~b1111llng, \\ Hh thclr tmnspdrent and sp.tr· kllug Jw;tre.




The literai scnso, in many historical particulars, especially iu figures or numbcrs, weights and mensures, hns been ma<le to give way for the spiritual sense, or hW! been arranged without any other definite idca than what sccms the purpooe of the iuner lifc, or Divine mind. This will fully account for the apparent breaks, inconsistencies, and con· tradictions which learned commcntators have professed to <liscover in the historical narratives,-such n.s the number of the Israelites who lcft Egypt, the time of their sojourn there, the arts and sciences urnong them, and man y incidents in the wilderness,-all of which are of little or no importnnce when we consi<ler the divine and internai object which the Lor<l had in view by the inspiration of his W ord. Of the Lord, it is intimated by the prophet that He alone is allwise, all-good, and all-powerful, but that man is "le88 tlian notliing, and vanüy." And, in a lofty und sublime strain of inspiration, asks, "·who hath mcasurcd the waters in the hollow of bis hand, and meted out heaven with u span, and comprehen<led the dust of the earth in a mensure, an<l weighed the mountains in scales, and the hills in a balance"? (Isa. l:l. 12, 17 ). Nor is this said merely in oriental phrase, of that divine and overruling intelligence and goodness which have so mystcriously and with only perfect ordcr a.rranged the atoms and directed the combinations of those elemental substances of which the matcrin.l globe is composed. Far higher was the design, which was to call forth our unquestioned füith and gratitude for etcrnal mcrcies, for the overrulement of every momeni and event, by the secret opcr· ation of his ever-prescnt and ever-wakeful provid:mce, to advance our prepnrn.tiou for l1appiuess and hea.ven. To this end the Lord, in the wonderful process of regeneration, Himself arranges and subordinates, in truc order, tho affections and thoughts, and the goodness and truth which they rcccive, so as to constitute the heavens of the internai mind as his own peculiar <l\Yelling-placc, and also the carth of the external mind as his glorious footstool. The mount.ains are the exalted principles of love to the Lord ; the hills are the less clevnted principlcs of charity t-0wards the neighbor; the waters are the
slgnifylng and rcprescnting the three degroo; of spiritual love or rharily whlch are active ln the extcrnal will, but mod!Jled ID bril· llancy. slgnlfylng and representingthe three degrecs (th row. Beryl, Onyx, Jasper, of fü.ltb or kuowledge ln the extcrnal underZebulon, Joseph, Benjamin, st11o11ding, hJES transparent 11o11d more opaqu' !han the thre<! degrecs of Internai wtsdom. Slmnar thlngi1 are slgulfied ln the ordcr of Ille stones ln the foundatloœ of the New Jt ruaalem.-See Jl.ev. xx.i.
3d row.

lJgurc, Gad,

Agate, Aaher,

Ametbyst, l.SMcbar,




divine truths of bis Word, which, by the nctivity of his power nnd love, He makes the instrument of his will Îll the accomplbhment of h~ work. This just nnd accuratc equilibrium, subordination, nnrl completc arrangement of ail things in relation to the ordcr of mnn's regenerntion and salvation, nre signified by his being reprœented !Il:! mcasnring the waters in the hollow of his h1md, meting out hc1Wen with n span, comprehending the dust of the earth in a. mensure, wriJ?hing the mountains in scales, and the bills in n balance; for to Him, ami to Hin1 alone, the exact measure and degrce, the quantitative and qualitath·c analysis of cvcry state of bis regcnerate children is <lÎlitinctly known, both in time and in eternity. "0 the depth of the ridics both of the wisdom and knowlcdge of God ! H ow unsenrchuhle arc his judgments, und bis wnys past. finding out" (Rom. xi. 33). Numbers,110 weights, and measures have their spiritual signifiCAtion
Thcre arc .impie numbcr1 whkh arc 1and simplo from whlch they arilie by multi· sl,.'Tllftcnthc abo..-call othcri,Rnd from which 1pl!catlon."-A. E. 817, :.OO. tho grcatcr numbers derivc thcir algnlfica· "Philo obecrvC!I that the numbcr juur c-on tlons, v1z., the numbcrs, t\\o, thrce, 6ve, and talru; tho mœt pcrfcet proportl01~• ln mu,i<'al scvc11. The numbcr tWOAlgnlfiCS union, and symphonie.•, vli.: Dlalcaso.ron, diapt1111', dltt· I• prel\lcatc<l of guod; the numbcr tbrcc <lg· pa30n, and tlll'llap(UIOn. For the 1>1·01>0rtlo•1 nilles wh11tls full, and ls prcdlcatcd of truths: of dialcaearon b os four to thrce; of dloprnte, tho uumber lh' e signifies" hat I• holy; from as thrce w two: or diapM011, os two to one, the nwnl.K-r two arise 4, 8, IG, 11)), !<OO, ltiOO, or four to l\\O; or di8diaJ"1$11; as four to 1000, Wlfl, 16,000, whlch numbcn h&l'c the one."-11. Jfort'• Def. of (hbakl, p. l-.:1. &lllllc •knlficatlon as two ha., bccau.o;c t.bey 1 "Ali number1arc containcd in /Ollr, vlrtu· arl'<' from the simple numb..•r mulUpltcd ally; by ail nwnbcrs ls rucent tcn; for when lnto 11...·1r, and by multir•llcatlon wlth tcn; wc come to ttn we go back 81;&Jn."-ll>., p. from thft numbcr thrce arise 6, 12, 2t, 72. IU, 153. 1110, 111,0llO, whlch uumbero &IMI hale the "111 the con>tant rccurrence or the numaamo sii;nlll('fttion as the number thrce ha., ber SC\'Cn in rouncctlon with the rites of bt'<'au"" thcy art..e from thls •Impie numbcr thcw ln/lion•, thcy oll'ercd n <·urion, J>tln•I· bym11ltlpllcatlon; fromthcnuml1-0r1h·earise lellsm wlth the lllndus. ln ail thn\ rl'lntCll 10, rJl, 100 1000, 10,0110, llWJ,000, whkb nurubers to Agni, the apeclfic lmper..ouatiun or lire, ha,·e the snmc slgnlfteatlon a. the number the my~tl<'al numbcr «t'CIO is 11\way~ U'<'<I. tl\·c ha•, bccause thcy ario;c lhtn<'c by multl- 1111 oll'crlmc au oblutlon by tire, th~ l!hulu pll<'ntlon: from the numllcr scvcn arise H. pries! uu.·rcd thls praycr: • Flre ! "'1·1·11 arc \'Il, 7•0, 7•m. 70,1)'~. whirh al"O, a.~ arislng th)' fuel.; scn~n thy tou~ueo;: se,-m rh) h•1I)' thencP, J1a1·c a similar sli:nltlcatlon. Inn'<- sages;..,.,... .. thy bdO\·cdabodC'\; "Cn•n \\&)'I mu<•b a.a the numbcr thrcc •l1?11ffit"' what I• do !K'vcn AC'rlfiœs worsbip thcc; $h)' """""" full, and what ls full dcnotc-. ni!, bcnce the are oeçen; maythf. oblation be cftl<'ac-lou•!"' numbcr tweh·e derlvcs ils •li;nl0c11tlon of -Cblman'• //ind. Myth., p.116; Squirr1, p. 117. ait thlngs and ail pcn,ons; the rcn!IOn of Ils "Our wot'<l acven," says A.. fu a tlllJIN on bcln11 prcdlCdtcd or truth•dcrlv<'d from good 1 the Sabbath, "carrlcs the mlnd back to tho f•, l>e<'&u.•c lt arises out or thrcc multlplled orlgln of the human htng1111gc. Ell<llng the lnto four, and the nnmbcr thn·o ls prcdl· m, whkh I• merely a termlnatlon, wc have eull'd of truths, and four of good, aa wa~ .ald ""'·as the bo<ly of the word. Now,aœorllin11 ahnvc."-A. E. ~~. to the rcco1ml111.'d laws of p\11Jol0jty, 1<r may "Uy C\'ery numbcr in the Word 11,J~llcd cxM fn dfffi·rcnt dl11lœts or lanll'U&j."CI ln aomewhat or thlmt or antl thr quallty dllf~rent ronns. .~. for lnstanc-e, m11y lw•· th<·n••fl• dctcrmlm'<l by the nun\b<·rs wlùc-h romc lffl, the root of the German orTcutonlc are amxcd. The gT('l\tcr ant! compound li<b (én" "'"·en. Il ls easy to sec how t ht b n11mbcr1 slgnify the .same wltb Ibo letil!er may sollcn lnt.u p. Tbcn wc bave ç. the



COLORS, NW!BERS, Jll.,'Sf(}.tL JSS1'Rl".ilENrS, ETO.


in the Wor<l of God. This is the renson why they are so often employcd, and why sueh frequcnt and solcmn mention is made of numbcring, tclling, counting, weighing, and measuring. Unlc..o.s sueh a spiritual signification be annexcd to these terms, nulnerous passages will, in tl1e literai sense, be obscure and unintelligible. They are
root of the Latin ttptem (seven~ Jn the C:cl· tic roll we have the f<anscr!t tap (the Hebrew Sabbath), wlth a •lfgbt vowel change. and tbe Grcek ; .. (hep). wlth a. ehan~e ln the aspirate. Here then we find the word "'1» or seiotn, ditîuscd over the cntire cin'le of anclcnt and moder n civillzation. Over the same clrcle, let it be adde<I, the sevcn-day worshlp ls dlffused. Obvlously, the one ls hound up wlth tbe other."-SabOOth Letsure, p. 3. "Of the oeveu chlef lumlnnries of the hea\•ens (Ylsible to the una"51stcd cye). tbc moon ls not only the nearest, but the most cl<"'Cly conne<'tcd with the earth, round wblch it revolves ln a per!od of about elght and twcnty days. Jn so revolvlng, the moon nndelWX'S four marked changes. Thcrc ls. flrst, from the new moon to the ball moon: •l'Condly, from Oie half moon to the full moon: thirdly, from the full moon to the half moon: ancl, fourthly, from the half moon to the new moon. The entire rcYolutlon ls thu• divldcd lnto four di•tiuct parts. But the fourtb of twenty-ctght ls seYen, and so wc come again upon the number •e\·en asa flxed, and nota fixed only, but a sacred number. llcnec an in8uence to strengthen the roverence for the number scven, whlch &l'Ol!C from the nuxnber of (what were considerc<I to be) the celestlal rulers. Dut the four phases or the moon suggested •lmllar dh'l.slonsof Ume. Luuar weeks ensued, and from lunar weeks came lunar years. Agnin sevcn l.s consecmted as a sacred number."lb., p. 3. "The e.-clesiastical year of the Hebrews ls a h1t1ar year: lt l.s laid out, so to say, ln se\'eus. The se\·en bceame ln Isroel a sacrcd multiple-scvcn days: se\•cn weelr.s: se,·en tlmes seven weeks, or the yenr: scYen yenMi. or the Subb&tical year ; sc\·en limes sevcn ycrus, o r the ycar of jubilee. fü·ery .iage wos marked and cclebrated with worsblp. The septennlal ycar, ln ail l!B part~ and numbers, was a year of worshlp. The erotlre year of worsblp finl•bed evcry lifty years, but finlsbed only to bcgin agaln, wlth all 11!1 a.<tronomlca.J divisions, Ils rdiglous rite!\. and llB social observances. Ilot Jsmel was the (represeutative] Channel for convcying God"s bœt bles.'1ng to the world. lt ls, thercfore, to the Divine Pro\"idence that tbiS cycle of worshlp i• to be tra('(ld (it i• the language of C<JJ'l'C'pondenecs, groundcd in appeo.rances, significative of reallt!es]: and it is thi• llcawnly Father that ought to receiw our thanttul ackuowlcdgmentB."-.10., pp. 3, 4. Twelve ls a compound number, belng the produet of three multlplied by four. By three i• slgniflcd, as we ha,·e scen. ail. or that whlch ls full and romplete, applled to trutho and doctrines: and by four l•slgn!Jied conjunction, a.. applfcd to ail prinelples of goodncss, tntema.J anrl cxtemal. Heuce the number tweh"e signifies the whole complcx of the doctrines of truth and gOOdne.s, or of f•llh and charity untted,-the recepUon of ail of which constitutes the Church. lt wa.s to repr=nt thls thnt the twelve petriarel» and twelve tril>Œ of Israel constltutcd the Jcwi•h Churcb; and that at the commence· ment of the ChrMian Chureh tweh·e &JlO'>tles wero selectcd as the Lord's tmmcdlnte dl8Clples: whlle the clty l\ew Jen1oalcm, the churcb to be establi!lbed ln the days of tbe Lord" s second advent, is rcp~nted as havlng tudt't foundntiou• and IWfiL't gates. "Jf we conslder that the waters of the deluge were /orty days and /ortv nigh~' ~'Omlng on the carth: tha.t for /<Yrfy ye~rs the hraelltes dld penance ln the wlldemess: that/orty stt1pes were the appointed punlshment ol malefllrtors: that/orlydayswereallowerl tbe Nlnevltcs to repent: tha.t Mœes, El\Jah, Rnd [our bles>OO Lord] Jcsus Christ fastcd cacb Jrntv days and /orty nlgh!B, we must admire tbe unlformlty of the divine economy, and bt'lieve that the pcrtod was not wlfhout rroeonso slogularlydiHinguished."-Btshop Dehon'• Sti-mOIU, vol i., p. 366. "Forty was e. round numbcr, nnd l.s stUI emplorecl as sucb ln the East, to exprc•• nn lndefinlte quantlty."-Von Bohien'• Intro. Io Gtn., Yol. 1., p. 82. ".Accordlng to the ingenious remart of Sl Jerome, the number forty (ln the WordJ secms to be consccratcd to tribulation: the Hebrcwpeoplesojonrncd ln Egypt tcn limes forty yca<": MOSES, Elias, and tbeLord Jèsus Christ fa.<ted forty da)s; the Jicbrew Jl<.'O· pic remalncd forty years ln the descrt: tho prophet F.zekicl lay for forty days on bis right sidc."-Clxhen, iv., p. 158; note on Nuxn. xxili. 1.




used in all their relations, whether simple or compound, to expr~ the varions qualities of things in a combined form, nml the various states of the church anù her members, either in a gcnuine or in nn opposite sense. The relations which numbcr anù order beur to the thiugs and objects of the natural world are of prcciscly the same nature as are the relations and arrangements as to the quality of the things of the spiritual world and the human mind. W e h11ve already scen that the number three signifies fulness or perfection, and denote9' ci complete state, comprising the discrete degrees of life from beginning to end. It is generally predieated of truth, or of its opposite, falsity,--0f what is sacred, or what is pollutcd. Thus, in addition to the instances already given, the divine command to "keep a feast unto the Lord three times in the year" (Ex. xxiii. 14-17), signifies fulness and perpetuity of the worship of the Lord from a chccrful and grateful hcart. These thrcc festivals of unleavened bread, or the passover; of the first-fruits of the harvest, or the fenst of wecks; and of the ingathering, or feast of tabernacles, were designed to reprcsent man's complete spiritual dcliverance from the thraldom of fülsity, and his purification by successive trials and victorics,-the insemination of truth in a tender state of heavenly affection, and the implantation of goodness in the will. Multiples of the same number have, for the most part, a similar signification with the simple number, but one thut is more complex and extensive. Thus, the number six, like three, dcnotes what is full nnd complete; but in a grcater or fuller degree, all states of labor preceding a full statc of heavenly rest. Sometimes both simple and compound numbers arc mcntioned in a subordinate relation to other numbers, and thcn the signification is somcwhat varied: thus, nine in relation to tcn, and ninety-nine in relation to one hundred, denote fulness of a former state, previous to entering upon a new one. The nmnber sevcn, aguin, refcrs in genernl to what is holy and inviolable, nnd, in un opposite scnsc, to what is profane: tl1us, a hallowed and enduring statc of rœt and pcacc, nftcr the lnbors and conflict.s of temptation, was rcpresented by the Sabbath, which, uncler the Jewish dispcnsntiou, succccded six clays of toi!, and was kcpt inviolate. ~ut these States of returning trial and rcst not only involved subjects of a pnrticular kind, but those of general and universal ordcr; hence, the Jews were commanded not only to kccp the sevcnth day holy, but the scventh ycur wns commanded to be a sabbath of rest; and the end of $Cven timcs seven years1 or sevcn sabbaths of years, a



jubilce was to be prodaimcd hy soun<l of trumpcts, slavœ wcre man· umittcd or set at liberty, uJicnatc<l property was rcstorcd t-0 the orig-i· nnl possessor or bis dcscendanLo:, nn<l the uncultivated ground yieldc<l a miraculous incrcase, equivaleut to thrœ hnrvcsts (Lev. xxv.). "Seven times a day do 11)rnisc thee," 11aid the PsalmÎllt (exix. 16-H, to signify that the swect inrense of pruisc, to be acceptable to the Lord, must perpetually arise from a holy, undividcd hcart. 'fo tearh us tl1at Christillll forgivencsi tow:mls an ofiènding brother must he full, plenary, and holy, we are divinely enjoined to forgive him "not revcn times, but seventy times scvcn" ( Matt. xviii. 21, 22); nnd tn dcnote a holy statc of complctc purification, out of Mary l\tagdnlt·ue "was cast seven clcvils" (:\lark xvi. 9.) In this pure an'I holy ~tak of mind and lif(' @ignified by the number sevcn we hu\e c11njunctio11 \lith divine omnipotence, an<l thence we are supplied, through the W ord, with supcrhumun strcngth against our spiritual ach·crsariœ. To rcpresent this to the very lifc, we r end that, at the siege of J cricho, tie\·en pricsts wcre commancled to bear sevcn trumpcts of rams' horns, and the ark of God, and, followed hy all the pe-0plc, were to make a circuit nroun<l the walls of the city on scven successive days; but on the soventh dny they werc to compass the city seveu timcs. Then t)l(' "ails thereof fell, and the eity and its inhnbitants were destroyc'I (J0:-h. vi.). Grievous temptations, and their duration,-<>r full States of trinl nnd suffering,-are usuaJly signified by the numbcr forty, which i.s n compound of four multiplicd by ten, dcnoting fulnes.~ and conjunc· tion; for, by the endurance of temptntions, goodness and truth nrc conjoincd in the soul Tbe same is signified by t\\ice forty, or ci~hty, and, in a grcatcr degree, by four hundred, which is a compound of forty multiplicd by ten. Thus, to reprcscnt the trials and temptations which the Christian will cxporience in the course of his regeneration, th<.> children of Isrncl were mimculously lcd forty ycnrs th1·ough the "ildcrncss (Dcut. \'ÜÏ. 4). ~imilar states of affiicting trial were i-iguifit•d by the i;olcmn fast of ~roses on Mount Sinaï for forty days ami forty nights ( Dcut ix. !) ; x. 10); by the forty days of suffering (')\· clured by Elijnh; by the forty days in whid1 the pro11het Ezekiel \\tu> rommnnded to bcar, reprcsentatively, the iniquities of the hou!'e of r~rnel (Ezek. iv. 6); and, lnstly, by the forty days in which the LmJ cuclured his grieYous temptntions in the" ildcrnes.5 (.Matt. iv. 2). Tho strrngth of " fourscore ycnrs" is, thereforc, describcd tlll being "labor tul<l sorrow" (Pl!. xc. 10); and the chil<lrcu of Israel arc, from thÛI



signification, said to have bcen afliicted in Egypt "four hundred ycnrs" (Gen. xv. 13; Acts vii. 6). Weights and mensures are eruploycd in the "\Vord of God lo signify quantity and quality as to the subjccts of which they are predicated, or to denote the estimation in which they are held. In general, weight has relation lo good 111 and itsquality, and, in an opposite sense, to evil,-thus to statcs of things in refcrenco lo the will; and mcasure has relation to truth and its quality, and, in an opposite scnse, to fülsity,-thus to states of things in reference to the understanding. This brief signification of weights and mensures, and their application, will at once enable us to perceive some of the deepest lessons of divine wisdom eontained in the 'Yord. By weights and mensures are signified, in refcrence to the soul, rules and explorations, and just judgment as to the quality and chnracter of the mind and life. Thus in Leviticus, among other divine laws, we are supplied, in the spiritual sense of the 'Yord, with a divine rule for self-examination, which, if any one conscicntiously applies lo the inward states of his soul, will bring down the strictcst justice and judgment into all his words and works. Nothing is so common as for men to rleceive themsclves in regard to this important duty. I t is seldom performcd as it ought to be, ai.d is often substituted by vain and powerless aeknowledgments of sinfulness, uttered, perhaps, in words of R oly 'Vrit, but unfelt, as not being the rcsult of prnctical acquaintance with the inward states of the heart. If sins are lo be remitted, however, they must be put away by repentance; and how can they be removed unless they are seeu? 'Ve are too frcquently se1f:si1tisfied with the delusive and dangerous notion that we are no worse than others, while the evils within us are only conccaled by a fair exterior,-honest before men, but unjust in the sight of God,outwardly "whited sepulchres, but inwardly fi.lied with dead men's boues and ail uncleanness" (.Matt. xxiii. 27). Ilow important, thcrcfore, wheu considered in its ctcmal menning, is the divine lnw of · mental introspection to which we have alludcd, and in which the Lord wlemnly warus and exhorts us ns follows: "Ye shall do no unrigMeousness in judgmcnt, in mete-yard, in wcight, or in mensure. Just balances, just wcights, a just ephah, and a just hin shall yc have" (xix. 35, 36). Instructing us that if, without sclf-<lcception, we would
m "ln F.l?)·pt, the Yesscl of elay weighed ""ription oftheroanu~rlpt<lf'.l'enlaml)'Un."­ upon the b«lance of the Jud;:ment of l!Oulq J'rn"tal. )'œ Rril. Mag., Yol. xx1., p. 520. See represent• the decea.•cd"s &laie "' goori, of Al'PE.'IDIX, Egyptian JJiff"oglypltici. love, and of picty; a.s ls proyed by the ln·




attain the just measurc or quality of an ange!, and the standard weight of the balance of the snnctuary, we mu~t not only examine the qunlity of our words nnd decds, but of our desircs nnd thoughts, our persuasions and intentions, our motives and ends of life. The exploration of the church in general, so as to nscertain the quantity and quality of truth and goodnC$ therein, aud thence to examine the inward stntes of the wol"l!hippers, and the intrin~ic >alue of thcir worship, in order that revelation might be made, i8 nlso <leseribcd 1111 follows: "1 lifted up mine eycs again, and looked, and behold a man with a measuring line in his hnnd. Then said I, Whither goest thou? And he said unto me, To men.sure Jerusalem, to sec" hat is the lJreadth thercof, and what is the length thercof" (Zceh. ii. 1, 2). And the same things are signified by thcse worrls in the Revelation, "And tbere wns given uuto me a reed like uuto a rod: ami the ange! stood, Eayiug, Ri."C, and mcasure the temple of Gor!, and the altar, and tbem that worship therein" (xi. 1). This mensuring-line and rced serve likewLoe to point out our own individual dutiœ, and the means of pcrforming them, whcther they a.re moral or religions. By those hl'.nrt-scarching truths of the Holy Word, which exhihit to us our inward character, we can try our thoughts, explore our motives, and nnalyze our affections, nnd thus discover with certainty the extemnl charactcr of our words and works. 'Vhen, tl1ereforc, the church was brought to its consummation or end, by the profanation of al! the hcavenly principles of goo<lnes:1 and truth; ail the holy things of the W ord, signifie<l by the con1:ecrnteà >essels of the Temple, being applicd to evil purposes, Bclshaz1~'\r is dcscribed n.t his impious feast pollutiug the golden YCSScls, and then, it is snid, thcrc "came forth fingers of a man's hand, and wrote upon the plaistcr of the wall of the ki11g't1 palace,'' to rcprcscnt the divine exploration nn<l judgment, as re,·ca.lcd in the very lctter of God's ord; "hile, to &ignify thal the extcrnal church "as totally dcstroyed, becau!'e thnt within it ail truth and goo<lness hnrl lx.'011 profanefl and adulterntcd, nnd its quality in the divine sight was only that of falsity and cvil, in ail the varions dC"grcœ of the minds of its prof~sors, "this wn.s the writing that wns "ritteu, MENE, ~mi< J·:, 'l'J;KEr., UPHARSIN" (Dan. V. 2.5-27), uumberc•l, weighed, divid~l. 1Y11mbered as to truth, which was foun<l to be nwfülly corruptcù; wcigheil as to goodncs:s, whieh wns diseowrccl to be hypocritical and dcfilt'<I; rlit>ided or di..;joincd from the Lm! ami hcm·cn, )1('('1111<;0 füith 1111<\ c·harity wcrc :«·parntcd, and ah<lut to perish, in 11 hich c:~ the 1·h11rC"h nmst C'Cll.<e Io cxi,t on eil.rth. And





111ch mtIBt he the awful and miscrnble cloom which, aftcr death, will most ru;sure<lly be pronouncccl upon :il\ spiritual idolaters who, from the inward loYe of evil, had profaned the holy truths of religion, and hnd impiously npplied them to their own scnsual and selfish purposcs, and had likewise defilcd nnd per,·erted eYery principlc of gooclness, love, and charity,-those golden vesools of the Lord's snnctuary,-by hypocrisy, deceit, ambition, and pride. Mention is oftcn made in the W ord of musical instruments, in conaequence of their correspondence, which depends upon the difference in their sounds.112 These are of two kinds, namely, stringed instruments, the solid parts of which are composed of soft wood, as the lmrp, psaltery, lyre, etc., und wind instruments made of metals, as the trurnpet, cymbal, etc.; of animnls' horns, as the horn, and of hollow wood and reeds, us the pipe; together with those in which the ôOtmrt is 1>roduced by vibmtory members being stretched over hollow cylinders or circles, ns the tabret, the drum, and the timbre!. In stringed instruments the sounds are produced hy discrete or perfectly distinct movcmcnts, and are more particularly prodicatcd of the understanding, or, rathcr, of the distinct degrecs of spiritual affection, and su ch discrete sounds excite \\;thin us the affections of truth; but wind or brcathing instruments, being capable of a continuons prou• Thal varlous passions, emotion<, 11nd af· sldn<'es to the production of plea>;ing sonuds; rections are more or lcss cxcitcd into activ· the afr whlch ever imrrounds us ls capable fty, by dJll'ercnt and eorre<ponding sounds, of conveying those sonnds, lnspirc<l, lndccd, i• the cxperlence of ail. Dean Shcrlock has in power, but unnltel'(.'() ln quallty; whlle ndvaneed an ldea ln accordance witb tllis to man ls given a •et of fnculties ln nothlng \"lew: more delightfully exercl>!Cd thau ln their "A dh·ersity of sounds," be says, "ls titted rcception nud approci11tion, tOgcther wlth hy nature to exprc'<~ and to excite very 11if· the power, by skilfully nrranging and <'Om· forent pa.idon•. Love, joy, admiration, dc· blnlng them, to producc an endless and sire, fcar. 1<0rrow, lndig11aU011, give some dis- ebarmlng varièty of melody l\nd hllnnon)'. tingulshlng notes and aœents to the very Man'sheArt lsstron11;wlthsympathetiC<'Ords, voice. And ~uch dlll'ercut nol<.'S will also as whfch vfbratc ln unl•on wlth the scvcrnl for<'ibly imprlnt •nch p.~sslons on onr mlnd combfnntlous of musical sounds; nor ls the ns they nnturally represcnt, and tbat many 1effcct thus produced accidentai or auoma· times, whclhcr we wlll or no; whlch is a lou.s, the 1!8.rne feelings arc always cxcitcd by grcat Sl'Cret fn nature, nnd shows nu unac-1 the same comblnatlons. Chromatl~ lnt1'ic, conntable sympatby bctwccn sounds and or a succession of ~cmiloncs, soothcs and rcJ>O"ions."-1., p. a;,1. Jaxes the •Pi rit; a hllrC"CSSlon of chord8, as ~und ls Internai to Jnnguage, Justasall'ec- fn martial music, roust'S the soul c\·en to tlon ls interna! to thought. Ileuce tonc, active excrtiou; pltlintiYe and mclancholy whlch origlnatcs lu them the all'cctlons of reellng;s nre awakcned b)· the mlnor m<lde; the w!ll, alters the scnse of words. How dif· tbe major mode and the dlstonlc ocl\le, the fcrent, n111\ln, are masculine toncs from fcm- simplcst arrangement, of musi<nl sounds, lnine toncs; the former lndicate th(' hnNh- assume an endlcs.~ varlety of exprC!'!lon, ness of the intellect, for which man i~ 1><~11· an<l, lfkc the oatural modulntion or the huliarly dlstinguishcd,-thc latter, the softn1% m1m vof<'e, excite varions emotfons, hut most of 111l'œllo11, "hich 1$ charactcrlstlc of wu- , 1i.111tlly inspire joy and gladncss."-Rtlli-,


"The Almlghty lins l\<laptc1l many •nh·

1 I'ubli<"




longntion of sound, have a more specific reforence to the will, or, rather, to the various degrees of celestial affection, sueh continuous souncls bcing those which more particularly excite within us the affections of goodness and charity. Pcrfect harmony depends upon the skilful union of both thcse kinds of instruments, and their association with the human voice, nnd is representntive of the harmonie union of the will, understanding, and life,-of spiritual and eclestial affections, when receptive of goo<lness and truth, together with the inwnrd exultation, delight, and de;ires thence rcsulting. And with these, for the same reason, bccause reprcscntative of inward states of delight and joy, singing und dancing arc frequently united. Thus, in Psnlm cl. wc rc:id, "Pruise ye the Lord. Praise God in his sanctuury: prnisc Him in thP. firmament of his power. Prnisc Him for his mighty nets: prnise Him according to his excellent greatness. Praise Him with the sound of the trumpct: prnise Him "ith the psnltcry and harp. Praise Iiim with the timbre! and pipe: prnise Him with stringc<J. instruments and organs. Prnise Him upon the loud cymbals: pnlÎ~e Ilim upon the high sounding cymbnls. Let every thing that hath breath praise the Lord. Praise ye the Lord." In this divine Psalm we are exhorted, in the spiritual sense, to render praise to the Lord, not only with the holy thoughts of the understanding, but with ail the pure and fervent affections of the wiII united in one harmonious concord. 'Ve are to prnisc Hitu with ail our powers for his wondcrful works of creation, rcdcmption, rcgcncrntion, and salvation, and for the glorious attributcs by which they wcre and still are aeeomplishcd. To praise Him with wind instruments is to celebrat-0 Iliru from the inmost or eelestial affections of love and goodness in the heart; :md to praise Him with stringcd instruments and cymhuls, is to exalt Him from spiritual affections of wisdom and truth in the understanding, thus to delight in the Lord, und to worship and serve Him from the harmonious agreement aud coneord of the whole miud. For let man, as to the complex fuculties of his intellect and reason, be eontemplated as like a stringcd instrument, as the psnltery, ru1d, as to his voluntary principles, like a wind instrument, as the organ, every note, hy virtue of his 11ereditary tendencies to evil and error, may be said, before regeneration, to he dllranged and discordant. 'Vhat, then, is the proeœs of regcncrntion but the attuning of ail the affections and thoughts, words and works, so that every string and t)ipe gives forth its npproprinte sound, and combines with nll the rest in pcrfect uuity, uttering in harmonious notes and melodions toues



songs of adoration, gratitude, nnd praisc, and giving suitable expression to the inmost dclights of the soul. Sometimrs 1>tringcd instruments or wind instruments are spoken of by themselvcs, as whcn deliverance or redemption by the power of divine truth is treated of, where we rend, "The Lord was ready to ~ave me: thercfore we will sing my songs to the stringed instruments all the days of our life, in the house of the Lord" (Isa. xxxviii. 20). That to sing to the Lord denotes to prnise and glorify Him is selfevident; and to do this with a timbrel, as Miriam did, after the wonderful passage and dcliverance from the Red Sea (Ex. xv. 20), signifies to perform this great duty of thanksgiviug to the Lord for bis abounding mercies, from nn inward grouud of heartfelt confidence and gratitude.113 On account of this signification of musical instruments, and their distinction into two classes, several Psahns, which have relation to • the spiritual affections of wisdom or truth, were directed to be sung in the representative worship of the Jewish Temple, accompanied by neginoth or gittith, which were stringe<.l instruments (Ps. iv., liv.); while others, which have more immediate reference to the celestial affections of love or goodncss, and faith thence derived, were require<.l to be sung upon nehiloth, or upon wind instruments (Ps. v., viii.; Hab. iii. 19).rn Sometimes instruments of music are spoken of in nn
111 Sec for Illustrations: Lam. v.14, Cor. xlv.15; Eph. v. 19; Ps. xxx. 11, xxx!il. 1-ô, lxviil. 2.'.i, bxxl. 1-4, lxxxvll. 7, cxllv. 9, cxl!x.1-4; Isa.. xxxl.3, l, 11.3, ll; 2 Sam.xxl. 11; Luke ,11. 82, xv. 25; Matt. xi. 17. "'.Yeglnoth, lleb., llterally pulsations, from a verb wh!ch •ignlfies to strikc the •!rings of a musical Instrument, either with the fingers. or wlth a plectrum,-e. qulll, or bow. K ehllulh, or more corrcctly, .YecillloJ,h, or Hannecbfloth, is dcrivcd from a root 'l\blcb sigoitlcs to bore or perfQrate, doubtlcss slg· uifylng wind lnstrumenL~ of some kioù, all of whlcb are fonned of bollow tubcs.-.<;ee ·aawe'1 TransW.tion#Qfthe Paal,,.., pp. 24, 27. Ncglnoth, Jlasbemlnlth, a harp with cight •trings. Illll!git.tith, the barp or Gath. l'hlgvnoth, a concert of various stringed ln,trumcnts. Shoshaunluo, a six-stri11ged instrument. Shushan-eduth, a ftix·Mringed lnte. Sorne Jlf'&lm• arc dlrectcd to be sung by •·lrg!ns, wlth the rci<pon"°6 of a youth; oth· ers by 11lwrnnte choruoe.•; others by voices and Instruments of the treille pitch; and othcrs were to be accompanicd wlth tlm· brel, harp, p'l<lltery, cyml11ùs, and tmmpcts.

15; 11 Ali bave thcir pcculiarand spiritual signifi· PB. lxvlii. lv!i. 8, xllx. 4, lxxl.


2"2, cl. 3, l~xxl. 2, ~; Ez. xxxlil S; Rev. I. 10, xiv. 2, xvul. 18; Num. x. 2.

Musical tones and Instruments are oltcn rcferred to by Swedenborg, asprœcnting dif· ferent corresponùences, accordlng to thcir distinct correspondenccs.-See A. C. 8:l:li. Berlioz, in bis work On tM Orchellra, Mys that "the quality of the tone of the trumpet ls noble anù brilllant; it •uits warlfke ideas, a.. aJso songs of triumph. It !ends ltself to the exprcl*>lon of a.li energetlc, lofty, and graml •enttments." '' The fable of Orpheus, who is sald to have charmcd ail crcatlon, monsters, rocks and trecs, heavcn and hcll, was most prob· ably at fir!!t a simple allcgory, dcootlng and dcscribing the orderly e!fœts of lnstruction in wisdom and philo<\lophy, ln morality and civil di!«'lpllne, and among ail dcgrecs of man, barbaronsand civili•ed. That whcn promptcd by lo,·c, it ls all-powcrful, anil in· tm<\uccs ham1ony at1d <'oncord lnto ail the nflltirs of the worltl, mental nnd matcriAI." ~<;cc Jrmprirrt's CIM. Dt<t., and Baco11'1 W~ dom q/ '"" Allclenu, Art ORPHEU!l.



opposite sense, to denote the sinful delight which the unregeneratc take in what is evil and fülse. Such insane pleasurcs, originating in self-homage, together with its enchanting persuasions, are signifietl by the worship of Nebuchadnezzar's golden image, which was accom· panied with all kinds of music (Dan. iii.). And it is to such evil and impure pleasures, cspecially whcn they arise from the profanation of what is good and truc, that the Lord alludes, where He says, "Takc thou a way from me the noise of thy songs; for I will not hcar the melody of thy viols. W oe to them that are at ense in Zion, and tru~t in the mountn.in of Samaria. That chant to the sound of the viol, and invent to themsclves instruments of mu.sic, likc David" (Amos v. 23; vi. 1, 5). And, again, spcaking of the self-intelligent, who despisc the instructions of the Divine Word, it is said, "The harp, and the viol, the tabret, and pipe, and wine, are in their [polluted] feasts; but they regard not the work of the Lord, neither consider the operation of his hands" (Isa. v. 12). The harp is a well known stringed instrument, often mentioned in n.a 'Vord, and signifies, in the internai sense, the voice of praise from spiritual truth, and thence confession, from sincere joy of heart, that all delivcrance from sin is etfected by the power of divine truth proceeding from divine mercy. Hence, in praising and bles.5ing God for victorious delivcrance from aJI spiritual enemies Rnd troubles, and the consequent elevation of the mind, together with the gladness and comfort of soul thcnce derived, the inspired penman writes: "1 will also praise thec with the psaltery, even thy TRUTH, 0 my God; unto thee will I sing with the harp, 0 thou Holy One of Israel " (Ps. lxxi. 22). This is the rcasou why angels are represented as haviug " the harps of God" (Rev. v. 8); for th us ail confoss Him with one accord, and from inmost delight. To rcprcscnt the soul-enchanting hnrmony of such acknowledgment and its attendant joys among the inhabitauts of hcavcn, the apostle says, "1 heard a voice from heaven, as the voice of mauy waters, and as the voice of a great thunder : and 1 heard the voicc of harpers harping with their harps" (Rev. xiv. 2). With this signification of the harp before us, how beautiful and in11tr11cth·e is the nccount we have of Saul and David, where we rond, thnt in consequenœ of obstinate disobedieuce "the Spirit of the Lord departed from Saul,'' nnd nn evil spirit was permitted to trouble him; but he commamlcd his servants to pr 0vide him a man who could play skilfully upon the harp. Aud David wns brought bcfore him, "And it came to pnss," it is said, that " when the evil spirit from
16 *



Go<l wns upon Saul, thnt David took a harp, nnd played \1ith lm hnnd; so So.ul was refrcshed nnd wns well, and the evil spirit depnrte<l from him" (1 Sam. xvi. 14-2:J). The sphere of such confcsFion, ari.qing from the harp of truth being mclodiously attuncd to our 8tntes by the L ord's prcscncc and providence, is truly angelic, nn<l full of power. Evil spirits, who can live and rejoice only in scencs of jarring discord, arc oxpelled from communion with the soul, turbulent pn..""ions arc calmcd, rcnson resumes the sceptre, pollntcd affections an<l thoughts are drivcn awny, despair nn<l g rief (\J'(' dï.;;sipnted,-so that the blessc<l angcls cnn drnw near to minister to man's consolation nnd joy, and rcstoro him, if he will, to innocence, intelligence, and fclicity. On this subjcct Swedcnborg's remarks are numcrous, interc.qting, and most edifying. Thus, in one place, be says, "Formcrly, in divine worsh.ip, scveral kincls of musical instruments were applicd, but "ith much di:;tinction ; in gcneral, by the win<l instruments were expres.$ed the affections of good, and by the stringed in~truments the nfll.>ctions of truth, and this from the corrcspon<lcnce of cvcrything sonorous with the affections. It ill a known tl1ing that by somc kinds of musical instruments are cxpressed nnturnl affections of one qunlity, by somc natural affections of anothcr quality, and, when suitable hnrmony conspin.'S, that thcy nctually call forth thOf'e affections. They \1 ho arc skillcd in music nre aware of thi», ancl also act accordingly in applying the seveml instruments to the purposc intended. This circurustnncc has its ground in the "ery nature of t1ounds, ami of their ngreement with the affections. Man learnt thil', at first, not from 8C'Ïcnce and art, but from the hcaring and its exqui:;itc scn,;c. Ilcncc iL is plain thnt it does not originnte in the natnrnl worM, but in tho spiritunl, and in this <'MC is <lerivecl from the corresponclence of thiugs wl1ich flow from <>r<ler in the naturnl worlcl with things in the i-piritual worl<l. llurmonious sound ami its varictie> in the uatur:ù worl<l corrc:ipon<l to statcs of joy and gladncss in the S}lirituul, and fitntcs of joy and gla<lncss in the i;piritual world exi~t from affections, "hich, in that world, arc the affections of good tmd truth ; hence, mm· it may be manifüi;t that mul'ical instruments correspond to the <lclighù> and pleasantnc"-"Cil of spiritual anc.1 cclcstinl affcctiom•, nnc.1 that somc instruments correspond to the latter nffootions, some to the former."-A. C. 8337. "As th in~ cclestial tlre the holy thin;..rll of love, an<l the ~ood things thencc dcrivcd, so thingll 1-piri• 11111 ure the truth~ an•l gond things of



füith ; for it is the part of füith to understand not only what is trut>, but al8o what is good, the knowledges of fuith implying both; but to be sueh as faith teacheth, is the part of the oelestial [principle]. Inasruueh as faith iruplieth the knowledge both of goodness and truth, they are signified by two inslrumenûi, the harp and the organ. The lrn.rp is a stringe<l instrument, as every one knows, and therefore sig11ifies spiritual truth; but tho organ is bctweeu a stringed instrument nn<l a. wind instrument, and thcrcfore signifies spiritual good. "In the 'Vord mention is made of various instruments, and euch hns its partieular signification, as will be shown, by the divine mercy of the Lord, in its proper place. At present we shi!-11 only adducc some passages from David in relation thereto, as, for instuncc, ' I will ofl'cr in the lent of Jehovah sacrifices of slwuting, I will sing and play to Jehovah' (Psahu xxvii. 6). Where hy tent is cxpressed what is celestial, and by sbouting, singing, and playing, wbat is spiritual. Agnin, 'Sing to Jebovah, ye just, for his praÏtic is eomely for the upright; confcss to J chovah on the lvirp, play unto Hiru on the psaltcry, an instrument of ten strings; sing unto Him a new song, play skilfülly with a [O'IJÀ noi.w, becnuso the Word of Jehovah is right, an<l all his work is in truth' (Ps. xxxiii. 1-4), signifying the truths of faith, whereof such things arc predicatc<l. Things spiritual, or truths and the good things of faith, wero celcbratcd by the harp and psaltery, by singing and the likc; whcrcns things holy, or the celestial things of foi th, were celebrated by wind instruments, as trumpets and the like; hence so many instruments were uscd about the Temple, and it wns ordained so frcquently that this or that should be cele" bratcù with particular instn1mcnts, and this was the reason why instruments wcrc applicd and undcrstood to signify the things themselvcs which were cclebratcd by them. ns in the cases now before us. Aga.in, 'I will confess unto thee with the instrument of psallery, thy truth, 0 rny God; unto thee will I play with the harp, 0 thou Roly One of Israel; my lips shall l!Ïng when I play unto thee, n,nd my soul which thou hast redcemed' (Ps. lxxi. 22, 23). 'Yhcre, in like mnnncr, the truths of foith are significd. Again, 'Answer to Jehovah in confession, play on the harp to our God' (Ps. cxlvii. 7). In which pnssnge confession bas respect to the celestial things of faith, and thcrcfore mention is made of Jehovnh; whereas, to play on the harp hns respect to the spiritual things of fitith, and thercfore mention is made of God. Agnin, ' Let thcm prai;;c the na me of J chovah in tht" ùanœ, let them play unto Him with the tiinbrel and hai71' (Ps



cxlix. 3). The timbrel signifies good, nnd the harp truth, whlch they praise. Aga in, 'Praise God with the soun<l of the trumpet; prai!;e Him on the psaltery and harp; praise Him witb the timbre[ and pipe; praise Him on stringed i11str11ment8 and <>rgans; praise Him on the cymbals of hearing; praise Him on the cymbals of shouting' (Ps. cl. 3-5),-flignifying the. good things and truths of faith, which were the ground of praise. Nor let any one suppose that so many differcnt instruments would have been here mentioned, unless they had hl\d su ch spiritual signification. Aguin, 'Send out thy light and thy truth, let thcm lead me; let them bring me unto the mountain of thy holiness, and tQ thy habitations, and I will go unto the altar of God, unto the God of the gladness of my rejoicing, and I will confess to thee on the harp, 0 God, my God' (Ps. :diii. 3, 4),--signifying the knowledges of goodness and truth. So in Isaiah, 'Take a lwrp, go about the city, muke sweet melody, sîng many songs, that thou mayest be remembcrcd' (xxiii. 16),--f!ignifying the things respecting faith, nn<l the knowledges thereof. The sa.me is expressed still more plainly in the Revelation : 'The four animais and the four and twenty eiders fell down before the Lamb, having cvcry one of them harps, and golden vials full of odors, which are the prayers of the saints' ( v. 8). "\Vhere it must be evident to every one that the animais and eiders had not hnrp<>, but that by harps are signified the trutlls of faith, as by golden viuls full of odors are signified the good things of faith. In David t11ey are called praises and confessions, which were made by instruments (Pe. xlii. 5; lxix. 31); and in another place, in John, '1 heard n voice from heaven, as the rnice of many waters; and I hcanl the voice of harpers harping with thcir ltarps; and thcy sung a new 81)/lg' (Rev. xiv. 2). And in anothcr place, 'I saw thcm that had gotten the victory stand ncar the sen of gl11.ss, having the lt11.rp11 of God' (ltcv. xv. 2). It is worthy to ho remarkcd, that angels ami spiritR, according to their differences with respect to goodnœi:i nml truth, distinguish tones, and this not only in the case of singing nnd of instruments, but also in the words of speech, and admit only such tones as are in eoneord, so that there is an ngreement of tones, con~ qucntly of iustruments, with the nature and e!tSellœ of goodnœs nml trnth."-A. C. 419, 420. · The Egyptian priests appear Io have bcen their musieians. Their flute wns only a cow's horn, with throo or four perforations in it, nfterwards imitated in metal, and evcn still called horns. Their liarp or lyre had only thrce strings. Tho Grccio.n and Jewish hurp or lyre



had seven, eight, nnd ten strings, probably somcwbat like n modern guitnr or lute, nnd was small, being hcld in the hand. The Jcwish trumpcts wcrc rams' horns, but aftèrwards wcre also made of silver and other metals, and wcre both straight and bcnt. Thcir flute wru; the same as the Egyptian. Their organ was an arrangement of pipes, similar to what are called Pand:ean, or shepherd's pipes; nnd perforated pipes, or flutes, sometimcs made of reeds, and were both single and double. The sackbut or psaltery wns, in ail probability, a triangular instrument, furnished with tcn strings, and struck by a rod, or by a plcctrum. Thcir other musical instruments were th(jjie of percussion, as the timbre} or t:tbret, a kind of tambourine; the triangle, or triangular rods, in pairs, both plain and chargcd with rings. The citherns of the ancicnts wcre made of bronze or brru;s, and werc furnishcd with bars and rings. Ilowever isimple thcse aneient instruments werc, thcy bca.r precisely the same ~ignification as the more complicnted and complete of modern times, for ail kinds are equally divisible into the three classes just mentioncd. Such music ns the Jews had at their command, singing and even clnncing, appcars to hnve bocn intcrwoven into ail thcir religions festivals and ceremonies of worship, and this could only have bccn from thcir correspondence. Both cheerful and moumful singing and dancing are often spoken of in the Word, to denote and express inward joy, and its corrcsponding dclight, in the external mind; for "joy of heart finds uttcrnnce in singing, because when the hcart is full of joy, and thcnce the thoughts also, it tltcn pours itself forth in singing" (Ap. Ex. 326). This gladness nnd joy are not derivcd to man from the uatural world, or from mere scientifie skill, but from the spiritual world, by perception or intuition ; the extcrnal sounds and their harmonious or mclodious combinations being the corresponding base on which they rcst, and by means of which the affections are brought forth. Choirs for comlucting the praiscs of eongregations in public worship, thcrefore, ought to be pious and intelligent persons, who, themsclvcs, inwardly focl and respond to the appropriate tunes and mclodies which they introduce; and then the congregations will be greatly nided in thcir united responses of satisfoetion and delight. Like the true poet, the rnaster of music also owes bis pcculiar skill to an inferior kind of in~piration or spiritual intuition. The prophets frequently accompanied their plenarily-inspircd songs and predictions with the melody of musical instruments.

\Il •



LL kin<ls of animah; ha,·e their peculiar corrcspondcnces, iu agreement \\ i~h thcir fol'lns, charactcrislics, and uses; for they ail dcrivc thcir existence from spiritual caut1e.s, and, by virtue of their instinct, arc in momontary counection with the spiritual world. In the W or<l of God the bcnsts of the earth-the tame and useful as wcll as the wild and ferocious, the clenn and the unclean-corrcspond, in geneml, to various good or evil aO'cction~, acconling to their orders and qualities, and the subject of \\ bich thcy arc predicated. The birds, or wingcd tribcs of animais, di:1tinguished by thcir nstonishing •1•1i<:kncss of sight,-both clcan auù unclcan,-ngrecably to thcir rœpcctivo gencra. and char acters, and the suhject treatc<l of, correspond to the vnrious kin<ls and dcgrees of thought, reason, intcllii;euce, and the power of understanding, and are prcdicatcd both of what is holy nnd what is profane. For thc~c faculties and thei r attainrnents im1uirt to ruan intellectual acutene~s and pcnctratiou, cnaùling him to fly, as it wcrc, with wings, and disport hirni;clf in the atrnosphcre of knowlcdge. The fishcs and the r eptiles, nccording to thcir respective forms and habitudes, corrcsp<mcl to those low cxternal principlcs of num's enrthly n ature, whicb, bcfor e the miuù is regcnerntcd, flit anù gro\·cl among :<en.suai ohjects and scllish pursuits. In the very charactcrit;tics of mnny animal::<, to sny nothing of thcir forms nn<l uses, \\hich are hoth goo<.l and cvil, tbcro is a striking corrc.~pomlence wbich is almost uniw•r:;ally n<lmittcd. Thus, how frc11ucntly are corresponding qu1Llitiœ of the mind U&>ociatetl with variou~ animais, or pnr ts of nnimals. In the ferocity of the tiger, the cuuning of the fox, the strength of the lion, the subtlcty of the serpent, the filthiness of the swine, the innocence of the lamb, the cruelty of the wolf, the voracity of the yulturc, t he nocturnnl propcnsities and powcrs of the owl and the bat, the soaring pow1•r of the englc, the rapid flight of the swallo\\ 1 the affection of th e tu r tlo for




its mntc, the virulent pollion of the asp, the dcnrlly sting of the scor· pion, the destructive propcnsitics of the catcrpillnr, the trcnchcry of the !!pider, the instructive prudence and imlu~try of the bec, etc., wl' may nt onœ rcœgnize the gencrnl corr~pondence of thosc nnimals.111 Who, ifhe rcflccts on the subjcct, may not pcrceive that the croaking of the frog reprcsents mcrc nthcistical rcnsonini,-rs ngainst the truth ancl authority of God's Word? This was the rea...0-0n why nmong the plagucs of Egypt one was of frogs, which came up and covered the land (Ex. viii.); and why " the spirits of dcvils, working miracles, and going forth into the wholo world," arc doscribcd as " thrco unclean
lll'l'ho nnmes oc mnoot oc the aulm&l> ln lie· hrew,and rrobolblyall, "~"' theroot> known, are cxpre,.,h-e or.orne or lheir Jeo.dlnr. quai· ltlet1 or ch8ractcrl>tlC", and the 60UU•I 1! derln•I trom thelr cries. "l'lcnn aud unckan lx'asts arc lntrodoced by the sacr:Jd wrlte111 IO ~lgnify the pure nucl
irupure a~orui of the people: &gn.'CAbly wlth tbc natural r1ro~11•llics oC the aulu1al• menlloned. ~ Ez. vlll.10; t.~v. :nlll :?."./Jdlnm11, Lev. xix. 31, note. 'l11e word traru.l•ted <Od:atrice ha• heeu nrlou~ly rcndercd ba.,llf•k, asp, vlpcr, hy· dra, CtC. One O( tJ10 moo \'enomOU8 )d11tlK ot o'lp<1rous SCfl1Cllfs appoors to be nw1111t.. 1t \\IL• lhOU<tbl by Dr. Dlaney ilAVC r('· e.·l•t'd Il< Hcbrew appellation by an noma1opi.ela, from ils lùalinq. "lt I> ll>cll known lhat the names affi2e<l to the d llTcrênlnuhn&.ls ht l'<'rif>ture nlway1 ex· 1•rctlll fin the original languagc]somc prumi· umt foaturo and ~utlol chnrartl'ri.tk oC the creaturc to whlcb tliey are apflUe<l (J>r. A. C1urkt). li i. au intcrc<tlng Cd.et, al,..,, lha1 uœrly ail the auimnl• amoog the llln•loœ hur namcs g!wn to tbcm whlch clthct&llu<lc to lheir shapc or tl1eir bablls.''- Bo!><rl•'• Orinital l llul!lr., 2d <'d., p. 6. "C-0rlain Il is that man combines lu hlm•df the J)tlSSlon• or ail Rnlmals, an<l tJlat whkh pn.>tlominall.>A, whctbcr trom 11ature or hahit.. \>(!rom('JI dlirplayed lu bis pb)-..ltl!t· uoru) b)' sometbh•R llkc the C~re. or lhc anhnal \\hlch i• ltt <'hnmccemUc. J11 a ml xe<I ftl'<embl)'"' phy•iugnomlot may füu<'y tba.t hc traoos the uaturœ of the mmt artl\11 an1l rrud aulmahl. A11h111\lsdllfcr Crom mou in thl• re~pect, lua>mu<'h •~ eacb specl<·• ma>· be 'llld 10 flOfl«» only nne klnd oC •1<111.''-,<lt_ Pian!• JJarrrll)Jlia Q/ ;Yal1trt, \'OI.

of IM /Jibl,, Art.. Fox.

Oritlttal /Uus., fi. l'l'l, and Ilurrlia 11-ai. /lut.


U,1•. t. Amoug the Hindoœ, an artl\JJ, ln·arhrrou' 111J111 ls called a jackal, an animal in hahll' •ml pro1ieuslties akln IO the fox, and ls •1111r~•l IO be o fleu meant ln the Wonl b~ the orls lnal ~ tra~lat..'d /= ~ee Rol>cr/#1

"The Bibl<', throll!'bout,cnntaln• ~urathe reprc•<mtallnns of the pBl!!lnns and alîection1 in mau, by the applkalfon or the propcnsltl~~ and nOœtlon• oC anlmaùi. Jt ls a wny of earryiug l11formnt1011 mœt pow<rl\Jlly lllu~tm• 1 Uve.' -J1'it<nn11, ficn. Hi., note fi. , "The p•Jr'U<'"' of valu knowledgc are llkc owt..,-!!bat'JHighwd ln \anlty, a11d bllud al the &pfll"l"Ch of true U~hl.''-Jlla... "A!!\'118 or Athens. n~ronllug Ill .\ndrollon, wa.s or the ~crpcnt brt'tXI, 1. e., circumBpecl, or prudwl, nnd the first king of the country \ llerod., 1. vlll .. c. 41), and rnodorw. .ay• that thlll a c1rcum.tanN <l<'Cmcd b)' the A1he11lan• l11expUcable: tbatac>me btld rneutioucd ('On!'emlng Cecrol'I. lhat be undcrwent & mctamorpbO'ds, lha.t M '""' rhal'l(}'!'I /rom n ONpC1llfnto amaR. Tbat 1•, rrom bt'lui; a scnsual!Nt, llke a bc1L•t, he bocame Yirtuous. Surit Wlll< the appllration or the propeu•Hlca oC animais 10 •lllDlfy the llkc propcnsltl('l! ln man~"-lb., J..e\ ". xix. 31, note. 8ce abo AP.. PESDIX, Jfrl.. "'P~.hosia. ":t&!cn, lrtl to the corruptions oc lhelr own hcart.-. arc (ü the l'Mlml•I l>ftyS). • C\'CD .... hea."1B br Core God.' •• • Th~rt1 "ns a moral. ns well ag n spiritual, doctrine implic<l ln the rrohlbillon oc certain nnlmals mnkr th~ law. llod'b people "c~ nul to """'mblo in tbdr manncr Ille pn.'<lnmlnanl evll teru· """'or m•ny bea..."lS, wbo, für thOS<l e\il tcm· pers, wcre rnnrked out M' lie and unckan. The flcr('t•n<"'" of some, the glut.tnny or oil» aud the filtlly, bruJe,orlll\'&j;edi>J>OIJtlou• oC the n.,,l, wcre to be held ln gl'Clltcr abhorreure tbau Uwir mere fleW, whleh, cntenng the moutb ,. •urb, • could ot\-er ilefile lb" man;' aud men, ll\·ing onf!f"r dominion or tbn'1C depravltles, are, t.bcreCore, more lm· pure lu the slght oc <Joel tllan tllo.«e bellMU wbich arc Jlllt'!C""-'<1 of thcm poo<lbly eau be, in the l!CIJMC of t)Je law.''-.scrk'a /Jor. &JI., PP- 246, 217, •n<l note.





t<pirit:; likc frogs, [procee<lin;;] out of the mouth of the <lragou, un.J out of tho mouth of the bcast, nn<l out of the mouth of the fal!'<l prophct" <Jtev. xvi. 13, 14). Or, ngnin, who cannot 1 ·ccogni1.c n horsc, ns de:-criptfre of ability nml [>O\\Cd Or, ngain, \1ho clocs not sec thnt the egi,'S of that malignaut reptile called o. cockatriœ, bnsilisk, or nsp, nrc corresponding forms of the gerrns of evil originnting in fabity, thu11 of sensunl affections in the hcart, which, if cntcn, or inwanlly approprinted, cause dcath; or if crushc<l, or made cxtcrnally mnnifest, bring forth the poisonous viper? Or, thnt the ~pidcr \1hich ·iug spins its go:-;~amer web with which it fabricntcs its filmy co\·c1 and snnrc from its own bowels, nnd stcalthily wntchcs to seize the unwary victim entanglcd in its me:>hcs, is n truc corresponclcnt of thosc cunning arguments nnd contrivanccs, grounde<l in trcnchcrous fabehnod, which dcrive thcir flimi1y substance, llJ}(l weave n mysteriou!! nnd deceitful texture, from mnn's own self-intelligence, p1·ompted hy the nrtful persuasions of hell, nnd with which wenk mimis are ~ucce""'fully deludcd and snared? Jlence we rend in the prophct this description of so dcprnved astate of the church nn<l the mind: "None callcth for ju!!tice, nor r111y plea<lcth for truth: thcy trust in vnnity, ami spenk lies; thcy conceive mischicf, and bring forth iniquity. They hatch cockntrice' cggs, and wcavo the i;ipi<lcr's web; lio that eateth of them dietb, nnd that which is crusbccl brcaketh out iutn n vipcr." Ami to dcnote the frailty, •lcccitfulncs.<1, nnd unworthiness of such fnli;e nssumptions, it is nddod : " T heir wcbs shnll not brcomo gnrments, neither shnll they covcr thcmsckcs 'lith thcir works: their works are works of iniquity, and the net of violenro is in their hnu<ls" (Isa. lix. 4-7). And Job, spcaking of the WC!lknc"3 and in-<tability of sclf-rightcousness, S.'\ys, "Tho hypocrite's hnpc shnll pcrish: whœe \ope shall be eut off and whO!'Q trui;t shnll ho n spider's web. Ile l"hall lean upon his house, but itshall not endure" (dii. 14, 1:5\. A •in)!le touch of truth db.'i<1lves the elnborate but flim!!y führic which rnnn contrivcs for the odious purposc of concealing his own <kfürmi1ic;; nn<l corruptions, nn<l ensnnring the innocent, 1tnù whero he rt>pos<•J iu fatal sccurity; but ho will 1>erish iu the r u in~ of the ùcccitful habitation he hn.-i constructc<l. So, ngnin, in a good sensc, n lion 11• atone timo i<ignifies the onmipo-· tencc of truth in defcnding the l.iord's church, whcro the motive is good, as whcre itis writtcn, "Who shall rou~ him up ?" (Gen. xlix. 9);
11• 10the1'-l!)'f>tlan bferoc:lyphla<, and the 11~e,i<lcnUythe •ymh<llnfJlOw~r:"omellme9 aculptures or Xhtc,·ch an<l Pe~polls, a lion lions arc repr-ntc<l as" lnge<l att-1 horned.



and on this account the Lord Himself w11s plcnscd to 11.SSume the nnme of "the Lion of the tribe of Judah" (Hev. v. 5). Ilut at another time, a lion Îll spokcn of in an opposite or bad scnse, to signify the power of infernal fülsit.y, actuated by a bad motive, whicb desolntes and tears and destroys goodness and truth in man, as in the Paal ms: "Save me from the lion's mou th" (xxii. 21 ). Among other spiritual blessings, therefore, promised to the membcrs of the Lord's true church, it is said, "No lion shall be there, nor any r:weuous bcnst go up thcreon; it shall not be found there" (I~11. xx:w. 9). As a further illustration of this part of our subjcct, we will consider the signification of the horse. This noble and powerful animal, so graccful in symmctry, so swift in motion, and so emincntly scrviceable to man, is very frequently spoken of in the Word. When the subject treats of man in the process of rcgencration, or is prcdicatcd of hea,·cn and the JArd, the horsc corresponds to the affection or <lcsire of understanding truth for the sake of eternul use, or the fnct1lty of making progress in spiritual knowledge rationally understood; and, in an oppo.;ite scnse, whcn the subjcct treats of the unrcgcncrate, or Ïll predicated of hcll, the horse corresponds to the desire of acquiring knowledge for the sake of self,-the love of self-dcrivc<l intelligence, under whose pcn·ertc<l and pcn·crting influence vain and conflicting rcasonings agninst truth, and in confirmation of falsity, nppear to be the rcsult of intcllectual inquiry. Every just description that could be given in regnrd to the form, the physiology, the instinct. and the varions qualities and habitudes of the horse, serves to dcmonstrate the corrcctness of this signification. The strength of the horse denotes intellcctual power; his fleetncss, quickne..."8 of intclleetual discernmcnt; his form, intellectual bcauty; his sagacity, intellectual perception; his snorting, intcllcctunl reasonings; his aptitude for the battle, anrl his fiereeness in the encounter, intellectual skill and contention; his hoofs are mentioned to denote the lowest scientifie principles or ultimato of the intellect; the color will dcnote the varions qunlities of the understanding; and when yoked to the chariot or wagon, they will reprcsent the power of the understanding associatcd with varieties of doctrines. In the book of Job (xxxix. 2,)), thereforc, speech and understancling are attributcd to the horse, and, in the Janguage of correspondencc, a pcrson distinguished for his intellcctual endowments, whcther hc employs them in füvor of truth nnd doctrine dcrivcd from the 'Vor<l of God, or in confirmation of fnlse principles derived from the infernal world and from his owu self-intelligence,
17 N



an<l,-abstractcdly from persons,- the faculty itself, is dcnomiuated " a horseman." If this spiritual signification be applicd to the horse whcrevcr it is described or spokcn of iu the sncrcd books of the W ord, from Gcnesis to t he book of Revclntion, we i<luill always have a consistent, intelligible, nnd truly edifying s<.'n..-.e. F or instanœ, in consequcnce of man's pronencss, by renson of hi.s fallcn natu re, to dcpen<l upon his own prudence and cunning, in prcforence to the D ivine Providence, he is disposcd to multiply und trust the vnin rensoninW! a nd prctexts of a pcrverted intellect, mther t111lU place confidence in the Divine wisdom and direction from aboYe, that in the spiritual scn~c of the W ord be is forbidclen by the L ord "to multiply horscs" (D eut. x vii. Hl). The divine declaration, "A horsc is a vain thing 117 for snfety: neither shnll
UT lleb. "a Ile.'" The Ilcbrew word for horsc senoe,o.confu...00 fAuta,<y.'"~<ltt -"V"'b.Qimm elgnllle• i\l!l<> Io erp/111n. A<'cordinl( to •omc of Jirtxlantt•. No. 13. A.n. 1">91. wrlters, the horsc, amouq the unlmnl hl<•ro"RlsholJ!I on the d11y of thclr <'<>n"'-·~mtlon glyphlN of Pythagom•, aplJe&red to 1ncao, ln have been wont to ride ou hor.t·~ covered one sen.'<', ltlo'QrJ1fam1. wlth white robes, to rel)n!"<:nL lhat which " T he elgui6<'1tt!on or a horse, as dcnotln1t \IC read in the Apocnlyp;e, ·The armies the lntcllcclual princlpli', \HIS dcrhcd from 11 hkh Rre ln hetwcn follow lllm r!<ling on L heancicnL church to the wise round about, white honres' (xlx. H) The armk" whicb e\'en into Grcccc ; hcnl'c lt was, lhnt ln de· nro ln hcaveu ;uc good and JtL't men and 8<'ribln1t the •un b)' whi~h I• "licnlfl<'<l lo»e, prelatc8, who, as lhco.c hea1·coly ridcrs do they pln<'<~I thercln lhc ~I of t11elr wl•d~1n dn!ly lhllow God ln nll gOO<l work<; who. for and lntclll!(tnce, an<I aUrlbuù.'<I to hlm a thls l'C&'"'°• arc <al<I to hein b<'ftvcn, 11(.'<'&tu.e charlot nnd Cour flcry horscs; an1l ln de- thcy 1.,,..c and M'ck aftcr hcawuly lhinr;s scrlblug the god of the •en, lnnsnrnl'l1 its hy all<l\'e; whenœ the ap<..,tlc Mlth, •Our con!!Cft was 81gnllled >el<'•U'l'!I in gcncml, thcy ven<11tlou ls lu hcavcu • (l'h!I. Ill. ~'Ol. T hC!<C al.o alloU<'fl horscs to hhn; henec, too, 11 heu armk.,., tbat ls, l!'ood aud JtL't prelates. fol· lbey deo<"rlbcd the blrth l>f the sele1u-e" from low J1..us whcn .. ~1.,·r thcy 1·anqul•h 1·frt'S the lntell<'f·tual prin<"l11lc, they fei~<•I a fty· ln thrm..celve« hy dl"<:fpllne, in thelr nclgh· lui; boni(', whirh wllh hl" hrn1f bul'>t 01>en n bont br ndmonltl1)11.'"-I>vrnn'111f on ·"irmJxil· rountaln, whcrc wcrc 1ll')tlus who Wl'I'\' the Wri, Ir. by iYoolt nnrl lltbù, p. 177. t-eienccs: nor was anylhlug cl~ sl~nlft"l IJ)• "On the (Jth Dl'rcmix,r, behoi:t l'riduy. the Lhe Trojan hnl'S(', hnt an artful conlrlvauf'<.• ;oon of the flultan of MOl'O<'<'o r<•le a white of th<' undel'>trutdlnic t•1 de.troy wAJI•; at hon.e. Wbcn ~ t'nmf.' lu •ll(hl, lhere wa.' a thls day, lndced, whcn the lnlelltttual priu- gen.. ral exclamation fmm thOIO<' on lhe rool!I, clplc lij dcecrlbed, &l(l'Cl'nhly to the rw.torn 'A \\hll<• ho1'8C !' Th~y ail tumetl round and r~-ceh·cd from the a1wil'11ts, lt ls usnnlly de· sm!lcd , and l.oceknnccl to each otllcr. nnd gt>n · ~rlbed b)' a flyini: ho..,..., or Pegn<u•, and eral joy l!l'cm<'<I t.o ~ difl\ls«d. The Sultan erudltfon by a fountaln; but it i• k111nrn rldca a white hor<t'. The color of the hn....e aca=ly le> an)· one thal hor<e, in Il my-tkal , denoteo the hnmor of the Prin<'<': white 1<enso, sll(nlll<.'2! the undel!ltandinl(, and that befng, of rou,..e, lh~t of Joy and gladness, a fountaln slgn!Hcs truth: t:<till I~ ts it and the othcr •ha<ks acconllnitly. Muley known that lhesc slimificat!on• wcre •1<'· r.mncl d lstlngulNht•rl th us: WhNi hc rode a rlved IÎ'om the anclcnl Church to the Gcn- rcd hOr!!El be had a hrnrctor 51\bre, whcn he Ules."-..t. (! 2762. ~e also Tt'."J. rode a black one, a mu,kct and i:unpowdcr. The bon.e, amonl( lhf' Hlndoos. wa• an. ln th<• AmbiaA Xlghl•thcrc i8 '°rotthh11(like cleolly off~rt'd in sacrln<'t'. Max Millier Mlys thls, ln commenll1111 on whlrb, .)Ir. Lane lhaL "thcrc ls an entlrc hymn add~ to menth>1L•, and J c·an al-.o Mnflrm, that the the sun Mn horse.'' Turk••llfnify a.1gcr ngulru,tany cla..., of th elr "Ac~or<lln~ t.o Plat.o, 'lhe ho...._, >litntned. trliJulArl<-,; b)' !s.~nlni; th~ l-lllr111.<'h 1•1per>1 of ina goocl -e1L'I(', rea"'u Antl opi11io11,('(1Un<l11g a rc<I ;•,1lor, ami 1ulch • 1•0 exhlfl!t the strlk· about thrvugh natural 1hlugi.; &nd ln a Led ing aud dnllil&tlc •00<·1Acle cfo'!l'rlbed by out



he dcliver any hy his great strcngth" (Psnlm xxxiii. 17), Ît! a most striking · form of instruction, in order to imprcss upon us the ut ter vanity of mere human reasonings ancl their inability to effcct our dcliverance from sin and to obtn.in the gifts of ctemal salvation ; the worthlcssness of sclf-dcpcndence, the dcccitfulncss of self-intelligence; that mcre intcllectual excellence and confidence are hollo" and dangcrous, mcre intcllectual attainment nnù power, weaknei;s itsclf; thnt foith alonc, or truth nlonc, is spurious and impotent, neither ('onjoining man with Goc.l or hi.~ ncighbor, nor insuring for him nny hcavcnly inhcritancc. Agnin, to rcpresent the contrariety which mu~t always exist hetween trust in God and mcre intellectual confidence,-to teach us that, ns the Lord's dclight is inscparablc from his infinite goodncss, so He cnn take no pleasure in man's urnlerstandinA", however clear, vigorous, and wcll stored with knowlcdge, unless it hc conjoined "ith purity of heurt ami life,-it is said, "The Lord dclighteth not in the strength of the horsc" (Psalm cxlvii. 10). To express a si.nccro and humble conviction of the irumfficicncy, the impotence, and the folly of men placing thcir depenclence for snlmtion on the selfish rensonings of füith alone, they are cxhortcd to turu to the Lord, to confœs their iniquities, and say unto Him, "A~shur shnll not snve us; we will not ride upon horsœ: neither '\ill we sny nny more to the work of our bands, Ye are our gods: for in thee the fatherlcss findeth mercy " (Hos. xiv. 3). And in nnothcr rcmarkable passage, '"13ome trust in chariots, nnd some in horses: hut we will remcmber the nnme of the Lord our God. They are brought down nnd fullen: but we are ri"Cn and stand upright" (Psalm xx. 7, 8). In refcrence to a fallen and degraùed state of the church, where her members would bccome hlind as to a right ùisccmment nnd use of truth, and to signify the oppœition with which sclf-reliance on intellectunl power must always be met, bcfore it is finnlly removeù; to rebuke that selfconceit which ever accompanies merc intellectuul skill, and to repreSl'Ut the tlireful condition into which those who cherish such principlcs will plunge themselves, togcther with the miserable punishrumt which
author, may, 1 conœlve, be more elfecth•e 1ofbaik Crom olfthcir heada,eo thatthe aspœt thnn any words rould be.' In thla way the o!t.he crowd was euddcnlyrhanged,aod the blark fta1: ot the pirate bas be(>n l!elected. unlve~I white was consld..rably mlngled and the red tlag o! the rover. :>ext to the wltb ~and Mur. I wu murh i;raillled al 1\1111, Ule war ho,.... la the sblel<l f?r tbis bh.. <1Celng,e.-cn from alllstauœ, tbr rhlef ofthl1 inn..•• The f<ultan wore a jlTl'en bel'll-0..,.,, elnl(Ular em1•lrt. the roanncr of bls ma.rt'h, "lth the ho01l up. A man on cach •ldu unll the greetlni; bis peoplc."-Urquhart:• fünnrll hlm. Thl• hon<lcll people had thrown Pilillrt Q/ HtrCMlu. l><lck the capu of thelr ""1amo, and the Cold8




th<?y bring upon thcir s<ml~, but "hich nppearl' to their pcrvcrtcll imagination~ as the wrathful inflictions of a di\'ine \'Cn~rnnce, it is prophcticully said, "The 8tout-henrtcd are spoilrd, they have slept thrir slcep: and none of the men of might have fou ml their bands. At thy rebuke, 0 God of Jacob, both the chariot and hor,;c are eMt into a. dcad slcep " (Psalm lxxvi. 5, 6). "In that day, saith the L ord, I 1\ ill smite evcry horee "itb astoni1<hmeut, and his rider with mniln~R: and 1 will open mine eyes upou the bouse of Judah, and "ill smite e\'cry horac of the people with blindncss" (Zech. xii. 4). "Woc to thcm that go down to E gypt for help; and stay on horses, and trust in chariots bccause they arc many ; and in horscmcn beeausc thcy are very strong; but they look not unto the H oly One of Isra.el, neither seck the Lord! " (IM- xu:i. 1.) ln Isa. v. 28, the divine judgments t.hrcatcnccl against rebellions farncl, and to be accomplishcd by the agency of the heathcn nation..~, are thus rlescribed : " Whosc arrows are sha.rp, nncl ail their bows bcnl, thcir horscs' hoofa shnll be eounted like flint, and their wheelw like a whirlwind." Whcre by arrows, or darts and bows, nrc signified fülsc doctrines, from whieh combat is wngc<l; by horscs nrc significd things intclleetual, in this case pervertcd; and by their hoofs arc denoted falsity in the ultimates of an e\·il life. And nlso Ezck. xu;. 10, 11, whcre the inspircd prophet is spcaking of the <levnstntion ofTyrc, or the dei;truetion of thœc who depcnd for snlvntion on truth or füith alune, signifie<l by Tyre in a pcrvcrtcd sensc, and says, "By reason of the abundnnce of the horRcs of the king of Rnbylon, thcir dust shall <'O\"er thcc: thy wnlls shall shakc nt the noise of the horscmen, and of the \\ hccls, and of the chariots, whcn hc shall rnter into thy gates, as men enter into 11 city wherein is made 11 brcncl1. 'Vith the hoofi; of his hor.-œ shnll he trend down all thy strects: be shnll slay thy people by the swor<l, and thy strong garri"!Ons shnll go down to the ji;round." Unies>; ~piritual subjects are ineluded in these words, what can thcy mcan? " 'ithout an interior sen~. would they be anything but expressions of i,;ound, when yct every exprcAAion in the "'ord has weight becau~e from God.-8cc A. C. 7729; all'O Micah h·. 13. ln Re\•. ix. 17, we have a symboliral description of formidable Euphratenn horscs, scen in vision by the npostlc, in the spiritual world. Ancl from the signification givrn to hoN'<'s, we may plninly !'CC that they arc spoken of in n pervcrtcd ~nt"oe; that they dcnote ~ome di~tinctive religions doctrines, and the pcrnicious influence of thoso fabc reasonings which spring from evil in the hcart, by which they

are maintained.


In this wonderful vision these defiled and mischiev

Those who cherish them suppose ous reasonings are here disclosed. themselves intelligent above others. It is, therefore, the doctrine of
faith alone,

and momentaneous salvation thence derived, which


The understandings and here abstractedly but accurately described. interior reasonings of such as admit this false and fatal notion are
called horses, but monstrous in their forms

and destructive

in their


They are represented as having heads like lions, to denote their ruling fantasies and love of dominion, substituted for genuine

wisdom and humility. Out of their mouths are said to issue fire and smoke and brimstone, to signify that their imvard sensual thoughts, from whence their words proceed, are nothing but the concealed love of self and the world, signified by fire the inflated pride of self-con and the lusts and concupiscences of the ceit, signified by smoke carnal mind, signified by brimstone. They are said to have merely
tails like serpents,

having as their extremities serpents heads, to de


and represent the crafty fallacies of their reasonings, and to denote their cunning power to persuade and captivate others and the artifice by which they make the literal sense of the Word appear to
& t

confirm their opinions. And it is added, as the resulting effect, that by such perverted reasonings they do hurt;&quot; that is, they injure goodness and truth in the minds of the well-disposed, and dissipate
the importance of obedience, and the necessity of good works, as
essential to




this brief and imperfect exposition of what regarded as a most difficult passage, we have only to turn to Ezek. xxxviii. 22 Psalm xi. 6 Isa. xxxiv. 8-10 Rev. xiv. 9, 10 Deut.

For a confirmation of

xxix. 21-23, and many other places where these representative images are used, and bear a precisely similar signification.

But in a good sense, from the sagacity, beauty, strength, fleetness, and utility of the horse, we may trace out its direct correspondence, and plainly perceive that it signifies the faculties of the intellect in subordination to goodness of heart and life, the affection of spiritual intelligence, a living desire to receive, to comprehend, and to use the wisdom of God. In this sense the horse is frequently mentioned in
association with other animals,


is is



Thus, when
& t

He who
it is

described by appropriate phrases the sole fountain of wisdom and
this kind, to

intelligence revealed Himself,

by a representative of
&quot on
& t

the apostle John, name was called


sat &quot






and his and because the angels of
a white




henven reœi,·c nll their intelligence :mil illurujnation frou1 the Lonl b~· rueans of his 'Yord, the1·efore it is s;ni1 l that "The armics which werc in }1eavcn followed Him upon white borses, clothe<l in fine linen. white and clcau " ( Rev. xix. 11, 13, U). Again, in the holy feast which the Lor<l pro\·idc.'l nt his sacred table, the guœts arc to be "fillc1l with horses and chariots, with mighty men, 1tnd with all men of war" (Ezek. xxxix. 20), by which is signified, tlmt whcn mn11 is 1wc1k1re<l to approach the D ivine '\Tord, in full rcliancc on the Lor<l's merey, hc shall be re11lcnishcd with all degrecs of spiritual intelligcnce,enabled to approprinte all needfül kinrls of heavenly truth and doctrine, and is thcnce supplied with the requisite strength to vanquish his spiritual foes. In order to rcpre;-:ent the union of the love of Gocl in t he 11eart. with tl1e uttainments of wisdom from his Word in the um1crstanding, as the essential mcrliums of introducing the soul into n glorious state of heitvcnly dclight und pcacc, "a chnriot of tire, a111l horses of fire," wcre sccn in the spirit ual world by Elislrn, at the tran,ilation of tlic prophet Elijah, nnrl, in g rief on aeeonnt of tlic losfl of hi:; mastcr, hc cxchùmed, " The chariot of Israel, and the horsemcn thcreof" (2 Kings ii. 11, 12; xiii. 14). Elijuh, and nftcrwnrds Eli~hn, wcre 80 called, beeause they represented the interna! and external <(lllllity of the 'Vord.118 }'or such, inclecd, arc its outwar<l charucte1· arnl inward power, whcn its buming nnd Hhining truths and doctrines of life are received in genuine affection, and obeyed from a sincere füith. They elevato man's soul into b caven, and introducc him into consociation with nngels. They surround him with the sphere of divine protection iu e\·ery timo of danger nnd dh;tre:is. And coul1l wc see, with the org:m:s of spiritual vision, of which the org:ms of natund sight arc the truc corrcsponding forms, likc the young m11n who was alarmed for the safety ofhis mu.stcr, Elislrn, in the midst of infuriate enemics, wc shoulcl behold, with the elcarne~s and lfüti11ct11ess uf spiritua1 Jisccrnment, the nionntain on which he stanclil "full of horscs und chariots of tire round about " him (2. Kiugs YÎ. 17). Such nrc " the horscs a11d c ·hnriots of sal\'lltÎon" (Hah. iii. 8) which wait to conYey cvery .fü.ithful Christian along the paths of righteousness to his eternal home in the kingdom of Go<l. And to tench us, still furthcr, thnt the powers of the umler~.tandiug were 11c,;igne<l to be diligcntly cultivate1l in :tll kinù,; of science and kllowledgc, and that, in subordination to divine wisilom, t h ey arc to be consecrated to tl1e
"' Hence lh~h· nt1llll'l<, F.lijHh, n ldrony lhrd; 1nul Elisha, Gad lhat &111....



Lord's service, it is sui<l, " rn that day [of the Lor<l], shall there be upon tbe bells of the lwrscs, IloLINESS u~TO TITE Lorm" (Zech. xiv. 20). In the book of HeYelation, which is wholly cornpo~ed of symbolic writing, arranged by pk:nary inspirntion, even as to every expression, nccording to the seience of corrcspondenc~s. and which treats only of divine und spiritual subjects, "l'e re.'\Cl thnt the apostle John mu; favorc<l with a rnost magnifiœnt vision, rccorùcd in the 5th und (ith chupters, in which hc "saw in the right huncl of Him t.hat sat on the throne, a book, writtcn within and on the back side, and seuled with sevcn sen.loi." He wept. that no one was foun<l worthy to open it, but wa8 corotOrted with the a~urnnce that "the Lion of the trihc of Ju1lah" hnd "prm·ailc<l to open the book, and to Ioosc the seven atµls thercof." Ry this was significcl that the Lor<l Jesmi Christ, who is omnipotent and omniscient (Matt. xxviii. 18; John ii. 24, 25), knows and perceives the secrets of eYery heart, aud that to Him judgment helongs, bccause He alone, as the vcry divine trnth or \Vord, can rcvcal the inmost stattlf< of the lite of all men, hoth in heavcn awl upon earth. The opening of the scals, tber efore, was dcsigm:d to signify the revelation thnt wus ahout to be made of the intcrior cbaructcl' of ail tl10sc who approaeh the \Vord of Gotl, ru1 to their reception uml apprO}lriation, or rejection and profauntion of its sacrcù trutl1s, and the charity and faith which thcy inspire, 1 .ogcthcr witl1 the quality of thcir nnrlerstafülingl" and intelligence. \Vhen the tirst scal wns opened, therc issned out of the book a white horsc; on the 9pening of the second semi, there proceeded from it a red horse; on the open· i11g of tl1e Ulir<l seal, thcrc went forth a black horse; a nd on t.he opening of the fourth seul, there came out a pale horEe. .Each horse ha<l its appropriatc rider, euch of whom was dif!èrcntly equipped, und to each of tl1em a imrticular rlivine commission was intrustcd. Every single exprcS8ion in tliese chaptcrs, like the rest of the inspired 'Vord, bas its pcculiar significancc and application. I can only rliroot tl1e reu1ler's attention, nt thi~ t imc, to the mcn11ing of the horscs. \\'e have already m:\\lc ~orne remarks on the signification of colors, as dcnoting the qunlitiŒ of those subjects or things treated of; for eolor.i are occa8ionerl by the modifications of hcat and light, aml the reflcction arnl refraction of thcir ray~ by the ohjects on which they fa.li, 0 1· in which they are receiw~d. The colored horscs wl1ich procceded out of the book ns its ~enls were SllCcessivcly hroken, signify and rcprcsent various qunlilies of the unclcrl!tanding, and the wltolo



is a revel:.ition of the inward states of all who approach the Yolume of eternal truth vi"ith a desire to know its sncred contents. The wmTE HORSE and his rider signify the understanding of those who are illustrated by genuine truths, whose translucent purity is denoted by white. Thcse arc rcceptivc of a heaycnly principlc of ch:uity from the Lord, as well as a holy principle of faith. By the power of truth, when thns united to goodness of heart and purity of Iifo, ail kinds of evil and falsity are overcome and di.ssipated. ~fan goes forth, with the "crown and bow," in tlie Lord's narne, "conquering and to conquer." The RED nORSE and bis rider signify the undcrstanding of those who, while they receive the truth, disregard the goodness of the 'Yord and reject the charity which it inculcates; who, for selfish purposes, occasion contentions and dissensions arnong men, on the doctrinal tenets and outward fürrns of religion. In ail such, every evil passion and propensity prevails, and they deprivc the truth of the 'Yord of its vitality and power. They do violence to love and mercy, and deRtroy all peace from the carth. That a red color denotes quality 1\8 to good or its opposite evil, has been already shown. Hence, to signify the adulteration of all prînciples of good1mis and charity in the pervertcd church, she is represented as "a harlot" who had forsaken her rightful husband, "arrayed in purple and scarlet, and sitting upon a scarletcolored beast, full of namcs of blasphcruy" (Hev. xvii. 3, 4). And to denote the extremc perversion and corruption of all truth with such as violate its sanctions by rejecting the sacred principles of charity, evcn the Lord's vesture is dcscribed as being '' dipped in blood" (Rev. xix. 13). By the llLACK HORSE and his rider are signified the understanding of thosc who wilfülly oppose the influence of divine truth,-who falsify and darken its holy counscls by vain and irupious reasonings, and induce upon themsclves the gloom of eternal ignorance, but wl10, though they hold all divine instruction concerning what is good uni! truc in lightest estimation, indicated by the balances of justice, anù the proclamation of "a mcasurc of whcat for a penny, and three ' mensures of barley for a penny," are yet not permitted to inf'ringc or injure its inwal·<l sn.nctity,-" to hurt either the oil or the wine.'' The color black denotes the quality of such a state, for we have seen that it signifies t])e darkness and obscnrity of falsity and evil. By the PALE HORSE, and its rider, Death, are manifcstly signified al! who approach the IIoly Word, but without understandiug :my·



thing of its transcendent glories, because thcy are in confirmed states of cvil, botl1 of heart nnd life. Though they have a namc to live, t11ey are dmd lRev. iii. 1). They hear and learn the truth, urnl profess to love it, but uttcrly destroy its life in thcmselves, nnù endeavor to deprfre all around them of its healt11-r estoring energy and consoling influence. For paleness is the et)for of a corpse, and clenotes the absence of all spiritual lifo. To describe the miscrable r csult of sucb direful profanation, nnd tl1e hopeless end of such insane con<luct, it is eaid that "hell followed;" for persistence in so dreaùful a course conjoins man, here nml hereafter, with infernal spirits, hastcns the ju<lgmcnt by speedily and certainly füling up the merisnre of his iniquities, and plunges him, from bis owu free choice, into a stl\te of spiritual death. Sim.ilar things are also signified by the chariots nnd colored horses which the propl1et 7.Rcharinh saw in \"Ïsion and d escriood (Zcch. i. 8; vi. 1-8). N ow this signification of a horae, as denoting the intellectual foc· ulty, and the result of its active energie.<! and its powcrs of memory and reasoning, might be extensively illustrated and confirmed from the Grecian mythology. "The signification of the horse," says S wedcnbprg, " as expr~iYe of understanding, wns ùerived from the ancient churchcs to the wise men r ound about. H ow much the nncients excelled thé" mollcrns in intelligence may be mnnifest from this consideration, that the former knew to what things in heaven several things in the world corresponded, and hcnce what they signified; and this was not only known to those who were of the church, but also to thosc who wer e out of the chureh, us to the inhnbitants ofGrecce, the most ancient of whom dc~cribed things hy signiflenth-es, which at this day are cullcd fuLulous, bccause tl1ey arc altogether unknown; that the nncient Sophi were in the knnw ledge of such things is evident. Hence it wa8, that, wlien they woultl dc~cribe the sun, in whkh they place1l t11eir god of wisùom aml intelligence, they nttrilmted to it a chariot and four hon<cs of fire; and wl1en they would llcscribc the gocl of the sea [Neptune, to whom more power WllS ascribed than to any other god cxccp t Jupiter], si11ec by the 8ca wm; sig1lificd sciences <lerived from umlcrstuucling, t.hey ulso attributcd horses to him; and when they would deHcribe the origin of inte!Jigcnce nnd wisdom, or the risc of t.hc sciences from nm1er~tnnding, they also feigned a winged horse, which they cnllcd Pcgmms, \\hose hoof h rokc npcn a fountnin, at which sat aine virg in11 called the science;;, and tlii.; upon a hill." [The nine libcrul urts \\Cre



called muscs, eitlicr from the s.im ilnrity of their intcll<>ctnal 1mgm, or ùccause men, by inquiring of thero, lcurucd t he t hingf' of wh ich they hcfore were ignorant.] For from the nncient churches they r eceived the knowlcdge that the h ome signifies the intellectual principle of undcrstanding; his wing;;, the spiritual principle of spiritual trnth ; the hoof, what is scientific derivccl from undcrFtnnilillg, or truth in tlie ultimatc sense, where i:1 the origin of intelligence ; virginf', the sciences; a hill, unanimity, and, in t he fl.pirituul scnsc, charity; and a fountain, doctrine frorn which seicncc.'l are derivc<l; nn<l i;o in all other ca... <>es. [Miner,·a, the goddœs of wis<lom, is figu re<l on sornc medals as drawn in a chariot hy four borst-s. nfors, the god of war, is frcquentlr dcscribed as rushing forth in :i ch ariot rlrawn hy furious war-horses ; and Ocea.nus, o.lso, who prcsidc<l o\·cr rivers and fonntainfl, wa.-> drawn ùy fahulous se.'l·horscs snpplicd with wings]. Nor is thcrc ::wything elsc signifie<.) hy the T rojan horsc tlum nn a rtificia l l'011trfrance devised by their understanding for the pur pose of 1lcstroyÎnf! the walls. Even at thil' day, whcn understanding is dcscribcd aftcr the manner rcceived from those ancients, it is usual to figure it by a flying hors<', or Pegasus; so, lilrn\\Ï sc, doctrine i;; described by a founwin, imd the sciencœ by virgins; but scurœ ly nny one knows tlrnt the hor:m, in the mystic sensc, signifies the understundiug; still le:si', that- those significatives wcrc derivcd to the gentilcs from the ancicnt representative clrnrchcs.119-·W. H. 4; A. C. 7729.
"'"The sun si~il!t.'! the Lord as to h!A di-, T he scieulifoes, whicli at thiA <lay arc rAlkd vine love. nnt whcn the .seiencc or conc- philosophi<-s, SU<'h as are fll<ll'e of Arist<•tlC 'IJ()llclcuce• be<'llme corrupted nnù obl!Wr- nntl the likc, were unknnwn to them: lhi• l\tctl, the wofl5hip or the sun as nn iùol be· 18 nlso cvl<lcnt froru the books of the cnrlicr cnmc nlmoot uniYcn;nl. Many remnnnt~ of writcrs,~e\'crfil ofwhich nre writtcn in •Ltch sun worship mnr be trnccrl in the !lRmcs of terms 11s sll{lilficd, r cpr e•enlcd, 1u1ü correpl11«c<, lu mnny l'll~tolllll which 1Hl know to sponded t.o lnlcrlor t.hini;s. Thnt this was hn1·e exbtcd, and in mo11y which o.rc ~till the c>nsc ma)' l>e manlfcst lrom the follow!ng 01"'cn·<'1\. Wc hRVC l'lmulny, os the vnlgar cori.'lidcrntlon•. nmouw;t.otheN whicb mii;hL unmc or the 1ir.st dlty of the wcct. Frout be 1 nentio11c<l, viz.. t hat th~r l\~f"nert tn thlg arooe lhe cnsll>tn of making houfirc-s on Hclicon n pince on a monuui!n, nnd by lt the llrst night of ~rnr (.llül't'is·a Tr1la111l, pp. thcy meanl he1wcn; thllt lhcy 11!1.•ign cd to 20, 23), end the 111Jorlglncs of lreland ciL!l the I'arna.•su., n pll\.<'c hcncnth (lll n Mil, utH1 hy prevlou; cve, 'l» B~ultlnc; or the 'do~· of it they rnc·nut ~clcntiflcs; thl\t they nsscrk<I Th•l1>u's lite.' The won! lllll.ein is al.o a unme t hut 11. flying h oNC, which they cnlkd l'c·g· gh·en t.1 n fair hehl in rc~bll's, in S<,<1Un11d, O.Slll!, did ther\l break 0 1ocn a fonutain wlth nt the bci:iuning or }lR)'. nnd is sai1l to ~ii,~ his h lK>f; th11t they <'Rllcd tlw ><:icnecs \·!ruify 'the fcast of tho snn; wl1ich wn~ ont·1• gins, nud so forth; for lh<'y lmew from cm· oh:ll;rvcd 11.t th..t sc>UOl\."-L<lw;on'& Dis., p. r C8!10tldences und rc1;rc•cntntivc~. thal n 277. m ountnin <lt•rrnted hca 1 ·en, thnt n hlll ile" It !s to be 11oled th11t the ~cientitics (lf the Hot.cd l hnt hc~"cn w hieh I~ h~m:uth , or anclent~ were n\t.o\;elher other thnn Ille l'<'i- whleh ls wlth mnn, t hnt " hor..e 1lc11otcd entifo1·~ A.t thi• doy; th1•y lrcitt.cd c"mccrning llw h1tell~l1111l prlndplc, thnt Uie wlngs the rorreoopontlrnee•of thini,"< ln the n•<tuml w!lh wh ich hc flcw 1 vere splrll.llnl tlJlng<, worltl wlth thini:;s in the .~piritmLI '">rl<l. lhat .. hQO! Wl\J! the n11lural prlncipl~. thnt

CORRESI'O. V DRNCR OF TllE Af."f.l!Al TrOR L n .


The ITindoos attribnte sc\•en horscs to tlie sun. The Oriental na· tions, wl10 worshippc<l the sun, not only rcprcsented him ns riding nlong the sky in u chariot drawn by the fleetest and most beantifül horscs, to eommunicnte his light and warmth to the world ; but, when nll idea of corrcs1 xmdcncc was lost, t11ey consccrated to the sun the fi nft't stcc<ls and chariots, and, as the sun arose, rode to the enstcrn gntœ of thcir cities to pay thcir homnge. The .Jcws nt one timc bccame infcctcd \dth tl1i;; !>pccics of idob try; for we read thnt .Josinh " took away the horscs thnt the kings of .Tu<lah (his predcccssors] had giron [or con~ecrated] to the sun, at the entering in of the houso of the Lord [or the court of the temple to\vards the east], nJHl burned
a foun~'ltn was lnt~llig,'11«~. an<l th11t the tb= \'ll"l:lllB, who w~re ra.!lc<I Chnrit«, \ft•t'C' th<> nffcctiom or good, antl that tht' \"irgiu>, who were n1Uned lhe \"ÎrgiM of Ill..'lkon and Pamas.o;;11.-'- wcre the affect:fons or truth. l n likc manner they AASign~d to th~ sun horscs, wbo.e mcat they cnllcd arnbro~IA, 1 rnd drink ncct11.r ; fi>r t hey kncw thu.t the Blln slgnrncd cek•tîa l lo\'e, horse• the i11· t.JJC('lunl things which nre t hence der!vcd, and th11t meii.t. ~ signify celc•tinl thfüi,••;. a nd i rlub >piritu& l, ny derin•tion from the an<:ienl8 al>0, it i8 •till & ~11.<tt>m L hl\t k lngs, ai the!r roronatîon, •hould >lt 11po11 a. siher 1brone, shonld be cl~tl iu a pu rp le robe, he 1rnolnLCd with oil, iJwuld wear 011 thelr heads a n own , and carry ln thcir ha nds a S<-eptr~, n sword >1nd kcys, sh ould ride iu r o}"al pomp on a white h <:>roe, 11nder whosc f•'CI sl1011ld be hoor~ o f ~llvN, a nd should lie wn! t<.'<l o n >1t llll!lc by the mo<;t tt•pectahle JlC'""'un-:es of tlID kingrlom, lx'sldes othcr L"<>remonies: f or they knew tht\t a k ing rep1'-"elll<'<l the dl\1nc trot.Il whkh i» Crom the divine 1.,'00<!, nnd b~ncu lhey lrnew what l:s signlficd by a silver throne, a pmvle robe, anoinLiug oil, a crown, a ;.;:t·c1•tr<\ n. sword, kcyo, a. white horse, hoof.~oCsilver, and belng wa.lted upon Ù}" the 11100.t r..sp<;<·tll.hle pcl'!Oon~'· Wh<> .at thisday i• in PO'<>&~lon ofthis knowlcd:... ~. and whcre are the scicntifics wh!ch tench it? T he 1Lbovc ccremonie.< are Cllll(od emhlcmntîcnl, !rom an entire iguorn1we of t>vcrrthlng rcltLtlng to ~Ot=Jlûlld· cncc 1111d represenll\tion. From thc!.c con~hlc~limlll it is me.nifei;tof whRt quality t he M!icnliflcs or the ancîents m~r>l, nml th a t lhose !lCientlfics lml th«m lnt<> knowletli:e concerni11i.:: t l!lni.::• 'l'iritunl and celestia l, the ver~· exlo!enœ or wh!ch al<10 nt this day '" sca1':clJ" kuo wn. The •dcutlfic<1 which >UC· ree-lcù lu pince of t he uho\"C, and which a re prn)icrly called phll-Osophlcs, r ather draw tl•e •nlml nway rrom tllo k nowk dge of spirit. unl nnrl cclestl.11 th inl!", becau•c they mny he applled n lso to confirm rai.1t1es, •Ulll li kewi•c cast the ruind into dArlmei;s "hcn trutl111 are t-unflrmud b y them, lnru,much M se\•en\I of them ur~ barc expression~. whcreby ('onfirme.tlons H.re cfttx.. 1.cd, w hi('h Arc aripr~hüncie<t by few, a.nd conœming whtch L•ven those few ar• not ngreed. Hence it moy flppear cvidcnthow J'a.r maukind have receùed from the en11Utlon o f the andent'I, which lcd to wl;dom. The gen tiles dcrh«:d the above scicntiflcs l'rom the iuwient <"hurch, the ex· tcrna.1 worshlp ofwhich con,L<te<l ln representntl\"C!I aml ~ignmcatives, and the intel'nal !11 those thiugs "hlch wcrc ropre.cnte<l >1nd •ignifled."-A. c. n. 491JG. "Roralt~· a.nd govermnent werc, from th e ~arllélll lllllC•, disting uishei\ lly symbolical trniguia."- J onca'a Mel. on Fiy. Lang. n/ &ripture, l'· 2'00. "In thc!r rcprcseutative procce..!ons, t1'e Cbinc'll slill carry, at the en<l oc long silvcr rodt;, ligures in &ilver or otrnnge anirnBl!I, b a u&, ><·ales, tlshes, and otber mysterlons thiugg."-Bemier: .Pinkerlon.'• (J)ll., ,~01. Yiii., p. 201. . "Symbols (in the Sacrca St"riptures] arc ottcn horrowe d Crom the lowur J)!lrts of cre-

ation, 11uch ns animais, lllouuto.inR, sef\8, riv· ers, and Ille likc. Aud the •lgn!flciHio n of
theni is foundcd (accor ding to the notion• wllich lhe flncients ha<l of lbclr nature., m11gnltn<lcs, 1~, etc.) upou the principle o r l\fl\llity R U<l ~imilitude."-Bi~'a Sign.s Qf Ull! 1lmu, A pp., p . 2111. Sw(-denl.Jorg Ms expouoded thr en ttrc Ilook of tho R.evclation, r.ienteuee uy ..,n. tence. ln two admirahie worb, ('Il titled, , Jpooo/wae Revet•l.e<l, twovols., autl Apocalyp se Jo:Zplaint<l, a posthumous publlcathm in six

·~nt"'l "~

l n a llruh m a.nic kogcnd, a 1lsh ls reprein1truellng Manu in ltl! flr11l l11cat· nation ln an kind ' of knowled~.



Lhe chariots of the sun with fire" (2 Kings xxiii. 11). Nor is thfa rccorded in the W ord merely for the sake of the history, but in order to teach us that all spiritual idolatry must be renounced and forsakcn, that the soul may hecome the chosen temple of Jehovah's presence and blessing, and that man may" worsliip Him," as the Sun of Right· cousness, "in spirit and in truth." The signification of other animais might be as distinctly proved as that we have been considering. Let it be admitted, then, that there is a correspondcnce between animais and the principles constituent of the mind, both in this world and in another, and we shall at once perceive the reason why animais were seen in the spiritual world in the visions of the prophets and apostles, many of which were unlike any existing in this world, and why the prevailing dispositions of the mind are, in the ·word, called doves and owls, lambs and wolves, sheep and dogs, etc. 'ye shall then read a lesson of holiest wisdom in the divine promise that believexs should "take up serpeats" (Mark xvi. 18), and "tread upon serpents" (Luke x. 19). 'Ve shall see how, in the regeneration, the varied affections and desires of the mind, with their delights, spiritual and natural, rational and sensual, are hrought under the benign, the peaceful, the liarmonious influences of the Lord and heavcn, in which "The wolf shall dwell with the lamb, fl.nd the leopard shall lie down with the kid; and the calf and the young lion and the fatling together; and a little child shall lead them. And the cow and the bear shall feed ; their young ones shall lie clown together: and the lion shall eat straw like the ox. And the sucking child shall play on the holc of the asp, and the weaned child shall put bis hand on the cockatricc' den." "The wolf and the lamb shall lie down together: and dust shall be the serpent's meat" (Isa. xi. 6-8; lxv. 25); also why it is promised that "a man shall nourish a young cow and two !'.hccp " (Isn. vii. 21) ; and why, again, they are pronounccd blessed "who sow besi(le ail waters, and send forth thitl1cr the feet of the ox ami the ass" (Isa. xxxii. 20). Y ou will at once undcJ-st.and, too, that the covenant which God is said to make with bcasts and birds nnd creeping things of the earth, means his eternal covenant with man's immortal soul, or with all the affections and thoughts and faculties of both the internai and extcrnal mind, represcnted by the varions orders of animais. Head the following inspired passage with this exalted view, and witlwut fUl'ther explanation you will fin<l it filled with bcauty, sublirnity, wisdom, and Iife, worthy of Him who is its Divine A utl10r. "In that day, I, Jehovah, will rnaka



a covenant for them [my pco1Jlc] with the bcnsts of the field, and with the fowls of J1eaven, and with the crceping tl1ings of t.he ground ; and l will bctroth thee unto me in righteousness, and in judgment, and in Ioving kindnc;;s, and in mcrcies. I will evcn betroth thce unto me in faithfülness, and thou shalt know tlie Lord" (H os. ii. 18-20). \Vheu the affections of the heurt rise towards the Lord, and manifest thcmsclvcs in the cxalted love of the neighbor, and wl1cn tl1e tl1oughts of the understanding find thcir true and permanent uhode in the same clcvated and }1eavenly principlcs, thcy derive their internai character and quality from the Lord, and are saül to be known to Him,-that is, acknowledged as procccding from Him; then, in the languagc of correspondence, He is represented as l;aying, "Every beast of the forest is 111ine, and the cattle upon a thousand hills. J know all the fowls upon the mountains aad the wild beasts of the field are mine" (!'~. 1. 10, 11).


rJ1 HE objccts and }Jroductions of the vegetable king(lom of nature,

l. of which growth, but neithcr scns.'\tion nor locomotion, iio prcdicahlc, nre, cqually with those of the anjmal kingdom, u~d in the Word of Ood ns the appropriate 1·cpruse11tativc forms anù cor1 ~poml­ cnces of holy and spiritual subjects nml ohjccts, or their opposites.1ie Thus, sh rubs and fiowcrs, herbs and trecs in genernl, "from the cedar· tree in Lelmnon, cvcn unto the hyssop that springeth out of the wull" (1 Kings iv. 33); "from the rose of Sharon to the lily of the vn1ley" (Cant. iii. 1); all "trees pleasaut to the sight and good for food" (Gcn. ii. 9) ; "thorns, also, 1md thistlcs " (Gen. iii. 19) ; ncttlcs and brmnhlcs (I sa.. xxxiv. 13) ; wormwood anù hcmlock, correspond to or reprc.oen t the countlcs.s things of intelligence, observance, nnù knowledf!e hoth true ami falsc, wholesome and pernicious, and to
uo Jupltcr'b bhltuc w11.s mH.<le of O.Bk; 11.nd T e.cicu" nttlrm> th llti n Germauy the lm~ges 11f lhc ~ods l'OU.Εltd of rude trunks of un· polisluxi oak.- l'oUcr'B Àntiq., vol. i., p. 1UJ. l •a. ,.l, 20. . Jtobust !s ftom the Lat.in WOJ(\, roPw.r, • tn•ni;th, an•l whlch is the no.me for an oak. The H cbr ew word for onk also denote$

In the nge when the science of correspond· religion \>e<'f>UH' corrupt<.'<l inlo hlolatry, u t.rccs wcrc the original tem.hcy wcrc alo;o the syrnl.018 plt.,. o f th~ god~; 1 or iRUl!:CS o f them; ami Llicir SC\'cral H ttrlhule• \\CTC cxpr-..d !Jy scvcr:i.l tl'C('S ." hich were 1wl'J)(;'lUt1lly appropriuted to thcir re· ~pcctivc dclLles, and cal!ed by thcir naml'S; e.ncl th<'rcfore llddresscd and 11.ppee.lcd to, o.s if thcy hll.d tbcmselves the attributes •.nd powcrs of thelr prototypes, to hear the covc· nant• nmde in th<Jir prcscnce, nud punish the vlollllot11 of thcm."-Dr. G/AJ•lcr R idley's Noies on Jltlampus, I'· 2.'>\!. London, 17~1. It mu•t not w overlook<Jd that plant~ nnd \'cgetable.~. inclmli11g thooc of even the moo.t n ox!ous klndR, l\l<e Lhc 1loctrin"" and trutJts ada11tcd to the variotL• nnture.l nuit 'en•u•l prlnci plcs of tbc miud IO wWch thcy currc·
l'llC't'S o.nd all truc

spond, arc cap11.blc of being o.-crrulcù for ui.e and ~crvice to nu111, os wcll ns being cnpnl>le of ai.use. 8uch is cspeelnlly the ca~ wltlt 1111 plants possessins medidnal qtmlltlc~. A ju~Lly cclcbmted nuthor remark8, thRC "îf a stmugor ho.d vi•itcd a waudcriug trlhl! he· für11 one propeny of hcrhalism WUR knowu to thcm ; if he hwi told the mYHgeR thlit Lhe hcrlJs whi<'h cvcry day th<•y Lrnm11lc1l u11<lcr foot were endowcd with the mo>t potc11t vir· tuc•,- that one woulll r1J1>toro Io h cn lth a l1ruther on the \'erge of dcitlh, t ho.t auother woultl paralpe to ldiœy their w!Fc't •llJ;C, Llu~l a lhlrd would ~triko lifek..,~ t.o lh<J du't Uic:ir m<N •111.lwiHL ch ampion; thnt tenr> an<l r 1md di;oeaS<J, madne..' a1i.\ rca· la.ughtcr, 'lg11 SQn, wal<efulness and ~le<.•ri, exl~wncc nnd dhsolution wcrc coî!ed up in tho'c unre· gatdcd lc1nes,-would tJ1cy not h1we held blm a sorcerer and a llnr? To ha\f the vit· Lues of the YCgclablc world rn11nl<lnll arc yct 111 the darkucos of the •a.vages I ho.vc .~UIJ· pœed. Thcrc 1tre fücultlc8 wit.hln Il~ with which certain hcrbs hllYe nn o.lflulty, nnd ovcr which thcy have power. The Moly of tlle nuclcnts wru; uot all a fahl1J,"-Bttlwtr'1 Zu11on1, vol . iii.



i.nnumcrahlc kiml.;; and degrecs of <loctrine aud persuasion wbich may b(;l implantcd, germiuatc, untl fructi(y withi11 the rnind, together with Lhe thoughts, perceptions, a11d a:flèctions whic11 belong thcrcto. They :\l'e, so to spe-ak, the outwurd emhlem;:;, the diversified forms, and m1tuml types of existences in the spiritu11l world and the world of wind. ThÎil mny, in a great mcasure, be confirmcd from the phy.>iology, colors, propol'tics, qualities, and uses of flower.':!, plauts, and trnes; thcir i·œpective productions, and the diJfenmt locnlities wherc tl1ey nrc found. Trecs, as whole, or in their oomplcx, denote such 11 rinciples a<' pertain to the entire mincl antl life, and ako .;uch us are thence dcrivetl, of a lower d egrce,or having a le.;s dcgree of spil'itual life, thun those signHieù liy unimah. G:uùeus, vineyards, olivo-ynrds, fol'ests, groycs, aud mcadows, J enotc various dCf, r rees and .;tutcs of intelligence a rrd wisdom, doctl'iue and kuowlc<lge. This is indicat cd hy t he Y ery names of the trecs in the represcutative garden of Eden, for one i.:J called " the t:ree of life," un<l the other " the tree of lmowledge of good and evil" (Gcn. ii. 9) ; h ence, also, we read of "trees of righteonsncss" (Isa. lxi. 3), and " trees of l he Lord" (l's. eiv. 16). The roots of pl:mt.s and trees, hidden !x>neath the ground, will signii)· tbe fücultics of ex ploriug the \Vord, and of acquiring thence, and retaining in the oubrnnl memory, whatever knowlcdge is co11gcllÎt\l to the mind, and desircd for its snpport, und also tl1e priuciple of charity w; the lm... <>e of genuine wi.."Clum; or , in a contrt1.ry .scnse, of pcrvcrting knowledge to selfish purpœes, and making it the ;;round of fonaticism and folly. W e therefürc see what is meant wher c the Lord, speaking by the mouth of hi.;; pro1'110t, describcs mnn dclivered fro111 bis spiritual enemies, unùer the ex1Jressivc nume of Amoritcs, and says, "Yet dœ troycd I the Amorite bcfore thcm, whosc height was like the height of the cedari!, and he n'a.~ strong as the oaks; yct 1 1lestroycd bis fruit !'rom above, and his roots from beuoath" (Amos ii. !)) ; and whcre the seed haviug no root,- that is, no grounù in charity,-withcrs away (Mnrk iv. H). The stem and the branches ùcnote the trnths or false principles themsclnis, combined or separate, and in the net of being confirmed (Ps. l x xx. 11) . Tl1c louves, whicl1 ure either perenniul or evergrecn, nrc, a s it wcrc, the organs of respiration to the vegetath-e soul, and d cnotc internai or extemal knowledge und doctrine; thus ulso fa.ith, whicl1, wl1en alone, is ùcscrihed as a t1~ with lcun~ only, and Îli therefore cou· <lcmned \ Mutt. xxi.19). The fruits which are the ultimale eftècts,

1 '



nnd the vcry purpœc of the vital fo cnlty, containing the serrls, in which arc the primary gerrns of a ncw generation, signif)' ail kiuds and dcgrecs of good and u cfol works, made rnauifost in a rightcous life, and thcir correspouding rational delight.:, or of cvil works, rcndered ob\·ious in a oorrupt life, and thcir corresponding r::en:;ual plcasurcs,-hc:wenly works, produccd from the pure and exalted love of God and man, or infermi.l works, fobricated from impure motives, promptcd by the love of self and the world. In these works are cither the elemental gcrrus of a glorious 11rogressiou iu the rieh hlooings of charity and faith, extending eveu intu eternal ages, or, on Lhc rontrary, of the multiplication of evil and folly, and thcir attendant and enùlesH miseries (.Jcr. xv. 16). Thus the lAlrd, spcaking of fuise prophcts :ind of fuise persuasions and doctrines, says, " Ye »hall k11ow them by their fruits. D o men gathcr gmpes of thorns, or figg of thistlcs? Even so cvcry gooù trcc hringoth fortb goocl fruit ; but n corrupt tree bringcth forth evil fruit. A good tree cannot bring forth C\•il fruit, neither can a corrupt trcc bring forth good fruit. F,ycry tree that briugcth not forth good fruit is hewn down, and cast into the firc. " ·hereforc, by their fruits ye shall know thcm" (Matt. vii. 16-20). And again: "Either makc the t rce good, and his fruit good; or else make the trcc corrupt, and his fruit corrupt : for the tree is known by his fruit." ()Iatt. xii. 33). Flowers of multifarions form and brilliancy of hue .;;ignify, in a good sense, intellcctual perceptions and tl1 cir i11definite dclights; whilc their variations, in qnality and degree, arc dcnoted by tltcir configurations, colors, odors, and other properties.121
tti The pœtielanguo;;eofllowers ls but au ' tbe slAl'S nbove them, lctl~l'l! for the gr~nt imnginATy 5ymbolism, which may be rc- niuue of the Eternal, whlch mortn.l< caunot gardcd as nn outbirth of their e11rre,qX>nd· ut.ter or pronounce. Eaeh mauif<'hi.'S to thc,c .inl'e, and h1dicatcs it~ los•. Thu~. Pr. Stan· hie omnipotence, wisdom, goodness, nad denmaier obscr,· cs: "Ou the earth, too, ln Ion: ench is a gentlerC\'Clation of the lld1y. luflnite numbcrs, shlnc forth the tlowers, the And as thou, 0 youtl1. haijt o. divine pri11cl gracions childrcn of the Spring, deckcd out pl~. can~t rccol,'lllzc, sct.>k, r~wrc, and love in oil the brilllaocy of colon!, wblle lhcy the God who bath giv~n lt tllee; so hnn1 .<hed thclr roll bnlmy breath, like inceme, these 1\owcl'I!, ln patt.iculnr, m uch to .ay to througb the air; and thesc lowly children, thcc. Cont.emplate ihcir imJOC-cnt nnture, O youth, hava they neYcr addrc•~d thee thelr stl!I exi8tcncc, their cnlm worklugs acln a soft. t-Ornlcr \'Oice? Oh! fl88Ur(>dly, God cord!ng to etemal laws, and con•idcr, morehath given thcm a language to address u.,, ovcr, how lo vingly they tum to the su n, and the Janguagc of flowetl! was cvcr, for how humbly thcy IJow liefore him to Imbibe r~flcctive mluils, a beftut\ful longue. But strcngth 1111d vigor and Jife from hls r11y1, tlu• mysterions •cnse, wlikh eve11·whc:rc anil to tiorrow ail their lit•tre from the •rlcn 1)('rva<1cs an<! mnnifests it.<clf tbrough tùl <lurofh1sbellm$. TMgrcalSm•, Dit'ineLIA't:, l'TCtttlon, \>hat lti it el5e huL n. scnsc o f the haLh givcn thcm tous lu exdte corl'e'<p0111l cternal and the divine? Ail ftowen.-those ing love ln onr l>rcusl•, u they thc1nsdvc•. luminous suus IK>Wn in the gra.;s,-nre, like in love nnd joy, tum to the sun, the source



Among the ornamcntal and usefül trees of paradisc wcrc tho~e "plcaf!ant to the filght," :<ignifying the ~rccptions of such trnths as werc designed to affor<l inmost gratification to the understanding and reason ; and esculcnt trees, or trees bcaring dclicious and nourishing fruit, callcd "trees good for food" (Gen. ii. 9), to signify the perceptions of goodness intendcd more immcdiatdy to invigorate and delight the affections and dispositions of the will. Ilow vivi<lly and how bcautifülly docs Swedenborg illustratc the truc nature of the divinely inspircd writings from the correspon<lences of the vegetable worl<l, in the following brief but interesting passage: "The "\Yord is Iikc a garden which may be callcd a hcavenly parn<lisc, containing delicacies and <lclights of cvcry kin<l, <lelicacics of fruits and delights of fiowcrs, in the midst of which arc trees of lite, and bcsidn thcm fountains of living water, and forest trees roLmd about Lhc garden. Whoever is principletl in divine trutlis, by virtue of doctrine, is in the midst of the garden, among the trces of lite, and in the actual enjoyment of its dclicacics and delights. 'Vhen a man i~ 11ot principlcd in truths by \'Îrtuc of doctrine, hut only from the literai scnsc, hc ahides in the boundarics of the garden, and sees nothing but forest sccnery; hut when a man is in the doctrine of a false religion, and I:ias confirmed its falsities in his mind, hc is not cven in the forest, but in a sandy plain without, where there is not evcn grass." "The man who leads himself, judgcs of that paradisc, which is the"'ord, from its circumforencc, wlicrc arc the trccs of the forest; but the IUun whoru the Lord leads, judgcs ofit from the midst thereuf, where are the trecs of life. The man whom the Lord leads i~ also actually in that rnidst, and looks upward to the Lord; but the man who lcads hirnself sits down in the circumference, and looks outward to the world."-T. C. I·L 259; A. E. 1072. Therc arc those vegetablcs, also, mentioned in the 'Vord, whose !!pccific signification depends u pon thcir productions. Such are the
worcl apvç, an oak; butiLfa moot probably ile· rivecl from u more ancknt souréè. In ilH•ir own Ianguaf:", the wonl Druidh means ir:foo 111e1'; others <lcrivc lt fwrn D'ra11dd, or Dar our Cy1'...'25 undcr a matcrio.l ima.g-c,corrcspond· "'-'!lddi the Hrjtlsh tcrm, from Deru:, or rnthcr ing to its moral [or spiritual] scnsc."-.M. à< Dar, the male oak. But !t i. a,,; pœ;sll>lc thut Oo11'rl!elte3: 1'rall.é. des Sf/mbol~. p. 16. the oak reecfrcd 118 peculiar nHme from the It was douLt]c..<;...i.; from the romains of the saereO admirn.tion with which it waR ?'€· science of correspondcnccs th!lt the Hndent • gar<led. Barilcl, tnmslutecl Dard, literally Phœniciaus and Ccltie Druîds J1cld the oak j s1i;nffi~ one thnt illnstru.tes, mu.ster of wIB· and oak·groyes in emeh vencration. ~omc I dorn.- lVUliam Owen, wrllcrs dcrive the woril Druicl from the Oreck

or light" [and hcat].-Symboliool Lnnguage (Jf /i'lou.'e,.s: I>uhlin Reulew, 1842. .. l•~1ch plant [in a goo<l sensc] ls the imuge '>fa divine thonght, whlch presents lt•elf to





rnedicinal plants, as the aloe and the balm of Gilead; the vcstuary, as the cotton-tree and flax, etc. Now, if we attentively survey the characteristics an<l uses which thus distinguish t11e genern, and even spccies, of herbs rrnd trccs, thcy will materially assùit us in percciving and confirming the signification of each. Nothing, for instance, can more fitly represent a weak condition of faith, when groun<le<l in the mere ap1lcarances of the letter of the Holy 'Vord, and, in an opposite scnsc, of rncre faith alone, dcstitute of ail vital influence and power, than the clastic but feeblc rced, on the river'ii bank, shakcn by every wind. Yet snch is the fulne.ss of divine mercy, that we are assured by tl1c Lord that He will not "break the bruised reed" (Isa. xlii. :3; l\Iatt. xii. 20) ; "He will strengthen the wcak han<ls, und confirm the feeblc knees" (Isa. xxxv. 3). In die opposite scnse, hy a bruised rccd is signified an extcrna1, irresolute faith,-faith separate from cluirity, and its weak and miserable delusions, on which no one can rely without danger. "Bchol<l," says the prophet, "thou trustest U})On the staff of this hruiscd rccd, even upon Egypt, on which if a J11im lcan, it will go into his hand and pierce it" (2 Kings xviii. 21; fat. xxxvi. 6). But a firm and truc füith, rooted and groun<le<l in love, and the perceptions thence derived, will be signifie<l hy the noblcr, stronger, and more durable productions of the vegetiLhle tribes. Thm;, whel"e fuith derived from chnrity, in the internai rnau, bcco111es operative in the cxternal, and is intellcctually and rationally confirmed by scienti:fic knowlcdge into conscienttous conviction, it is signifie<l by the gnarled Lut majestic ouk, whose branches form an umbrageous rctrcat, and whosc roots strikc dccp into the soli<l earth. Such faith, perception, and conscience, howevcr powcrful, arc comparatively of a low order; they are represented, thercfore, by a tree, which, though diEtinguishcd for it:.E strength and vitality, yct produccs no fruit suitaùle for human food. Such 'ras the signification of an oak, whcn Joshua rnnm,·ed the covenant hctwecn the Lor<l and Israel: "Ile took a great stone, :m(l set it up under an oak" (Josh. xxiv. 2G), to rcprcsent the stcadfastncss of that covcnaut on the part of God, nnù the fidelity with whicl1 it ought to be observed on the part of' rmm. · Such wn.s also the signification of the oak groves of l\fornrc, where Abralmm, Isaac, and Jacob sojourned (Gen. xxxv. 27); and on this signification is groun<le<l tlle renson why the angel who appearcd unto Gideon in the world of spirits was seen sitting umler the sliade of nu oak (Judg. vi. 11). In a had sense, howcver, an oak signifies the sensual confidence and prcsumptuous boa:;tings of the natural mind.



unclcr the influence of which man idolizcs nnd 1rnrships his own intellect as rcal pmYer. In the expressive lnngunge of the prophC't., "He hewcth 1lown and takei11 the oak, wl1ich he i"trengthcnetl1 for him:<cJf arnong the trccs of t he forest: lie maketh a god llll<l worshippcth it.; he makeU1 it a grnven image, an<l falleth down thercto, and prnyeth unto it, nrnl rnith, J)eli1'er me, for thou art my god" (Isn. xliv. 14-17). A ml, further, to dcnotc thut snch vanity will in the eud expose its deludcd victime to derision, nnd in the hour of trial will withcr forever awa.y, it ~ said, "They sh nll be ushumctl of lhc ouks which yc have d esired, and ye shall be confoumled for the gar(lcns that ye Jinve chosen. For yc shall be as un oak whose lea.f fudcth" (Isa. i. 29, 30). ·whcn tlie church is spoken of in tlrn V{onl, as to the reception of f:Oodness und truth of a œlœti1ù quality or degrcc, mention i.i ulways ma<lc of tlrn olive-tree. T his goodly trcc, with its outspreaùing branches, which flourishes only in warm and sunn.r situations, which with its products constituted somc of the riches of Judcn, nnd from whose fruit a fragrnnt and ,·aluable oil is c:xtractcd, signifies the celcstii1 l priuciples of love to God a nd charity towards all men, derived from God's iiifinite love townrds his creatures.1'" In reforencc to such it churacteristic, it is said, "The Lord callcd t by nnme, A green olivctree, fair, and of gooclly fruit" (Jer. xi. 16). In tlie prophctic visions of Zechariah, hc suw in the spiritual worl<l two olil·c-trees by t11c golden candlesticks, one upon t he r ight side of t he bowl, 1tnd the otl1cr upon the Jcft sitlc the1·eof, which 'rcre representatiYe of thcsc cclestial principlos, and of which the ange! snid, "Thcsc are the two nnointed oncs,1'~ that stand by t he Lord of t.hc whole earth" (Zech. iv. 3, 14). The s:unc princi1)les wcrc also i:igniiied by tl1c two witncsscs seen i11 vision by the aposù e J ohn, of wl1ich he says, "Thesc nrt' the two oliYO·twcs, and the two candle::oticks starnling beforc tho Cm\ of the earth" (l~ev. :xi. 4). On account of this :,;ignificntion of tho olive, the oil was, liy divine command, the princi1rnl i:ngrc<lie11t employed for the purpose of 1111ointing priests and kings, when consL'-

122 The olive-tn.'C, from the effcct of lts oll 111 suppling, reh1:..!ng, and rrevcnt!ng o.nd m!Ugo.ting pain , sccm' t o luwe bccn rulopt<-d from the earlicst p01io<I •• 11n emhlt•m of li the hcuignlty of th• clivhie nature, whcnce olhc bra11c1i,.,, becnme the cmbl•ms of !Jéfict! lt> 'MimL< s11<l <li•tant naUons.~œ lùrpc>t!et'• Scriplure: ;\"atural IIUl.mlf, p. 41S.


Peacc 1111<1 ruconei\intion, the offi<pring of love, have !rom !tlOOt ttnc!cnt tlmes heen symbnlizcd hy ttn olive-hranch. Front the Gœ<>L: word for olive W!L < derl\·cJ the Greck worù fürmen:y.- l>ice Ifarri>'1,\'alural IIWo11 qf tM. llible, l•:ngll•h edition, p. 2l>'.;. ""Ilet.., tQ7MI <Jf oil.



craterl to their holy and rcsponsible offices, and also for the anointing of the sacred vessels of the tabernacle and temple. In the :Mosaic ritual the people were commande<l to prcsent it to Jchovah in several of the frcc-will offcrings of thcir rcprcscntative worship; and it was uscd, hy divine direction, for supplying the golden lumps in which the lights were to be kept burning continually hcfoœ the Lord (Lev. xxiv. 2-4) ; teaching us that when the trne worship of the Lord is celebrnted in the inner temple of the soul, the oil of divine love is always givcn to cause the lamps of truth and doctrine to burn before 1he Lord in a constantly-asccn<ling flame of love to God and henevolcnce to man, made visibly manifest in a charitable and usefnl lifo. So, when the Psalrnist speaks of l1is growth in tlic cdestial lifc of love and charity, which blesses, imbues, aml sanctifies the inmost of the sonl, and expresses his gratitude to the Lord for this prccious gift of bis love, he says, "I am like a green olive-trce in the hout;c of God" (Psahn lii. 8); and, again, "Thou anointC'lt my hcad with oil" (Psalm xxiii. ,5). 'Vhen the true signification of oil is known, tl1e miraculons increase. of the widow's oil by Elisha the prophet, rccorded in 2 Kings iv., may be scen, in every particular of the inspired history, to be an exact represcntation of the influx of divine love into the affèctions, for the support of spiritual life, in all seasons of tcmpt.ation, pcril, and distrcss; for it is the lifc of hcavcn in the soul, which induces umrnvcring confidence, brings sweetest satisfaction, vivifies all the principles of the minci, and saves from o;piritual <kath. It was from this signification of oil, as denoting the heavcnly principles of love aud charity, that undcr the Jcwish represcntative economy, priests, prophets, and kings were consccrated to their respective offices and fonctions by lieing anointe1l with a holy ointrnent,'24 made by diYine direction accor1ling to the skilful art of the upotltcca1·y (Ex. :xxx. 25), nrnl of which olive oil wns the chief ingredicnt, to denotc tliat in the admiufatmtion of nll the ccclesiastical aiul civil affüirs of the kiugdom, and in the exercisc of the authority and talents and 111inistry intrustcd to their charge, thcy were to lw inwardly imbucd with the holy aHcctions of love and ch:irity, and that nll the governing prin. ciplcs of the mimi and lifc were to be consecrated by the uuction of
m The Hebrew word,Mcssla.h, nnd the cor· 1 rngc1< nre !nlcrpretccl !n thclr !nùividunl tespomlingGrcekword,Chriot,!itel'allymc•m seuoc, 1B \111ich pri,»t.• a1l<I kltl<-." •ignify
s. o.noi nted.'i



the govcrniug



Similar thiugi> nr? ;dgn!fic\l, if aJJ

pns· mind arnl Jifo.



these precions principles. Hence wc read, "Bchold, how good and ho'' pleas:mt it is for brethren to dwell together in unity ! It is likc lite ])recious oinlmcnt upon the hcad, that ran ùown upon the beard, evcn Aaron's beard; that wcnt <lown to the skirls of his gnrments" (Ps. cxxxiii. 1, 2). The Lord's love for rn:tn, and man's love of thtLorcl and of his neighbor, are "the oil of glmlness" (l's. :dv. 7), and "the oil of joy" (fat. lxi. 3). Aguin, in tl1e ben.ntifül aml imprcsisive parahle of the tcn virgius with their lamps (}Iatt. xxv. 1-13), designed by our blessc<l J,ord and Saviour to set heforc us the efforts and qualifications neceasary to obtain a blessed and e\·erlasting state of conjunction with Ifou, aud of as~ocialion with the angels of his kingrlom, we are told that the lumps of the fivefoolish virgins were cxtinguished for wnnt. of oil in their vessels, to teach us the :dl-important 1csson, tlmt hmrnver hrillinntly the f!ame of truth may nppear to shine upon us for a senson, irrnrliatiug ail around with its brightnes:i, yct, unlcss it be eon;it:rntly supplicd wit.h the pure oil of cclc:;tial love, it will soon go out, and le:we ua shrouded in thickcst darkness; and tbat unless we ohtnin this sncred princi1)lc from its own souree,-tlie ubiding love of t.J1e Lord Jesus Christ in our souls,-ancl earncstly labor to makc it our own by works of penitence, ohedience, aml chnrity, the door of the nuptial chamber will be eternally closed against us. Our protcstatio11s and importunitics wilI be unuvailing: und the awful sentence will go forth ugainst us, "Vcrily, I say uuto you, I kuow you uot." On the other hand, if in our vcssels with our l:unps we are alrnnrlmitly supplicù from the Lord wilh bis prccious oil,-if the affections of our hearts are reeep· tiYc of the celestial gills of loYe and clrnrity,-thcn will the light of hcnvenly t.ruth burn Jnore and more brilliantly upon our path; and whcn in t]Jû midnight conflict of t.cmptation wc hear the sucklcn and startling ery, "Behold the briùcgroom cometh, go ye out to meet him," we shnll be prepared to obcy t11c smnmons, to arise anrl trim our lamps, :wd to enter with our Lorù into the secure and blis.sful marriage chamber of heaven. \Yhcn the clmrch, or a man of the churcli, as to goodness nud irnih or a spiritual charncter or degree, is spoken of, it is signified by a vine, wliich i8 the noblcst plnnt of the crceping kind, eelehrutcd for its lcndcncy to extend its roots and liranches without liinit, for its rich clusters of fruit, an<l for t11e wines wbich are obtained t.hcrefrom. flml "mnkc glml the heart of man" (Psalm CÎY. 15). Ami in refêr. ence to the estahlishmeJJt of tlrn church hy the Lord, and the !!crivat


tion of ail its constituent principles from Him, hoth in general and in pnrticular, Ho says, "I am the true vine" (John xv. 1); and the Psalmist, cvidcntly spcaking of the Israelitish church, says, "Thou ha&t brought a YÎnc out of Egypt: thon hast cast out the henthen and . planted it. Thou preparedst room bcfore it, and didst cause it to take deep root, and it filled the land. The bills were coverell with the shudow of it, m11l the houghs thereof wcrc like the goodly cedars. Sl1e sent out hcr houghs unto tho seu, and her branchcs unto the river" ( l':;alrn lxxx. 8--11 ). To represcnt astate of apostasy of this church, or of any of her members, and the sad and destructive resnlts which, tl1ough they spring from tlie ftSccnd:tncy of fal~c and cvil persuasions and lusls, appcar to be the con:sequenccs of Divine displeasure, it is added, ""\Yhy 11ast thou then brokcn clown hcr hedges, so that :tll tl1ey which pass by the way <lo pluck hcr? The hoar out of the woorl doth waste it, and the wilù beast of the field doth devour it" (12, 13). He then su_pplicates the Lor<l's mcrcy for its rcstoration in thcsc words, " lfoturn, wc bcsecch tbee, 0 God of hosts: look clown from ho:wcn, and behold, und visit this vine; and the vincyard which thy right harnl hath plantcd, a111l the branch which thon madest strong for thyself" (14, 15). Similar things are described in the prophecy of Isaiah, where the chureh in gcncral, and every member thereof in particular, is treated of un<ler the type of a vincyanl, wbich, th~ugh gifted with eYcry blcssing, an<l })fOlected from ail cnemics, so as to afford it the most ample opportunity of yiclding richcst fruits, i11 correspondcncc with tlrn divine care bestowed upon it, yet it ouly brought forth the bitter clusters of the wild grapc. "Xow I will sing to my well-bclovo<l [sair h the Lord], a song of my bclovcd touching his vincyard. My wellbeloved hath :i vineyar<l in a vcry fruitful bill; and he fence<l it, and gathered out the stones tbereof, and pl:mted it with the choiccst vine, and built a tower in the midst of it, and ulso made a wine-prcss therein : and hc looke<l that it should bring forth grapes, and it brought forth wild grapes. And now, 0 inhuùitants of Jerusalcm, aud men of ,Judah, judge, I prny you, hctwixt me and my vineyard. "'hat could have bcen clone more to my vineyan1, that 1 have not donc in it? whercforc, when I looked thut it should 1.ring forth grapes, hrought it forth wild grapos? And now go to; I will tell you what I will do to rny vineyard: I will take away the hedge thercof, and it shall he catcn up; aml break down the wall tliereof, and it shall be trodde11 down: and I will lny it. wustc: it shall not be pruncd, nor



digged i . but there shall corne up briers and thorns: I will also comruand the clouds that they rain no rain upon it. For the vineya.rd of the L ord of hosts is the housc of bracl, ttnd the men of Juùu.h his plcnsnnt plant: and He looked for jndgment, but behold oppression; for righteousncss, but behold a cry" (Isa. v. 1-7). ·whcn the elcmcntul principlcs of the church, both in gencrnl and in iiarticulur, are described in regard to nntural goodncss und truth with their delights, or thcir oppo.siLes, then wc hnve mention ru1tdc of fig-trcci:., fig-le:wes, and figs. The correspondcnce of thcse fruittrœ;; runy be confirmed from the circumstanccs that they flourillh in lmrren and stony !!ituations, wherc little clse would g row, ami do not propcrly lilossom, but shoot out thcir fruit cvcn before the. lea,·c-s appcnr. Thue., whcn Hic prophet is speaking of the dcfcct of that natural uscfulncs11 which precedes the nttainmcnt of spiritual knowlcdgc,-the good fruits of external füith and chnrity, thus of l11e wnnl of mutual affection and simple obcdicncc in the church and in mun,he says, "Thcrc shall be no -figs on the flg-trec, and the leaf sh:tll fade" (J er. viii. 13). And w}ien, ngain, a flourishing statc of tho d111rc11 is spokcn of, or m:m in a stnte of rc;;cncrution, when t he frui(~ of u good life by keeping the divine commandments m:e abuudant, then it is said, "The fig-trce yichls its st:reng th " (Joel ii. 22). Fruits correspond to works, either good or cvil, according to thcir kind, and agreeably to the subject of which they are predicatc1!; nn<l leavcs to knowlcdgcs and truths thence derivc<l, cithcr" gcnuine or falsific<l. The sweet fruit of the fig-trcc signifies natural goo<ln<:ss, or goodness in nn cxtcrnal forru, such us is m:mifostcd in an outwnrdl y moral lifo. But the works of morality may be donc fro1n vile au<l impure, ns well as from righteous and pure, motives, from hypocrisy as well as from sinccrity. This important distinction which olitniu:; among tltc mcmbers of the profes.~i11g church , and hetween the p1·inciples con;;titucnt of the natural mimi, ns to the imrnrd qunlity of n moral life, is thm; describe<l in n vi.,ion of the propl1ct Jcrcmiah: "The I.ord show<.'11 me, and, bchold, two hnskets of figs were set beforc the temple of the Lord. One hnskct hnd very good fig;;, c vcn like the figa that arc first ripe; antl the other basket had vcry naug hty figs, which could not be eaten, they were so bad. Then suid the Lonl unto me, ·what seœt thou, Jcreminl1? Aud I said, Vigs; tl1e goo<l figs very good; and tl1e bud, vcry biul, thut cnnnot be catcn, they nrc so bad" (xxiv. 1-3). 'Vhcn the ontward works of the clrnrcl1 or of man arc corrupt,-prompted by utt.er eelfishncs.;. dcfilcd by lonth&ome



covclousne::;s,-they are "Jike ':ile figs that cannot be eaten." And wheu, by tra11;;grt>&~io11, rniu1 lost, or still losos, l1is innoccuco antl intcgrit.y, he i;; represented in the \Vord as vainly attempting to screen liis uakcdness and guilt by sewing "fig-leavcs" together,-as ernlcavoriug to hide his imrnrd depravity by the hypocritical nil of a more cxtcnml conforrnity to the ontwarrl decencies of' lite,-framing doctrines from the lettcr of the \Yor<l to excuse his unclcan lusts, and to cover the pride of self-Love. 011 account of this signification of the fig-troc and its fruit, and in ordcr to represent to us that the Lord knows by bis truth and constantly explores the real stnte of the church, and the interior quality of all her mcmbers, He was plcuseù to perform, when He sojonrncd on cartli, a striking miracle on a barren fig-tree, which was a type of the church at its end, and which, cxhibiting an oxubcrancc of Ieaves, ought also to haYe borne a proportionate abundance of fruit. The Lord hungered,"~ to denote his
'"' Origen $1lY~ that "ln the righteous, Jesns is always hungry. bcing dcslrous to eat the frnlt of the Holy Spirit ln thcm."-In .llall., Trac. XXX. "Thcrc ls n wondcrful slgnificnnoe ln tho simple image runn!ng through the whole of Seripture, 1woording to whlch men arc compicred to trees, uncl thdr work to fruit; th" fruit being the orgauic })roduct and cvidence of the inner llfc, not something arbitrnrili concludcs, with CRlmet's editor, thut it wns the Sycarn.oreflg-l>'cc, whid1 is lllways green, grows by the wayside, and ùears fruit S('>'cral Urnes in 1he year, so that no tin1e, 1dthout a ncar cxnmination, could any one tell if Jt bore fruit (i\Inrk x.-i. 3, 4.). "Remember, O Christian, thM thr $Înful natnre can afford 110 hope, nor the shadow of a hope; not a desire, nor even n wish to àesire the Jeast good thing that relate.• to [tho Lord] Josus Christ. Theso Rr<l cxotics on Mrlh, and must be tmnsplnnred from h<.>nv· en. No fruit or ftower of grace ean sprlng Crom thy camai nature; nothing naturnlly llourlshes thcrc b11t the balefül wccùs of~elf­ wtll, of unbclief, nnd prlde.' Tlir soul, by 1utturnl pollution 1 is bceome a dark, n l\'il8tc, a thornr wildenicss; nrnt noue but Christ, the husbandman of the Church, œn com·ert it into a garden. But the divine Hcdecmer hllS once nu1de this wllderness 'to blossom !ls the rose:' will He not kcep as wcll n8 water it evcry moment 1 wlll not He rcdnce the bensts of the forest, with ei·ery noxlous an<l crecpingthing? Takc <~onrn~c. thc.u, Leliev~ lng wul. Thy heiwenly Fe.ther 'dcspi>cth uot the d>1y of small thlngs.' 1'1ty faith, thon;::h now perhat11S minute ns 'the smulles~ of ail sec<ls,' is, notwlth>lllnding, preclou•, and shall one dity rlso 111 surh Juxurlou;nè"" that • all the füwls <>f the air shull ncst ln the bran('hes of lt;' the holio•t gruce, nnd rnost happy 1lcsircs 8hall wing thelr wny t o their heart. arnl shnll rest with <'lelight i11 the soul." -Scrle's IIor. Sol., p. 8. Tt i• trnly painful to ftrnl n. distinguisheil thcologlan delibcratoly e.ffirrn1ng th11.t thls •U<'te<l parnble, nrnl "the oue of the thlstle

attachcd or fasroncd on from withuut."Trench'• N"lcs on llie Parables, p. 348. (See P;. i. 3: Jcr. :<vil. 8 ; John xv. 2, 4. 5; Rom. vii. 4.) That is, the time of b"'thering rip" ftgs, or the time of fig-lutrvc'!!t, was not rot arrivcd, •ù that the trcc, bearlng an o.lrnndo.ncc of lenves, ought 11lso CO have borne fruit. Jn the original there is no cxpres8ion ti.nswering t.o the word yet: or, probnbty, like the llg-trec cumbcring the gronnd (Lukc xiil. 6-9), th.i t rec hcrc spoken of mlght have bccn alwnys btrn•n, and would hiwc ~o continucd, How harrcn a trce i~ he who Hvcs 1 and spre11ds, and cmnbers th.i gr<>und, yct leiwes Jtot one sced, not one good work to gcneratc nftcr hlm. I know an nwn cannot lenvo alike, yct ail may Jeave something, an•werln~ thci r proportion, thclr kinds."-Owm


No littlc <liscus$lon and dlvcrsity of opinion among commcntator.o1 on thif!! subjcct. In note• on Matthew, OrU. lJi~•• the wrltcr vl\crs the following pnrnphrase t.o mcet the dilliculty. "rfperh•tp!! (<i apa)hc mlghtfin<l rome figs on it (for lt wns not )·et the 11sual icnson for figs Il> l>c fit for gnthering on fig. trecs ln gcneral), but hc fonll<l !caves only_" From No.rdcrn's Travela in Egwt, the writer



divine antl ceaseless <lesirc that mau should reccivc bis life and spirit, and bring furth the blc.88Ctl frnitQ of repcotnnce, reformation, :in<l rege11emlioo (Matt. xx\·. 31-46). I t is ;mid, thcrefore, that He saw il afür off,-fu1· cfütant from Himself and hcaven, bearing not.hing but lcaves,-nothing but truths anù doctrines which were fülsifieù,-rncre outwa.r<l co11formity,-tho acknowlc<lgment of the lips, while the l1cart wn.s far from Him. "But the tiu1e of figs w:is not yet,''-glorio1:~ and coutinual opportunities of pro<lucing riehest fruits l1a<l pas~d hy unirnproved. Tlw snn had 8hone anù the dcws luid falleo upon it i11 \'Il.in. lt;; doom was thcrefore prononnccd, "No man eat fruit of th~ · her<'afrer forever.'' The axe wns "laid to its root" (Matt. iii. 10). Judgmcnt was cxecuted, and "the fig-trec wus immediatcly dried up from the .roots" (Mark xi. 12-20). 'Vheu tl1ose principles in the natural ruind, which, by the reccption of what is c\·il aud fuise, do injury to charity anrl failli, or, on the contrary, may, in the regencrating proccss, be deprh·ed of their hurlful lluafüies, and made 1:1uhservieut to good purposcs, are spokuo of in the 'Vorù 1111dcr correspomling imagcry drawn from t11c vcgetabfo ki11gd01n, thcy are descril>c<l by prickly, stinging, and noxious plautl!, ~hrubs, and trees, as thoms anù thidtles, nettles and briers, etc. Such natural priuciplcs as arc dcnoted by thoms and briers, whcn they arc made subordhmte to use, serve for protection un1l dcfcnce to interior prineiplû!!. Hcncc we read of the householder who plauteù a vineyard, of which it is said, hc ~. hedgerl it round about" (1\fatt. xxi. 33). 'Vhen the dcsecnucd clHJrch is trcatcd of, or whcn the human min<l is 1lcscribed as no longer cultivating and chcrishing thereiJl the heayenly plants of parudisc, but as giving birth and permaucnt existence to such natural prindplcs as are injmious to goodness a11d truth, producing disordcr anù clct!olntion, among other divine judgmcnts it is 1lcclared that "Thorns shall come up in ]1er palaces, nettles and bmmblcs in the fortresses thereof" (Isa. xxxiv. 13). But whcn n. lu:rnriant ~tatc of the Lord's church or of the humnn mind is the subjcct of prediction or promise, in whicl1 the p1ants of hcuvenly extrnction and spiritual growth, tl1at bring delight to tl1e soul, arc by re<;cncrntion substihttcd for the wil<l, lmrtful, nnd dŒorderly productions of an unregcnerate state, thcn we rend, " The wilderncss au<l the solitary place shall be glaù for them ; and the desert shall rcjoice
Ami cl'dar (2 Klni:s xfr. 9) &I\' two /abl• ~:·· 11ni:hls eoun.<t!l. hntmcn,and fmm an rorlJl/p ttnd t.lu\l'cill tlCitbe1" t"S.Se ts it f1od thflt Î!\ ~andingpoinf,notn.cllvltttt. • - 'J'rrnr.Jt•,Not<' tpcnking. nor yct mcs..<cngcrs ()f hi;; deli ver· m lhe Furable<1, note,!>. 2, Mh < ''L




and hlossom as the rose. It shall blossom abundantly, and fCJOICC even with joy and singing: tl1c glory of Lcbanon shall be givcn unto it, the cxccllcncy of Carmel and Sharon. They shall sce the glory of the Lord, and the exccllcncy of our God" (Isa. xxxv. 1, 2). Having thus explnined the spiritual signification of the olivc-tree, the vine, the fig-tree, nnd tl1e bramble, we shall be prepared to understand the truly wonderful and divincly-inspircd parablo of the trocs going forth to choose a king over them, in which these particular t1·ccs arc rncntioned. The children of Israel, we rcad, did evil in the sight of the Lord. They built altnrs and reared groves, and consecrated them to the infamous worsl1ip of llirnl. 'l'hcy wcrc, in consequence, given up to the power of their invctcratc enemies, wcre cornpelled to dwcll in dens and mountains, and werc grcntly impoverisl1cd. Thcn they cricd unto the Lord in"their distress, and He sent an angel, who commissioned Gideon to become their deliverer. After obtnining n signal victory over the hosts of ~Hdian, the lsraelites desired that he would hecome their ruler; but hc refuscd, saying, "I will not rule over you, neither shal1 my son rule over · you: the Lord shall rulc over you." After bis deatl1, however, the children of Israel returned to their idolatry. They remembereù not the Lord their God, bnt made Abimclcch ''"' thcir king. On tliis, J otham, the youngest son of Gideon (all his brethren having bccn perfidiously put to death, and he having with ùiffieulty escaped), uscended to the summit of Mount Gerizim, and recciving by divine inspiration a message from God, he spake to the men of Sheehem the following parable: "The trces went forth on a timc to anoint a king over them ; and they said unto the olivc-trce, Reign thou over us. But the olive-tree said unto them, Should I lcave my fatness, w11ercwith by me they honor God and man, and go to be promoted over the trees? And the trocs said to the fig-troc, Corne thou, and reign over us. But the fig-trcc said unto them, Should I forsake my swcetncss, and my good fruit, and go to be promoted over the trees? Then said the trees nnto the vine, Come thou, and rcign ovcr us. Aud the vine said unto thorn, Should I leave my wine, which cheereth God an<l. man, and go to be prornoted over the trocs? Then said all the trees unto the bramùle, Come thou, and reign over us. And the bramb1e said unto the trocs, If in truth ye anoint me king over you, then corne and put your trust

rncnns ln Englisll, Faih"' and King,



in my shllflow: and if not, let. fire come out of the hra01ble, autl de· vour the ceda1·8 of Lebnnon" (Judges ix. 8-15). J othu.m proceeded to apply the word:-:. of ihIB pnrablc to what Israel had done, in tliat thcy lmd choscn Abimelcch, a low·bom, haughty, and ('rnel mun, to he tl1eir king, in prcfereuce to the !awful heir, wl1om lie hnrl treacherom<ly dcstroyed, 1Ulil prcllicte<l that the âre of eiYil discord would hc ki11dlcd an10ng them, and tcrminatc, as a con~equence, in thcir mutual destruction. Allhongh thi.:; inspirccl parnlile, in its proximate sense, wus strik~ ingly npplicable to the historien! circumstances in which the kingdom of farnel was thon plnccd, it is pcrpetunted in the \\'or<I of Cod, not simply to conYcy admonition to nations aml th<•ir rulcrs, hut bc<•ause, in its holy internai ~ense, it hns rnfercncc to somcthing that transpires in the minds au<l experience of al! men. In the. idol::itrous worship of the rebellions Turn<.'liles, nnd the punishment of sla,·cry and opprc~sion to whiC'h they were snùjected l1y the implacahle ~Iidiuuites, which, as n corrcsponding rcsult of their impious ronduct, tliey hrought upon the1nsdves, wc see st.riking reprcse1ll.atÎ\'<.' figures of the nwful dcparturc of men from the pure 1vorship of the t.rue God, to the worship of self, and, as a con:.equenC'e, the u.wful ami dL~trc.o;.•ing copti vity of the soul to sensual passions antl cruel propensitie:1, which evcr seck to exalt themsclves above the lo\·e and scn·icc of Goù, :md to wl1ich they ure obno:ûons. From such appalling statcs of spirituu.1 bonduge an<l tyranny nothing can defü·er us but a lrnrnblc ucknowledgment of our transgrc::;sions. This brings to our 11.id Divine intcrJ~isition. \\'ben mcrciœ m·c npparcntly withdrawn, ttn<l pnst dclfreranccs ure forgottcn or fochly rewcmùered, ho1f pro1rn arc wc to turn again to our evil ways, and rcsume our cvil habits, to forget onr gracions Deliycrcr, and t-0 enthrone within us, ns the ehicf ruler of onr desircn and thoughts,-our father and king,~the low-hQ rn, ambitions, sor<lid, and forocious love of self, signific<l by A bimclecl1. Thus we stnnd in nced of the constant correction tmd ndmonition contained in the par:ible of the trec,;. The bramble, as a hnrtful shruh, llignifiœ those in<lividuals who, Iike J \ bimelech, ttre influence<l only hy Jm,·, sclfish, domineering dcsires und worl<lly motives; and, in the abstract, such tlesircs and motives tlicmS<'lvœ, togethcr with tl1e states of mind and lite in which tbey :ire rherisl1cd. Gi<lcon, on a prcvious occasion, lmrl said, "The Lonn ~hall rule O\'cr you ; " but tl1e people wcre not willing to be lcù nnd governcd by Him. Thrreforc, in sccking for a !:!Upremc rnlcr,



they are represented as applying fust to the olive-tree, significative of intcrnal celestial goodnc,;s <lcrived from love; secondly, to the figtrcc, significative of extemal ce1estial goodncss groundcd in obcrlicucc; tliirdly, to the vine, significative of spiritual goodness procceding from a sincere affection of truth, all originating in the Lord ; and t11e refu· sal of thcse trees im11lics that the people were hecome so sclfish and wickcd that they 'rnul<l not sub1nit to the Lord, nor to any heavenly infl.uence of goodncss or truth procceding from Him. J,astly, they apply to the bramblc, significatiwi of spurious goodness springing from hypocrisy, under which is the infernal love of dominion, significd by the expressions attrihutcd to this trcc, "Put your trust in rny shadow," ruHl which, notwithstanding appearances to the contmry, they desired should rcign over them. For, in such a sensual, carnal state, here rcprescnted by Israel, a state from which pcacc and con· conl are absent, the olive-tree of celestial love and charity is neither de~iro<l to reign, nor could reign, without "leaving its fatness where· with Go<l and man are honorcd." Nor could the fig-tree of naturaT gooùncss and truth be pl·omotcd, whcre mutual gooù-will and social kindness are banishcd, without " forsaking its sweetness and good fruit" of genuine piety and morality. Nor yet could the vine of sncrccl wisdom assume dominion without "lenv:ing its" delicions "wine which cheereth God and mnn,"-well-plcasing to the Divine giver, and a source of delightful refrcshmcnt to the humble rcceive1·. So t.hc trees are dcscrihcd as applying to the bramble,-the cvil which spl'Îngs frorn falsity an<l hypocrisy,-as their true king. This they regard as their only good. The bramble willingly accepts the sovereignty, and they faney themsel ves securc. This willingness on the part of the bramble forcihly imlicates its suitablencss to the disposition of those over whom it is clcctcd to reign; but, mark the awful conclusion. '\Vhcn truth is separated from its lifo, when the outward profession of gotllincss h; but the hypocritical covering of inward lusts, knowl· erlgc confcrs the power of doing ovil instead of good; anrl, unless prevented by timely and heart-felt repentance, the burning tire of concupiscence breaks forth to the destruction of conscience, and the annihilation of all tranquillity and joy. Even the glorious ccdars of Lebanon,-those truths revcaled frorn heavcn, which may be perccived and confirrned by the lofty powers of the reason,-bcm1 before its dcsohting progrc&i, and it rages in its unquenchcd and tormenting ficrceness forever (Isa. lxvi. 24 ; :Jfark ix. 43-48). ln the sermon on the mount, our blesse<l Lord and Saviour instructs



us, from the objects of the vegetable world, bow we arc to disting11ish bet,reen good and evil intentions. "'e are to know them hy the fruits which they bring forth, or the effects they liave upon our tcmpers and conduct. "Do men," says He, "gatl1cr grapes of thorns, or figs of tbistles? Even ::;o every good treè bringcth fortb good fruit ; but a corrupt tree hringeth forth corrupt fruit. Every trcc that bringeth nol forth good fruit is lrnwn down and ca.st into the fire. '\Vl1ercfore by thcir fruits ye shall know them" (Mntt. vii. 16--20). In ordcr to repress an overweening and inju6ous anxiety for the morrow. to withdmw us from ail trust in our own vain pmdence, to excite within us an implieit dcpendence on the cnre and protection of Him without whose superintending Providence notl1ing could cxist, and to tench us, finally, that truth or füit h alone, however glittering and gaudy, is insufficient for our salvation, He directs our attention to the verdure and bcauty of t11e grass and the flowers which mmmcl the fields, but may be, notwithst.anding, cnst into the 0\'€11. In se11sous of trial arnl tcmptution, the truths of heaven appear to be withdrawn, as the t!owers faùc during the inclemency of winter. But on the rcturn of nnother spring and smmuer, the sun arises in its strcngth and they are renewed, a11d appear again in :tll their hrilliancy, glory, and fragrunec, to adorn, to delight, and to rcfrcsh the mind. "Consider,'' snys He, "the lilics of the field, how they grow; they toil not, ncither do they spin : a.nd yet I say unto you, tliat evcn Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these. 'Vherefore, if God so clothe tl1e grass of the field, wbich to-day is, and to-morrow is cnst. into the oven, ::;hall IIe not much more clothc you, 0 ye of littlc füith? Therefore take no thonglit, saying, 'Vhat sliall we eat? or, Whnt shall we drink? or, 'Vhere1vithal ;;hall we be clothètl? (für after nll thcsc things do tl1e Gentiles scck): for your heavenly Father knoweth tl1at ye have uccd of all these things. Bnt ::;cck ye first the kingdom of God and bis righteousness; and nll thew things ;;hall be added unto you" (Matt. vi. 28-33). In regard to such evil and false principlcs as are implanted by birtl1 in the natural mind, IIe affinns in :mothei- place, "Evcry plant \\·hich my heavenly Fathcr harh not planted, shalJ be :rooted up" 121 ( Matt.
" ' " Ei'CT!Jplant, ac. E1·ery doctrh1e whkh , cvcry klnd of sin. but wron~ and pcrwr<e lik<' the v11in trRditions of the el<le1'8, is not tcnching. 'Bnrh spurions sccds,' rem.nrks ~t. founded ou the Word of God, hutn. hurnnn in- Bnsil~ •arc pro(h1ccd uot Ly any ehungc in v'°ntion, ~haH be crad1C"atc<l. and ùœtroycd;• the sced com, !>ut subslst l>v nn origln or -1{e)rk'/.t'&: Comm. thcirown, havingnn npproprluœ kind. Yor.. "Tal'€<! "ncl wccili; are fuise prindples: not and they fui.fil the i.nrngc of those who adul




xy. 13). And John the Ba1)tist, speaking from an in.spiral dict.ate of the power of divine truth, which is rcvcaled to man in orrlcr to extirpate such false and evil principles from the mind, declnrcs, "And now also the axe Î8 laid unto the root of the tree: thcreforc cvery trcc wlüch bri11geth not forth good fruit, is hewn down and cast into the fire" (l\Iatt. iii. 10). The Lord also teachcs us, in the parable of the tares 128 and the whcat (Matt. xiii. 25-36), the just distinction which obtaius bctween genuine and spurious fü..ith and charity ; such goo1l fruits as originatc from the Lonl Hirnsclf and from the activities of his R oly Spirit, or such false doctrines as are the productions of sclfintelligcnce, and such spurious practices as originate in self:righteous· ness, the fruits of merc cxternal zeal anù formai morality, which clnim as a mcrit the applause of men, insteaù of the praiso of God. In the parable of the sower, the Lord again teacbcs that if the seed, which is the \Vord of God, or the divine truths of heaven revealed therein, full "among thorns," which fitly represcnt the sor<lid cures and sen· sual pleasures of this world, it is said that " the thorns spring up with it and choke it." "But that on the good ground," He says, " are thcy who, in un honcst and good heart, ha ving heard the W ord, keep it, and bring forth fruit with patience" (Luke viii. 7, 14, 15). Again, our Lord compares Himsclf, iu the process by which He wns glorified, to "a corn of whcat falling iuLo the ground," anù afterwards "bringing forth much fruit" (John xii. 2-1). The sa.me 1lgurc is tL striking representative of man's regcn<.'ration, by the in ward rcception of truth and goodncss, and of his spiritual growth and fruitfulncss. The return of ''egetation in the scason of spring is so truc an emblcm of the process of regcner::ttion by which man obtttins ncwncss of life, and also of the rcsurrcction of the soul into a new st:ate of
tcrntc the doctrines of the Lord, and ln no untll the han·cst iB at Jumd, wllen the !,'l'ain gcnulnc w11.y bccmnc diSl-iplcs of bis Word, becomcs ncarly bl.u:k. 0 This m orning l pl uckcd n globe of the but r11.ther ara corruptc<l by the tcachlni,;s of the evil one, yct mlnglc themsclvcs w!th dnndclion,-the •CC cl vesse1,- and wns •truck, the bealthful body of tho Church.' "-Hex· n.~ ncver bcfore, with the silent, gentleman· <Üm , V. 5, p. 41. B. ner ln whit'h N"ture sows ht·r R'ed; und l "lly the tares or the \VOrld, or convcut!one.l askcd if th.18 is not the way lu whit·h the maxlm•, the seeds of Christian Truth are be· spiritual sccd, trulli, is to be sown, I o;aw, too, ing d&ily chokcd and de~troyed." -R. Jfont- how :."aturc sows hcr S<>e<l bron.rlcast; how the fl"1'1C'1J Martin'• Anal71m of the Bi.bit. pref., g06l<llmer wing of the oonddion sœ'1 seau.ers p.14. . it far and w!dc; how lt fan. ns by ncc!dent, •>a The Grcck word trnnslatcd lares,nowhere and scnds up the plant wherc no one suseb;c oœurs. h is thougM t.o mcun the lolium pects. So we must ~nd truth 11bro1ul, not tcmulentum, n bastard or degencrnte wheat, forcing it on hcre 11.u< I there a minrl, no\ which, when mingled with go<><l wheat ancl watching its progrcss anxiously, but trmtlng mu<lc into l>rcnd, proùuccs verti!,'O; whcnœ that it will l1ght on a kindly soil, and yleld the artditienal name, tcmulrnlum. Tt is vcry Ils fruit. i!o Nature t.caches."-I>r. Olanùillicult to d!stini:uish li from pure whcat ni11g'1 Jtcmoiri;, yoJ. m., pp. 471, 1i&



existence in the spiritual 1rorld, that few can u1i.stake it. Uu<ler t.bi8 symbol, the apo8tle Paul speuks of a rcsurrection from spiritual ùcath, ancl also of the r e;urrcction to spiritual lifc at the death of the body, calling them fools who <lid not perceirn so pluin an a1mlogy. " Thon fool," z::.ays lie, "that wltich tho11 so1H~t is not quickcned, exccpt it die: and that 1vhich thou scmcst, thou sowest not tlrnt body tlmt ,:hall Le, but barc grain, it may chance of wheat, or of some otl1cr grain. So also," adds hc, "i.;; the r csurrection of tl10 ùcnd" (1 Cor. xv. 36, 37, 4'2). F or it is the 1 ·ital gcrm, within the body or sub8tance of t.he st.'<'d, 11 hich ùrini,rs f.irt.h and 1 ·cgctatcs,-thc outward coYcriugs whon .sepnratccl from the living gcrm are decomposed, and cither ab:;orbc1l or dissipated; nnd just soit is with the natural body, when the IÏ\·ing, ,;cntient spirit is by 1lcu~h separuted thercfrorn. And lest the grossmindeù Corinthi.:111s, to whoru he wa.s addrcssing this lcttcr, hliuuld 111istukenly su11pose, t hat, inst.eml of 8J 1eaki11g to thom on the subjects of rcgcucmtion and resurrcction to eterna l lifo, he was iulvocating the ,Jcwish nothlll of the rcsurreetion of the malerial body, lie cmphatically arldll, " Thcre is a natnral body, and therc i,; a :;piritual boùy. Kow this I say, hrcthrc11, that flesh nnd bl()(xl canuot inhcrit the kingdom of God; neitl1cr 1 loth corruption inherit iucorruptio11. So whcn this corruptible shnll haYc put on incorruption, and tlii.s morfal shnll have put on inimortnlity, then shall be brought to pass the 8aying thnt Ï'> written, D cuth is swallowe<l up in Yictory" (\'erses 44, .'iO, IH ). The L ord also says tlrnt such- a.:1 heur his word a1UI belie\·c it, are 4, raised from the grave: thcy pn.~s from dcuth unto lifc (.Jo]m v. 22.3). Ami in his first gcneml Epi:;tlc, the npostle John writc,., "We know that wc hnve pas~ed [nlreudy 1mssed] from dcath unto lifo, becauEe \1·c love tl1c brethren. H e thnt loYcth not his brother <thidcth in dcath" (iii. U ). The troes ;.igni~v the rharch and her iuembers as to the receptiou 0f the knowlcrl~f'.s, 1loctrinc~. nnd trnlhs of t he \Vord, the good aiièctions thcrcto belongin~, ancl the works which proœc<l therefrom; und in nn opposite i;cnse, the )Xll'\'Cr:;ion of ail trnth froni the implantation of fol.se prineiplcs in the mimi, togctl1er with the cvil affections thcrcto bclonging, :ind the vile works which arc thcrd1y prodnccd, l\S is e1·ident from a great vuricty of passa~L'l> in the \Yor<l of God. Thus, "Blesscd is the rnun who.~e delight i~ in the lnw of the Lorù; in bis lrrw doth he Illt'ditate clny aml ni~ht. A ml hc shnll be likc a trec planted hy the ri ,·ers of 11·nter, tlrnt hriogeth forth hi,; fruit in ltis ;,çi1son i his leaf 11li'Q i:.hall not witbcr, ttud wha.tsoe\'er he doeth



,;hall prosper. The nngodly are not so, but are like the clu1ff which the wind drivcth away" (Psahn i. 2--:!). And ttgain we rcad, "Th1ts saith the Lord: Cursed be the man that trusteth ia ruan, arnl makcth flcsh his arrn, and whosc heurt rlcpartcth from the Lord. For he shall be like the heath in the desert, and shall not see when good corneth; bnt shall inhabit the parchcù places ln the wildcrncss, iu a salt land and not inhabite<l. Blesscd is the man that trnsteth in the Lord, anù whosc hopc the Lord is. For he shall be us à trce plantcd by the waters, and that sprcfülcth out hcr roots hy the river, and shall not see whcn hent comcth, but hcr leaf i;;lrnll be green; and shall not be careful in the year of drought, neither shall cease f'rom yieMlng fruit" (Jcr. xvii ..5-8). And in ordcr to tcneh us that He will humble the proud an<l exalt the lowly,-that He will cause the verdure of me1·e intellectual attainrnents and the hope of extcrnal profession to withcr forevcr away,-that t.he mi ml which is destitutc of intelligence, ns the t1·cc of the ari\l (]esert is of moisture, but which sincerely dcsircs it, He will makc lo llourish by the rivera of living water~, the Lor<l says, "All the trces of the field shall know tlrnt l the Lord have brought clown the high tree, have exalted the low troc, have dried up the green tree, urnl have made the <lry tree to flourish: I the Lord ha,·e spokcn and have clone it " (Ezek. xvii, 24). Profrs•ing membcn; of the chutc11, who fail to bring forth the fruits of usefulnese in the life, are furthcr dcscrihed as "trees cnmbering the ground" (Luke xiii. 7 '. The hyssop, bitter to the taste, and f1011 ri::lhing on walls, is spokcn of in the W or<l to signify extcrnul tru th arn1 its corrcspon<ling goodnt>ss, or the gcnuine doctrines of the let.ter of the \Yonl, and a life of charity in agreement thcrewith ; for such doctrines inculcate the hittcrncss of self-deninl, nnd thus are rnediums of spiritual purification. Hence thi:; hcrb '"" wns cnm111n1Hled tu be used in the Levitical erremonials for the cleansing of lcprosy, and in cornposing the 1rntcrs of purification. In tllis scnse, too, the P:>almist, from the depths of contrition, irnplorc(l the divine rnercy in these mernorable wonb, "Purge me wiLh hysEop, and I shall be clean: wnsh me, and l shall be wliitcr t.lmn snow" (Psalm li. 7). But the lufty, rnujcstic, and e\'ergrecn eedar, which Solomon eontrm;ted with the lowly hyssop, nbonnding in the forests of Lcbanon, and yielding un aro1uatic aud valuable wood, wliich, in consequcuce of its <lurahleness, was regardecl a:; i11eorruptiùlc, signifes, in a good scnsc, the internai or Gpirituul trut.h

ln Hcbrew, thi• herb l• 1·allcd by a worù which dcnot.cs it.s detcrsive nml clcnuslng


CO!UlESI'O!WE. YC E OF Till:: VF:CE1'Afl/, E Jl'Olll lJ.


of the \\Tord of Gml ratinnally pcrccived, and i ts appropriato goodllCS8, - :\ nttional knowk 't!ge of thingi; spiritual, nml Î!l\\ ard pcr cep· tions thcrcof, npplied to exalted and cnduring goodm:ss of l1enrt and life. He11cc œdar-wood wai; so extensivcly 11scd in t11c construction of the represcntative temple, und the Ps:ilmiEt ~ays, "The rightcous sliall grow like a. ccdar in J..ebanou " (Psulm x cii 12). " The tree:; of the L ord arc full of 1:1ap: the cedars of Lelmnon, which Ile hnth planle<l" ( l'salrn civ. 1()). H e calls upon " frnitful trees nrnl al! ccdal"!J, to prai8c the name of tl1e L ord " (l'salm cxlviii. 0, 13). .An<l the nnwilling prophet pronounced Isrnel's goo<lly tu bernacles ns " codar-trefü ~ide the waters " (Kum. xxiv. H) . So, ag:iin, " the t rec of lifc," "·hich sig nifies, in a snpremc ~ense, the T ...ord Himi'elf, as to his lfü·inc ]o,-e, whence procee<l5 lhc cternal wisdom of hi::! "\\' ord , and, in a rnbur< linute sense, man's inmost love nnrl lifü derivccl from Him, and <lirected towanl:i U im, is <lcscrilx.·d as bc:u-i11g twelve mnnncr of fruits,- produciug, JY t he L ord's prc~encc and influence in t.hc :iffcc· tions nud thoughts, nll kinds au<l degr ces of good wor ks,-worh of u;ie au<l chnrity, fi-ecly donc hy man, appnr ently as of hi1118elf: but in ronlity fro1u the opcratious of th<i J,orrl in him and by him . . A nd it is furt hor sai<l of this " tn. -e of life" that " the lea vœ "-all cxtern:tl lmowledgcs nn<l doctrines-" are giyen for tlie hcali11g of Lhe na· tioru;," tha t is, wcre deHigne<l to restore men from the encrvatiug n111lacl;f'S of sin to stn.tcs of spiritual health and yigor, und thn~ lead them to u chccrful and t. 'Onsc:icntions ohser vnn ce of ull the outwnrd dutics of moral und ch·il lifo (Rev. :x:xii. 2; Ezek. xlvii. 12). The palm is sometirnes calle<l the date-tr ee. It is evcrg rccn, nh rnys flouri<>hing and fruitfül, and is celebratcd for the three hundrerl aud sixty uses to which the lofiy trnnks, tl1e aspiring hrnnchcs, t he umhrngeous l ca\'es, nnd the ple1U:<ant ancl nourisl1ing fruit, arc said to be applicalile. It grows by Springs of sweet water, aurl ita Hel>rew appellation, iu its radical ineaning, ex pr esses its npng htnCll5 anrl stature, ~it ne\·er uaturally grows crookerl. It was oue of the constuntlytccurriug omument8 of Llie carved work of Solomon 's temple, aml pilasters werc macle in the benutifu) fünu of its tnmk. Rrnnchc.; of palm wcre carried anciently hcfüre conq11crors, in their t d umpliant processions, as siguals of victory. Ilcnce they were hornc and cnst bcfore the lJOrrl, on his entraucc into ,Terusnlem, witl1 cl'ies of h oeanna ( .Tohu xii. 13), rcpr cscnta tivc of 11is triumphant en trancc as tl1e rlccmcr i11to his nhun·h, and eacl1 i1Hlivi1hml composing it; and wcrr 5(. '<:11 hy J uhn in the band,; of an gels (Ilcv. vii. 9), ns cll•noting viclnr~ .':'



Tl/E SCJB.\•('p, Of.' CO/tRF:SI'VXfJR,YCES.

uml confession. For palms );ignify, in the ""\Yord, ll'i:sdom and intel· ligcnce from the Lord, în acti; an<l use, pro<lucing ail kinds and de· grees of spiritual good11cs~; thus perfoct uprightucss from the 1'1ve of g001lncs.s, kmling to the cuufi:..o<;;ion tJiat all victory O\'Cf spiritual cnemics i:> from faith in <.:onjunction with divine power, m1d :;o Io the rcnunciittion uf self-mcrit. The farnelîtc:s, in t,heir journey frmu Egypt, pitched thcir fir:>t ca1111i nt a r esting-plnce whorc tbey found twelvc fuuntains of water and thrcescorc and ten palm-trl-'CS; f\O the rci--cnerating CJ1ri.stinu, in hi.s progrcss througb the wildernes5 of tempt.ation, fiuds dh·inc consolation, refre:ihmcnt, and rcst nt Blim, n stntc of irn,;lruction a.ml affection, in which the truths of faitb in all nbun1htncc, and the goo(\ uffcctio11s thencc rcsulting, in all fulne:ss, arc fouwl for tlle support an<l encouragement of' the füinting i:oul. "The rightoom; shall flourisli likc the pahn" (Ps. xcii. 12). But whcn the pahu is mcntione<l in an oppooite scnse, it denote:; :;elf-de· rirn<l intelligence, i:clf-worship, and a vain aml spuriou:s momlity. The idols, thercfore, spokcu of in Jcr. x. 5, arc descri1Jc1l as being "upriJ!ht ns the palrn-trcc;" for in such astate of mentul pcncrsio11 mul pride thcre is no ronfrssion of divine ai<l, anù it i:; said they "speak not,'' an<l arc powcrlci;s to do any goo<l; "thcy must nccds l>e borne, hecausc they canuot go." When the Lorù predicts the cstnhlishment of a new Dispcnsation of goo<lnct'S ami truth in the mirnls of meu, amJ dcscrihcs the re:mlting change;; wh ich would cmme,-thc streams of spiritual an<l naturnl k11owledge 1u11l intelligence which He would cause to ilow from JliruscH; throngh his \Yurù, to banish ignornncP,,-to illustmte nmJ cnrich ihe cxtcrnal mind, together with lhc abundant glorics and manifol.l privilege.s wit.h wl1ich the members of the cùurrh would in conscquence be ble;;:;cd and adorneù, anù the rational und evcr-ncw tnith!:! and delights wit,h wl1ich they would be amply supplicd iu the proccf:S of regeneration, H e ~ays, in the l:mgunge of corrcspondcncc, hy the mouth of the i11spircd prophet, "I will open river:> i11 l1igh plucel;, und fountains in the mid.st of the valley:s : l will make the wildcrne;;s 11 pool of water, and the dry land springs of water. I will plnnt in the wildcrncss the ccùar of' Shittah, and the myrtle and the olivctree; I will set in the descrt the fir-trcc, and the pi ne, and the boxtrcc togcther " 130 ( I~a. :di. l 8, 19 ; ami, aµ:ain, l::;a. xxxv. 1, 2, 7 ).
1 •.sœ Rev.J. H.l'<nillhROu's VRlunlJle Trmu· 1 an inf<'rior order; the olt-t~. t.hc 1icrœ1Jtin11 lulion of I•aiuh, l'P· se,;-,, 419. of gtl<Kl• and thenœ of trutli: the fir-trcc, The c<.>dnr deuotc• rat!o111\I trnth u{ a •U· nntuml tmth of Il. superiur orùer; the plue, pC'rior ordcr; the rnyrtlc, rational truth of 1mtural truth of rrn inîcrior orùer; nnd the


ver; 1:'1'A R/, P, lroRLD.


These trecs arc evcrgrccns of the lowœt onler, and inclnde a il kimlti: they manifcstly dcn<Jte tlie nwst extcrnal of th ose di vine gifts with which the soul is enrichcd in the progress of its great chunge from tl dcscrt t o a fruitful field, m11! in which :flourishing state it hlo~"oms in lovelincss and fcrtiJity, nnd is said to "rejoice and blossom like the rœc." But .in regard to t he spiritual blcssings anù œlestial ilclit'ltCÎ<'S of love nnd wisdom in the internai facultics of tl1e soul, 1trnl thcir per1ictual increase, togethcr with the snfety and rc:st ohtained hy the f.iithful members of so g lorions a dispensation, trees bearing relishing, nouri::;hing, gladdening fruit, are introduced, as in the following passage (Deut. viii. 7-9), to the words in it. While of the perpetuity and security of sueh a sta.tc it is writtcn, " They shall sit evcry man un<ler his vine, anù Ullder his fig-tree; an d none filmll muke him iûraicl" t Miea.h iv. 4 ). " Bkssed," thercforc, " is the man thaL trustC't h in the LoRD, ancl wl1ose hope t.hc LoRn is. For hc shall be us n trcc plnntcd by the waters, and thut s1irendcth out hcr roots by the river , 1tJ1d i>hnll not see when heut cometh, but hcr leaf shull be green; and i>hnll not be cnrcful in the ycar of drought, ucithcr shull ceasc from yicldiag fruit" (Jer. x vii. 7, 8) . .Agnin, the samc wonderful and m omentous subjcct of the regencra tiun of man, with Ll1c graduai proccss by which it is effectcd, is t hus spokcn of by another pro1>het; "I," Jchova h, " will be us t he dew unto l srael: he shall grow as the lily, and cnst fürth his roots us Lcbnnon. His branches sbull ~prend, and his henuty sl1nll be us tl1e olive·tree, and bis smcll ns Lebauon. They that ùwcll nJHlcr bis slrndow shall return; thcy shall r evive us the corn, and g row ns t he vine : tl1c scent thcrcof shnll he as the wine of Lcba11on " (H os. xiv. 5-7) . H ere the commenrement of regencration li! ckscrihed, in" hi ch the di\·ine influences descend into the soul us the gcntle dew is depoi'itc<l on the tender herb (Deut. xxxii. 2). Ily tl1is the principlcs within the mind ure renovatcd and vivifie<l. T o grow, or rntl1cr hlm;. ~m , as the Iily signifies,-to be<,'Omc receptive of truths of henvcn npproµri ate to sueh a stnte in the under:>t:mding, t o 1icrcci\-e 1hei1 hca uty, imd tliat they wcrc dcsigncd to encour age us in sta tes of t rial, to gi Vt> us vietory in c\·cry confliet of temptation, and to cnublc us with joyfül heart<> to bring forth the fruits of picty and holiness in thG lifc."1 To ca8t forth roots as Lebanon, si11:11ifies not 011ly to ae11uiro
ho~. the nndcr,tnnding of J!ood and C ru th in 1 m " The Jo tu• ls n wnter-lily, " h clfc hroud Utc n11tc1rAl priuciple.~:t . };. iSO. Gra"' ùt•· lœf, iu l he iirentn<-t hmncfatlou~ of t he Nile_ not'"'"'"i<'nc..• fr.•m a~piritu~l or!Jlfn,l>ywhich tb<.'S wllh the flood, a nd ls never over • piritual truth i.• con!Orrucd.-A. E. 6-.ti.



but to rntai11 ~nclt trnths, so that they will be allowed to cxtenrl tlll'ir influence 1lownward:,; into the lowest or n:\tural and s<'11s111tl principles of the mind. wherc thcy hecome fixed aml confirmed elcments of :spiritual life. By the branche:< spreading in the open atmœphcro is siguified a surcccding stittc, in which truths and knowlc<lg<>s ~re esten1le<l towurds l1eaven, -are muHipled, arrangea, nnd invigorated, hcc11ui:;c thcy are a11 rcganled as having relation to the fruits of love anll charity, of which, whcn they are hrougl1t forth, or made manifest in the attractive excellences of a good lif e, it is said, t he beauty slutll be as the olive-trcc. By the sccnt heing ns Lcbanon is signified, tlint thus the l1ighest state of intelligence from rational perception i;; attained, and man becomcs, in hi» finite degree, fülly rorcptive of celes'C of his right l111nd tinl truth anil }oye from t ho Lord; "a frngrant tn.. plunting" ( ba. lx. 21) ,- "a t ree of rightcousuess," la<lcn with the rich fruits of wis<lom, virtue, intelligence, obe<liencc, antl use, prepared to he trnn;i.planled to the pam11ise of God. H ence it is arhleil, "thcy tlmt dwcll under his shadow shall rcturn; they ~h:tll rcvfrc ns the corn, and grow as thc vine: the sceut thereof shall bc as the wine of Leù:mon." Jt is from this corrcspondeuce of the vegetablc workl to the chureh, the man of the church, and t.he int.erior 11rinci11les of the human rnind, both in respect to ~ood and evil, truth and fübity, tlrnt trecs arc imid to know ( Ezck. HÎÎ. 2-1-) ; t-0 clap their hnll(ls ( fsa.. l v. 12) ; to sing ancl rejoice ( Ps. xcvi. 12); to praiise the Lord ( P~. c:dviii. !J) ; to em·y (Ezck. xxxi. fi); to be withered (.Joel i. 12); to ho eurnbereri:; of the ground (Lukc xiii. 'i); to be hurnt up (Joel i. l!J).132 Again, the Lord's foet signify his didnc natural prindple, ami, in conscqucnre thercof, the literai scnsc of bis mœ L H oly \Yonl, aull also his chnrch on earth. For the fect arc those pnrts of the body wliich are in immediato contact with the grournl, and ou wliich the hody rests as upon a base; and the litera} sen,;e is tlia.t containttnt on which the divine will anil wisdom rcst, and are rcvealcd to the Phurch.
whclmed."-J/T'J,1(1,.t; r;ee Jlib. R c11CC1rtl1I'•, \'OI. !., p. 2U9. "The lVhite mnjcstic llowcl:'S wcrc formcrly wo\·r:n into t.hc erowns of conqucrors.''~ Bcaut. of 11·ai. rmrl Art Di$JJ., Ytll. x.il., p. Hl.
l)t "

- - ----- - - -

"My soul. a ho" Jing willlem<"'S, i'ôh•ll thcn such bcantics wcn.r, The.t hrovcu with rllptur<' ;ho.li confcE Thy workmn11•hlp 18 \J1cre."-Scrk.

The fn1lt of tre<!F, wh\•tl1cr propcr for the

S}llrit of r. ral'e ! my hcart renew, Bach f:ilthful Christian crle.5; And w llrrc the wcefl~ of crror grcw, Let plunl.8 of truth arise.

me c>f man and animnls or uot,and whcthcr they arc bcrri()l<, n ul-<, or pnlpy fruit, will Ill· wnyK f.~·rvc to a..."lhittl u~ in a..'SC'eri.M.iuing Uac
HOCciflc ~1Jn1iflcittinn of the trcc which produce<l it, and to contirm lhe gc1mi11CIH!t;S of the wcaning.



Hencc, when the prophet I::!niah prcdicls the future glorious state of the L ord's king<lom on eurth, when tl1e cxnlted 1loctrines and trnth~ of the ord, repte.scoted hy the nohlœt productions of the >egelable kingdom, would be <liscovered, and his peoplc would i)laiuly pcrœivc tl1nt the outwnrd letter an<l the chorch b y whom it. is r eccivcd, were the vcry hold, or r esting-placc, or s:mctunry of the Lord with 111un, He says, "Tbe glory of Lchanon shnll come unto thcc, the fir-trcc, the piul'-tree, nnd the box together, to lx-nutify the place of ruy snuctnary; awl I will mnke tho place of my fcet glorious '.' (lx. 13); or, as füshop L owth more cmphatically traJlslatcs the lutter clnuse, "that I may glorify the pince whcreon I r est my feet." To cknote, furtlwr, that nll these facultiœ and blessingi; are dcrived -evcry moment of cxistencc-from the J ,ord alone, through his hloorl, and aro t.hc gifts of <livine love, which is e\·er acth·e for their })l'CS<'rvation anù cn ltivation, Ile says, "I am the truc vine, arnl my Fnthcr is the hushandman. Every brunch in me that bearcth not frui t, IIe taketh away: and every brnnch that bearcth fruit , lie puri:, rcth it, that it may bring forth more fruit." "Abide in 1ne, nnd I in you. As the branch cannot bear fruit of it~elf, except it aldrle in t.hc vine; no more <·:m ye, except ye nbidc in me. I a m the vinr, ye ar e tlll' hnmchcs : lie that abideLh in me, ru1d I in him, the same hringcth forth much frnit: for without me ye eau do nothing" (J olrn xv. 1-5). How füll of co1~h1tion and inslruetiou ure thc«e di\'ine cxprcssion.'l wlien riglitly urnle rstood ! Thnt trees, in the "Tord, signify man, an<l, abslractedly, principles of the lrnman mintl, both good nuit bad, Î!I still ful'thcr evidcnt froru what the L ord says hy the 11rophet Ezekicl, whcn prcdicting the juùgment which thcy induce upon themselvcs who profancly nssocinte the doctrines nrnl truths of tl1e H oly ·word with t.heir own 8cnsual lusts nn<l falsc persunsions, and thut they \1·ould pcrish by the Jo,·c of evi!. "Ron of 11w.n, set thy face toward the sou th, and Ùrop tl1y mml t.oward the south, and prophesy agaiust t.he forcst of the south field ; mu! say to tho forest of tho south, H car the wonl of the w1w ; Thus snith the Lorù Gov; Uehuld, I will kindle a fire in thee, and it shall devour evcry green tree in thee, and cvery <lry trec: the flaming !lame ~hnll not he qucnched, nnd nll faces frorn the south to the north Rhall be hurnrd thcrein. And all flesh shall sec that I the Lorm have kimlled it: it shall not be qul'nched. Theo s.1.ill I , ,\ h, Lord C:oD ! they sny of me, Dot.h hc ilOt spcak parable.s '!" (Ezek. xx. 4()-40.) And also what the Lord Rays by the sa.me vrophct where




1'lll? SCIENCh' OF


ho is trC'ating of the destruction of a pervertl'd ehurch gl'nerally and iu<lividually, hy skcptical roa:>oning, and the establisl1mo11t of a New Church tunong the Gent ilrs, and describrs the proce1<s of vivification, or regcneratio11, in cach in<lividual rnembcr, lie says, " A n<l ail the trocs of t he field," etc. ( E zck. xvii. 24). In furth<'r proof, let mE? direct your attention t.o the signification of wood, whîch in gcnernl corre8ponds to natural goodness. \V oml is ohtained from n tree which horc somc kind of appropriate fruit, in agreemen t with its peculiar nat.ure; from most kinùs au oil may he l'xprellscd; it may be enkindled, and ser ve the purvo:;c of affor<ling genial wnrruth to the lmdy; it was andcntly employcd in the construction of temples, calleù hou!>C\'> of God, mul in the formation of vit.rions musical instrunH•nts employed in the celcbrations of wo1·Rhip ; it i~ abo cxtensivcly used in the c-onstruction of hab itutions, and the fabrication of innumerahk arli<>les of couvcuience arnl u;ir; and frorn all the:;c chamcterist.ic>', and many others foun<led in its HS<"S, it~ physiological structure, aiHl enm its chemical composition, it may be mo1:1t satL-,factorily pn1\·cd that various kinds of wood, especially such us arc prccious and durabl<.>, correspond to v:1rious principks of goodncs,i or charity, natural, rnt.itmal, spiritual, or celcstial, or thcir intermediates, nppcrtaining hoth to the interna! and the cxtcrnal min<l an1l lifü. But iu the oppo~itc f<euse, wooù wl1ich hns no intrin~ic vnluc, th e fruit of t he tree whcnrc it is hewn being dcscribed as cvil, or in itself abouncting wit h ~uch qualities as arc hurtful or de:;;truc· li 1•e, or wh<>rc it is pervert<"<l to a wicked purposc, corresponds to wl1at is evil, in somc of the abm·e clegrccs, an<l has reb..tiou to the lu~ts of 1hc unregeneratc man aml llis wickcd dnings. In th(' former, or good SClli!e, thcrdilrc, cedar-woorl, Ils sig nifying works of charity performl'!l from rationn.I intellig<"ncc and gO<Xlnei;s, i1:1 fiJ>Oken of so frequcntly in rcfcrence to the T cmpJc nt .Jerusalcm, and in the Mosaic ritnal i~ directed to be applied in the purification of the Ieper, when tlic ])luguo of Jcprosy wus hcaled ( T-<-v. xiv. 4). It is this principle of goodne$S in the will aml lifc wliid 1 huil<ls up the Lonl's d welliug-pl:tro in the soul, and without which i l is impœsihlc that mnn can he renewe<l arnl clcansc<l nftcr ho h:is hcen ~mittC'n hy the dircfül "plagnc of his own hcart;" for he hns profano<l to evil purposes the holy things of Gotl'~ or<l, and such are given up to their unckanncss who "change thr truth of God into a 1ie " ( Hom. i. 2.'i), This profanation of truth is always significol hy the plague of lcprol'y; und bl'cause the ,fr1n1, hcing in po~i'l'.\lSÎou of the 'Vord of God, wcre more than othcr nation;1




arldicted to this evil, therefore that plaglle wns more prcya)cnl 11u1ong
them thnn among other nations. And hcncc the Lor!! Je~u ~ not 011ly clcamied tl1e Jepers who 11·crc brought or who cnme to Him, approach~ ing Ilim tlB goodnci;s itsclf, but commau<led hi~ disciples also to clcnnsc them. "Now are ye clenn," snys H e on n.uothcr occasion, " throngh tl1e W onl which J have spukcn unt.o yon " (,John x:v. 3) ; "Sanctify thcm throngh thy truth: thy 'Vord is truth" (.John xvii. 17). It wn.~ because wood, in a good scusc, un<l in the lowest <lcgree, corresponds to uat.urnl goodness, or chnrity, t.hat. the bitter waters of l\farah, in the wildernes~, were miraculously made sweet by ilfoses ca.•ting therein a tree, nccording to the cxpre~s emnmaml of Jchovnh (Ex. x'·· 25). ln the bittcrne~s of those w1Llers wc may see a ju:;L repr~ntation of that state of spiritui~l trial, induce<l hy murrnuring and dieoOCdicncc, in whirh the knowledges of diduc truth, however dC'sirnblc, 11rc attcnde<i with bitt.cr and pcrplcxing thonghl>i, and aftiml no satisfaction to the thirsty mind, because they are seimrnte(l front tl1e hcavcnly principle of love or goodne:;s. In this eri.se, the Lm! shows us n tree of hcaling virtuc, whicl1, if cast into the water8, " 'il! inst:mtly doprive thC'm of their bittcrn('i:<S; und whn.t is this, ùut a hcM·cnly prindple of chnrity in the heurt, brought out or ma<le manifest in a good lifc ami conduct ! ln the opposite scnse, wood dcnotes the evil lu~ls of self and the world, for these ttre the opposites of charit.y or goodnces; a:; the woods, for iuettt11cc, of which idoli:; were mndc (I sa. xlv. 20), or "'hich \1·c1·c uecd for füneral piles (Isa. xxx. :);l). · wood hns nlso t11c same contnny ~ignificntion when t hose ure treated of who attribute goodness t~> thcroselves, instead of t.o Him froro whom alonc it pr<><.-ccds, thus who suppose t.hat thcir works of goodne.os and charity nrc meritodous. ThL ';;e are said to have forsnken the worship of the Lord, nnd nre c.alled worshippers of i<lols made of wood, the works of their own hnnds (Je1'. i. 16). In tl1e smne sensc it is tlrns spokcn of in tl1c propl1ecy of Ilabakknk, "Tho stone shall cry out of the wull, and the bcam out of the timhcr [or woocl] sha.11 a11Bwcr it" (ii. 11 ) ; " W°i)() unto him tlrnt saith to the wood, Awake ; t.o the <lulllh si.one, A.ri8c, it shall tench !" (ii. Hl.) H erc the prophet is dcnouncing self:rightcommc~s ancl scH~cooccit, and wnrning thosc who are ùestitutc of gcnuine truth and goo<lnP:Ss, agninst all such delusive depcndcncc. Evil lusts, signifie<! l>y wood, nre reprcscnte<l us :rn~wcring to ~ensunl suggcstions,-as ec11oing nnd t'Onfirming ull falsc {JrÎnC'Îplcs in tl1c undcrstnnding,-us usscntinp: to the \'aÎ11 imag inat ions which Ll1cy c.xeite, :ind ns in. • tignting tlieir possc~rs to .oeek îru,1:rnetion for uvil purposes, thus to forsake the ct<'rnal



truth, the R ock of Ages, nnd to tlirow thcir confidcucc upon their own idle speculations 1wd prctende<l merits; but -a woe is p ronounced upon all such ns thus "say to the wood, Awake; to the dumh stone, Ari:;e, it shall teach;" who thus set up the idols of tlleir own uncleun hcarts in the place of God a nd of his W ord, for" they sacrifice unto cle \·ils, not to Go<l. Of the rock that begat them they are unmindful, und hase forgotten God that formed them" (Deut. xxxii. 17, 18). "All goods which exist in act are called uses, and all eYils wl1ich exist in itct are also called uses, lmt the latter are called cvil uses, and the former good uses. Now, as_ail goo<ls arc from the Lord, !lnd all evils from hell, it follows that no other than good uses werc ereutcd by the Lord, but that evil uses originated from hell. lly uses, wc mean all things that appear on earth, as :rnima]s of al! kinds and vegetahles of :ill klnds; of both the latter and the former, those whicl1 furnish use to man are from the Lor<l, and those which do hurt to man are from hell." "The things that do hmt to man arc called uses, becausc they are of use to the wicked to do evil, and because thcy contribute to absorb malignities, and thus also as remcdies. Use i:1 upplied in hoth seuses, like love; for wc speak of good love and evil love, an<l 10\•e calls all that use which is done hy itself." "Evil UH'S on earth mcan ail noxious tllings in both the animal nud \egetahlc kingdoms, and also in the mincral kingdom." "Such in the animal kingclom are poisonous serpents, scorpions, crocodiles, drngons, owls, mice, locusts, frogs, spiders, noxious worms and insects, also flies, moths, lice, mite.o, and injurions animalcules; in a word, thosc tlrn.t consume grasses, ]caves, fruit, seeds, meat and drink, and are noxious to beasts an<l men. In the vegeta.ble kingclorn they are all malignant, \Îrulent, and poisonous herbs, as hcrnlock and aconitc, an<l pulse and shrnbs of the sarnc kin<l ; in the miner:\} kingdom, all poisouous enrths. These fcw particulnrs, ;i.dduced for the sake of science, arc sufficient. to show what is mcant by cvil uses on earth." "Nothing whittcvcr exists in the nat11ml world that does not derive its came nn<l origin from the spiritual worl<l, an<l that good is from t he L ord, m1<l tlie evil from the devil, that is, from hell. By the spiritual world i:> meant bath henven and hell." ":Now, it is influx from hell which operates those things that arc evil uses, in places wliere thosc things llrC which correspond." "Such, likcwise, nre the appearnnce.;; in the spfritual world, which are ull correspondcu ccs; for the intcriors of rhe mind of the inhnbitants of botll heaven and hell nre, by such clligie~. prœcntc<l actually before their uses."-Sec D. L. \V., pp. :ma -347; nlso Ap. Ex. 109; II. & H. 103- 190.


HE inorganic subdtnnces of tl1e minera] kingdorn, of whirh growth, motion, anù sensation are not predicable, nre likewise spoken of in the Word of God, to rcprcsent and signify, in a gouil sense, the principles of love and wisdoru, and, in a negutive scnso, those of eYil nnd error, in the very cxt.ernals, or lcast sensitive priuciples, of Lhc mind and Iifü,-to surh spiritual thinf,<S as are manifüst oven to seusual di.sccmment, and fürm the lowest and firmest hn~i.'! of a heavenly and eternal stnte; or, on the contrary, to sueh infernal things as, coufirmcd by eorporeal affoction and scnsual rensoning, ertingui.sh ail hcavenly truth. Of these correspondc11ces scvcrul striking examples haYe alrcndy Leen given, from which it may be clearly inferred that the precious mctals and stonc.s, nccording to their ir11lefinite vnrieties, rolors, priuc iples, and uses, correspond to those infinitcly ·various kiu<ls of goodncss nnd truth which serve to cnrich, adorn, and give stability to the extreme principles of the mind and lifo. But in t.hcir opposite ;;ensc, mctals and etones signify cvil and erroneons principles and pc1·sunsiom; in thcir external forrn:;. That sucl1 is thcir signification, might be abundaJltly proved from the \\rord, as when the Lord is dcscribing Ly tl1e mout h of his prophet a. gl'Ossly corrupt stnte of the church and the mind, togcther with tl1e direful punishment which it 11ecessarily induces, and which is called God's auger, and nppears to be the iufliction of bis vengcnnce (for the wrath or fury of Go<l, is, as 110 have prcviously sho"·n, only an nppenrance of truth), He says, "Becauso ye are all becomc dros~, behold, thereforc, I will gathcr you into the midst of Jerusalem. As tbey gather silver, and brass, anJ iron, and lead, and tin, into the midst of the furnace, to blow the firc upon it, to 1nclt it; so will I gatber you in minti anger and in my fury, und I will leave you therc and melt you" (Ezek. .xxii. 19, 20). But when Ile s1icaks of an exalted @tatc of his church and of the 1uiml, togcther with the glories and blcssings which belong thcreto,
20" 233




H e !o\fi)"S, "For brass I will bring golù, and for iron I will bring ~ih·er, and for won<l brnss, and for ston es iron " ( Tsa. lx. 17). "\Ve ha YO beforc obscrved, that the precious stoues " ·hich adorncd the brcnstplate of the high-pricst, and t hose which arc the fou ndations of the New Jcrusalcm, signify al! kinds an<l dcgrees of divine wisdom and knowledgc in the "\Vord translucent and res11kndent from pure goodness, from whîch in telligence nnd j nst judgment are d crh-641, and on which the church in heaven nnd on carlh is founde<l. 'l'he J,ord Himsclf, as to his di\·ine 'Vord or trutl1, and its cternu.1 durability, as deri\-(lll frorn thi11 dh-inc ]o,-e, is aJso called "a rock ," on wl1ich his ehurch is said to be ercctcd. rn a perverted churc11 Ile is reprcsentcd as a stone which the builders-thc teachcrs of a falsc religiou-lmvc r"jectcd; b ut in the true church H e h; acknowlc<lge<l as the " hcadstone of the corner" (Ps. cxviii. 22; Matt. xxi. 42),-thc "living ~tone, llisallowcd indccd of men" ( 1 Pet. ii. 4),-" the tricd ~tone, the prccious corncr-stonc, the sure fou ndation" (Isa. xxviii. 16), on which all faith and hopc and love must rest. That stOllC is callcd the corncr-s ton c, or chief corne r-stouc, wllich is placcd in the extrcmc augles of a found ation, conjoining and holcling togethcr two walls of the pile, meeting from clifforcnt quarters. So nl.;o in the bcautifol and instructive parablc of the wisc aml foofü;h buil<lcrs, in whicl1 is portm ycd the characters of snch as crect thcir spiritual habitntion~ on the immovablc rock of the "\\'ord of God, or divine truth, ùy hcaring un<l doing the Lord's will; in wltich cnsc they are conjoiued to Him in an cverbsting covcnant; and, on t he contrary, to snch as build thcir spiritu:il honscs on the dclusiYc sand of hum nu imag i11:ttion, faith itlone, :tn<l mcre cxternnl profcsf(Îon, in which case thcir mimls. disjoincd from the et.orna] source of lifc, arc bro11ght to irrctrievablo r uin, and the knowlcdge thcy have acquir<'i.l i1.1 <lissipntcd. " Wbosocver henrcth t hcec sayings of mine," ~aith tJ1e L ord, "nml clocth tl1em, r will liken him 1111to n wise man, who huilt his hom1c upon n. rock : and t11c rain descendcd, and the floods came, and the wiml;i blcw, and bei\t. upon that ho11se ; and it fcll not: for it was füunde<l upon n r ock. A nd evcry one that hcarcth t.hcsc sayîngs of mine, nu<l docih them not, shall he likcnc<l unto a fooli:;h man, who built J1is house npon the sand: and the min <.lcscen<lcd, and the flood~ t'an1e, und the winds blcw, and bcat upon tliat hou;ie; und it foll: and jrrcat was the fall thcreof" ("Matt. vii. ::!4-27). Ilcre, the solirl rock manifestly signifie;; clidne trnth;:, which, whcn reccfrcd into tlie mind from ;ilfeclion, combinecl with goodncss of hearL, and brought clown into



the eonduet, cohere togcthcr in nnhroken unity, and man crccting thcrcon his ~piritual hou~<', is cnabled sneccssfully to rc8Î8t cvcry stonn of t cmptation, for hc is conjoinc<l to the Rock of Ages, cven the J,or<l J(•~n s Ghri;;t, But by sand is as phünly mcant truths devoid of coheren ce, bccause receh•ed into the um!erstanding separatcd from love and its life,-rnere outwartl profession of füith, without spirit11al ntfectiou ; then truths of the holiest quality are but spcculative knowledges in t he mcrnory ami natural under.standiug, which, losing their col1csior1 and firmness, and deprfred of all connection with thcir <liYine source, 1tre profaned to cvil p11rpose8, and deprivcd of all that strength and consistency ncc1lful für man's support in times of spiritual trial and OJ>position. A dcpen<lencc on thefie brings eternnl ruin to the sonl. On account of tbi,; 8piritua1 sig nilicntion uf stolles, as denoting ~acred truths of an cxtcrual character, an1\ thcir qm1litics of iirniness and durnbility, pillurs of stoncs, and hcnps of stone, wcrc, in nucieut tiJncs, set np as witnŒscs of covenant'l, bonndarics of land, 1tn<l t.est.i~ monials of affoction, and were not. unfrcqucntly consecrated, ns thini,rs conncctcd with holy wor,;hip, by pouring oil upon the top of the1n (Gcn. J<.-xviii. 18 ; xxxv. J.I.). And of the temple of Solomon we rea.d that it was complcted of !'t ones rc.'\dy prcpn.rcd, "so tbat thero Wa.'! n C!ither hnmmcr , axe, nor any tool of iron hear<l in t11e housc whilc it wns in building" ( 1 Kingi> vi. 7). An altar to .Tchovah wus, on the same account, commnnded to be crccted of unhewn stones, or stoncs unpollutcd by the workman';; tool (Bx. xx. 25), to r cprcsc11t tous tliat worship can only be acceptable t o Cod when it is the dictnte of p11re truth drnwn f'rom the Iloly 'Vonl, unpcrrerted nud undcfilcd by tlie ya.in imaginations of sclf-intC!l ligence. In eon,•e'}ucnce of the science of correspondences bcing wcll known in 11ncient times, "ld~toriam:. distinguisl1ed tlic pcriods, from the first nge of the world to the last, iuto the golden, silver, copper, nn<l iron ngcs, to which nfao they nddctl an nJJe of clny. The golden ngc they callcd thosc times wl1cn innocence nnd intcgrity prcvailcd, nnd when evcry one <li<l what ili good from what is g00tl, and what is ju~t from wl1:\t is j ust; the sih-er age thcy c:ùlctl t hosc times when tl1erc wns no longer nny innocen ce, but still a species of intcgrity which rlill not consist in tl1cir doing what is goud frorn what is goo<l, bnt in their 'il.oing wlmt is truc from what is true; bnt the copper and iron ages thcy callerl thosc which were ><till infürior. The renson '>\hy they .((tl\'C snch appcllatious to thosc times wni- not from compnri~on, hut froru eorrespon<lence; for the :mcients lrnew tlmt silvcr corresponds



io trutl1, and gold to good, and tllis from communication with spirits and angcls." "But who at thh; present day knows that the ages were callcd golden and silver by the ancicnts from correspondence? yea, who at this day knows anything about correspondencc? Aud yet be that does not know this, and especially be that makes his chief gratification and wisdom to consist in disputing whether it he so or not, cannot even attain to the lenst knowledge conccrning the innumerahlc Lhings which are correspondences."-A. C. 5658. Thcre are varions kinds of gold mentioned in tlie "\Vord, or gold from varions localities, as Uphaz, Ophir, Sheba, Havilah, and Tarsliish, and they correspond to varions kinds and degrees of love aud gooducss appertainiug to the Lord, his W ord, bis kingdom, and our ncighbor, according to the signification of the place rnentioned, and the subject trcated of. Thus gold from Uphaz signifies the precious principle of celestial goodness, and the wisdom thence derivc<l, or the most exalted lo,·e of God, with its rich lilcssings, und the meaning of Lhc word Uphaz expresses its fincncss or purity (Jer. x. 9; Dan. x ..5). Gold from Ophir signifies spiritual goodncss, or the love of the neighbor, deri vcd from the love of God; and the name Ophir means rrutkin g fruitfnl (Isa. xiii. 12; Ps. xlv. 9). Gold from Shelm signifies the love of trutl1, dcrivcd from the Roly 'Yord, and its application to good an<l uscful purposes in life. Sheba means compassing about; nn<l gol<l from Havilah and Tarshish denotes the lowest order of love and goodness excmplificd in the love of extcrnal or scicntific knowlc<lge, and iu promoting what is profitable and benevolent in moral and civil life (Gen. ii. 11, 12; Isa. lx. 9). Havilah means speaking or declariug, and Tarshish contemplation or examination. l•'rom thcsc cxamples it may be secn how the meaning of Hebrew words often assist the truc significatioo of the things predicated, and how viirietics of the samc object, hoth in a goocl and a bad sense, are to be interpreted. The love of goodness of any degree, when tried ancl purified by the process of tem1)tation, is callcd "gold tried iu the firc;" that is, unalloycd or gcnuine (Rev. iii. 18). In an oppo:site sensc, gold signifies the carnal and pcrvertcd and inordinate love of self and worldly pleasure of various kinds; it is thcn describcd ns uscd in the construction of iüols, and its tendency to profanation; it i:i said, in strains of lamentation, "How is the gold hccornc dim ! how is the most fine golrl change<l ! The precious sons of Zion, comparable to fine gold, how are they e8teeme<l as carthcn pitcl1ers, tha work of the han(ls of the potter" (Lam. iv. 1, 2).




.A.gain, ,..-hat natul'al substances can more fitly represcul the rnrnul concupiscences of lltc uatural man, their infüuumntory tcmlcncy, The diNfül falsehood, whicl1, like thick smokc, arises therefrom, dnrkeniug the Yc1·y day, and the excruciating torrncnt occasioncd by thcir activity, both in tliis world and that which is to corne, th:m tl10 bitucutioncrl minous minerais of sulphur and pilch? Ilcnce they a rc u1 in t he W ord in thili sense ; as whcre the Lord by the iuspil'l'<l prnphot Ï:i describing the judgmcnt which a pervertcd chur ch brings <lown upon iti;clf, or a state of mind confirrncd by the love and prnctice of evil und falsehood, in selfish lusts and füntasies, nnd the direful results, he says, "It. is the day of the Lord's vengeance, a nd the ycar of recompcnses for the controvcrsy of Zion. And the st1·cams thcreof shnll be turncd into pitch, nnd the dust thereof into brimstone, and the lnnd thereof ~hall become burning pitcli. It shall not be quenc·hcd night nor day; the smoko thcrcof shall gQ up forever" (I sa. xxxiv. 8-10). Hel! itself and its ceaseless puni.shmcnts, with the bnrning, soul-tormenting lusts of self and the world,-the ever-activc agents of nll distrcss and mi~ery, both as thcy c.xist in the spiritual worltl and in the disorderly minda of men on earlh,-are callcd "a lu.kc of fire burning with brims1ooe" or su lpliur (R ov. x ix. 20; xxi. 8). ,\ ud the Psalmist, speaking of the drcadful nnguish which such e,·il concupiscences and thcir fantnsies certainly inducc upoo men when thcy are indulged and confirmed, says, "Upon the wicked H e shall r::iin .\marcs, fire and brimstonc, and a horrible tempcst : this shall be the portion of thcir cup" (Psalm xi. ü). "" Agnin, !!alt, we know, is a c-0rnpound, in certain givcn proportions,
""" ! o.m ata loos to conccf\·e thé rell,.)n upon hnma.n malefaclors. •·or1ny o w11pnrt, why lhcy arc to be oonfildere<l grlevously ln l conce!1•e no greatcr h 1jury i• ilunc to the crror who •nppose our Siwlour IO lJe threat- Chrfat!!ln rcl!i<!on ùy •npp<"ing the flre with cnlug th" wiekctl, not with corrore11l •11d whkh thu rich glutton is t orm(•nt('d, to be sou.~ble fire, hnt with m•mtal l\llln• and tor- fii,'1lrath·c, than by regarding tl>c fcnst, d tur~s. ThiswJ1.. d ormer!y thcopinionof g rave whkh La7.&<i1s is so.ld to be 1>re~fl>t alo11g nnd (!minPnt men amoug the Chrh-tian fa.. with Abruhmu 88 an image and emhlem of t11cr.;1 ofwhom nion. PctarlLHonn.l<l'fimention supreme !~licity."-/Jr. l. h ~ll0$/1n'1n'• ,Xülc ln h1'1 J>ogmaJ.. Theolog., tom. Ill., p. HXI. And tQ l'lutu:orlh'• / nt. Sy&, vol. iil.. t>. l',67. notl\ rewofthcmodcrn•al'!O, who!lrewholly "If 1 understomd yonr letter. yonr lmllgi· tM10\'cd from ail susp!rlon of pcm icioWJ no.lion l~ hnunlcd wiU1 lhe ldca of litnal .:rnir:;, ftrm\y ma.intain t he SllJ.QC doctri11~. l ,fkima, •nd hell is creB.ted, llOt B~ lnrlud!ug A~ 011r ~•wlour f!X'queotly compare'I the jors : ail morl\l evil•, but 11.~ J\ great l\re. The •pir· of hoo.ven lo a fen,,t, I do not see why it t~ it1.-J lnterprct;ttion of ScriplUl'(' hi..,, '" fur to be con •iùerud d11ng1JrOU9 to \h<' <li\'lnc , made !Ill way 11.mong 1tl! ~l••s<'• of Çhristinns trulli to 1<11ppo<e that He Alotl •poke fignrn- 1!n thl• part of the co11utry (0. H. A.). th•t I tlw!y Of the punishmenL• Of hi,11, AlH1 ln Or- do not know nn indiv!(hm! Wh(l IJCli~\'es in <Ier to dcDIOn•trnte more vlvl<ltr nnol rknrly t lhe lltcral fire ._. t11e punlshmcutof the con· the dl\'Adful •uff' erîng'! whkh Uie wicked detnllcd."-Dr. rhamri•g'i /.(Ut1' 10 a l''riend. wlll hiwe to uuùcrgo, bor rowed an lnmi:;e d•tl('tl Bo6ton, Xov. l SU ; Jlem<Jtr1, l'· 468. trom the m oost <':xquisite Lon'J\Cntl! h 1 1lktcù


of au acid nm1 an r.lkali which have nn affinity for cnch ot11<'r. Iu a good scnsc salL corresponds to tl1c affection of combining trutli \\ith goodn08S, füith with eharity, knowlcdge with practice. Thi:> desirc, whcn incorporate<l in the ruiml and <liffused through the lifc, pre;;en•cs thcm from the corruption of sin. The prophet Elijah, thcrefore, 1mder a representativc dispeusation, whcn miracles were permitted, is saill to have cast ~alt into tl1e spring of the wnters of Jcricho, be. cause the waters wcrc unwholesome anrl the ground was unfruitfül, saying, "Thus saith the Lor<l, I bave healed these waters; therc shall not he from tl1cnce any more denth or barrcn 1m1d" ( 2 Kings ii. '..ll), to t cach us most significuntly that the wnters--the doctrines of cternal t ruth-can impart no perrnanently renovating virtues to rcfresh tl1e soul, and ren1lcr man fruitful in goo<l works, unless mnu coiipcrates with the di vine llestowcr, by uniting thercwith tlie interior spi1'itual aHùctions and l10ly dcsires whicJ\ cm body themsclves in goodncl';:! of Iife, nnd irnpart a heavcnly 11uality to every worù nnd action. On account of this i;ignification of salt in a goorl sense, it wus an imlispcnsablc law to I:<rael, thut with 1111 the offorings prescntcd to Jchovah, salt should be otferecl ( Lev. ii. 13); and the spiritual groun<l of t}1is law is rccognizCll in the Gospel, wherc, in mnnifi'l"t rcfercuce to the h cavenly union of trnth and nffecLion in the miu<l, signified by salt, wc are thus divincly iustrnctt>d nnd exhortetl hy our blcs.<ed Lord, " E\·cry one shall be saltcd with fire, aud cvery sncrifi<'e ,:hall be salted with sait. Salt is gootl: but if the sait lrnvc Iost ]ii,; saltucss, whercwith wiH ye scason it? }Jaye s:\lt in yoursclnis, and ha rn pcace one with anotl1c·r" CMnrk ix. 4~. 5'1). Rut, in the opposite scnsc, sait denotes an unholy ('omrnixturc of truth with evil, which is profünation, an<l tl1c awfu] rlfect of this doplorn1'lo st.atc is condcmnution. Thu;;, Lot.'s wife bccamc n, pillar of snlt, becnusc .-he lookcd behin<l hcr nnd scparntcd knowle<lgc from <luty (Geu. xix. 2()); hencc wc have the flolemn warniug, "Rcmembcr Lot's wife" (Luko ;vii. 32). "'e rca1l also of certain cilics which wcrc given up to salt, or devoted to dcsolntion; und to the samc purport it is said, in r"fi'r· cuce to the want of this conjoining affection, " [The Lor<l] turneth n fruitful lancl into harrcnness (or sait), for the wickcdness of them tbat dwell therein" (Psalm c.vii. 34).131
1;; "Ri1lt, in the ori~innl Hebrew, fa cx· 1to salt a certain sRcrcd propcrty."-FOr•lcr'~ pn:'&<c"l br n term denolin.i; incorruptibilliy Pit1ker/1Jn'6 ("\JI/., vol. ix., p. 21'1. nnfl P''rpdnitr."-A. C. 2 1 '•i. The Oricnlals cxpr<"-.., & vnt•tnL couulc· "M<mt of the ,\sintic tuilions luwe nllhed 11nncc by ;ayiug, "tlll!re 16 no oa/t in lt."


SuN, 1.TooN,







r11HOSE sublime objects of creative energy in the matcrial universc,
the sun, the moon, und the stars, arc constantly employed in the ·word of God to signify the grarnl universah of life and salvation. For inst:rnce, the sun, in relation to the regenerate man, corresponds to the Lord Himself, "the Sun of rightcousuess," and thus also to the love of God urnl our ncighùor, for t11is Love is derived from his es:;cutial lifo, and is spoken of as the fountain of every celestial bcutitudc; as in 1falachi, "Unto you that fcar my narne shall the Sun of rightcousncss arise with healing in his wings" (iv. 2). But in relation to the unrcgcncrutc man, the sun corresponds to the evil love of self and the world, which, "when it is U]J," or risen, that is, permitt.ed to be active, and increascs concupiscence, instcad of ministering blessÎilé,>"S, is del'cribcd as "scorching" the good sced of trnth, so that undei· the bnneful influence it "withers away" (Matt. xiii. 6), and as causing the hcaven-dcscended manna to vanish (Ex. xvi. 21 ). The sun fa spoken of in the same sense in the Psulms, wbere it is said, "The Lord is thy keeper: t11e J.ord is thy shade upon thy right hand. The sun shall not srnite thee by day" (cxxi. 5, 6); :;Îgnifying that the Lord can a]one protect us from the destructive influence of self.love and its burning passions.135
"'"The worship of the sun, by the Egyp· moment, u1ukr the imnge of the inoon, who tian•, by the Phœnlelans, and rhilistincs, borrows her lfght from the SUll. and ;. per. was the ''i.'ornhip of one invfaible God, srrn· pehmlly chaaging ber uppP1uance. This boliicd by the visible source of erc~kd light mode of repreoontation wus nndoubtcd\y the and lifc." They uflerwarils WOŒhipped Duni. µrirnary c<l,use of idolatry an<l •uix·r.,tition; or Seth, as the s11n·god. "Thus symho1' be- men growing by degrcell forgetful of the ~u­ co.mc ldols."-llunsrn'a K eiJ8 of Sl. Pdcr, pp. prcme Jle!ng, and confini11g their attention 38, 39. to that 11loriouo lumluary, the sun, as the hu" The Egyµtinn• repn:sented the Huprcmc mcdlntc cause of whut they- bchcld, in•t.ead Being and his <lh•inC' attributes-his itn- of consM.c.-riug it as the muterial repI"ooontJ.l~ mc11slty o.nd omnipotence, his fecnnd!l.y live of ils spiritnal source. the ln1•b!Llc Proan,1 lnllnite pcrfrction-1mder the symbol duccr of o.11 visible oùjccts."-Nal. .Del., vol. of the sun; and they reµru~ented Natnrc, or L~ p. 792. Jllatlcr, whi{)h is altogct11cr dcpcndcnt on A wry rcmarkable IX1ok was pu Lli shed in that Suprcntt:: Bcing, nnd diverslficd cvery 1 Dublin, in lf .,. cntitled I'l'iml1Y1l .'-'ymbur.s, or



The sun, as the centre of attraction to tho planctary "orhb and che proximale source of licat, light, Jifo, an<! fruitfulncss to this natural world, is the representative cmblcm of the Lord Himsclf ns to hi1:1 divine love; for thi1:1 principlc is the centre of all vitality in the church and the mind. ln the winter i;cason all creation mourrn;, M it werc, the suu's apparent absence; mauy animals become torpi<l, and the Yegetable kingc..10111 withcr.s apparently; but on the return of spring, and the more direct rays of the s1m, the kingdoms of natur1.1 are all warmed into ncw life, and renewed into acth·ity by his vivif)'ing and genial influences, and univcrsal nature rejoices at the sun's npparent a1>proach. In all this wc ruay trace nnd confirro the beautiful corrCi:!pondence of the sun. The moon, dcpcndcnt upon the earth, Lut shining wit.h a borrowe<l lustre dcrive<l from the suu, and whose reflccted gloriœ dissipate the darkness of so many of our nights, i~, in a goo!l sern:e, a striking figure of a truc foith in the Lonl and his \Vorù ; for faith derivcs all its effulgence and life from love, anù 1lis~ipates all the doubt and darkne.ss wbich so often prev:ül in the night of trial auù temptation. Hence, in the sublime promise of a pcrpetual state of that hcayenly joy an<l delight which flow from the lorn of Go<l, and faith in his "\Vord, the Evnugelical Prophct exdainis in rapturc, "Thy sun shall no more go down, ncither shall thy moon withrlraw itself" (Isa. lx. 20). It is from the principlcs and perceptions of the smnc love and faitli that we ure le<l with hcartfelt ~inccr· ity to wor,,;hip and serve the Lord, as being goodness itself, and truth it.5elf; anù to ascribe to the outflowing encrgics of his H oly F=-pirit all works of benevoleneo and use, by whatcver agcnf.l:I thcy are made m:l!iifost. Then, in the langua.ge of corre.spondcnce, ·we :ne said to " Prni~o llim for the preeious fruits brought forth by the sun, and for the prccious things put forth by the moou" (Deut. xxxiii. 4• 1). The stars which bespangle the skies with their innumerable coruscations, and cmit rays of light into the atmosphere, are crnl>lematical,
Uit AnallJ!PJ nf Orœl.ion mld New Crcaüon, by of the trnth of the sdencc o! corrc~pond­

W .•'c-.ither.;tonc H , Barri•ter·At·law, in whil•h Il !~ Mtempte<l to be shown thll.t the revcn days or rreallon hn>'e the mœt wonderful tmd strlk!ug- a.nalogy to the Lord Je~ns Christ itnd h!s work of rcdcmptlon, and to the Sl'Vcrt\l ~ta1,~s !n whlch man follows H!m !n the re~nerntlon, " or ncw crcntlon." Onu cnnnrit perrrln: thnt the wr!œr ha~ C \'<:'r rcH.d the v;orh of fiwcdcnborg; yct, altlld ~rwtt " "". ru,ion and uuccrt:tinty, nnrl wlthnut nny i,•uirl e 111 dlrœl him, h l• hA.s yt-t hil upon man}· ld1•ru. which are truc; and confirruatory

cnce~, oncl which are valn11ble M proreedini: !rom Rn lndep('ndcnt mind . For lnstnncc, ln hls Introduction, hc '"Y": •· JI<>w 1111 our knnwlcdi:tc llrioo• from the stndy of the works nu1l 1J1c Worcl of the Great Cre11tor, t\ncl l'On•i•t~ ln the per<>eptlon of the vartcms r elations 1t11kini: the Word in it.• wid~t e!s::niti<-ntion) whlch h!s wQrks l>car to llin1sclf; anil th~ worlŒ are full o fanRlogics within nn:iloi<i..,;, or, lu t he J:mgnsgc of the Son of b.racl, 'RU tlJC thlng>< ure made double ont "811in•I 1111.· othcr.' "'- p. a.

OOR!ili:SI'Of.;DEXCE OF 'l'llR Sl'X• .'100.\~ AXD S1'.'1. lfS.


in a good seni>e, of the knowlcdges of goodne:,s anù truth, which inadiatc the mental firmament \Yith rays of spiritual intelligence. "~hcn, thcrefore, a desccratcd und bcnighted stute of the ehurch is trcntcd of, the sun is reprœented as darkeucd and "~lnoudcd in sackcloth of l 1air," to dcnote t11e utter extinctinn of lovo and c11arity; the nwon h; spokcn of as "lumed to blO<Jd," to signify that all gcn uinc füitJ1 ii> darkcned and corruptcd ; and the stara u.ro imid to "fall from heawn, e\·en as a fig-tr<>,c casteth lier untimcly figs, when shc is shaken of a mighty wind," to represent the awful apostasy from trutb, wl1cn the reYcalcd knowledgcs of heavenly things ure hurled to the c:u·th, nntl made enbaenient to the vilest purposci; (J oel ii. 10; Matt. xxiv. '.:!!; Act::; îi. 20; Rev. vi. 12, 13). On tl1e otl1el' hund, when the ~tn. ugth aJJd glory of the church are treated of, s he i::; represented a~ a ,,·omlcr sccn iu l1eaycn, "a woman clothcd with the :,un" (R ev. xii. 1),-encircled by a protecting ::1pher e of divine lo\"e; as liaYing "tlfo moon under her feet,"-supported hy a pure, holy, and firm fitith; and upon her head "a diudom of twelve stars,"- crowned with tl1e incxting uishablc splendor~ of spiritual knowledge or intelligence. The communication!! of divine truths from the Lord werc made, in 1mcient times, JJot only by inspircd speeches, but u.lso by t he perception!! "hich we1·e excite<l into actidty hy vi,iions or dre:um1. Thesc wer e all representati,·cs, from which the prophets t.aught the peoplo the divine will aml promises, und recorded them as the very \Yord of God. J oscph wus favorcd with a pro1)het ic 1lrcam of this k iud, when he saw the sun, tl1e ll.JOOn, and the eleyen stars, in appe:tra oce make oheIB.'\nce bcfore him. This ean only, in tlte mere lcttcr, upply to the single hisrorical fact of .TO:!eph, his brcthren, a nd bis parents in Egypt; but, in the internai or spiritual ~nse, by .To:ieph is siguified the L ord .Jesus Christ, and al!!o, in regarù to man, he signifies divine truth from the Lord in hcaven an<l the church, or in the ~piritnnl lllllll; but the sun and the moon signify ltcre natural gooduess and t.ruth, or guodness nnd truth in the natura l 111in1l; füthcr and bretl1rcu signify 1Lnd include tlrn J ewish religion ; while the eleven stars ~ignii~· ail th<' knowlcdges ther cuf. Bowing, or ohei~nce, deno tes a1\oration, accompanicd with the acknowlcilgment that all the ritei> and cereruouiC1:1 of that religion hacl, in t heir internai eharactcr, 11. special relation to the Lord Jcsus Christ in his 1fü·incly !!lorificd lrnmanit.y,-olll' l1ea,·enlv J oseph, the source of all goodness and truth and knowlcdge. Jt i~ He who sustaius his church in Egypt, und supplies nhun<lance of corn in ~talcs of SilÏritual famine; but clairns to be n~know le<lged a~ Lord of ail. 21 Q

1'11.E Fms-r

GJ:.:NB"l!J, TO


27Tll V1m.s~:




l'HETED llY '.!.'HE

Scrn.xci;: OP Co1t1n:sroNDENCE:>.

HE first chnptcrs of Ge11csis, to the history of Abra.m,136 are a scrics of pure divine allcgories, which can only be oxplained by the science of corrcspondcnccs, accordiug to which thcy are writtcu as to the most minute purt.iculars.131 Tho progrcss of natural science compeh; thosc who a<lmit thcm as a rcvclation from heavcn, to regard thorn as divine allcgories, in which spiritual subjccts are presented to our view undcr the fonn of historical fact:!. For instauœ, the uccount of the creation in the first chapters of Gcnesil!, cimnot have been designed to be a literai hit;tory of the formation of the universe; for, if thus cousidered, it is full of irn;urmountablc pcrplexity and incon~istency, and opposed to the nurnerous nn<l incontrovertible fücts which rcsc..1.rches in gcology, astronomy, and archœology h:ive brought to light.138 Dut if wc coutemplatc it as a plenarily inspircd description
186 :-Io nuthcntic hlstory e:dsts ln tlle world older than that of the patriarch Abraham. '" In Swedenborg's Areana Calatia, e1•cry 11entcnce in the books of Genes!• nnd Exodus ill explttlned according to the science of corrcs ro11<1enccs, and prove<J to have 1'1,'ft'J't'UCe to the Lord, the humll.n nünd, and the spirit11a\ world, m The literai intcrprctation of the fln;t chaptcrs of Genes!~ hns involved both a11dont nnd modem Mtmncntat.ors ln in-urmountable dillknltle•; and the tt'uly wou1\crfül disco\·erlcs l\Stronomy an<l geoloi;y complet.cl y dlspro\"C it. Cebu•, one or tlic cnrlle't opposel'!S of the Gospel, deri<k6 the Mo~alc hi•tory of CJ'el\t!on ns an incredible philosopMcnl talc; he tre11t, with levity t.hc history of AdaJll';, forinat!on. of Eve bclng mndc from hi• rlh; of the eomnumds thnt were given thcm. and of the scrpcnt's eunning, in being nblc to ~\·ade the elfectof tho~e commauds. Origcn, 111 an.wer to him, •ar" that hc docs not tre11t lbe subjcct w1th c11ndor, but bide~ whnt hc ought to h1we mwle knowu, viz., that nll thls was to be understood ln c1jlgur<1lit<t l!ense, n ot glvlug the rcad<•r the wol'lls, which would hal"c L'OnY!nce<l him that they wcrc spoken allcgorieally.-amt. Cel., 1, !v., p. lf>I'~ 189. "A few ycnrs aga an appro~irnatio11 to n corro<·t c11lculation of thu lapse of tlme in the formation of a part of the cnrth's surface was malle by 8ir Chnrl('S Lyell. itftcr a vMt to the Valle)' of the ~~l,...issippi, in th<) l.'nlt.<'<l S111tes. Thal necompli"'1cd gcolOE;"l•t clCS'rlbo. '<1 the be<l ofmud l\ml sand dcposilo<l by the rl\•er ~i:os~pJ>i, whlch cxtendcd on the delta or the river, o,·cr 1111 aren of about 13,li(JI) sqnarc statute miles, to the depth or nt lcast h~8 fcct, or the tcnth of a mile, ani\ which lu the- upper part of the bcd include(l an nrea of at l~'t 13.000 stil\uto miles, to a depth of 264. feet. Oll-er'l'Utions ha<\ he('n made on the U\'CfRf,'<' width. depth, ami "<:' Jocity or the •trcam, and expcrltncnts on the proportion of s~diment carri<••l down by lbt river prOV\l<I that C\'Cl')" ~·ear 8,7<t~.7.18,400 CU bic !cet of rolld niatler wcrc brouglH dO\m





calculations are futile in geo

logical and ethnological inquiries. Epochs of vast duration are fully established by the nature of the organic remains of plants and animals that characterize the different for mations while the very intervals which separate these formations are evidences of other periods hardly less astonishing. In

geological epochs present some analogy astronomical distances: the latter have been computed, the former are beyond cal culation; and the mind is almost as incapa ble of realizing one as the other. It cannot grapple with numbers which approximate


It is stated by Prof. Nichol. to infinitude. of Edinburgh, that light travels at the rate of 192,000 miles in a second of time; and that it performs its journey from the sun to the earth, a distance of 95,000,000 of miles, in about eight minutes. And yet, by Kosse s great telescope, we are informed that there are stars and systems so distant, that the ray of light which impinges on the eye of the observer, and enables him to detect it, issued from that orb 60,000 years back. Westmin

ster Rev., 1846.

The best scholars of the day, in common with Bochart, regard the so-called ancrxfort of Abraham as geographical names of na

tions, countries, tribes, or cities,

and not



and Glyddon

Types oj

Mankind, pp.

112, 469, 549.

baptism or regeneration, of which


is the representative figure, as the earth did from the waters, by the spirit God moving upon them.&quot; Jones s Fig. Lang,

of Scrip., p. 35. &quot;Neither in the written

Word, nor

organic creation of God,

in the there a single

te sentence, thus:

The ages ascribed to the above patriarchs are sufficient to prove that they were repre sentative characters only, and not real indi viduals. Giants in the earth in those days&quot; A strong or mighty man, or one of valor and bravery,


called Gibbor;





and in the spiritual sense governed by fantasy, and

distinguished by profanation and self-love. Those who are represented as having at tained uncommon stature are always de scribed as men of violence, the enemies of the Lord and his people; as, Goliath of Gath, Og, king of Bashan Saul, king of Israel, and the sons of Anak and the Nephilim. They are described, therefore, as springing from


in, an instructor of every artificer in brass and iron.&quot; It is certain that the metal called brass is of modern invention, or pos
sibly copper may be meant. But the men tion of iron, to the exclusion of flint and

bronze, clearly shows that the passage is not historical. According to the Bible chronol ogy, this birth took place about 3875 years
B. c.,

or 5754 years ago, at which time it is ex tremely doubtful whether the working of iron was known. But even granting that it was, there still remain beyond, far beyond, the bronze, the neolithic and the paleolithic ages; and these, as we have seen, carry us back to ages of which man has left behind him proofs of his existence scattered over the whole globe. These remains, however,

are all in the superficial strata, and in fact yield no data from which we can calculate the antiquity of man. This field of investi

however&quot;, is one upon which scientists have barely entered. ED.]

Many of the proper names occurring in the tenth chapter of Genesis remain un changed, as the appellations of races and kingdoms. Others are found in the plural or dual number, proving that they bear a personal and national reference; and a third class have that peculiar termination which, in Hebrew, signifies a sept, or tribe.&quot; Dr. Sadie s Early Oriental Hist., Enc. Met., 1852,
p. 2.


of the

fall is

M. will have it that the Mosaic account an allegory. I agree it is

Bishop Warburton s Letters to Bishop Hurd. take the whole of this narrative to be Reutish s Notes and Comments, allegorical.&quot; 1W8, p. 2. ?ee also APPENDIX on the various styles in vvhioh the Word is written.

Adam was

that Paradise was seated in heaven, and that cast out from thence when he



(see Cosmos,


vol. i., p. 3G4-5) brings up the rear with tell ing us that every nation has a Paradise some where on the other side of the mountains.&quot; Bohn s Hudibras, vol. i., p. 11. The Greeks had their garden of Alcinous; the Romans, their garden of Flora; in Af rica, they had the garden of the Hesperides and in the East, those of Adonis. Sco, also, Gardens of Epicurus, Sir W. Temple. See Spence s Polymetis, cited in Letters on Mythol

ogy, p. 126.

Adam means
for the





a generic

whole human race (Gen. v. 2). Adam was the name given to the most an cient Church on this earth, significative of

true quality.


according to the apostle Paul,

was the


figure of






Rom. v. 14. The Adam and Eve of sacred writ some (among whom I think is Dr. Warburton)
have supposed

have been

allegorical or

hieroglyphic persons of Egyptian origin. Ac cording to this opinion they were the names of two hieroglyphic figures respecting the early state of mankind.&quot; Dr. Darwin s Bot. Gard. : Art., Portland Vase. &quot;The Mosaic history of Paradise and of

Adam and Eve

has been thought by some to


these things happened to them in a figure.&quot; Heylin well observes, that, &quot;In forming our notion concerning the fall of man from the account given in Scripture, we must make due allowance for the imperfection of human language, which cannot express spiritual things otherwise than by figures founded in that analogy which subsists be tween the visible and the invisible woild.&quot; &quot;The sacred [writer] was obliged to repre sent intellectual things by sensible images, which he uses, if I may so speak, as a kind of hieroglyphics. Such in particular is the

which appears to have been a well-chosen symbol, and well understood a tree or plant is still because by the Jews, frequently used by the Jewish writers, to sig nify some principal part of knowledge im planted in the mind. Hence our Lord him self, after reprobating some false doctrines

e Pagan world, and


Religion, p.


erved for the emblem of Foretelling and I)i vAnalogous circumstances probably gave rise to the fable of the Lermcan hydra, exterminated by the labors of Hercules and Among the ancient liis companion lolas. of Kgyptians, the serpent was the symbol They represented under the form fertility. or en of a serpent, enclosed by a circle, twined round a globe, the Cneph of their cosmogony, who is the same as Ammon, or the Agathodeinon, the spirit or soul of crea tion the principle of all that lives, who gov erns and enlightens the world. The priests of that people kept in the temple s living ser interred them in pents; and when dead, those sanctuaries of superstition. As an em blem of prudence and circumspection, the /Esculaserpent was a constant attribute of was paid to pius, and the same veneration or the god of those reptiles as to the father medicine and magic. The Ophites wenChristian sectaries, who, towards the second century of our era, established a worship

which &quot;was particularly distinguished from that of the Gnostics in this, that they adored

;hem all except one, which he slung round neck as a trophy. (See Moor s Iliinl. The Scandinavian Thor is Pa-nth., p. 336.) said to have bruised the head of the great serpent, and it is predicted that he shall, in

led over nearly the whole world, and was introduced into all the ancient mysteries. It is also worthy of remark, that the leading ideas of that di rect prophecy of the Lord s advent, as the bruiser of the serpent s head, are to be found among the traditions of both oriental and occidental nations, the Indians, the Greeks, and the Goths of Scandinavia. In India, sculptured figures are found in the temples, which represent the incarnation of one of their personifications of the triad of deity. Kreeshna is depicted with one foot on a ser pent s head. Another figure is encompassed with the folds of that reptile, which is in the act of biting his heel. (See Maurice s Hist, of Hind., plates, vol. 2, p. 290.) In the same my thology, an emblematic compound of a man and an eagle, is represented as placed at the portals of a garden, to prevent the intrusion of serpents. He is said to have destroyed

another encounter with the monster, overcome and slay him. (Edda. fab. 32.) The true correspondence of the serpent in Paradise, once well understood, was intermingled with the numerous legends of the Greeks. Thus, the garden of Hesperides, with its tree bear ing golden fruit, was said to be guarded by a serpent Hercules slew this serpent and boro

ated by the Rev. D. Davidson, M. A., with a Preface written expressly for the English edition, by the author. This work has been received in

England with signal approbation.



·mi Ilim to do likewise" (1 John iii. 8 ). The same was significd by the serpent of brass 110 which Moses, by divine clircctiou, set upon a pole, that the people, when grievously bitten by the poklonous fiery serpents of the 1Yilderness, might look thereunto and be hcalcd (N um. xxi. 8, 9). In a good sense, by brass, or, as it. should be rendered, copper, is signified natuml goodness, flowing from the rational 1liscernment of the trnth; as hy gold is signified goodness of a ecles· thtl quality, flowing from the iurnost perceptions of love and füitlt. Hcncc, in describing a higl1l y advanced state of the human mind au<l the church, the prophet says, "For bra~s I will bring gold" (Isa. lx. 17). It was frorn this signification of brass, that it was required to be prcscntcd to the Lord in the free-will offori11gs for the tabernacle, ami that the altar of burnt-offering was made of this mctal (Ex. xxv. 3; xxxix. 39). Tl1e se1:pent of brass, thercfore, pointed out that sin of tl1c faraclitcs which was the immeaiate canse of tlicir distress, r.nd directed their attention to the ouly certain mcans of re;;toration. They liad loathcd the brcad of hcavcn, and desired the mean~ of indulging their gross sensual appctites. This scnsualism was rcprci;ented by the venomous serpents whicl1 bit them. Bnt ~loses made a serpent of brass, and elevated it on a pole. The Holy 'Vord, ns the great pr0phet of God, instruct.s us that we can only C5cape the dcadly fangs of scnsuality by oubj ngating the natural mind, becoming clrcumspcct in al! our condnct, and receiving from tlie Lord new external as well as internai principlcs of goodness, which will snnctify our Iowest desircs, und exalt them into connection with Himself'. The Lord, in this respect, is our Di vine exemplar. He bruised, in Jiis Hu man Kature, tlie scrpcnt's hcad. Ily his inl1crent omnipotence He snbducd all things to Himself. He glorificd bis Ilmnanity, and unitcd it forever to Himself; thns He became the very divine goo(l evcn to the la.st and Jo,vest principles of rational and sensual lifo. He alonc is omni present, inrinitcly cireurnspcct, and provident over all, so that to Him, under the <lcadly plague of sin, arc we t.o look for delivcmnce with füithful and ohedient heurts; that, likc as He conquercd thü serpent and glorified his Humanity, w we may expcricncc, through the influence of his Spirit, a full rencwal of our carnal ntinds, that
"'' Speàking of lm•""· Harris 1S1lyo that it process. 1·herc can l>c no ù oul>t thnt cvpper 1 is; n mixed metnl, for the making of ,,.·hit:h ifi the origh1a1 mct~..l intcnùerl by the Ile · Wf' are i.ndcbtcd to tho German metallurgi~r.~ bre\•t word tmnslatcd bnlss, and whicl1 lit~

oftl>c thirtccnth century. Thal the ~11cicm'< ernllymcans, to ~cruilufae."-liai. Il~. of U<t knew not the art or malclng it is almoot cer- Bfüle, Eng. cd.. p. 55. tain. Xone of the\r wrîtings e•·en hintat the




Lamb s

Heb. Hieruy., p. 112

ct ncq.


TJrn Ft.oon, Trrn AnK,







fcw, VIZ.• Isa. ln. 9, J,zek. Xl\. ~w. :Matt. XXIV. 38, Luke XVII. '27; 1 Pet. iii. 20; 2 Pet. ii. 5 ; iii. ü; Ilcb. xi. 7. They givc no indication whatever, whcu propcrly translatCll and rigl1tly unclcrstood, of having respect to any physical event. The history of a universal flood ns rccorded in the sixth, seventh, and eighth chapters of the book of Gcncsis, is not an inspircd nccount of a flood of litcml waters sweeping over tl1e whole earth, bnt of a devastating iuundation of false persuasions and evil lusts, superinduccd by licentious conduct and carnal security, ovcr ~he wl1olc church collectively and the rniml individually, which, sweeping away all the landmarks of goodness and truth, accomplished a judgment upon a perverted generation. "The flood carne and took thcrn all away" (Matt. xxiv. 39), and thus inauguratcd a new cpoch in human history. A new dispensation or religion was mercifully estabiished, sig· nificd Ly the ark in which rightcous Nouh, his family, and ail kind3 of living creaturc.s were preserved from destruclion. Henœ the apœtle Peter writes concerning lbe ark, and spcaks of it as the meaus of salvation, saying, "'rhe likc figure whcreuuto cvcn baptism doth abo now save us (not the putting away of the filth of the flŒh, but the unswer of a good conscience toward God), by the resurrcction of J csns Christ" (1 Pet. iii. 21 ). Now, the flood is re1}resentcd, aecording to most chronologists, M hitving taken place a})out four thonsand two hundred years ago; yct thcrn are trees bclievcd to have be.en in existence at lcast nve thousand years, and rcccnt researches have brought Egyptian" monuments to light considcred to be above six thoui;and years oie]. But, I would ask, if thiil history were to be urnlcrstood in ils merely literal sense, of what rcal use is it to the in:\mortal soul? How docs it advanco

TH~ rc~cr~nces i:1~d~ _to .·~foal1 ~~d' th.e flood in ~he B~hle are ~~~!



OLlr progrcs:; iu the divine lifo? Uow docs it prepare us, as ail rcvclation professes to do, for the kingdom of heaven '? It must refe1· to a far more terrible judgmcnt than that which inclu<les only the destruction of the bodilr Iifc, eve11 of the mass of mankind thcn inhabiting the earth. It describes, in ~:ttural und figumti ve hmgun,ge, n flood which now und in ail ages ruins and sweeps away the immortal soul, and tcachcs us that. an ark of eternal s11lvation is always pro· vidcù for the humble, penitent, and füithful believcr, in wpich hc rnay be prepared for an eternal statc of blessed association with angels und conjunction with the Lord. The purpose of the ark is descrihed to have bcen the prcscrvation of evcry living thing of all flcsh ; and for this end he was to take into the ark, fîrstly, his own family, conilisting of cight persous, together with sevcn pairs of all clean anirnals, and pairs of cvcrything that erocpeth upon the earth; and, socondly, he was communded to takc into the ark " of all food t.hat was caten" a sufficiency for at least a year und tcn days. Now, the ark, being described as three hundred cubits of eighteen inches long, fifty cubits Lroad, and thirty cubits high, could not have bccn of larger capacity than the Great. Eastern steamship. Sir Isaac N cwton and Bishop Wilkins make the tonnage of the ark Jess thun t.hat vesse!; but Dr. Arbuthnot, by in· crcasing the eu Lit to twenty-two inches, makes the dimensions largcr. But wc may ju<lge how inBtdficicnt such a ve~sel would be from the fa.et which Dr. Pyc Smith admits, "that of existing mammalia (or animals which suckle their young), more than a thousand specics are known; of birds, fully five thousund; of reptiles, very few of which can live in water, two thousand ; of insccts, nsing the word in the popular sense, the numbcr of spccics is immense, to suy one hu11drcd thousanù woul<l be moderate; each lrn.s its appropriate habitation and food, und the.se are nece><sary to its life; an<l the lurgcr numbcr could not live in water. Also the innumerahlc millions upon millious of animalcules must be providc<l for, for they have all thcir appropriate and divcrsified [food], places, and circumstanccs of existence."Rclution between the 1foly Scripturcs and Geological Science, page 135. Nor do thcsc numbcrs form the only difficulty; .for, as the same writcr obscncs, "All land unimals have their gcographical regiollil, to which their con::;titntional natures are congeni:tl, and many eoul<l not live in any other situation. 'IVc cannot reprcseut to oursclvCiJ the idca of their bcing brought into one snmll spot, from the polar rc· gions, the torrid zone, and nlJ the othcr climates of Africa, Europe,

JllEANJSG 01< 7'111? FLOOD, 1'JJB AllK. ETC.


Amcrîcn, Anstralia, and the thous:milR of isfands, milliumi of wllich ]iye only on animal food, uml the disposal of thorn, without bringiug up the idea of miracles m<>re st111)cndous thu11 nny whicb are reeorde<l in Scripture, and, may 're uot atltl, utterly incœdihle." On tl1e other hunrl, the Doctor grayc]y conclu<les that the flood was only partial, and not, as Jiterally dcscrilied, universal, and that the ark only containcd the ::mimais of the district. " The languagc employed [howcvcr] in Gen. vii. deri\·cs its force," says Dr. ,V. T. Hamilton, most truly, "as cicprcssiYe of complctu uniYersality, not rncrcly or mainly from the me:ming of the scYcral individual terms, but. from the structure of the whole. 'fhe coroplctc coycring of the entire cu.rth 's surface is a.."Scrtcd, nnd the su bmergence of t he loftiest mountain summits, not merci y on the en.rth, or the lauù, buL 1.mder the wlwltJ heaven, is affirmcd. Furlher still, the destruction of auimul lifo, human and brute, i.> declarcd t.o haYC been completc; nnd then, ns if to makc ussurnnce doubly sure, the saved are emunerated, Noah and those with him in t.hc urk, and tliese uro declarcd to l1ave bcen the only lfring crcnturcs presen-ed frum 1lcstructiou : 'And Noah only rcmained alivc, and they that \\'ere with him in the 11rk.' This clo~ing declaration applies to th.e human race, and to ail crcatures in which was the breuth of lifè, not merely in any one land, or proviucc, but under lite ichole hea1•r.. · "Tl1c animal distribution," u:,;11in writes Milner, "from one corn· mon centre, the mountains of' Ararat, to repopulate the world, it Î.; impossible to reconcilc with v.ùlogical facts, without su1iposing a seriei! of the wost astounùing umJ uscless mirncles, conrcrning which a total silence is prcserycd in the &lripturc narrative. "\Ye .know tbat the kanguroos anrl emus of N.,w Holland, the llamns of Peru, the slotlis, urnmdilloes, and unt-eaters of Paraguay, to ment.ion no othcr ini;tances, ncv.cr could have nccomplished the passage from the places of t.hcir location to any central part of t hc old world and back again, from tlie scenc where the ark of Noah wus set afloat, by natural menns. Ncither can the polar bcar, the hippopotamus, t he ostrich, B11d the eider fowl, tho reincleer and the giraffe, to refcr to no more examplcs, exist togethcr in a state of nature rcquiring a great dh•ersity of climatcs; and supposing them aggrcgated by the Divine Power, and ~ustained in a common tcmperaturc, tl1e difficulty of conceh·ing a building capable of accommodating a tenth of the single pairs of ail the spccies is prodigions. The difficulty increases when wt? consi<ler the \·ust nulllùer of fresli-wate; fish. aml r<'ptiles of the ri ver.- to
22* R


l;e providcd for [to all of which, as wcll as Lhosc fütcd to live in iho sait-water, the brackish water produccd by tl1c rain would be fatal]. To supernatural agency, indccfl, all things arc [>'upposed to be) pos" sible; but whcn nothing is said of its action in the record (not e\·cn the slightcst hi11t of â miracle),-wlicn the object imagincd to h:wc been effectcd by it must hase becn, to a grcat cxtcnt, usclœs,-an<l wllùn the congregation of the animais is rcpre;;ented as in the muin the work of î\ oah" [ wc may well imagine tli:it somc othcr explanatiou of the catastrophe is requircd, and must be foundJ. The evidencc as to the actual occurrc11ce of the Noachic deluge, whether univer~al or partial, adduced by varions learncd writcrs and commentators, is the ancient and wi de-~prea<l traditions of floods, \\' hich arc sakl to have t.akcn place arnong ail nntions, and from the must rcmote periods; including thosc of the Grecian and Roman mythology. Dr. Pye Smith, Dr. Redford, Harcourt, and Kitto cnumcratc the Chaldcans, Phœnieians, Assyrians, l\fodians, Pcrsians, Druids, Greeks, Romans, Africans, Scythi.ans, Celtic tribcs, Goths, Hindoos, Chincsc, Burmese, Mexicttus, Pcruvians, Araucania Indians of South America, Aztccs, l\liztics, and Apotees, K orth American;;, Tahitians, Sandwich Islanders, ·western Caledonians, and the Crees, or Arctic lndians; and assert that all prescrvc in thcir mytholof,rics or histories the principal fücts recorded by Moses. But much that has been written by ancicnt historians, and interpreted by modern writcrs on this suhject, is fanciful, uncertain, and most fallacious. The aile· gorics of ancient rnythology have also becn greatly perverted and much misun<lcrstood. Hence have :uisen the confuscd and contradictory opinions attributed to them. The source of ail heathen worship, ttnd, we ma.y add, of all heathcn rnythology, indced, was the corruption of the truths of revcaled religion; so ail the above mitions dcrivcd their views, originally, from a more an cieut \Vord than ,wc now posJJess, altogethcr written according to the science of Correspondences, and of "·hich, in all probability the first eleven chapters Genet>i.'i formcd a part.m Frorn a profound ignorance of this science, modern writers have eithcr wilfully overlooked or totally misapprehended the myths and analogies of the anciont world. The ck'Scription of the Deluge in Genesis is altogcther a divinely-ins1iircd parablc, a spiritual or mental history, urranged in the forrn of a narrative, and filled with


141 See the !nU:-rc-sting accounU; of the Chal· 1the British l\fn•oum, the origlnars of which ùcan acr.ount of the crcottion und delugc, <li•- were prtB<'l1tccl to tbat museum, covered and rcud by Mr. George 8mith, of


~lRA1f/J.'G OF 'f'HR J"J,OO/J, 1'111'1 AR]{, RT().


noly inBtruction nnd hcayenly !t'l;SOllS of wisdom. Ovcr the imll'T glory il; t.hrown this outwunl ço\·eriag, which hns protcctcd it frorn tcarful abuse, and preventcd awful profanation. Many have hccn the absurù thcorics proprn;ed to account for the waters of the Dt>luge. Dr. llurnctt suppœcd that the surface of the enrth was smouth and dry; that the outer cnu;t. or shell crackcù and broke, cnu;;ing the water to spreud over it, and elcvat.ing the mountains and hills from the plain. \Vhistur consi1lcred that a cornet wns brouglit int.o colli.ûon with the world, which broko open the fountains of the ~rcat c11•ep, and that the waters werc dried up hy a miraculuus wiud. Others have imugincd that a cornet both hrought the water with its tail und tlried it up aga.in n.fler the flood. Kircher supposed thut the air was converted, for the time, into water, without rcftecting upon the neccs· ~ity of air to support lifo, anù that if the whole atmosphere \rere compres8cd into water, it would only stnnd tl1irty-two foet ahon the surface,-not sufficient to covcr a single h ill dcscrving the namc. The leading comrnen tntors are satisfied, hmYever, with the absurd a1>':Strt ion that thcre was-a 1uiraeulous ereation of water sufficient for the purposc, and a di~sipation or anuihiln.tion of it at the end of the fiood. Again, the heayiest füll of min k11own has bccn stated at about seven inehcs in forty-eight hom'S, occ,-asioning most devustating floods; but the waters of the Deluge mu8t haYe risen at the incrcdible rut" of 1>ix hundred and fifty feet eyery twenty-four hours, for forly days nnd uights in succession. Indeed, th e vast ru.te at which it must h-1.ve füllen ma.y be b est imagined when we con~ider thut it is cnlculatcd the amount requircd to cover t he mountains would be fo;-ty iimes that of nll the oceuns on the faoo of the earth. Sueh an accumulation of water would present serions ustronomical objections. Both th e h -...lk and diameter of tl1c earth would be so incrcased as to seriously inkrfero with the diurnal and orbital motions of the earth, und thœc alterations must have hud a disturbing influence upon the wholc :io(ar systtm. Indeoo, Dr. Pyc Smith :inys th.nt il could not have takm place without its etfccts being felt throughout the entirc stellar uniYcrse. '\Yhile, on the other hanrl, gcologisti! affirm, with one conseut, thai the surface of the e:\rth nuwlicre exbihits the traces of a un ivc1·~a1. flood , which they agree to regard as u. physieal irnpm1sihility. Think of the vast capncity of the urk, e>en tbougl1 ii wcrc only thn.t of the Great Eastern; yet ii had but. one small window in the uppcr story, affording u. most imperfeet light, and all the rcst must have bcen involved for more than a ycar in entire darkness. Gltwi,


Tl/R SCJl<Jl'{(JR OF GnttRESl'ONfJEKCf.'S.

cvcn, is a. mo<lcrn di;.co\·cry. True, :.oml• cnlightcne<l writcrs aflirm that the urk wru> illuminutc<l hy the rcllcction of large nu<l most lmllia11t gems or by pho:s1>horesccnt su1)stanccs. Rcason revolts at the irlca . Agnin, the ark 1rnd uli,o but one door on the vust sidcs. The nccumulutiou of refuse must hnve l'een cnormous, and nothing i:; imid of wutilation. How cou Id this be> literaliy unden;too<l? W c might :1sk whcre, after such a su1·ging flood, was the olive hranch to he found? And from wl1cncc did Noah obtain the vines he plu11tcd? Other rlil!icultics and inconsisteucics nre to be found in the uarrative itself. Noah, for instance, wns commnn<led to admit pairs of uuimal:,i into the ark, and thcn to take of clcan beast'1, of which no mention is elsewhcre mnde till the law:i of )[Ol>Cl:I were compiled, by sevcns. .Some explain tbc numher to mcun sevcn pairs, and others sevcn :milllal:-. It is, howevcr, ui:<~erted that uf'tcr Noah irnd his family hnd gone into the a rk, the beas ts, birds, awl crccping tliings wcnt iu uuto Noah "two ami two of all fle1:1l1, 'vhercin is the breath of Jifo. And thcy that went in, \l't'n i in male imd fornale of all tlcsh, as Goù had commaniled him: and the Lorù s hut him in." That Noah was not a rcul, but a reprcsentativc ehariicter, like Adam, Enoch , l\Icthuselah, and othcrs, sccms plain from the lcngth of tirue which he ill snid to linve live<!, ninc hundrecl and fifty ycm'b ; aiul from his name, which mcam; rest, or consolation. 'l'he destruction or en<l of one church, wliich WUR ovcrwhclnw<l hy evil lust:; ami fabc pcr:>uiu!ions, and the commencement of another in which rightcousnc~:; a.nd t ruth might dwcll, w:is inùccd to ail a source of divine eo111fürt. 'J'hat N oah, the ark, nn<l the flood werc u!togelher typica.l of this gre:Lt rcgcncrating change, is a]i;o cvident from whnt the apostle Peter say:i of thc111 in the third chaptcr of his first Epi:<tle, ticcund verse, :~<i "bcing the likc figure whereunto cvcn hnpti:m1 doth also now ti:l\'e HH (uot the puttiug awny of tho filtl1 of the ffcsh, hut the answcr of' tl ~ood conscience towar'l God), by tht> rcsurrectirm of .Jcsus Chrbl." For wlmt docs the sacramcnt of haptism mcau but to prcscmt to uis n sign of purification from all l'iufulnc:<i! }Jy divine truth, aml thus sulvnt-iun from "the fi00<ls of ungodliuc.~s " and i11i< 1uity? H ercby is attaincd a stnte of spiritual rcst from tcmptntion, uffüction, an<l sor· row, and of divine cowolation :rnd })Cacc, when the nrk rcsts safoly on tliC' mountains of Ararat,-the mouutains of love and light, as the

nnuw irnports.
\Ve R"CJH forccd, th<'n, from thcsc and a multitucle of othcr considerationli, to regard the en tire narrative of the Del uge as a parable or

.l!F..lJ'(f.VG OF TJIP. FLOOD , Tl/E AR!l, RTO.


allegory, mul a li the traditions refcrring t ü it ns of the !'ame d1t11'1H'· ter; with thi~ exception, thut the pnrnblc of the Bible i;; diducly inspired in its spiritual sense and import, is holy and true, and prnctically good in evl.'ry particulnr, whi le the pagan traditions arc but hurn1m corruptiuus of the rcmains of revealed religion cxisting nmo11µ them. N onh and his 5-011s wcre ndored ·aa dcitics, aucl evcn the nrk is said to hnve bcen worshippcd ns a goddess undC'r various 1ianu•s. The wholc p:i.mblc, then, instend of bcing a d escription of a litcrnl flood of water, is an in,,pircd account of the Illornl coutlitiou of tl1c humnu race nt that tizne, whcn thcy had liccome completcly wkkecl, or hn<l fille<l up the mcn.sure of thcir iniq uit ies. The jutlgmmts mul providC'nccs of Cod, temptations, hcrcsies, profoncucss, und 1 wrsccu· tion, the prenùencc of errol', trou ble, and evcn wars, discu.~, and dcath, ure 111! likcncd, both in divine nnd nncieut wrili11g8, to irr<'sistiblc and d cstrnctive floods. F. ~pecfolly is the end of one e11urch or dispcns:üion of religion and the commencement of nnother repreRen tcd in divine lnn~ungc hy n flood, and cnlled nlso the end of the world . Thus the end of the Ad:unic dispcn~ation is rcprescutNl hy Noah's flootl; the end of the J cwish di:;pensnlion is füretold hy D:mid us ::i. flood; nnd tlie end of the first C hristian di~pensntion i~ pr\>· rlicted liy the Lord Tlim~elf ns like Noal1's flood. The vcry form of the nrk, iu gcneral so likc the temple nt J crus.-tlem, compuscd of lhrcc storic~, shows that it wns dcsig ncd to reprcsent the rnind of man, with its thrcc 1l<'g rces; and t lie bœ~ ts, b irds, and cr<'eping thiugs dcnotc the atfcctiuns, the thoughts, and the lowcsl }irinciplcs of the li fr. By :i flood is significd nn immdntion of cvil nn<l folsity, l'in and folly; and it is in the nrk of snlvation, providc1l for us in the 1livi11c W ord, thnt wc can nlouc find safoty, ns it is nnrrated thcy of old did, frmn the o\·erwhclming torrents. The animais culel'c<l hy pairs nnd by senni', for truth must nlways be unitccl to its truc 1mrt11C'r, goodncss, in ordcr to bo fruitful ; nnd the holy qunlity of 11.l l rcgencmte priuciplc,; is presr ntcd to us in the septuple of the clean animais. This flood extinguished the life of God withiu the soul of the ungodly, togethcr with al\ the hco.venly principles of love nnrl chnrity, ;;ignified by its overwhclming all fiesh, nnù co"\·ering the l1ills and mountains. 'l'hat the ark wns, in nll its mcnsnrcments antl arrarrgemcuts, n diyiuc figure of the humnn mind in the proccss of bcing regencrJlC'< l or rcdœmcd froiu the destn1ctivc clc mcnts of cvil and falsity, th ua pres<>n·ed frmn the powC'ra of hell nnd dPnth, i;; not only evidC'nt from its gcucral form , but from nll the other partieulan1 namcd. Tl.11

uched, for wisest reasons, in the language of simili tude and correspondence, and thus most worthy of God to give and

and therein
tion of

f attaining to the highest truth and virtue, to behold God is the consumma our happiness here. The confusion

of tongues at the building of the tower of Ba bel should teach us this lesson. The heaA en those vain builders sought to reach, signifies, symbolically, the mind, where dwell divine powers. Their futile attempt represents the presumption of those who place sense above intelligence, who think that they can storm the intelligible by the sensible.&quot; VauyJuin s Hour* with the Mystics, vol. i., p. 73. Thercr


He the Mosaic institution and writings. shows us that the letter is only as the veil which concealed the brightness of the face of Moses; that the history of Abraham and his two sons is an allegory; and that Melchisedec represented the Lord he shows us, in a word, that the WHOLE dispensation was so cdinl acted as to be the figure and (he shadow of a spiritual system. &quot;Dr. JJfair. i &2 David is a type of our Lord, and through

arate believers in their closets, with equal propriety, as the language of their de votions; they are an inspired Liturgy, pro vided for all ages and all lands.&quot; Tracts for
the Times, Ixxxix., p. 129.

David means, in




&quot;Nothing has done more hurt among

than taking the Psalms, or hymns of

David, the Beloved, literally, as if they re lated only to temporary transactions or de
liverances wrought for the


has a spiritual sense also, which proves it to be the book of God. At times we, through blindness, can discern only the natural and here we should check vain conjectures. At other times, the spiritual almost appears; and sometimes both are discerned with equal clearness. Upon this plan we are to inter pret the Psalms as having a double meaning. Also, the Psalms applied to Israel are, in the higher sense, to be understood of the spiritual Israel. We are, in a far higher sense than they, delivered from bondage and slavery; we go through the sea, and travel in the wil



have, spiritually,


s pillar,

and mount we have bread from heaven, water from the rock, and prospect of a land of rest. We have enemies, diffi culties, and dangers; captivities and deliv erances. In like manner are we to under stand the figures borrowed from the natural world. We read here of creation heaven, earth, and sea; of sun, moon, and stars; of air, thunder, dew, and rain; of light and darkness, summer and winter. All such things are figures of higher things in the new creation, the world of grace. In short, whatever be the figures used in the Psalms, whether David, Israel, the ceremonial law, or anything in creation, or in the history of man, they are shadows of far higher and bet

ter things in Christ s kingdom.&quot; See Hixltop on the Psalms, condensed from Jones s


Scripture Directory, ed. 1815, pp. 73-78.

That the book of Psalms, and the Prophets,
throughout the inspired pages, contain an internal and spiritual sense, they themselves testify. David, &quot;the oldest Psalmistof Israel&quot; his tongue was (2 Sam. xxiii. 1), affirms that the pen of a ready writer&quot; (Ps. xlv. 1) and at the period of his bodily decease, claims


the spirit of inspiration for his sacred songs, when he said, The spirit of the Lord spake by me, and his word was upon my tongue&quot;

Sam. xxiii. 2). I, Jehovah, have spoken by the prophets, and I have multiplied vi sions, and used similitudes by the ministry of the prophets (Plosea xii. 10). We have only to turn to the New Testament, and in



the Gospels, the Acts of the Apostles, the Epis tles, and in the Book of Revelation wo shall find the most ample evidence of this inter nal meaning, especially in its application to the Lord Jesus Christ, and as, in that sense, being fulfilled not only in Him, but also in the constant experience of every Christian believer. See Acts iv. 25: Hcb. ii. 6 Acts ii. 25,30; Rom. xv. 9 ;x. 18; Matt.xxvii.48: Hcb.

x. 5;

Johnxiii. 18; Rom.
iv. 7, 8;

viii. 36;

Heb. i.8;



xi. 9, 10;


20; Matt,

e books of Scripture have a double sense, the literal and the spiritual; this cannot be
said of any other hook in the world; human writings have only a natural, but the Bible

xiii. 34; iv.

6,7; Heb.


Rom. xv.
ii. 7.


Luke xx.


MatUxxii. 44; Acts iv. 11 1 Pei



u. U20.


kind of

o their number, in every which would never have been done unless each had had some peculiar signification, as manifestly appears from those passacrifice,

field s Coniiex., p. 481.

Spencer traces the origin of sacrifices note 66.

to the invention of






obscure, that

meaning is not that which they openly i5e TO see clearly that the Old Testament express, and that it will not be understood till the is figurative, and that by temporal blessings endoftime. Finally, it must be remarked, that the prophets understood other blessings, it their language is contradictory, and destroys is only necessary to observe, in the first itself, if one should think that they meant place, that it would be unworthy of God to by the words law and sacrifice no other than rascal s call men only to the enjoyment of temporal the law and sacrifices of Moses.&quot;
! , j



secondly, that the language of the






H. H., Int. Rep.,

1847, p. 192,

o degenerate

not, previous to his incarnation,

had the human race become, the Lord could have had a dwelling-place with his


The church which was


the posterity of Jacob





for the world


eat the flesh of bulls, or drink the blood of goats ? thanksgiving and pay thy vows unto the Most High

mine, and the fulness thereof. Will I Offer unto God




And, again,

To what purpose


the multitude of your sacrifices unto

ifice before the law, did it by cept.&quot; (A nswers to the Orthodox.)

divine pre Most of

the ancient Fathers came to the same con clusion.&quot; Outran, s Dissert, on Sacrifice, p

never hings to come, and not the very image of the things, can with those sacrifices which they offered year by year continually make For it is not possible that the blood the comers thereunto perfect.
of bulls and of goats should take



Wherefore when


was a further hidden design in it than what at first sight appeared, and that these outward ordinances were but as so many cautions to them against such vices as were principally meant to be forbidden by them. And then he goes on to explain this part of the law, according to the manner that Barnabas has
all x.)

in [his] epistle.

Evangel., lib. viii., cap. ix.)

(Apud Eus .b. Praeparat. But this is not

Eusebius (Praej)ar. Evang., lib. viii., cap. gives us yet another instance to confirm

this to us, viz., of Aristobulus,


lived at

curious in
as the prohibition of the like; he showed

little matters, such meats and drinks, and


at large that there

and delivered the like spir meaning of the law that Eleazar had done before. And that this was still contin ued among the Hellenistical Jews, is evident by the account that is left us by one of them,
the same time,



scntcd the errtire proccss of the Lord's glorifieation from first to lREt, and, cousequently, of man's rege11c.ration. Now, mnu i:; rcgenerated by "eea:;ing to do evil, and lcnrniug to do well" (Isa. i. 16, 17) ; and to do these great works, hc must freely reccive of the wisdoru aml love, the strcugth and life of the Lonl, and thus be co11joii1c<l to Him. Holy worship is the grand prcparntivc for this conjnnction. With intense, yca, infinite <lesire, the Lord flesires spiritually to cat the passover with us (Lukc xxii. 15). He knocks and calls that we may open the inner door of our minds, whcn, by the influence of his Spirit -the spirit of his love and wisdom-He "will corne in to us, and will sup with us" (Hcv. iii. 20). He lrnngers that we may reccivc and love his goodness. He thirsts that wc may acccpt and helieve hi~ truth. He, from the most ardent desire for the salvation and happincss of his creatures, deigns to impart the cli\rinc principles of his own life to every preparcd and willing soul, that men may be eternally conjoined with Ilim in heart, and rniml., and life. Hence, the s:.icrifices and offorings of the J ews nre denorninatcd "a covcnnnt" (l'i;ahn 1. 5), and even called the rneat and brcad of God (Lev. xxi. G); and the altar is dcsignnted his table (Ezek. xli. 22). Nothing can be presented as grntcful to the Lord but what is <lerived from Him, thus what is pure and perfoct, what is clean and sound. The inward gifts and outward graces of the rcgcnerate mind arc the only offorings truly acc~ptable in the diviuc sight. ln their sacrifices and Lurnt-offcrings, thcir mcat·offcrings and drink-offcrings, the Jews were on tl1is account forbiddca to prcscnt what was impcrfcct or polluted
who w,u; conlemporar~· with St. llarnabas, and than whom none has been more famous for tllis wayofwritlug: I mcan Philo (Apud };11,sd!. IIl81. Eccl., lib. il., cap. ;.:vii.) in hi~ description of the Thempentœ. They lnterpret the Holy Scripturcs, viz., of the 01'1 Testament. allegorically. For ron must know, continues hi!, th"t thcr likc11 the low to un animnl, the words of which makc up the bOdy, bul the hidden scnsc, which lies under thcm, o.wl is not sccn, that they thlnk to be the •oui of ll."-Archbishop Wuke'• Prrj<1ce w the EpM/e of Barrnibas, secs. 21-:io. Orfgen says, "Unlcss the~· (1hc Lc,·it!eal laws o.nd ccremonles] be ail takcn ln another scnsc than the llteml, when thcy arc rccitcd ln the <'hnrch. as W• have freqnenU;· d•<"larcd. thcyarc n greaterslumbll11g-lll0<·k, nml leml more t() thcsnbv~rHi011 of the Christian religion, thau to :!ts advanccme11t a1Hl <l'lifico.tion."-ln L e>!U., cap. vil. And al!'ain, 0 Thc. ln..ws of the sacrifices, ''\'hi ch are gh·en ln tlic book of th~ Law, are to be fulfilled aecording lo thclr spiritual mc."l.ning; for no mo.n, baying o. right orsound reason. can 1tdmlt thal ram•. a11d goats, and cal ves are llt offcrings for an immortnl and incorporcal God.''-ln Ll't•it., œp. iii. The Rev. W. Greswcll, ln his work on The Ü>rrCilpondrn~y of lht. 1\fo;aic Rilual and Clwi..,. ti<rn Religion, thns writ.cs: "The wholc body of the 1i1w of )!o•c• was nnhnawd by n spirit which l<lcnt!Jlc,1 il wlth the gospel of J csus Chri't. E•~'11 P<trl of lts mnltlform a.nd complico.ted ritnal, wlicn distincUy cxnmi ncd, au<I rightl)· ll!Hkr•tood, wlll be fouud to J>O.,. sess u jigurutiiie. or typicol sense und hnprJT(.. an<L w ù:a.ch some yospel truU1."-l'ref., p. vlll. "We o.re taught to bclievc that nll the sacrifices mentioncd ln the Old Tcstnmuut, arnJ not merely the >in an<l lre8pll.f!S offeriug>; nf the laws. wrre <if a lypical i1n1Jt>rt, 1. e. werc !11ternle<l Io prefigure sometMng m1<ler lite C/1ri>li11n diR/>rn.<ation thaJ; is of a ClJTTe.pondfog ""'

turc."-p. t>~.

SAClll1'1ClAJ, WORSll!I'.

,.,. 2 •0

{Deut. xv. 21 ), for worship defilc<l by 8elf-righteousness and sclf-derivcd intelligellce is profane and condcnmatory; thcreforc, when tho prophet is descrihing such n corrupt ~tnte of the church, in gcncral and in particular, he says, "Ye offer polluted bread upun miuc altar; au<l yc sny, Wherein have we polluted thce? In that ye say, The table of the Lord is contcmptiblc. And if yc offer the blind fur sacri!Ice, is it uot cvil? aud if ye offer the lame and sick, is it not evil ?" (llfal. i. 7, 8.)'"' Various degrecs of goodncss, innocence, nnd charity-naturn.l, spiriiual, and celcstinl-and the purified affections in which they active! y dwell, and thestates whieh they inducc upon the mind, are signified, ÎH a good sense, by domcsticntc1\ animais and their young,-the fiock and the hcnl, the lamb, the calf, and the ki1\, the ram, the ox,160 and tho he-goat. Differcnt kinds of truth, wisdom, and intelligence, reccivcll in affection, togcther with the holy thoughts and sentiments to which they give birth, were signitied hy the clean bir<ls, as the young pigeon and the turtle-dove. Thus all kinds of spiritual nourishment for the suppott of the will and the understanding, the affections and tho thoughts, wcre signitied by the meat-offerings and drink-offering.s,the cakes, the corn, the flour, the oil, the wine, the choicest viandil, both liquid and solid, which were presented to the L ord; für the imnml gifts wbich sustain the soul, and which were thus rcprcscntcd, nppertain to the Lord Himself, from whom thcy fiow into his kiugdom in heaven and on earth, as the food of angels, the support of ail spiritual lifc. In the same senile, bumt-offcringi;; ami sacrifices signified in general adorntion from a grateful heart, free-will "sacrifices of righteousncss and thnnksgiving" (Pi>alm iv. 5; cvii. 22),-rcndering to Hirn "tbe calves of 01ir lips" (Ros. xiv. 2),-the inward acknowledgment tl1at ail our hlcssings of love and wisdom, cl1arity and füith, arc dcrived from Him alone,-the consccrntion of all our facultiœ, spiritual and natural, intellcctual and vohmtary, our affections and thoughts, our wonls and dcc1\s, to his service. 'Vorship from love and charity was represcntcd, in a good scnsc, by burnt-offerings and meat-offcring~ ; worship from wisdom and faitb was signified hy sacrifices and drinkofferings. lu rcfcrence to this spiritual signification arnl application
iri:;i "As thing~ whieh wcrc hnpcrfüct, un· fro God].''~IIutchinson'e U8e of R ellllmi Ret<n. ' c\can, i\1-favoreù, ill-colored, etc., were em- ered. P- 2f>';. blerus of vke [or variom:: vtces] and dcpra\.·· 1.154.1-. The Hcbrcw wor<l translntedox, menus il)' , Uwy are repr:eseuted ""od!ous [to God]: the mnfo or hornetl cttttle of the beeve kiud,

w!J!M things. clean, odorous, bright [1mù nt fullnge, whcn fit for the plongh. Youliger pcrf•~ct], were cmblcms üf virtuc [or variou!\ ones are cn11ed bullock~.' --.<:ee Jl"a:rri8~~ Na.J, tîrtues\, aud are repre.,enled tlll 11ec1>ptablc Hi&. of the Bible, Eng. ed., p. ~'\l8.


1'/lf: SCJEXCL' Ufr CO.'.'JU:,'Sf'O;_Vf>ENCES.

of the sacrificial wonihip of the ,Jc11 s, t.he apostle l-'u.ul th us writes to the Romans, "l beseech you, therefi.irl', hrethrcn, Ly the rnerci1;s of God, that ye present your bodies a. living sacrifice, holy, acceptable Hnto God, which is your rcasonablc service" 161 (Rom. xii. 1 ). And in the Epistle to the Hebrmrs we read, "To do good and communicatc, forget not : for with such sacrifices God is well pleased" (xiii. rn ). Nor without much sclfdenial, the mortification of the n:itural mimi, the subjugatiou of the fleshly lust;;, i5 that ::;tate of mind attaincd, in '\'hic]l such Ii\'ing, holy, and acceptable worship can be performed, or thoHe prccious giüs rcccived whiclt can be suitabiy presentcd. "I will not," said David, " offer burnt-uffering:s unto the LonJ my God of that which doth cost me nothing" (2 Sam. xxiv. 24). We haYc said that the ,Jews fell into the fatal delusion that t.heir sacrifices were piact1lar. Nor hus this grcat crror bccn confined to ,Judaism. Tt hns becn intcrwoven, ÏIJ ail it;; dcformity, into the Christian rnligion, all(l the sacrifice of the Lord, or the g1orification of hi,;; Humanity, which consisted in tlic hallowing and consecrating to inJ-inite purposes the entire Humanity which He a.<isumcd in the worlrl, with all its facnltics anù powers, has bccn extensively aml most mistakenly regar<lcrl as a vicarious Stterificc for even the wilful trnnsgre8sionH of the human race, and represented as oficrcd by the second pcrson in the Trinity to the first person, as a distinct Being, or God, to appcase his wrat.h, nnd propltiate his favor; and, moreover, thnt hi~ suffering and dcat.h 011 the cross being a vicarious sub~füutc for the 1nmisl1ment of sinnel's, the inflnite merits of his spotless righteousness are imputed to ail that bclicvc in Him. How full of inystery, perplcxity and inconsisteney is this fatal notion! It suh.stitutes the innocent for the guilty, although guilt and innocence cannot be transferred without the violation of ail justice. Unlcs.~ thcre be more than 011c Go(l, it represents tl1e Lord Jesus Christ as the pacifier aud the pacified, the pricst and the victim, the identical Go<l, whosc vengeance was appcase<l and whose justice wfill satisficd, by his own sut~ ferings, while it confounds all rational and Scriptural ùiffcrcnce between the infinite und tllù finite by imp11ting the incommunicable mcrits of the Creator to the finite cxcature. How broudly <locs this system contrast. with the simple, glorious, and obvious doctrines of
"Sacritlees were Il fiytnl:Jolleal adJrcss to let "'l'hc tcrms hcrc uscd •He 11;acrifteialt 1rnd fof('\bly iutimate that. a.~ nn<ler the Old ri.oct, intenfh:cl to expre~~ ùeforc Him t~ c Tet-:tarncut difl-peusa..tiQn the lmrnt-offering!-l d c\•otion.i.:, nm~('tious, di~posltions, 1.tlld de· were whon~- the Lord 5 property, ~o Chrit-:- ~ires of the hcart, liy )',ignitir.ath·e and c1ntians nre r.equfre<l to give up thcm~ch'l'8 f'll· bl1\ma.ti~;\I netion~."-::)crip. Dod. ofU1.e Atonetirelyto the SNYice of Goù.''-lI<meRomanœ, E.i:amfoed lly J, Taylor, 1751.

note, p, G7.


.:S.1ll'l-Ul'/C/_IL ll'ONSll!I'.


the New 'festamcnt ! The atonemenl or aL-onc-mcnt is there describetl as a. work of reccmeiliathn,- n.; eftec•iug an împo1'tant antl cf'sentiul spiritual change in man, ltis moti vcs, his thm1ghts, and his words and worh thence proccediog, lmt without implyiug :my change whateYer in the irnmutable Godl1e:td. The apostle Paul, therefore, in writing to the Romans, says, "·wc joy in God through onr Lord Jcsus Christ, by whom we [not Go<l, w~:] li:.we no\1· rcooivcll t he atoncmeot " (v. 11) The Grcck word [Ka.~<>:l.?.a.y,Z•] tmnslated here atonement, 111cu11s rcconciliation, and with its mo<lifications is so translated whcrcYcr else it occurs in the New Te:;tament. The Lord " bore onr sins and carried onr sorrows" (lsa. liii. il) by taking upon Hirnsclf onr depraved nntnre, with all its h<'rctlitary ùefilcments, and, hy removing these cvih; from his Humuoity, H e "consecrated iL for cvcrmore" ( Ilch. vii. 28), and thcr eby rcceil·cù power from the indwelling Divinity to r ernovc, likewise, the cvils of nll those who look unto IIim and put thcir tmst in Him. For now " He is able to imvc t o t he uttermost them that comc uuto God [the inùwelling Divinity] by Him [the glorified Uunrnnity]" (Hoh. vii. 2.J). "Por in tha.t H e Himself bath suftèred being temptetl, H e is able to succor ù1em that arc tempted" ( H eh. ii. 18 ). Ifouœ we furthcr read, that " "\Vhcu the even was comc, they brought unto Him man y tlint werc possessed with (leyils: 1ind H e cnst out the spirits 'vith his word, and healed all that \rere sick: that it mig ht. be fulfilled wl1ich was spokcn hy E saias the prophet, saying, llirnsclf took our infirmities, and bore our sicknesses" ()faLt. viii. 16, 17 ). "To bear our sins," thcn, was to sustnin temptation ; mul to pui thcm awny, rig nifies uot only that H e conq uere<l all c\•il tendeneics, :rn<I rcrno,·cd thcm from his Humanity, but also, that in the liour of severc8t spiritual trial and eonfliet He i:; both able nnù ,,·illing to stretch forth his gracions hnnd to save all from the inherent corrup, tions of their nature, as well us their actunl sins,- tlms to dcli''Cl from the bonrlage of sin, the fears of eternal death, and from the; 1 11Î::;crics of hell, all who aeknowle<lge their transgressions, bclieve in Uim, und kecp 11is commandments. By the J.>Ower and cfficacy of divine trnth, as "the \Vord mndo flesh," whieh is so often callcd "the blood of Chl'ist," and" the blood of the New Covcnant [or Testmucnt], shed for the remission of sins" (Matt. xxvi. 28), man j,, dcansed from the impuritics of l1is lifo aud heart just in proportion as, by ohediencc thercto, hc puts his evil away, and, by <livioe ai<.~i~t­ :mcc, m=fully cmlur e:; the tcmptations and trials hy whicb the work



is accomplished; and of this process the grievous temptations which t.he Lord endurcd in the glorification of his Hurnanity were representativc. Thus the apostle Paul writes to the Romans, " Therefore we arc buried with Him by baptism unto death: that 1ike as Christ [füe Lord's Hiunanity] was raised up from the dead by the glory of the F:tthcr [or the indwelling Divinity], even so we also should walk in ncwncss of life. For if we have been plnnted together in the likcue~s of bis death, we shall be also in the likeness of his rcsurrcetion: knowing this, that our old man is crucified with Hirn, that the body of sin might be destroyed, that henceforth we should not ~crve sin. .For he that is dcatl i.s freed from sin. N ow if we be dead with Christ, we believe that we shall also live with Him. . . . For in that He <lied, He died uuto 8in once: but in that He liveth, He liveth unto God. Likewisc reckon ye also yourselves to be dead indeeù unto sin, hut alivc unto God through Jesus Christ our Lord" (Rom. vi. 4-11). Tl1e Lord ,Jesus Clirist, tlien, off'ercd a perfcct sacrifice of obcdience to his own divine law; "IIe consecrated a new and living way for us throug11 the veil, that is to say, his fle.sh" (Heb. x. 20) ; He bccame our example (1 Pet. ii. 21 ). 'Ve are exhorted continually to approach Him without fear, to follow Him, to be like Him, who was made " per· fcct through sufièringi>" (lleb. ii. 10), and "learned obedience by the things v+hich He suffored; and being made perfect, IIe became the au· thor of' etcrnal salvation unto all them that obey Him" (Heb. v. 8, D). Like as the Lord gained a complete victory over hell, and accom· pfühed his work of glorification by laying down his lifc and taking it ;)gr.in (John x. 18), so man, in humble and full rlependcnce upon II!m, must work out his own salvatiou (Phil. ii. 12) ; and the lifü. g,iving blood of the New C.Ovenant will supply every obedient bcliC\'er with the means of' vietory over death and hell (Hev. xii. 11). We are, consequently, "to follow the Lord in the regenerntion" (,Matt. xix. 28), not by the observance of Jewish sacrifices, nor yet by looking upon the Lord as a piaeular vietim, who suffcrcd death in our stead, but by obcdience to the Didne will and wisdom, thus by shuuuing the evil which that wisdom conrlcmns, and doing the good which that will approve.,;; by a life of hcavcnly "charity m· love out of a pure heart, and of a good conscience, and of faith unfeigued" (1 Tirn. i. 5). Sueh is .the true, spiritual, ahd only acceptable 'rorship of which the sacrifices of Abraham and the patriarchs, the cercmonia1 worship of the Israclites, and the life and rniuistry of our divine Redeemer were eminently re1)rescntative.


fhnoRY OF





NIFfC.\TlVl~ AND Ht·:('JU>:Bl•:l''fATIVE I:'l" EVERY



lr,t.USTRATIONS }'RO~f TJ!~:



FWUitATio:s-, LrF.E, :\1Ii;1sTttY, A:;n



N the p::i.rubolic instruction of our L or<l and S::i.viour, Jesus Christ, in the miracles which H e wrought, an<l iu the whole prog re.ss of his life und miuistry on carLh, as recordcù in the four Gospels,t•• wc luwc the most inco11tcstablc cvidcucc, and the rnost positini assurances, that the cutire litcral seuse was dcsigned to convey n more intcrior signification. Hrnce He made a mo8t reruarkable di~tinction hctll'cen unrlerstanding llis i!peech, and h(lnring, or liearkening tu his words ; between what He roid and what He S)Jake (John viii. 4a; xii. 49). The appnrcntly irreleYant and amlliguou.~ answers which the Lord so ofteu gave to the qucrics of those by whom He was i<urronnded, are of thcmsch-cs ;;ufficient to prove that the meaning of nll He said 1111d ùid, couhl not be discovcrcù in the letter, or from the ontward forrn of the evcnl. "\Vhen He wu.shed llis disciples' f('et, an aet which representcd the purification of the cxtcrual.,; of the mind :rnd life, in which work wo arc privilcgc\l to help each othcr, tl1c Lord diil not expfain the symliols H e presenterl beforc thcm, lmt saiil to Peter, ""\Vhat I do thon knowest. not now, but thon shn!t know hereafter ;" and, agaiu, " I have given you nu example, that ye slwuld do ns I have doue to you" (.John xiii. 4-17). When He rcprovcd the di~ci11lcs for ambition and the lo\·e of dominion, extcrnal pretensions to holiness, and vaiuglory, He i:<et be.fore thcm a little child,whose engaging qu:ùities of simplicity, innoœnce, honesty of purprnm, lnuuility of mind, and docility, corrŒ<pond Io the Chri.,;tiau ('baructer,-and he require<l thcm to imita.te ils l'lrtlcss comhwt, to adopL its 11npretending simplicity, and to prnctise it.s filial obedience. Whcu the woman of Samaria was uskcd for water, the Lord directc<l lier ntkntion to Uimsclf a.~ the fountain of "living water," "tl1e 'Vord
,., For the rt•ssoll." why thcre wece f.-n.tr flO!'pela, llee Nob«!• I'tffla'l/ Jmpi1'alùm :>f the
~plura ~.tic~ VI'· :,t!O-(>S).




mn<lc flesh," the wcll-~priug- of etcrnal truth, of which, "\Vhosoever tlrinketh," He addcd, " shnll 11eyrr lhint" (.John iv. 6-15) . "\Yhcn He cro~sed the Lnkc of Tiberias with his <li><ciplcs, and thcy had forgoLtcn to providc themsel\'es with brcad, He said unto them, "Tukc heed arn1 bcware of the lcavc11 of the Pharisees and of the Sadducec~" Piatt. xvi. 6 ) ; nnd bccause th<'j i11tcrprctc<l wlrnt He saicl unto them as if' it had relation to thcir ncglcct, He adde<l, " IIow is iL thut ye do not understnnd that I spake it not to you con rcrning hrcad, that ye sl10uld beware of the lcuvcn of t11e l'harisees aml of t be Sadducees? Thcn nndcrstood the y how that He bade theI!l not beware of the leaven of brcad, but of the doctrine of th<' J>harisees aud of the Sadducecs" ( 11, 12). Whcn the ,Tews rcquired from Hirn a sigu from heaven, in attestation of la is authority, H e "amiwcrcd aud 8ai<l unto tbcm, De~troy thia temple, and in throo dnys I will raisc it u p" (.Jolm ii. 19). They immediately refened what He had s:tid to the <'rection of t11cir temple, and dcridingly replied, "Forty anJ six ycar.; was this temple in building, and wilt thou rear it up in three <lays ?" No explanation was thcn gi\'cn, but it is added that " IIe s1iake of the tcmplo of his body. "'hen therefore Ho was riscn from the d ea<l, liis disciples rcmcmbered thut He had said this unto them; and they helieved the scripture, and the \\'Ol'<l \rhirh Jesus had said"

(20- 22).
Many other simîlar instances might be adduccd, but these are sufficient t.o prove mo,;t unqucstionably that ail which the Lo:l'<l said, and what is said of Hirn, was significative, und that all bis divine works wcre reprcsentative. If wc read carefully the beautiful para hies of our Sa,·iour, we shall find them tecming with spiritual instruction, of which very little appcars on the surface or in the letter. In them the Lord spakc by pure correspon<1ences, ancl each single expression is full of" spirit and life." Takc, for example, the scven parablcs recorde<l in tho thirtcenth ehapter of :\[a.tthew. Of these, a learned, pious and intelligent writer has made the following truly interesting rcmarks: "The se\·eral parablcs contained in tl1is chapter stand in a connt:cied ordcr as to their internal sense, and thus follow each othcr in a rcgnlar series expressive of the whole process of regeuerution, eommendng with the fir~t rece11tion of hca\·enly truth from the "\Yord, ::ml n.dvancing through gradations of its growth to the full m:itu· rity of hcavenly love mul litC. Ar<'ordingly, the first parable of the ,;ower dcscribcs the first in1:<cminatiou of trnth, which is the first stcp towurcls the regcncrîl,1.e life. The second 1mrnblc of the tares of the




fiel<l descrihes the ~nanifcst11tion of cvil~ and falses in conscqucncc of iiuch irn;;emiuatiori, wltich is a second stcp, and an dfcct of the first. 'rhe third parahle of the grain of mustard-secd dcscribes the small increment of heavenly life, whilst man supposes that he doeth good from himself alone, and not. from the Lord, whic11 is a third state in the regeneration. The fourth parable of the leaven, etc., dcscrihes the temptations conseqnent on the reception of hcavcnly fruth and good, which is a fourth state. The fifth parable of trcasurc hi<l in a field, dcscribes the fürther effect of the reception of hcavcnly trnth nnd good, in leading man to renmmce his proprium or bis own pmpPr life, that he may appropriate the life of' heaven, which is sib'Ilifie!L by sclling all that he h(lt.h and buying the field, and which is a füi.h state. The sixth parnble of' the merchant-man sccking bc:mtifül pearls, descrihes the elfect of heavenly truth in leading man to the acknowledgment of the Lord, as the alone source of all good and truth, anrl t}1e conscquent renunciation of self-love and its guidance, which is a sixth stale. The seventh iiarable of a 11et cast into the seit, 1lescribes the last cffoct of the reception of heavenly truth and goo<l, in accomplishing a foll and final separation bctwcen goods aml evils, and between truths and falses, so that goods and truths are bronght into conjunction with heaven, whilst evils and fafaes arc cast down iuto hell ; and this i.s the seventh and last state of the rcgcncrate life." 163 The miracles of our Lord were not only wofks of mercy actually done on bchalf of a few indivi<luals, or wrought in testimony of his exclusive divinity and sovereignty, but wcfC, in every particular, reprcscntative and significative of ·what Ile is still doing, and will be forcvcr doing, to promote the salvation of his crcatures. .Just as discases, for instance, disorganize, affiict, and' destroy t11e powers of the body, so sin and folly, the ofThpring of evil, disturb the order of life and destroy the spiritual faculties of the soul, renclering it incapable of receiving the vital influences of heaven, except in a perverted ùegrec. Hence, He opened the eyes of the_blind, to denote that the truth of his \Vord can unclose the darkened understanding nnù dissipate the mists of spiritual ignorance. He healed the sick, to signify that He only can re:;;tore the diseased ancl feeble mind to spiritual hcalth an<l strength. He cleansed the lepers, to signify that He alone can ileliver man from those filthy and contagions states of evil i11
"' Go'Jlel arcarding to .Matl/u:w, tramlaled /rom lhe rni11l-n.aJ G-reà, and illu•lmled 1ollh E.rlraets fT<>m the writit•gs of Swedenborg, by the Rev. J. Cl"'""• J[. A. See Notes to chap. xJJJ. "Tt i• my pcrsmJ.sion that the [•cvcn] parables 1n thf~ cbapter are not to be comsiùered dîsjolntcdly, but to be taken togcther ._, •

connœtcd scr!cs."-Alero-ndcr Knoz's Rt mains, vol. :i., p. ·108. "Dcmbtless these sevcn [pimtbles] h•.ve ~ ~crtain unity. Sll<!ecedlug one nnothcr h~

nahunl order. and havlng n. complcteness in
them~ch·cs.h·-Tlench's Note~

on !lt.e l"ar-ablt~

p. H2.




whfol1 he p rofanes the d ivine truth. H e openefl Zletif cars, and commanded tlrn dumh to spcak, and caused the lame to wnlk, in ordcr to exhibit the process of those imrnrd operations of his mercy by which mun nrc prepared to listen to the instructions of truc wi~<lom, are dispose<l to offer tliank!!giving to Him in the gru.tcful acknowledgmcnt thut He is the only gi\·or of "every goo<l and pcrfect gift," and arc cnnhlcd to walk in the way of t he divine comm:mdme11ts. IIe 1·aire<l the dent!, to prove tlmt He alone pœsessl!.:l the ahility to awaken man frun1 the lcthargy and corruption of spiritual <leath, and to girn immortal lifo to the sou l, once " dcad in trespas,,;es arnl sins " (Eph. ii.1), for "to be carnnlly-mindcd is <leath, but to be spiritually-mindeù is lifo und pcacc. Bccau;,;e the carnal min<l is enmity ugaiust God" ( Rom. iii. 6, 7). H o e:ist out devils, to show that by füith ami love, tlcrivcd from Hitn ns their di,·inc source, mun may rcjccL froJU bis naturnl mind thosc unclcan lusts and affections, and those false and roul persuasions, tlicnce derived, which, hefürc the work of regencration is bcgun, obi:ess his spirit."" H e wnlkcù on the tempestuous sc:i,
'"The following e.xtrll<'tS, from var!ous onthors, will serve to show tha~ a very gcn· eml P<'rœption of the tnith, ou !llis impor· tant sul>jcct, h:i.s existcù ln tl.ic Christian Churdi, "There is a rcmnrknble fragment of Ori· t.-t•n produced by the martyr ramphllus, whiçh repre•cnts him M Rpenking of the e\'an:.iclicnl narratll'e geuem!ly: 'Though thCS<) lliingg have 11 splrituAI menning, }'Ct Lhe truth of tbe hist.ory being firSl ~<lhUslu:d, tJ1c H(Jirltual •cii:ie is tu he tilke n as som c· thiug O\·cr an<l nbove. For whntlf our L-Ord, lu 11 opiritunl •cnse, be alwa~·s curlng tl1c bOin<l, whcn He cnsts his lli:ht on mincis blin1lccl w!th iguornnce ; yet IIe 1lld not th~ le"" 11t that Urne hcal one oorporally l>lind, Anrl He is e1·er raising the rle<ul; y<'t H e <lld then n•ally pcrform wonrle"' of the.t klnd

type of wbnt H e will d o hcreMter.''-In r.,.., cap. " I. "The truc 1niracles of Christ, aucl the healiug of the sicle, are o f a spiri tulll. kind.''-Jn ,)Jall•• cap. xxv. T!e explains the mir11clcs of healing nllegoricnllr; for lu· stance, the lnnatic in ~rntt. XÎY. 11 is a spiritn nlly <llsea.'led man, who a.t one time ;, Yirtum1", hut more frequcntly llllSILlle<l hy lltc epllcpsy of ~inful ~lons."-T. xlii., s. 4. " To the sa.me purJXl"C Athn1u1Plus, wilh re· spcct to our ma.une< of tltinkhig nll(l •r<•akiD!l of tblnizs din11c aud tlu. • myi.t~ricsofthe gospel, wlth grcat truth anol c l<>gn ute ex· pl'Cf>8<:th hhnsclf th us: 'Thl>;<c thhl),'ll are Cl'· presscd !ndccù a ncr the munn<:r of m cu, or in hum an language; but thcy nr~ couceh·cd i11 o. godlikc or henvenly manncr.' "- 1'/dnvs

I>frine an<[ S1t1in-,1alural conr1 .·fr~d oy A mrtorrY u·itli //1l11.g3 Nntrm•l and H um.an, ~y the au!lwr nll'I-<), il.~ when llè rai~d Ja.tru~ s 1 l aughtcr, of" Tite P m<V<lure, E.clrot, a1<1L Liinil.• "f lite and the 11ldow's son, an <! J,UJ'.oros. And Ilt01um l'11derisl.andi11{!." p. 87. London: l ï:tl. thOUl(h at a.li t!mcs, whcn uwakt>nl.'d by bis " .\ltbough th e works of Je<u.s werc <lune

!lbc.-lplc•. He quiets the Morms and whlrl· wl111ls of hi• church: yct it ls unqucMlona· hl<' that tho;;c thlngs nl•o, whlc h are rdat"d in the hMmy, rcally look place on thut O<'· ca~!on.' "-,l pol. JJrQ, 01'ig ., p. ~6; J), ail. 011,,. Ol'i(J. F.<l, Bmed., t. lv., cire<l ln 7'rach< fur l!tc Timr•. b.:xxlx., p. 58. "The works which Jesus tbcn dld. wcr e the symbol:; of tlu>SC thhti_'1! which He by bis 1 ••wer L• nlways doing."-Ori9rn in .lfaJt .. PAp. xv. "What..xocver Jt'l>n~ <lhl lu the Ocsh
wn ...,
~ t«) C \'Cty

nt th!s lime, '"' shonl<l consi<l..-r ncll wbat thcir s!11n llkation ls in r clAtion Io future tlmcs; ..• for the thcn prcsont act:J of the Lord i!c('J11rc the formof the ruturc.''-Jlilaiy. i!J. ,lfmt., c11p, x., s. 5, et c1Lp. xx!. "The cure• whh'h Jc8us wronght upon the \Jlind werc imlccd grcal, but, unlci,,, Ile <laily clo as mtghty works tous, thcyc re uotgreat." -Joltn (>j Jtmrol.cm, I10111il• .xxx. "1f tlwrc hlld bccn not hing 111ore tban 1\ t<>mp<Jr&I u~ to be ga.ined br [the mimculou8 parti(·ular, n ~ ir11illtwlc n1u t <'llrC of the •ickj, then tlid lie (the Loul) uotb·

1'/11? GOS!'l?f, ll!STORY AU, S JGNJF!OATIVE.


and rehukc1l tlte wi11ds aml \\ 1l\'c1:1, 11ot only to provc that H e wns the God of nnt urc, in human fonn, lmt t o signify that bis omnipotent power ulonc can snbdne aurl control the raging influence of hcll, nn<l tlmt H e is ever in the act of assuaging the troubles, antl di:<sipa ting the ùoubts nml fcars, of his füithfül followers. He mirnculonsly incrcn~cd u snmll qnnntity ol' food, allll supplicd the \rnnts of multitudes, t <> signify bis ability and willingne~s to impart in ricl1 nbnndance, to ail who truly corne nnto H im, the cl<>ments which are uccdctl for the support of spiritual life and energy in the ~oui.

"Di duc miracles," says Swedenborg, " diff cr from magicnl mirucles, as hea\"Cll from hell. Divine mi rnélc.i procccd from divine truth,
ing of gre1tt lmportn.nre Ill tb osc wllo wcre 11ot how to Jimit, an y mor e than \\ Cca.n Umit h rRled by lfh11."- lrm&11g, Jiù . v., e np. xii., s. tlw divine order ntHl n rrungement Of a il < L " The dHH:rcntkinds of si ckne~~mrl flLc;.. thfn~s. . .. From o.!\ thi• a nalogy, t h e thought

ea•o cxist!ni: lit thttt rime 11.mnng the people whom th e ~n.viour cure<l, rdR.tc lo the ~pir· 1tun\ in fl rm lticsof !>Umuu souls,"-In ,lfa!I., cnp. xvit "He is At th1• rlay performing thosc stl!! grcntcr rui1:i, on A.ccou11t of which Ile con· 11 cle~ccn<kd to ~xllibit thosc lcf!sPr m i racks ( Augm!li1tt i11 ,.,,.,.,,,. &'): nnd tlrnt " our Lord iut"n<l ,•rl lhat thoo;e cures whkh He 1:.cr· forme<I ho<lily s h ouhl 1tl.!!o be umlc "toc1rl spiritually."-Jrt &rm. 98, '·S. "\\"he u tll' (the f.onl .fo•'l•) hcaled the >àck, gnve slghL w U1c blinrl, a nrl enabled the lame to wllllc, l fo uot only proved b is authorlty, but ongge•tc<I t he in r~rcncc t hat He hlld c orne to rc•tore onr 001T11pted n a ture to ;~, cirigino.l purity, to c nlighten the ignorant, a!ii

" il! •wenr tn on e, wl1etlwr c,·cry bc1tlily rit•· t e mpe r m ny not be tmt the anulosy nr fig ure of Wlnc corrcsponi:.l ing malady of tho soul, uot of con r.:e cxist.Jng fn the snmt- pcr~o11, 11~ the)' are oftcn moi;:t free from n.ny snch ~~u.. n~t· Uon; hnt implying so1nc n?!-i~mhlnuco [n the ùi"ScU..'CS anil d hr tempers nhkh pre,·an !11 the two worlds o f m a lte r nml s pir it. .. , Sothing lngain) is m ore frL•1ucnt t han t he wordb o f hca ring- und o f """in~. aurl o r deMllc.. n nol b!h1<l n.,.-s. •• •pplit!tl to t~e '-Ou i. Our J.ord himrelfrepcnlfallytL •'"' thi' flllUtlt·
ti\·e lm\~'l.lft~C; autl on one r emark o.ùlr o<:~

c11.•io1t con nccl• Lhe lcsoon of •Piritual b liml · "' '"~ Wlth the.t of the bodily eyc, n nd dra ws t he a t tclltlo1 1 froru ()ne t<) the otbc r ; fur "Il he atlng tlw man t.lmt wnR hltnd from 111~ hfrth. He d cdarcd of the Pharisees, · T 11,m a.11 men wore,nnfl to emLhle U!"i to ~ta.ncl in UH! pnth of 11 fo."- llind's Hl•lary Qf Clwislianily, com(!. th1tt tln~y who see not ma.y ~ Pe, and thut thuy who ~ee may be mad<! tJUnd.' I l _ \'OJ. I., p. gJ. •· Thu m!riu:I~• of c mr J.md on the b odlc• Thouglol• "" Ille study of lhe llnly Gmq1'/$, tir., by th~ Rti•. f , <-Oaè William" R.lJ., laie J tll11W of of mrn . .. nppes1 . . . n ot nlercly as iml il'tl· tto n!ii o f a ùl\•lne 1)0\\'Cr, whicll hnd a.uthor· T1·i11Uy OJl/.ege, OJ:jonl, pp. 2-!7-Zb3. îty to l'ômll\Jll\ù, l>u tnlso as thcm!i;eh ·e the vchkkti o ! ~ piri tunl in~truction . . . . Our "Oh, Jei<ugf o nce lossL-d 0 1> th" bre:L•I of the Lord h l ms...tf, ln his c nre<., dld ~omctimcs l>lllow, •tudio11>IY c<1nnect the externa l runlnd y "ith A ro11!!1-d l>y thé sh rick of d esp!Ùr f'roin t hy the diM'B'-e!' of the i;oul; o r we may SAY, p!llow, ~"Cn\(..'<1 Cttrn~U)· to cuù~tn-or to tu" 1 tlw S ow 84.'uWrl iu glory. th<' m ariner e hl'r îbh, tboUJZhts of tho bystnnders fr<lm the bodily Who rrio-s ln his d nnger , • Help, Lord,' or we pcri~h." diSllase t<l th e 11h1.& thn.t occMiom.-<l . it, R.nd \\·ere cmmectcd ·w i th it; as ùy using the And, oh, when the whirlwind of pu~ston ls words, 'Thy sin s b e forgh•cn thcc,' instemi ra~ng, of m erelj' d!oP<•lling the d!>ca>;e.... And o f Whcn hcll in ùur heart• Ilia wlld wnrfüi·c is course, 1t goool man wonl<l not limit the !a· w a.ging, ~trrn.~tiom;, t.hus<.•onveyeit 1 to thOf,è patticulur ;\ rtw Ili U1y slrength thy •cdcemcll tu eh e r· 1w-t:mt'Ui thcm1;elves; but wo uld eon~j der ish, thl'rn rath~' r f\t; inthnu.tion.s or a grcat sybtem, Rcb nlce the destroyer-' Help, Lmd,' or w @ .ftlH1 of on ~xlP1uh·e corre~pontlcuec in the perl•h." Bùhqp H diff. evlJe of the OOd>· und ronl, whlclI wc know



and go forwurd according to ordcr; the effects, in ultimates, are rnirn clcs, when it pleuses the Lord that they should be presented i.n that form. Hence it is that all divine miracles represent sLatcs of the Lord's kingdom in the hcavens, and of the Lord's kingdom in the earths, or of the church; this is the interna] form of divine miracles. Suc11 is the case with all the miraclt'.'i in Egypt, and nh;o with the rest that are mcntioncd in the \V ord. Ali the miracles, also, which the Lord Himself wrought when He was in the world, significd the approaching state of the chureh, as the opening the cycs of the blind, etc., signifying that such as are upresented by the blind, etc., would receivc the Gospel, and be spiritually healed, and this by the comi11g of the L ord into the world. Such are divine miracles in their interna] form. Mugical miracles appear like divine mirndes, because thcy llow from order, and order appears like in the ultimates where rnimclcs are presented. [But] although in the external form [ magical miracl~J appear like divine miracles, they neverthclcss have in them a contrary end, viz., of destroying thosc thinf,rs which are of the churcl1; whcr<>,as, divine miracles have inwardly in them tlie end of building up those things which are of the church."-A. C., n. 7337. "The miracles which the Lord performed whcn He sojourned on the earth 1Yerc actual facts, as well as representativc works. 'l'hcir performance was not, as many suppose, effected by the cxercise of ttrhitrary po\\-er in opposition to the laws of creativc order, bttt 11i;.pern1ing with those mediums, or the setting aside of those intermediate modf's of opcration by which the great Creator briugs forth all eflccts in the order of naturc,-thus the activities of the spiritual world, whose creations are imtantaneous, and not progre;sive, being brought near the natural world, and acting more directly upon matter, control or suspend al! medimm, and produce a spontaneous and instantaneous eflcct both on orgunized forms and natural substances. llence, at the L ord's presence infernal spirits were compclled to retire, im·eterate diseascs were healed, new !lrrangements of internai a1Hl external structure were supplied, withered limbs wcre rcstored, hcalt.h was infused into the disordercd frame, the very dcad were rniscd to Iiü·, water wus turned into wine, bread was multiplicd by a worrl, the rilging sea was calrned. It wns an extraordinary descent of spiritual force into nature, or into the things of the natural world, which Lhus effocted ail known miracles. They were 110 direct breach of divine order, but rnther a manifestation of that superior ordcr which prcvnils in the spiritual world, and which, when permitted to enter into the natural world, supersedes or extinguisl1es for the moment, and witliin the space ullotted for its action, the common ordcr of nature, just as a vivid concentrated sunbearn, or a flash of lightniug frorn heavcn, supersedes and extingnishes all minor enrthly flames."-Hindmarlih's J::ssay on the Lord's Rel!l.irrectfon, page 70. Nor should it be forgotten tlrnt these mighty works cannot be <lono in man, and for him, without i.is own free aud heurty cooperation



1vith the Lord Jcsu~ Christ, his Gorl and Saviour, from whom ail power i~ cforived. 'IVherefore He snys," Behold, 1 give you power to tread on serpents and scorpion,,,"-that is, power w suhclue all the false and deadly })crsuasions of sensuality,-" and ovcr all the power of the cncmy, and nothing shall hy uny rueans hurt you" (Luke X. 19). The works of the Saviour wcre likewiso reprcsentative, as must be evi(lcnt from his own <liYino dcclaration, whcrc He says, "Vcril,v, Yerily, I say unto you, Ho that hclicvcth on me, the works that I do shall he do also; and greater works than thcsc shall he do; bec:rnse l go unto my Fathcr" (.Tohn xiv. 12), whcrc we are taught th:it thcse mighty work;; arc to be wrought in us by the combinerl activities of love anrl wisdom, signified in the spiritual sensc hy the Father and the Son; that they arc to be donc hy the uniteil operntion of the human wiII with the Divine will; and that they arc us much greatcr than those which had rcfcrence to the rcnoYation and preservation of t11e body nt• the soul is superior to its earthly tabernacle. As an example of the manner in which the Lord's miracles arc to be expbined and undcrstoo<l, wc will briefly instance the dccply intercsting one, literally performe<l at the marriagc in Cana of Galilee, an<l recordcd in the first twelve verses of John ii. Cana 11·as a city of the-Gentile nations, which signifies, in the spiritual sense, the stafo of those wl10 acknowlerlgc tl1Cir destitution of divine truth, and who, in consequcnce of thcir ignorance of the \Vord of Gor\, are presened from the drcadful evils of profanation, which had consummated a prcviou~ <lispensation. It was to enlighten and instruct such hmnble minds, that the Lord con<lcsceuded to sojourn in the flcsh; ami, to reprcscnt his divine purposes and opcrutions more vividly, He made the first wondrous di~play of his mercy on tlic dclightful occasion of a nuptial cerernony in Gulilee of the Gentiles. A marriagc, 11c have seen, signifies the union of love and wisdom in the will and u11dersta11<ling; hcncc, also, conjunction with the Lord, for without Euch a 11nion of the conslitnent 1iriuciplcs of the clmrch, and of every imlividm1l, no such coujunction can be expcricnccd. 'IVhcn the sinccrc desire for it cxists, however, the !Ard is said to be cullcd or invitcd to the fcast. He io prescnt, as to his <livinc Joye, denoted by his namc, Jesus; for it is from the iufinitc ardor of his love that Jfo 11·ills to "savc his people from thcir sins" (l\fntt. i. 21). He is iircsent togcther with the imrnrd gooll affection, dcnotcd ùy the l\Iother of



•Jc:ius,•M which prompts tl1c JlOrception of that holy principle, nn<l
with his disdplœ , significative of nll the <livine trut hs and doctrin.ell rlcrived from Him through his 'Yord, und necdfül to supply the fu]. nes;; of instruction. The thirtl flay deuotes a complctc statc of prcpamtion. The fcast commenced, but it was suggested by Mary, who representc(l hca venly affection, tha t thcy had no winc. Extcrnal truth, signified by the water, with its clransing and refreshing qualitics, existed in abuntlancc; but iuterior truth, signified by wine, whieh exhilarates the inmost prineiples of the soul, was wanting.••ill \Vhen the Lord was thus applied to, IIe apparently gave a rliscourng iug answer, but in reality teaches th11t iutcmal truth, howcver dcsired, cannot be given till the hour or s tatc arrives in which man is duly prcpared for it, and which is in<luccd hy a willing and simple obe· dien ce to the truths already acquired. The servants arc thereforc directed to do whatsoever the L ord saith. The six waler·pots of stone, " set after the manncr of the purifying of the ,Jews, containing two or three fükins apiecc," signify the divine ·word itself, and the purif)'ing tcn<lency of its doctrines ; and their nnmbers an<l mensures tlcnotc fulness, !tdapted to every statc of the ehurel1 and the mind. T o be fillcd to the ùrim 8ignifics, that as the \Yord is ohcyed, it is seen to be replenished ,- to O\·ertlow \ri th au infinite ab undance of trut hs. T o sdcct one more illustration of the intem:Ll sense of the Gœ pels, let ns i·cfer to the narrative of t hc L ord's transfiguration on the rnount, related by three of tbc Bvnngelists (Matt. xvii. ; ~fark ix.; Luke ix.). This wonderful even t wns designed iu gcneral to teach tlmt the whole \Vonl b<;)ars unbroken witness to the great trnth that the divine love, wisdom and power arc the indwelling attributcs of the L ord J csus Christ. Three of the disciples, P eter, ,James and ,John, were preseut. I may observe that the Lord ·was so :<een ùy thcse 1lisciples, when, being withclr:mn from the body, thcir spiritual 1<ight \\'llS opcncd. Though it is described, likc the ancient prophctic villious, ns if it h:ul happened in the natural world, it was in rcality a transaction wl1ich took place in the spiritual world. \\re h:n·e beforc observed, tlrn.t by the three disciJllcs, P eter, J ames nnrt .Jo}m,
100 s~e Lukc Y!li. 21: John lx. 27. l "rc remnved, and the troth is prescntcd Io let" \\'lnc, ln many pa..~•agcs, is put by U5 \'ÏCw. The good w!nc i• the Old 'l'e«tllment, for the HQ Jy Bcriptures, which ro11t11i1111•illtin hnt tb!s (good winc) docs n ot appeitr, unle.ss thcm the purest force of hcin·cnly 11<Εdmn, 1'1 the lctter it oo spir!tmil!y undcl'!5tood!'by whlch t he unden;tam11ngs of men arc A ug11sli11e App. in Serm. X<'. witrmcd, l\lHl their :tffccfüms l uebrlntcd . " Jly win~. the splrltmt! intelligenc~ of the Whllc Chrbt wrought in Cil.mi of Gnlilee, dl\'i11e lnw ls <lcnoted. Wht,m'tl the Lord al t bcy want~d wine, an d wlnc is produced !n r the m:uril\~ in C..na t u rned the wat.tr into them; that is, the sha.dows (of the Jetter) wl nc.''-l>t1Tand11.S on SJlllÙ/OlÎalll, p. l~.



are signified the tl1ree essentials of ail religion, viz., faith, charity or love, m1d good works or the fruiti> of charii]. None but those in whom these ennobling principles are found uuitcù and active can word, It is said that after spiritually discern the Lord's glory in his · six days the Lord took thcm up into a high mountain apart. After six <lays siguifics a statc of rest, pcace and joy, denotcd abo by the Sahhath,-a holy und heavenly state which can nnly be attained hy pa~siug through the prcvious statcs of lahor and trial, and by enduring the scvcre contticts of tem11tatio11, signified by the six days in which man hu.s to do "all liis work." By a high mountnin, callcd hy an apostle " the holy mount" (2 Pet. i. 18), is signified a state of inmost affoction; dcnotiug, \Yhcn predicated of the Lord, bis divine loYc for his creatures, and when prcdicatod of them, thcir love toward8 Him. Higli signifies wl1at is exalted and interior; and apart tlenotes the scparation which obtains, in this exalted state, between what is earthly and heavenly. By the Lord being tran~figurcd 161 is not meant that there ever was, or can be, any clmnge in Him; but He so repre.. scntcd Himsclf in the presence of bis disciples to denote that the cfliügcncc of his inmost Didnity can only be revealcd to thosc who nre prepared to ascend the mount of love. Therc thcy can see and commune with thcir God and Saviom·. From that lofty elevation, losing sight of his sufforings and sorrows,-his states of humiliation and temptation,-He is beheld in ail the splendors of his gloriiied Hunmnity. Nor is the glory which is thus manifcstcd, any cxtr:mcous nppearnnce assumed in a moment, a11d for temporn.ry purposes, but it is an inward cmanation, perpetually flowing from the inherent essentials of bis own divine nature. The Lord's face, which was refulgent as the sun, signifie<l his iufinitc gooduess nnd mercy, beaming with splendors from his divinely glorilietl Person. His garments, ''hich appeured white as the light, sigl'ified those sacred and eternal truths in all their radiant pnrity, with which H e clothes or invests Ilimsclf' as ,,·ith miment (l'sa.ln1 civ. 2). Ily Moses and Elias are not only signified the great lawgivcr and the prophet, but the \Yord itself; which they were instrumental in recor<ling; 1\Ioscs tlcnoting t11e historical portions, and Elias the prophetical. 'fheir conversation with the Lord was unquestionable evidcuce that the whvlc \Vord treats concerning Himself and his divine 011erations. Thro11gl1 the ~ame holy medium, man ~!so may, ns it were, hold converse with hi1 God. By Peter saying, "Lord, it Î8 good for us to be here: if tho11 m J,it., "He transfii,'llreù llitruelf."



wilt, let us make hcrc threc tabernacles; one for thcc, and one for Moses, and one for Elias," is denote<l the blissful perceptions givcn tu a truc faith, that the highest. privilegc of the Christian is to hold i11tercourse with the Lord through his 'Yord, thus to open the mimi towards Him, t.hat dwelling with us and in u~ He nrny continually replcniû1 all the fücultics of the soul with his divine gifbs. The cloud into which the disci9les entered, and with wl1ich they were ovcrshadowed, represcntcd the literai bcnsc of the \V ord, wliich, veiling its inward truths, accornmodates them to the slate of the bcholder, and becomes a "ligl1L or bright cloud," wheu thcsc truths are seen to shinc through it. A voice out of the cloud is the responsc or confirmation of divine truth, as heard in the pure doctrines of religion, and taught cven in the lettcr of the W ord. These doctrines instruct us that the l ..or<l glorifierl his ruatemal or materiaJ llumanity, and ruade it divine according to his own infini te will and good pleasurc; that all the folness of the divinity dwclls in tlie glorified Humanity, the -" bcloved Son;" and that liaving lcarncd this all-importnnt, all-glorious truth, wc must evcr harken to the still sm:ill voicc,-thc dictates of a gcnuine conscience formcd by the plastic :md vital operntion of truth. By the disci11lcs licaring the voice, falling on thcir faces, and being sore afrai(l, is significd a disposition to obedicnce, adoration from the deepcst humiliation of heurt, and thencc inward revcreucc for the Lord and dread of evil. Jcsus touehing them signifies divine communication of new strength and life from Himself. His snying, "Arise, and be not afraid," signifies the eonsequcnt elevation of state, from which ail fcar is banishcd, bccause the Lord is ~cen as" mighty to save," and as sM·ing to the uttermost ail who corne unto Him. And, lastly, by the tlisciplcs "lifting up their eyes and sccing no rnim save .Jesus oJlly," is meant, that in this exalted state of the under8tan<ling, and so far as finite power can discern the infinite, the Lord Jcsus Christ is perceive<l in all his grandeur aml glory, nnd acknowledged frorn the heurt to be the only God of angcls and men,-thc Creator, Hcdeemer and Saviour of his crenturcs, the All in all of the church in heaven aud on carth, "the Alpha and tlie Omega, the bcginning and the ending, who is, and who ,ms, and ll'ho is to corne, the Almighty" (Rev. i. 8). The L ord's birth into the world,168 bis baptisrn, tcrnptations and
''" From the earliest age• of Chrl•tlanlty, 1 be tmccd in various anthon;; thus John of this glorlon• vlsio11 hn.s bcen regaràed lU! J c rusalem writes, "He who follows the letcontuinlng an lnwnrd significo.1!011,>md cYen ter of the ~rripture, and rcmalnscxclush·cly somc perception of it;; •piritnal import muy iu the vallcy, can11ot sce Je•us clothcd ln



ministry, his crncifixion, rcsurrection and 11.5censio11, wcre, ns to evcry historien.~ circumstance recorded in the holy GospeŒ, not only true as to the Iitcral fücts (see ante), but also sig11ific11tive of his approach to the clrnrch in general, and to every preparcrl mind in particular, and of his reception, acknowledgment and glorification in the rcgcneraliug mind; and thns, hy consequencc, thcy are made tQ reprcsent all the various stcps and degrees in tl1c spiritual pathwny through which wc must walk to obtain UJl everlasting stnte of conj11nctio11 witl1 Hirn, and the blee:;ings of his salvation.1 ee The temptntions in the wildernc:S8.. or the grie~us_.:issanlts a~d suggestions of the infrrnol
"hite rahucnt; but he \\'ho follv\\S th e Word o f God up the mountùin, lhllt ls, he who ao· ccrnh the ou!Jlirnt '"'"e of t'he !aw, to ldin Jc•u.• is trnll•fil(Ured. ~o )QJI!( M we follow thr ot;;.curity of the lctter, ::llo.c~ and lllia. <lo11utW.lkw1thJc•us; buti!"cundcr..tal1<l il iq,irilunlly, then • lnûght\\ ny Ma.es aud Eli••. tlrn.t r,, Lhc law und the prophet~. corne
the srencs e.n<I rire\llnstnnœs !n whirh we ~n<I him cnge.ge<l, wc should, of conr;c, fücl on itll these •11hjccts tlrnt which considerutll t'Cnlons fccl in r~gard of ait God'~ wor<l• und work,, vlz., that the \ea"t ol' thcm l• fe.r t•>O dr~p for w; the m<J>t triv!~l ut' hi• l'omman,lments is cxœcùlni; brou.d; the •light· <'>!, to our conception, of bis at't• m11st ho.ve and <'OIH'Crdf? \\rith the: 0C."1•cL''-(J!mnü.. ctcrnal a.nd tnfinlt.c lli'.isoé'iations tlJ)(I cun~c· xx:xU.) Sou.ga1n Orlgcn \\'ritcti, "t."11l(•ss thon quences~ The worrl!', then, a.n(l (1uh1~~ of a-cct1d the mo1mt11lu ut' God, 1111<l thcre mect our Blcssed ~av tour, bclng llH thcy are the wftlo More;; unies.. L lwu 11!\Cen<I the Jofly worci. and d»lngs of Goù, iL tnnnot be but sco~ o f the la.w ; unlcss thon rcn.ch the thcy must rnW\ll !a.r more tlum m cct."i t.hc câr lwlght o f •plrilual intellige11:!<:, thy moulh i> or t he crc: U1cy o·annot but be fully clulrgL'<I not oi;cucd by God. Jf thuu ùbide in the l\ lth bcun:nl)' antl inyf....tC:rious menni11r, low plain of the letter, and rlo no more tha.u whctlH'r ne arc, f\$ yct, cornpet<:ut ta di!<!fern ruAke Jewish narru.tins of hlot.orlca.l te•~'. •omc part of thnl m c1miug or no; J\lld tv Lhon ho,t not met Mose~ on tlHl mount of look at them ln tlmt ligbt mny be cnllcd Ci()(\, ncitber hath God. opcnt~'-1 lh~r montb, .Mys.tirisi11; but. Îti it any more Uum the mlt,.. uor ti>ught t.hee wh,1t thou uughlt.'bt t.o "">·" urul a.nd 11CCC!lbl\ry n..,,ult of c<>1tWttmk fa.i:.11 -[ln Ex., Pap. il".) In unothcr phl<'e, •penk- in his dlYinc nature'/"-Tmcl~/urlhe Timc~. ln~ of the saine r;uljjc<"t, he obser,·es, u ::\loscs lJrr::X:-c;;ix., p. nu. and ~:llasuppe11re<li11glorywhcntheytalked "On the whok, there seemB uo w1mt of Mth Jesu,, 1111cl !n thi~ f:lct the law and the f;<'ri11tural u.uthority f;.>r the n.ll<>gory ns approphet.' arc shown Ill agrec with the Gos- plled by the FHUocn< ln the :\~w Tc!Olaml!llt, pelf., nod tu be re•plcndcut wlth the sanie con.,idercd bOth iu "hat it includcs 1111<l h t ttlOC)•. when ~plrilu1'1Iy und~rstuo<l."-(In wlint il omits. lfo;I modllrn lntcq;rdcrs Epist. ad Rom., CO.Jl. I.) He iil~o say!, "Chri"t c1•cn, and >tllll<l>t nll dcvotlouàl writen;, rec· i• transf\gurL-<l, when Ile io <li>ccrnc<l theo· <>gaize it in prlnc! ple, wme p~rhaps moro lng!cully in the ~pirit, f!.ccorllini;: to his hlgh or Jess uncou!clom.!y ; but. the grcat dlllcr· <llgn!ty; 11.ml not &<'<'Ortllng to the simple 110- """e betwccn t hcn1 and the anl'lent; secms tlon;. ofthe!Uiteratemultit.u.le. The•hinlug to lit> rathcr ln this-t.bat Uie AJ•denls fcar r11lmcnt means hls discourae;. and the e1'1l.J.1· not to c11rry il ont, ln e1•ery pitrl of the Gosgoli<•ul and o.ro;tolic writings. Whof'.Oever pels, and "" car a- lt wlll go !n crnry co.,e. <li!!<'ems Chrbt ln this way, abc beholds Mo· wherea.> we. ln modern limes, e11ch draw h!s !e!' anrl EUo.~. who, by synct,1oche, are put own arllitro.ry Jinc1 tl~conling to onr own for e.11 Uoc rropbct•."-Cbfnm<'lll. tn .llatt.• t. taste, or our 11ot.io11• o f whe.t i• useful or xi!., f. S7. convlnclng, or o ut of defercnce to the Juùgl•" Did we really Jay li IA1 heart. as wc ,,,,.<i ments we cxpe<•t. from oth<·,..''- TradJi fur ven;e afl.er vcm or the GO•PEL!!,--<li<I we ln the Time~. lxxidx., p. 133, <'Rmest imt our n1inds to the thought,-that Nclther tl1c Act• of the Apostles nor the thi8 Jcsus of ~aiarctlo, the 8011 of Mary, ia F.p!stlcs o.re trcate<l lu thls wo.y 1.oy atty of the lnilce<I the Noot l'!igh Go<l, Creator aml l'o•· ~'l1thcrs as havlng a pnrnbollml '""'"e or &>><.~r of hce.vc1111nd carth, and of nll tbings •pirhua.I m caning, except whern c;tatiun• Tl-lble and im·i• lble; did wc 1enllze our con- 81\' made from "'hat the Mml •aid in the yfctlon of,h:s truth in (.'Olm~·ttQn with en.ch (;o~pcls, or wha.t Mœes a.nd the prophetA: Alld nll of Io!• tlctlons and di><!<>Urses, and of hncl wrill<.'n, or whcrc •omc e'1dc1it l\ll!L·





pmrers, signifie<l by the devil and satan, werc cndured by our ble8Sed Lord in their utmost intensity, whilc He was clothe<l with an infirm Human, which, with all the hereditary proclivities and corru11tions of our degenerate nature, He had assumcd for our redemption, or deliverance from hell. They are very ùrietly portrayed by the pcn of inspiration ()folt. iv.; Luke iv.), and can only be rationally understood from a knowledgc of the inward sense, in which they descrihe the states of direful temptat.ion and inconccivable anguish that He passed tlirougl1, as He subjugated the infernal hosts in that wondcrful proccss hy wl1ieh He <lelirercd man from their influence, and made ]lis Hunrnnit.y Divine. In a subordimtte sense, as the Lord was "tempted in ail points likc as we are" (Heb. iv. 1.5), the inspircd nccount of his tcmptatiom must of necessity Le significative of the discouragcmcntR, trials, temptations aml sufferings with which every Cl1ristiau is cxercised in a finite degree, as lie faithfully follows the Lord in tha.t purifying process of rcgeucration, whereby rruin is ctcrnally saved from death and hcll. \Vhen He presents Himself to our mintls, an<l we 1ire unprcparcd for his glorious presence, because we are unwilling to cast out the subtlc and impure affections and thoughts which fill our unregenerate bosoms, it is then said that "thcre is no room for Him in the inn" (Luke ii. 7) ; and, again, in tendercst nccents we hear Him bewailing our condition in la.nguage of love and pity, snying, "The foxes have holes, and the birds of the air lmve ncsts, but the Son of :Man hath not where to lay his head" (ilfatt. viii. 20; Luke ix. 58); for, a]as ! human cunning is prefürred to •livinc wi~dom, i'elf~depcnùence to Divine Providence, and the heart is fillcd wiLh unclcan nnd sclfish dcsircs, and the under:-;tanding is o\·erwhelmed with worldly solicitucle, and no preparntion c:m be made for the rcception of Him who, as the Son of Man, proscnts Himsolf beforc us in his own blcssed ord. "He corneth to his uwn, and his own receive Him not" (Johu i. 11) . In thcir perversity of soul they say, "\Ve will not have this man [the etemal Tn1th] to rcign ovcr us" (Luke xix. 14); we acknowledge no sovcroign as ruling ovcr ns but "the iirince of this world" (Luke xix. 14) ; "'Ve have no king but Cresar" (John xix. 15). The circumstances ntteuùing our Lord's crucifixion were significative of a depr:wed state of the church and the human mind. Swedenborg places t.his sul::\ject in a powerful light. He says:


si"nns arc made to what fa. there recorded; j cation of a ft!W proper na.mes, undt•r ,.,,.ph,!h or in c x pl11.nntio11 of \•lsious, ns P•.ul's con - ther thought some mJ"lkries might be <'"'n· y<,>r.,inn nrn1 l'ctcr's l'ision, n.n<l tlw •i111tift- 1 ceuled.



" That the Lord Himself, as the chief Prophct, rcprcsentcd the statc of the church in its relation to the 'Vord, appears from the circum:;tances attending his passion; as, that He was betrayed by Judas ; that He was taken and condemned by the chicf pricsts and clders ; that they buffüted Him; that they struck Hirn on the head with a rccd; that they put a crown of thorns on his head; that thcy dividcù his garments, and cast lots for his vesturc; that. thcy crucificd Him; that they gave Hirn vinegar to drink; that they pierced his side; that He was buricd, and rose again on the third day. His bcing bctrayed by Judas, signified that H e was betrayed by the Jewish nation, who at that time were the depositaries of the " ' ord; for J u<las rcprescnted that nation. His heing taken and condemned by the chief pricsts and cldeIB, significd that He was taken and condcmncd ùy the wbole Jewish chnrch. Their scourging Him, spitting in his face, bufleting Him, and striking Him on the head with a rced, signified that they trcatcd in a similar manner the 'yord, witl1 respect to its divine truths, all which relate to the Lord. Their putting a crown of thorns on bis head, signified that they had falsificd and adulteratcd those truths. Their dividing his garments and casting lots for his vesture, signified that they had dividcd and dispersed all the truths of the 'Vord, but not ih> spiritual sense, which his vcsturc or iuner garment represented. Their crucifying l:lim, signified that they harl destroyed nnd profaned the whole world. Tbcir giving Him vinegar to drink, significd that all was falsificd and false, and thereforc Ile did not drink it, but said, ' It is finished.' Their piercing his side, signified that thcy hud entirely extinguished every truth und every goorl of the W ord. His being buried, signified the rej ection of the residue of the Humanity taken from the mothcr; and his rising agaiu on the third day, signified his glorifictttion. Whcre thcse circumstîmces are predicted in the Prophets and the l'salms, their signifi. calion is similar.'' " 0
D. i., n . 16. Cunnlng is prefcrrcd to divine w!sdom, John of Jerusalcm obsel"!cs, "Do not sup- and self·dependence to the llivine l'rov!pœ;e that lt wM only ln former tlmes Christ dence; and the hrort ls filled with unclean, was bctrayed by the prie•ts, condemned by sel&h desires, and the understanding ls thcmtand delivered over to be crucificd. but ovenrhclmcd with worldly solicitude, and cven now He !s betrayed and condcmne<l to no prcparntion can be made for the recepdcath; for Christ L• the Word of Truth, and 1 lion of Hfm who, as the Son of Man, pretbeywho falsclylnterpret the Word ofTruth, 1•ent• Himself bcfore us in his own blessed bctrny Hfm to be mocked and crucificd."- words, ~ Ile cometh to his own, and his own 1" Jfatt., cap. x>:. receiYe Him not" (John i.11). In thcir pcr· The npostles al'° make a pract!cal appli- versity of soul the y say, "We will n ot hlwc cation of the Lord'• cruclfixion.-Scc Rom. t.hls man [the ctemal •rruth] to reign." vi. 6; Gal. ii. 20, v. 21, yL li; Hcb. vl. 4--0.



Tin: BooK
o~· Ri;;vi;;r.ATJON WtroLr.v GoMl'OSED oF D1v1NE SvMBoLS


n1HE A pocnlypse, or Book of the Hcvelation, is the last of tlie
inspircd Word, anrl is wholly composed of divine symbols.111 Like the books of Daniel, Ezekicl, etc., it bas b\:!cn looked upou ns awfully mystcrious, and is commonly ancl variously interpreted as ha,·ing refercncc only to historical events rclating chicfly to the politicnl changes which either have tlikcn place, or may hereafter take 11lace, i11 the ontward forms of the chureh and among the several empires and kingdoms of the world. ~fany of the predictions seattcrcJ tltroughout the propheti~1l portions of the "'ord ha vc indeed becn permitted to haYe somc visible ami rnry gencral accompfüluncnt in historical facts, for important reasons alrelldy adduced; and, also, heco.use of the close conncction which exists between natural and SJ)iritual events. Such were the prcdictions of the Lord's first coming, the overthrow of B:ihylon, Ninevch, Tyre, etc., the destruction of .Tetusulem, t he dispersion of the Jcws, the establishment of the Christian churcl1, and many others. Ily this rnenns, a devout reverence for the sacrc<l \Vor<l, as a rcvclation from Go<l, has ooen prcserved among the human race amid ages of <larkncss and <lesolation; and although the Apocn-lypse could not hid1crto be expounded in its intern11.l scnse, becauoo tho kcy to its iutcrpretation had not yet becn given, still the readin~ and study of it must have bccn atten<lcd with permanent anrl incalculable advautages. It completed tl1c canon of the plenarily-inspirecl \Vord. It hns exci~l, in every age, an e:1mc:-t dcsire, and an ardent cxpcctation, tl1at the time would corne whcn its hidden wonders and wisdum would be discovered to the faithful. The ail-important doctrines of the sole an<l exclu~ive divinity of the J..ord Jesus Christ.,-of kceping the divine prcccpts as the apIll" The ln~plrcd tille o r this last book of m1mlcated,"-Dr. lftnder1011'• I""JlÏTOÛ<m, P. tbe NewTesl!l.ment eonreys, mOl!t polntcdly, 331, the iden. of instrnetlo11 supernaturnlly com-





pointcd means of salvation, -of the rœurrcction from the dead, and of states of eternal lifü or ctcrnal death as a waiting every one in tl1e spiritual worl<l,-Qf the blessedne;;s and realities of hcavcn, and the disonlers and mi~eries of hell,-all th<'Sc, and numerous other suhjecJ:s of C'hl'isrian life nnd doctrine, are unequivocally recorded in the very letter of Lhe Apocalypse. " Ble8.'!ed," therefore, a.,; it is written in the introduction, " Blessc<l is he that r eadcth, and they that hear tl1c words of thi8 pro1Jhecy, and kcep those thing8 which are writtco therein" (i. 3); while wc arc admonished, at the conclusion, neitlier to a<l<l thereto nor to <liminish therefrom (xxii. 18, 19). This truly wondcrful hook is composc<l, thon, as to e\·ery single expression, agreeably to the science of corrcsponùences; and now the a rcnna of its intcrnnl signification are unfolded (of wbich rnany striking cxnrnples have been given in thCl:!e pages), it is seen to be a lidng 8pring of diYine wisdom, to treat of the states of the Christian church at the pcriotl of its final consummation, a.n<l of the Lord's Second Ad veut, not in person, but" in the clouds of heaven" (Rev. i. 7), in " the power and gr cut glory" of bis 'Vord, to cstablish 11. new and everl:i:,ting dispcusation of love and wiMlorn in t.he h earts and nünd11 of men, ca.lk'<l the New J crlli!:J.lcm. ln the last two chaptcrs, this New Church, both as to ber establishment, internal quality aml externnl form, is treatcd of un der the su blirne an<l rnagnificcnt descri1ition of "a ncw hcaven and n new cart.h," whid1 it is i)romiscd s110uld "de:ocend from Cod out of hciwen," a.s "the holy city, New J erusalem," having precious stones for ber founùation, golden strccts, wall;, of j asper, gates of pcnrl ; who.se length, brea.dth and hcight a re equal ; a.s 1 1aviug a river of the water of lifc, und t he tree of lifc; and as l>cing " tl1e hride and wifü of the LA1'm." m The bright und morning Star of Truth, thcu, has arisen upon a henigltted world. The Sun of Righteousncss is dissipating "the face of the covering cast O\'Cr all people, and the vcil spread over 11.ll na'"!'or au e~pœitiou of the hook o r Revcla.- somee for tho chnrch is in the • [lirlllllll tion,- ~wroenl>org'sApoealw•c E>plainrd, fsystemj, a.. explniucd by Swed~nburg." 6 vol•., Svo, nnd Ap0<.'<ll1fp« RPt'f11/(rl, 2 vols., An<l by t h• •ame, An Rzposilion of lh• ÀpocSvo. See uloo A R eriew of lh~ J'rînclples of al1fPsc, 4 vol~.. 8vo. Apnc<rlyplicai Interpraalio11, 2\'<lls.,8,-o, by the "Iu ull & riptnre therc ls a spiritu1ll ~en•c. Hev. AUl(UStu• Clîssolrt, M.A.,formcrly of Bx. n •1>îritu11l Cabala, which, ns it t•nd• dlreNly Col., Oxford; contaloh1i.: nn examlnatlon of to hollnC••,sO Il is !lest and trucst unùer•tood the opinion• of P t'Otc8Ulnl •XpMlt.ors. The hy the SOllR or the Spirit, who love God •ml object of th• learnc<l and int.elllgent a.uthor thcrcfüre lmo w Hlm. Evcrything i~ l!c•t in thli! worlc is "to show that the systems of known by lts own s imilitud es and ana lcJ. inter1•n:tnllon which ha.ve bcen prevnl<.'nt gics."- Jercmg Taylù<'s ,S'ennonf, bav• entirely fallcd ; and that the only re- [

2.5 *



tions " (Isa. xxv. 7) ; men neecl no longer" walk in darkness," amid

the uneert.ain glimmerings of imagination nnd corrupt. traditions, nor
sit in "the gloom and shadow of denth." The laws hy which the life-giving pages of the W or<l of Gocl may be distinguished from 11umun compositious, and consistently :md with <>ertainty expounded, are now revcalcd from heavcn, and unfolded to human perception. The key is supplied to unloek this glorious cabinet of j ewels, and the good and wisc may enrieh themselvcs with eternal t.rearnrcs. 11• The "wells of salvation " are opencd, and "living waters " eau flow forth i n lwallh-restoring streams, to rcfresh and blûi's every prc11nred rnifül. llnt, in the language of the prophet, Io! a divine voiee is heard to utter, "None of the wieked o:lrn.ll understund, but the wisc shall un· Jerst::ind" (D an. xiii. H, 10).
•ra The tmth of the 8Cienœ of ~orrc~pond· 1X., p. M9, where lt ls rlgldly applie<l, ns n cnces, ._, wcll &s i~< lruportnuce iu the ln· mcthod oC lotcrpretation, to tbc princip&I tcrprcti<liou of Holy Si'rlpture, may he sccn symbols !n Rc v. XXI. chapt4r. eu roplific<1 in l'art If. uf thls work , Clio<p.


r110 conclude: The W ord of God is, in its literal seme, by virtue of its
inwar<l lifc and spirit, in "its fulne~s, its sanctity, und its power." Its literai scn~c was reprcscntcd by the emblematic cherubim, said to have heen placed at the entra.nec of the garden of Ede11, with a füuning swor<l to prevent the intrusion of the unworthy and profane within its hallowed enclosmc; but its spiritual sensc is the tree of lite in tùe midst, bearing all kinds of di;licious fruits, to which the faithful arc dcclared to have "u right," or power to appropriate them, ami whose "lcuvcs," or etcrnal doctrines and trulhs of piety, charity, and useful11ess, are de.signed "for the healiug of the nations" (Geu. iii. 24; Rcv. xxii. 2). The intcrior truths and doctrines of the spiritual sensc are "the upper springs," and the <Jxtcrior knowlcdges aml doctrines of the literai scnse arc "the netlier springs,"-the ble~sings of a" south land,"-the gift.s of our heavrnly Fathcr to cvcry faithful Christian who, in the divine strcngth, overcomes his spiritual encmies (J~shua xv. 19 ). Instruction from the lctter of the ord is "the former or carly rain" at sccd-time, while "the latter rain," which ripens and matures the harvest, ùenotcs instruction from the spiritual sense (.Joel ii. 23). And, again, speaking of tho Lord, and of the <lcscent of the divine ùlcssings and influences of 11is Holy \Vord, internai and external, to refresh and renovate the soul, the Psalmist says, "He shall corne down like rnin upon the mown grnss, as showers that water the earth " (P~alin lxxii. 6). Tl1e \Vord e:xternally is the wondrous lrnsl1 which Moses saw, bnrning and shining with in ward fire, yct unconsumed (Ex. iii. 2-4; Dcut. xxxiii. 16). It was also signified hy the hreastplate of Auron, set cxteriorly with twcke precious ~toncs, bnt from which issucd tl1e Urim and Thummirn, the light and flame of justice mid judgineut (Ex. xxviii. 30). The liternl se11se is the dark vapor obscuriug the glorious sky, its inwanl sense is the resplernlent ùow rich with every l1eavcnly hue of comfort and happiness (Gen. ix. 13). The Holy Word i~ signified by the marYellous lad!kr seen in vision by tlle patriarch; ùy menns of it man holds consociation with angels and com-





rmmion with God. Its foot, or litcral sensc, in accommodation to our low estnte, rests upon the earth ; but its sumrnit, or inmo;;t sem;c, rcachœ the h eavcns. The divine glory is above it, u.nd as we read nml meditate on its holy pages in faith 11nd loYe, angels asccnd and de:;cen<l upon its sacrcd steps (Geu. xxviii. 12, 13; .Tohn i. 51; m Rcv. xiv. H). Its literal sense is " a. field which the L ord hath ble~ed;" ji.,; spiritual scrnie is the conceu]e<l trensure which cnricbes the happy pos1;cssor more and more, even into the countlcss ages of eteruity. Its literai scnse was signified by the I..ord's outer garments, which tlie solùicrs parted among them, fur it is capable of being wrestcd to confüm the most opposite doctrines; but its glorious spiritual sense wus represcuted hy the Lorll's "vesturc,'' or inner garment, "woven without seam from the top to the bottom" (John xix. 23 ; Psalm lxxii. 17, 18 ). Its litera! scnse is the cloud that accommodates tl~c rays of the sm1 to e,·cry ùeholder, but a knowledge and perception of its imrnr<l se11sc presents the sun in a.ll its ineffable splcmlor, and is tl1e Lonl's rnlvent to the soul "in power and grcat glory" (.~Iark xiii. 26; Luke xxi. 27; Matt. xxiv. 30). The tables, or litcral scn:>e, are, undcr divine direction, the workmanship of ~Ioscs; but the wriling, or spiritual scnsc, is the writing of God (Ex. xx:xiv. 1). Like the heaven· de,;;cemled mauna, the 'Vord is thus adapted to every state, "He that gathereth much bath nothing over, and he that gathcreth little hath no lack. Every man may brather acc<>rùing to bis eating." The Lord is herc and elsewhere in the Gospel~ calle<l the Son of l\fan, in relation to bis word of divine trnth. He was "the \Vord macle flesh" (John i. 14; Ex. xvi. 18). This view of the Word of Go<l gi\'es "a fulness" toit which produccs a constantly-încreasing conviction of its "sauctity," and stamps it with the imprcss of "dh·inity." It rc,·eals it as "a mine in which we may continually <lig, and still finil bcrls of incxhaustible spiritual wcalth to rcwnrd our nnwcaried re"' The 8uhllme and bcauliful 'ili;ion of lhc Cherub!m. •con L>y the vrophct Ez~kicl filJ(l describcd in the fi"'t clrnptcr <>f hi• prophècy, i~, iu c\'ery pnrliculnr, de"criptive 1of the \\'ord of God, both M to i ls hfcl<leu <•mlcut~ ll.n<l outwnrd fonn, ils inm0>I e.'e11cc 11nd ontward ia!lucnees. Swe<lenlJorg Lhus brkfiy and benutifnlly open• the Interv111 scnsc llnd moo.nlngofthc cntireehapter. .. The tlh'lnc exterunl • phcre of the Word ii; ''""ctfücd, verse 4. fa represcnte<l as I\ man, vc.-e 5. lt• eonj111Jl'tion wllh spirltunl nud C('l<-..linl things, veri-0 6, The nntimil !«.'n.<e of the \\'tml, 118 qu1tlity, vcJ"l(' 7. The •1>ir!trnd nnd celcstlnl sen.<e of the Wor<l conjoined l\'ilh Ille natural, ilB qualily, versc•s 8, 9. Divine love of gooclue!O! nn.I lruth, œlestinl, bpiritunl, ancl natural, lhercln dis· tinct nnd unlted, YCn;~B 10, ll. 'l'h11t thcy rc•ivml one enù, Yèr.se 12. 'flic s11here of the Word ls Crom the Divine Ooo<l nnd the Ill· l'il•c Truth of the L<lr1\, fn>m whkh tliù Word live•, verses 13, 14. The doctrine of goodnes< an<l trutb in the Won\ and from Ü, \'CJ'5e!! 15-21. The J)lvino E.<sCU!'e of the f.or<l a!Jovo lt and in it, vcl'!le< 22, Zl: ami from !t, vcrseR 21, 25. Thnt the L<lrd is aùovo the he:wcns, V('n>e 21\, And thl\t He is l!I· \'Ïll<! !.ove nrnl Divine Wlsdom IL-;elf, VCl'SC11 27, 21!."-S. S. 97.



senrch ; " for " the dcepor it is wor ked, the richer and more aùtmdant the prccious ore ùecomes."m The truths wl1ich are thus unfoklc<l are perpetually opening ancw, and are ever increa.sing in brillitmcy and beauty and cxpu.uding in glory and authority before the inwarù vision in proportion to tl1e soul's progrcss in the Christian life (Pro\'. iv. 18; John xvi. J8; 2 Peter iii. 13); for to this mighty end was it given, to aid our aclvancemcnt in goodness and truth, not only on eurth, but in the ucvcr·cuding ages of eieruity; 116 or, to adopt the
liS Dr. Ilen<lerson. 11• It Wllll ,. "g~nero.l cu.itom umong the }'llthel"l! to ~upposc thni Scriptnre contains lntcllt lllY•terlou:s me11.nings beyonc l the lcllcr, lhe 11pprehension or wbich is di.cl~l to .. t&.llhJ\11 ure. "~ow lhk mode of interpreWlon ls so gc111:rnl h·. the Ancient [Ch rlsUan) Church, tht1.t !Omething of the ldtHl may be consid· ered fus tlic charact.cd.))UC' diff~rence betwecn the lntcrprutation of rothollr. Chri•tio.11s and those of hcrclJeal tenchers; th1it the l~U.cr lôwcr n.nrl bring down the Aenses of Scdpture as If they werc rnere l1umun wor<ls, whlle the tonner consider the words of Di· vlnc'l'ruU1 to contain grci.ter meanit\l:'I tha.n '"' can futhom. and therefore !LRlpllfy and extend thefr sjgnltieallon us If they were n.ln.ncing onward iuto deeper ar.d h!ghcr mcRnh11,'8, tlll lost Ill e\•er lncreMlng 1rnd ai lenglh !J1fiul\e Ught ancl g~~t11C:<>!, bcyond w!Hit the limlted vlew of man ls cn.p0,ble of p11rsnlng. "Nor doe>1 lt appet1.r nt al! unrcn•onable beforeband-before consldcring lt Ma mo.I· ter or lhrt, tha.t thi• shouhl be the <:S•se: 1 mwn that the DiT:ine Won1 M!ould be in lts S<'<'f\!t range th11s ,•.,.t ami ~,omprehensive, as the slmdow of the heit1·ens in still .i\lld (ll'cp wn tcrs. .. nnt !t might be O!lid tbni !Ill• mode of hllCl')ll'C'tation hus arisen fn>m the nature of the Heh?'('W langm:tgc, iu which eu.ch word contalns n1.rny dccp and nlter!or mean!ni,,,,, whlch m!Ly be considcred as types of each other. But this 01>oen·atlo11 w\11, fa foct, Jcad us io the !l!Lmc conclusion or i!A Divine ch11tacwr; it is, lndL'<!<l, only go!ng fnrthcr into the •nbjed-semling n• bark one stcp more ln tl'!l.l'I ng the chain whlch rCl\chcs from God'• thronc. For if the sncred llln· !l"llRgC whlch the Almtghty hA.S choscn ln ordcr to revcal B1msclf to mnnklnd ls of thls typklll nttturu, it provv!I thatsuch 1" the Jangnage of Gorl; thu.t in numerous uaalo· ~e"'l u.nd r~·semblance~, ditferlog in time,

come to tbe mRttcr of fuct, a• prove11 by tl1e Scripturcs themselves, the prlnclvlo it.HJ!f must OO allowcà R.S tight, whute\~cr limittL· tlon• men mRy prc.cribc to the appllcntion or u&e of Jt. lt is very evident how mnch Our bles.<cd Lord ha• Ilimself poin t< d out to thcsc dccp und latent mes.nlng", whcl'C \\ e could not otherwise have ''~Uturcd "' •uppose them Io cxfst; 11s, for iusto.uce, in tbc sign of \hc prophct Je>nuh uncl the liftit1g up of Ille SOr]lCnt in the wildemeRR. Aud ln ahnoot a.li hls >'eferencei to the Old Tcsto.ment, OlU' J.A>rd hu.s lcd us to l!~l'.!k for mines of secr«t Information diS<>loscd to the eye of fü!U1, l>Cyond the letlcr. And lt !' ta be obscrro<l lhllt Scripture ha.• u<>l gencrally pointe<! out to ns lhosc Instances in which aUegoriclll lntcrpretation is mo!lt nh,iOlL, importAnt, bnt oft.en thooe in whlch lt ;. less RO; os If, thereby, it r11thcr bU~'l:C•tcd mus a ~~ncrul law than e.tfordcd uny direction res1lùctlng i!.8 limitund extout. lffrotn onr I.ord's own example we pallS to the \l'ritlni,'l! of St. Paul, it is needle.s to mention \ho numerous stri'king înstances Jn \\'hlc b hc hns nnfolde<l ln li~ the splrltuo.J &ad llü;b s~ nses of the Old 1'estarnont.. And pt1H0ir1g from Aposlles to ,\JlO!\tollœ l write.,,, we ftnd the sBme sylrtcm ackoowlcdgetl, u l! it were incldente.lly, but 1thno.t univPl>'!llly. "Wlth regm"<l, thcrefore, to Ibis sy~km of interpreU1Uon, wc lUW(} ln 1011ny lnste.ncei fliYinc .l\Ulhorlty for lt; Bnd lJcyond w!wre we b"n thls 11nthority, fi lllll(llt IJo thought that w~ lltwc no sanctie>n for sueh U!Jplfratlons e.nd explunn\ion•; iu wblch raoe lt would lie s!milnr to the moral prlnciplcs or d octrh>cs that are dL'<lnœd from Huly ~crip· turc, whlch may be said to ftow more or lcss cleuly from the \\'ord lt..elf, and to be •np· portecl by anll.logy, na.tu rai consequenec, or ni;recmcnt with othc.r ptt.ssu.g~; and tbe~e 11> '"' <lccldcd by the judgment of 1n<ln•id· ual~, and lh:tt natnral wclght or authority whlch we Rllow to l>e duc to the opinion• or greiil 1111<1 ~'()()(l men. Dul fnrther thfu> Jmparw.m•e, nnù cxtcnt, but wtih ouc drift \li!•, a, wlth rei:o.rd Ill mor11.l pr!nrlpl•• of and •<'OJ>f', He ls lll!<.'<l to ~pcak to u., b lc ud- doctrine, <o ni'° witb re;pecl to such 1•a.rticlng fil.'llrc with word gpok.cn. But whcn we ul1U lutcrvrcUttiOn•, il is pcrhupg the eue





language of a truly great and good man, "H bas God for ils author, salni.tion for its end, and truth without any mixture of error for its matter." But, you are ready to a11k, is this wondcrful science of correspondences, that so miraculously unfolds the sacred pages, difficult to acquirc? I answer, Ko. Even children may be readily timght to understand mueh eoncerning it.'11 lt is, in foot, the carliest language of nature, and the language from which truc poetry and elo(1uence dcrive all their c1rnl'ms. It is the most imprcssive and dclightfül form of instruction, and supplies the most healthful and elevaling exercise to the imagination and reason. All olher kinds of knowledge are handmaids in its service, and tributary to its confirrna.tion. \\'hile the internai meaning is hiù<lcn f'rom those who are unprepare<l
(as it hfls lleen well obsen·ed), that for some of tht!m there mnv be such tl concurrent tcsLÎln()ny iu enr1 y a;1d. dh..tiuct ~hurchcs as to amount to a l'B.tholic consent, which conscut would, of course, have the se.me kind of ~. .acred authority as \Yould a.ttend a similar e.greemcnt '"·tth respect ta doctrine. "Sufficicnt for om purpœc lt is lhat such n metho<I of couslderiug Holy Wrlt ls cntholic, not to s";• Aposrolico.I and Divi11e."Tr11,cls for the Tfme8, lm RcH1,rve, pp. 21-2.5. l subjoin the following rcme.rknblc pa.'"age from The G0'.1Jel 'n"casury Opened, iu severaJ scrmon.i; preached nt Ken~ington aud else· whcre. by John Everard, D.D. It is cxtr11cted frotn one of four sermons on Joshua :xv.16, 17. Londou 1 2d e(lHiou, 1679. '•If the litera] Seri11tures were the V\,.ùnl of Gad, wby <loth Lbc Holy Ghoo;t so often sa.y, 'hc tha.t hath cars to hcar, lei hlm he>l.r'? And why dolh the prnphet J.ainh sil.y, that · hearing they 1n>Ly hear and not u11<1o:rstaud 1 nn<l scelng thcy rue.y sec and not perceive? )fakc the hcnrtofthb people fut, thcir cars dllll, ruul tbeir uycs hcnvy, lest thcy •houlcl sec wllh lhcir <Jyes. au(\ hear with their eara, ancl undc"lanit with their hMr~•, nnù be eonv<Jrled, and J shnul(! heal them.' This is spokcn not in r<>glml of those that arc ignorant, but of Chose tbat are very knowing, and yd thcir knowlcdgc and gifL• and precisc holinoss, i\ecording to the lcttcr, is but a stumbliug-block and an oœaslon of tJicir fnll!ng lnto dcath and destruction; aud thus to know ail things Io but to "" iguurnnt of ail thhl!,'<l. "Jlclovcd, the Word of God ls subtile, pure, hlgh, holy, lwnYcnly, powcrful, qu!ckcniug, spiritualizini;; but tl1e lcttcr ls not only dend ln thcw 1\'gards, but killing und de~lmctivc in thnt scnsc formcrly exprcssed. lf you live and die with thi• Word, il will do you no goc.d; I mean the lettcr of the Word, and the grammatico.I, cxtcrnal scnse, which thcsc men call the Word of God. Yct I Wll yc a Il this is nothing, though you have it exactly by be.ut; yct th ls can be of no servke to God nor profit to you; this is but bodily la· bor aud bodlly exercîsc, which profitcth nothhig; thls fs but the flcsh, thls ls but man's lcachlng; the spirit of lt, th., Won! of God, you nevcr yel fourni. nut yet Jet us not •ay, if the spirit he il.li, what do we want with the letter? let us thcn .cast it a.way. No, no; by 110 mcims. The letter is of me Io rci:,'lllntc the flcsh, (\Il(] to prcscrilJe nnn direct the outwnrd ·mnn in bodily cxercfacs: hnt l s:iy it Lcnchcs not, nor fceds nc.t tllc inward man and Lhc hcnrt. Tlrnt mnst hc that brcnd which the F1ithcr gi;·ctti, wtiich romes do\\'n Crom hen\·ctt. 'T:is nuithor l'>los<ll<, nor the knowlcdgc of the whole lnw. nur of ail lhe Scripturcs can givc us thnt brcall; ns Chri~t Sldlht.Johu vJ. 32,33, ~ YerHy, verily, )!oses gaYc !hem not thnt brea<l from l1caven, but my Fnther gi1·cth you the hN.'a<l froru hcnvcn; for the bre1Ld of Go<l is He whicb CDmcth dnwn from hcavc11 and gfrcth llfc to the worlil.' "And yctthfs ls that l nd\·fsc ~tlll; be snrc to maintain the lettcr uudcfilcd, unt.ouchcd, uucormptcd. Let his tmii:,'ltc clcn\'C to and forevcr rot lu lois mouth, thnt. goes about to al1rogate the Jcttcr; fur wflhout Uie lc!l.cr you cnnnot have the spirit." 1 '8cmsual man requires 1mnsiblc olljccts n; symLols of spiritual thinw;."- î"ander· vdde. m Sec Need's Sunday Le8Sons Qll Corl't"J>OmL roees far l~iildl'en.



for more than the sum of the lettcr, and from the unhallowcd gnze of the worldly prudent, to babes it i.s IJromised that wi.sdom shal\ be revealcd C'fott. xi. 25), and to the pure in hcart, that they sl1all see Go<l (Matt. v. 8). "The secret of the Lord is with tbem that fear Him" (Ps. xxv. 14). "I understand more than the ancients, because I keep thy precepts" (Ps. cxix. 100). Let us bring, therefore, to the study of this heavenly doctrine, l)\Jrc <icsircs, serious thonghts, cnlightened rcason, :m humble and sincere faith, an ardent love, a teachable disposition, a pions and uscful life; for "if any man will do his will, he shull know of the docil'inc whethcr it be of God" (John vii. 17). To this must be ml1le<l un intimate acquaintance with the literai sensc of the 'Vord, a knowhlge of the mental faeulties, a devont bnbit of retlection on the diviue 01wrations as cxemplified in the world of nature, nnd on the forim;, q1mlities, mid uses of the objccts with which wc are const.antly snrroundcd, und its general principles become easy of attniument, and evcry step we take is attended with accessions of intelligeuce nn<l deliglit. Even a small degrce of information on this momcntous science is an incxprcssible bleôsing. Tl1e longer and closer it is stLulied, the dearer it becomes to its po.sscssor, bccause it leads him to love the sncred \Yonl of Gotl with increased fervor, to trust rcvcalcd truth with a firmer and daily-increasing confidence, and to rccognizc it as the diyinely-appointed mcans of filling the humble and faithfül sonl to :Lli eternity, with wisdom, love, peacc, and tmutterable joy. It is crnllcss in its onward and upward progression, becat1se the things of the natural world, whieh as outwnrd cffccts correspond to the objccls of the spiritual world, as their inward causes, cxist in indefinite varicty; for, "ail the powers and activities of nature, ail its laws, its ·substances, its forms and changes, are at once the effect and the mirror of s1iiritual cncrgies;" and because, further, man is not only, as we have alrcady said, a 'rnrld in its lcust forrn, ha\·ing within him the various principles to which all things in the crcated universe corre8pond; but, by rcgcneration, he becomes a heaveu in its least form, posses8ing cvcr-growing faculties of eterilal life, corrcspondiug witli all the glorious realities of the heavenly world above. Of such the Lord spe:iks when Ile says, "The kingdom of God is witliin you" ( Luke xvii. 21). The pmctical influence of tliis great doctrine of the Sacred Scrirltnrcs on the heart, the mind and the life, is invaluablc. It brings from the clouds of hcavcn "showers of blessing" (Ez. xxxiv. 26). Its



cordial r<'Ccption, and the iuwrought persuasion of its truth, c:umot füil to ussist iu purif)'ing the lleart and re11ovati11g tlic charactcr. It is the lofüest and most nuthoritn.tive standard of rightcoumess arnl truth. It is an uncrring criter:ion for the detcction of evil ruHl error. It tcars away the fii1m;y veil of indiffore.nce or conceit. It searchcs out our most secret tr:rnsgrœ:;iom. It is "the key of[saving) knowle<lge" (Lukc xi. 52). To you it may be given to know, by its rueans, " the mystcries of ù1e kingdom of heaveu " (Matt. xfü. 11 ). "Ho, evcry one thut thirsteth, corne ye to the waters ; and he thnt hath no money, come ye, buy, anù eat; yea, come buy wine and milk without money and without price. F or as the rain cometl1 down, ami the snow from heiwen, and returncth not tl1ither, but watercth the carth, nud mnketh it bring forth and bnd, that it may givc see<l to the sower, nn<l brcnd t-0 the eatcr: so shall my word be that gocth fortli out of my mou th : it shall uot return unto me void, but it sliall accomplish thut which I plcnse, and it shall prosper in the tlüng whercto I sentit " (I sa. lv. 1, 10-13).m
"'"The \l'ord of the Lord !s comparcd to ln the mcmory, but become•spirltunl byl°'·c, rnln anol rnow cornlng down from hcnnn, ns snow becomcs rain-wnter L)' \vnrmth."IJc<>nu".e by rain ls signilied spiritulll trnth, See À. E. GH : (Jlowe1f1 Mue. TMugllU, de., p. whkh i~ apprnptiated to man, nnd by snow 150. m11ural ~ruth, which is 11.s anow whllst only












11"0< wito yj>U, lawyl'rr 1 /<11" y• luwe, tak<n away Il~ Key of Knowled_.,.,- J,UKI< xi.~~-





C1rno.);OLOGEn. ~ CONCERN1:so TlIE .AaE oi.· THE

WoRLll--ÜEOLOGY 1:-.

CnEAT1o:s-Sm HuMPlUlY



Alrn Ihs W omrs--PLE'.'fAll.Y INSPIRATION oF THt: ·w ouo m· Goo --<.:omu.i:;ro:i;o:i-::-icE, T HE !'UltE BuLJ;; OF ScRIPTU!tE b1n; nrll.ETA'l'IOX.

HE Rible is 1mi,·ersally admittc<l hy the Christian wurld to be a Divine HeYelalion from God to man, au<l considcrcd tl1e standard and test of ail religiou!' truth. No Ohri:stian can he indifforent to ils prccepts or rcgardless of its rcproofs. It is belicved to co11tain the \'cry riches of hcaven, which, if receivcd in the hurnan undcrstnnding and life, will makc man me11tally rich, wise an<l happy. Any work wtiich opens up its sacred contents, or revcals some uuiforro mothod uf interpretation whereby ils heanmly aml truc nteaniup ruay with certniuty be obtainc<l, must be eonsidc1·ed a desidcraturo


* lfl16L publlshed lu London, Jlllle, lli38.



of the highest value, and would tend mnch to the throwing clown of the boa:;;ted stro11gholds of infidelity, as well as to the furthcraucc of the intcrcsts of vital Christianity. The Christian religion undoubtedly surpasses all othcr systems of Theology in the known world. It is purely of a spiritual cast, rdafing to the mind of man, anù to all thosc varicd changes and progressions of' his will and undcrstanding in love and wisdom, which sncces:;ively follow in the course of his progress in the Divine lifo. Thcsc 8tates or changes are, in gcncral, trcated of in Scripture in a Yaricty of plcasing \rnys, in the parables, miracles and narratives; :rnd arc also more particularl.r shadowed forth in the literai history of the Israclitish journcy from Egypt to Canaan. Jt is, therefore, hopccl that the following pages may be found uscful in assistii1g the pious Christian in 11is spiritual contemplations, so that while hi~ cyes arc opcned to a clcitr perception of Divine Truth, in bis bosom may be cnkindled a mo1·e ardent and pure love to Him wl10 is the Autlwr :md Givcr of every rcal blcssing. No contemplative man who carefully studies the hal'monies of nature, can fail of knowing that every object in the crcatecl univcrse is an effect springing from a prior cause; and that sucl1 cause must owe its birth to somc end which the Creator had in view in t!1e wouclerful productions of bis plastic hand. The end, which is the good intendcd by the Creator to the fonns He proposes to ùring into exi:'\tcnce, is the Divine Love; the cause is the Divi11e Wisdom which tl1c love of Deity uses as a mcans to accomplish the designs purposcd ; and the cffocts arc the results of the Divine 011crative Energy in al\ the outwanl forms of which the created uni verse is composcd. Thcre is a rcal conncetion bet\\·ccn the end and its cause, and also betwl't'll the cause and its eftèct. :N"o effoct can possibly exist indcpendcnt of its t•ause, neither can thcrc be any cause in which the end is not inwardly conccalcd. Herc, then, wc learn a most chccring truth: tliat crcation is safo while \Visclom, the Divine cause of its existence, remains, and that it mu~t continue everlasting1y frcsh and impcrishable while t.he LoYc of God, as the end, shall fill it with lifc and vigor. ·w1ien God's love ;;hall be no more, his wi,sdom as the first-begottcn will die, the Divine Spirit will cease to operate, and thcn the heavens and the eurth shall perish. Outward crcation can no more exist independent of' the perpetual operation of God thcrcin, than can the organiwù body of man without the soul or spirit. " God is love," and as that love, He is the



Fathcr of all. God is wisdom,_ t11c " True Light" which, as the tirst emanating sphcrc of the Divine love, is in Seripture called "the only-bcgotten Son.." From the union of these two procecds the Divine operative energy or Spirit, 'd1ich, in giving existence to heaveu and earth, imparts lifc to the wide crc~tion. The true law by which all human and angelic existences arc sustained, is, as cxprcsscd by the only 1Visdo111, or "1Yor<l incarnate," "I _in thcm, and thou in n1e, that they may be made perfect in One." (John xvii. 23.)

Oreation of the World.
In Iaying before tl1e reader the system which, in ail cases, will g ive a faithful and correct interpretation of IIoly Scripture, we propose to commence with the creation of the world, and to show that this great work, in its beginning, progression and eompletiou, shadowcd forth the love, wisdom and power of th4"! Creator ; and that all the abjects in Nature are so formed, as to be either r emotely or prox.imutcly connected with God, the supreme First Cause. This eonncction ncccssarily rcnders the LQrd's prcscncc in the creatcd universe, full, perfect and complcte; and hence ariae the attributes ascribed to the Divine Being, of omnipresence, omniscience and omnipotence. By love, as the end or intention of creation, God is 11resent in a il; by wisdom, He knoweth all; and by his operative influence, H e i;; puwcrful in all. 1Yithout his goodncss, wisdorn and power, nothiug could exist. God is, undoubtcdly, the A1.L in all. If, thon, God llc prcscnt in his works as their actual existence evidcntly provcs, it follows that there must be some close resemblance, afünity and correspondence betwccn Him and them, and that a Divine influx of lifc, flowing moment arily from Him into tl1em, su11ports and sustaim; the whole. This affinity not only exists bet\\·een God m1d hi~ works generally, but there is also a correspondence betwcen ail parts ·of his works from the highest to the lowest. All creation is one grand chain harmoniously fitted and linkcd togcthcr by the wisdom of Him who cmmot err. "\Vho, theu, ean apprcheu<l danger, whilc reason, enlightenec l by revclation, declarcs the first link of that chain to be in the hand of God ? Assuming, for the pre..~ent, this thcory to be correct, we must sco tl111t a right understanding of this corresponding connection is e~8en­ tially necessary to a just knowledge of the works of God; and thut which opens to the mirnl truc vicws of his works, must correctly ex plain tl1e wonders of II1s 'VORD.




\\'ith respect to the creatio11 of the worl<l, wc mny Lruly s:~y, it i~ rnst and profound a subjcct that the mind secms lost in wondcr, 1 uH l trembles at the thought of cntering upon an inquiry into that whirh, hy an almost,impenetrnblc Yeil of mystcry, sccnts to lie bill from human ken. \Ye cnnnot i!!upposc that man, whosc f:tcultics and iutcllectual powers arc finito, and consequcntly limited, can, how·
cver ardent he may be in scnrch of truth, arrive at a füll und pcrfect k nowlcdge of ail the minufüc, those singubrs and particulars which enter into an<l 111ake up the fu lness of crcntion's mig hty work: a kin<l of gcnernl knowledge co11ccrni11g it, is a ll wc can expcct. In looking at crCtllion rui n wholc, ire ùehoh1 hcaut~-, reguhtrity, and ur<ler; wc sec how C<lCh part performs its ap110inte<l u:ic, nnd that the wholc, hy the action of its se,·cral parts, is maintniut.o<l entire, froe from :my appeurance of dissolution, :md exhibiting to the hchokler not the slightest symptoms of <lecny. '1110 same sun which "in the beginning" warmcrl nn<l cnlightenc<l our enrth, shines s till npon it with unabiite<l vigor and power; the moon which then shonc with its horrowed light, still rides majestically in tllC blue.itrcl1ed sky; the r nin still descends to wate r our thirsty plnin~. to fertifüe our fields, to make the earth yield hcr increase, for t he purposc of atfor!ling to man in all gencrntions, "sccd to the sowcr an<l brca<l to the enter." llcaYen's brccies still continue to kiss the mountains, and to impart ltcA.lth, vigor und prolification to ani111al nnd wgetablc lifc. Evcry animal is furnishc<l with a n or ganize<l body e xactly a<laptctl to the clement in which it lives. In fact, ail crcation sccms to be constantly ~i nging one tmivcrsal song of praisc, that "God is gootl to ail, a11d his tender rnercics are over all his works." Thcsc phenomcna, with tcn thousancl othcrs that might hc namcd if ncces.«:try, but wh ich the reader is left to supply for himself, :ire nmong the strongcst evidenccs of contrivu11cc ami desig n. Thcso agnin lead urn1ucstionahly to the acknowledgmcut of :i D esigner whom we call tl1e Great I~irst Cause, the omniprcsent, omnkcient,

aml imurntable God.

No wisc man cnn find the least difficulty in attl·ibuting the crcaliou of the mat.crial world to au Ahnighty Hund-to that han<l which rcccivcd (if we may so speak) its impctus from the purest love, and wns directc<l by infinite wisclom; and as \\'C must consider the Divine Being t o be a God of the most pcrfect order, it follow:; that creation, epringing from Hirn, mu~t he vicwe<l as an orderly, prog rr!'Sive an<l c have no hcsitation i11 1mying, fünt if creation g rudual work.




ever admit of a rational and satisfactory explanation, it must be in agreement witl1 the strictest princi1Jles of truc philosophical aml scicntific ku°'dcdgc. A lthough upon the creation of the world much has bccn writtcn by divines, philosophers and poets, yet but little that has yct appeared, lias becn i;atis:fiwtory. The suùject, strictly spcaking, is not theologicnl, but purely one of philosophical and scientific rcscarch. It is rnnv prctty genemlly acknowledged by the most able and lenrned divines, that the füst chaptcrs of Gcncsis :1re an allegory, and that they COii· tain not liternl history, but spiritual and divinll 8ubjects rednced to a histoi-ical form. Literai history, in which, nevertheles.<;, are containccl spiritual truths rclating to the church of God, heaven and the soul of man, commences ut the twclfth chapter of Genesis, with the call of Abraham. It was not only the opinion of nrnny of the ancient fathers of the chmch, that the llrst chapters of Genc~is werc 1nittcn in an allcgorieal style, but that the whole 'IVord of God, eomprehending the Law, the l'rophets, the Psalm~, the Gospels and Apocalyp!!c, were so written as to contain witl1in the literai ami historical sense, thosc divine and spiritual subjects which relate to the clrnrch of tlie Lord, and to the 11rogressive states of affection, thought and life of man; and that they wcre to be interpretetl, not after a canml, bnt after a spiritual manncr, This vicw of these ancient füthers hus been kept alive in the church by the ablcst and hest theological writcrs in every age do\l'n to the prcsent. This we shall prove by a few extrncts f'rom their writings as we procced.

Gmtradictory Views of Ghronologers.
In Genesis i. 1, we rend," In the bcginning God created the hcavcm and the enrth." From thi;1 passage, viewing it in the most literai sen&) pos~ihle, we learn not when God m·eated the world, but that He clic! create it in the beginrl'Ïng. From what particular date wc are to rcckon the begiwâng of its existence, or what is its rcal age, the Word of God givcs no information whatevcr, and science will never be able to diseover. The putting of date!! to the Bible in respect to the era of creation, reckoning from the year one, and thus making the prescnt age of our globe about six thou~and years, is altogether gratuitou;; and arbitrary: it enùeavors unwisely to mix religions with physical truth, and by mingling together what should be kept separate, the miud beeomcs bcwildcred in its contemplation of both. By giving-to tlie world nu arbitmry age of about six thousand years, many bave



supposcd the science of Gcology t-0 be opposed to Revelation, and that it altogethcr contradicts the l\fosaic account of crcation. If it were not that many pious and intelligent Christians have felt their minds disturbed at this supposition, we should have passed it by unnoticed, smiling at the weakne&S that could generate the idca. Chronologers enumerate 132 contrary opinions concerning the age of the world (a proof this, that they know nothing aboutit) , but in all thcsc, there are none who reckon more than 7,000, or less than 3,700 ycars from the creation to the birth of Christ, making a difforcncc in these calculations of no lee.s a period than 3,300 ycars. The general opinion, howevcr, fixes the birth of Christ in the four thousandth ycar of the worl<l, and reckoning nearly 2,000 from that cvent, makes its present age about 6,000 years ; but the reasons on which these opinions arc founded, are exceedingly varions, all arbitrary, and grounded in c01tiecture. The calculation of the age of the world made by the Hindoos in their religious belief, is ponderous when compared with this. Their religion troches them to recôgnize the existence of one supreme invisible Creator, the Ruler of the universe, whom they call BRAJT]l(A. 'l'hey likewise acknowlcdge two other deities, one of whom is V1~n~u, the Prcscrvcr, and the other SIVA, the Destroyer. The deity Vishnu, as preserver, is declarcd to have made many appearances in the world, and the grcat ends of Providence arc said to have been accornplished by the incarnations of this deity. According to this rcligio11, there have been nine incarnations of Vishnu, and one more yet to come, ail of which make up the period of 4,320,000 yeurs, making a <liffercnce l)Ct\YCcn their age of the world and ours of only 4,314,000 years. Allowing the Hindoo theology with its idlc ceremonies to be fülse and fühulous, yct these superstitious people have, perhaps, n~ much ground for their long <late as we have for our short one. Hevelatiun i~ silcnt about the age of the worhl; and when that is silcut, it is a mark of wisdom in us to be silcnt too, arnl not aim to be wise abuve what i<> writttm. Thcse statement.s, differing wi<lely as thcy du, provc the füct, thnt auy attempt to fix the cra of creation originate;; in folly and conjecture.

Geology in Harmony witl1 SerizJture.
Professor Sedgwick, in his "Discourse on the Studics of the Uni· versity" (p. 149), tells us, the geologist pro\'es by incontrovertihle eviùcuce of pl1ysical phellomcna, that" tl1crc wcrc former conilitfous of



our plnnct separated from cach othcr hy vnst intervals of thne, ùuring wliich man and the other crcaturcs of his own date had not bccn cu.llcd iuto bcing. P eriods such as thesc bclong not, therefore, to the moral hist.ory of our race ; and corne neither withiu the letter uor the !lpirit of Hevelation. Dctwccn the first cr eation of the curth uud thaL dny in whic11 it please<l God to place man upon it, who shnll d:uc to dcfine the inter va.l? On this quC8tion Script11re is silenL; but that silence destroys not the mcaning of those physical monuments of bis power that God bas put before our cycs, giving us nt the same time füculties whereby we muy inLerprct them and comprel1end their mcaning." This extrnct contains so much of truth that it cannot, wc think, be dispro,· ecl. Dut some ma.y ask: Is geology, thon, to ùe nllowe<l to coutr11di<'t the l\Iosaic account of crcation, and to disprove th<l date reveale<l to :ifoses? 'Ve answcl', that geology can ncithcr contradict nor d is1Jrove what the Scripture never statcs. The most literai account of crcntion givcn by Moses is, "In the beginning God crcatcd the hcaven 11n1l the carth;" this is all, witl1out fi xing any time. Geology doeii not contradict this, but mu.i.ntains it, and Ly la.borious a nd pru.iscworthy examination.s of physical phenomena, provcs the existence of a DidnCl Architcct, nnd ascribes to Ilim the work "in the beginnin!t·" R cvelation gh·es no <late: WE l1ave made this, and having so done, we find füult with geology becausc it ha8 sought 011t and exposed our crrora. The poet Cowper was dcceived in this; for ho, supposing that God ha<l rcvealed to i\foscs creation's date, aims a blow at Gcology. In his poem entitle<l " The Task," hc says"Some drill and bore The soliù earth, and from the strata there :Extract a register, by wliich we learn That He who made it, and revcal'd it~ date
To :Mo.;es, was mistaken in i~ age.''

H ere the worthy poet was certa.inly mistnken in his conclusions; for wltcre in Revelntion do wc füul th Cl date r cvealcd to MoS<'s? Kothiog of the kind is g ivco in nny part of t hCl sacre<l Volume. H e wn8, in this instance, le<l astrny by his muse-the license of pocts is pro\'crhial; but still truth is not to he sacrificed at the shrine of poctical liœn~c. The laborious and incontro,·ertible proofs of the earth's g rcut antiqnily givcn hy the scie nce of geology, are not to be swept :l\1 ay h y a singlll Jash of n poet's peu.



From our divinity authors, nothing bas yct appcarcd on the crca· tion t.hat is worth notice. Tl1ey simply state that God created the world out of nothing: but, unfortunately for them, of this creation ont of nothing the Script.ures nevcr ~pcak. They off'er no rcmark~ ten<ling rationally to illustr:ite the ordcrly progression of crcation'B work. füshop Hall, in commenting on Gen. i. 1,-" In the bcginuing God crcatcd the heaven and the earth,"-says: "In the hcginuing of time, God-the Father, Son und Roly Ghost-rnadc, (Jf nothing, the whole great and goodly frame of the world, both the hcavcn and the carth, and the other elemcnts, with ail the fürniturc and inhabitants of thcm ail." Certainly tlie good bishop, in this comment, has not overloaded our minds with information, 1rith subjccts too high for us. Had he said nothing, we sbould have becn quite as wise. To form just vicws of the crcation of this world, it is esseutially cxpcdicnt to kcep the mind fixed upon one supreme Being, wühont whose love, wisdom, and power, nothing could be or cxist. \Vc must also view the Almighty as a single Divine Bcing, as a God of tl1e most perfect order, producing every thing progressivcly, according to the laws of Divine \Visdom. God, in his pro\'idence, to encourage us in the pursuit of truth, has not, in so many words, r1;vcaled in tl1c Book of inspiration lww the world was crcatcd; IJut in placing ns upon ihc globe on which we live, and surrounding us with all tl1c beau tics and wonders of creation, IIe has richlyendowed us with rcason, with capacious powcrs and faculties of rnind, by the cxcrcisc of which (the grcat book of crcation being always prcscnt) we may, by patient study and careful examination, truciug up ultimate effects through a long clmin of instrumental causes, :finally arrive at somc degrcc of Jrnowlcdgc as to the origin and progressive work of creatiou; so that wc may be able to provc to dcmonstration that, "In tl1e bcginning God creatc<l tl1c hca ven and the earth." By attributing to the Alrnighty the glory of this mighty work, we can take up the lunguagc of the Psalmist and say: "He hath laid the fouudations of the earth, that it shall not be rcmoved for ever" (Ps. civ. 5). "The hea;·ens dcclare the glory of God, and the firmament showeth his handy work" (Ps. xix. l ). If in this investigation we exercise our rca.~on, God's best and noblest gift (for without it even irnmort:ility would be a blnnk), we ~hall hc able to sec clcarly wl1crc the worh1ling bnl gropes in the dark. Our reuson rnn~t be sacriliccd to GULi, that is, not dcstroyed,



buL dedicated and con~ccrated to his service, which is the mc:ming ~f "to s1wrificc." If this be donc faifüfolly, wc shall walk in the truc light- we shall enjoy a morning without clouds, and our sm1 shall ne-ver go down.

The S un the Tnslrumental C ause



Henson teachcs that the globe npon whiC'h we live is eutirdy <lepcn<lllut for all its nourishment and support upon the central sun in the system. If the snn were rcmoved, our globe wouhl instnntly cense to be, animal m1d vcgctable life would pcrish, and all wonld be rc<lucc<l to n noncnity. The enrth would be deprived of all hent and llg bt, it would im;tamly Jose its motion,' and destruction woul<l follow; for it only lives white it rnovcs. In tlle bountled space of t his uni\•ersc large bodk>s revolvc, which, perforruing their circuits round the sun as a co111mon <'e ntre, grow to thcir rcspecth·e ages. The sun, like un anxions parent, regards thése revolving glohcs no oth<.'rwise thnn ns his own off~pring which have att:i.incù to a con~klcralilc matudty ; for be contiuually consnlts thcir general and panicular int<.'r <.'S ts ; and ultho11gh they a.re <listant, he neœr fails to cxcrcise ov<.'r tlwm hi.s care and parental protection, sincc by 11is rays l1e is, as it wcr c, prcsent in hi:; pro>isions for them ; he cherishes them with the wurmth issuing from his immense bosom; he adorns t.hcir bodies an•l members every yenr '':ith a most beautifül clothing; he nouri~hcs
1 lu a work cntltlc< l .. The ~acre<l History 1c f the enrth, lt couic\ oc~ur na well wlllwul a of th(!' \\'orh.1,', by Sharuu Turne r, nmong so1ar orb Mi wlth one. The ntutull.l <'in·nit ma.uy ex<'<'llmt thing. are ..,me Jn%t ex · o r yenr, \\lllCh is tl1e ~omplet.ed orbit of Ulc l1111>r clh>lll')' &.lhl unphilo.o1~1l~J ,t&tc1uc11ts_ ear<.h rou nd thfR luminar y, ooul<l 11ot take l n vol. 1., l•I'· S, 9, the o.utl•Jt "'lys: ·•Il wtJ.S pla.co w!Lbout 1\ sun ; but a d•)' r~qnire• n earl)' 6,t~) ycars a.go, ncc:•ordingto thcchro· the existcn("e n.ud rcvoh ·ing m otfon Q( the n ol<ogy of the llebrew i-<rripturc, U1 a t it Cl\rth a l one." Vol. 1., p.18. To rulk of d•r• plcn,e<\ the Alm!i;h!y to d ctcrmi11e ou the without n. s un is snruly not tlin t l<fn •l of creM!o 11 i)f thccarth whieh we iu h nbit. 'J'he philûtiophy w hich wlll gain ma11y!l<lvooatcs se.crPù h t.<t.ocy of the worlù fa bnilt 011 the 1ln the n lneteenth cemury. F ut we nsk, g ran1l truth ~xrore.'..'€<1 in the Or~I ' """' o r What i• the ~at1sc of the cnrth's rotation? the l'~nto.tcn<h - In the bC!(illning Go<I To t his 011re.11tho rrcplicsnn<l S11y•, " rhpdcs (Rlohim) t're&teti the hcnvcms and the bave no t fliS<"O\~ererl, nor can rittif>llJ\l t•onea rtb." li is a pity tills w r iWr •ll<l nut J>rû- jerture L"fgu llny re&.. <;On for the <lin rnnl rortnre ~hl\l•ter a nd verse for tbi' " nenrl7 1.< tlnn of the ca.rU1, exœpt the 1;<>m11111ndin<; (.,IM JO yearA R.gO." And wtth r<''l"-'<'t t.o t he wlll and exc~d power of tbe Cn!ntor ." P. 11 hraf..C, "ru tlle beginuiug," nooue ('a.n Ml C'· m. To U1 is it i~ replied, that a ll H fe n.wl cc••fullr com c ncl th nt the word " be<ril1- m otio t1 n~ (JJ•i ma rily)ofthe will nnd p.>wc·r
uir1g" m cttns -OJK)O yea.TS ngr.. Agaln thi~ of the CrlltLtor ; but neverthek 8A lt f~ bltb·

nnthùr says, "Our earthly dAy i~ Urnt Sptl<'P oftime ln whlcl1 onr gloùc turns pletely roun d. This nctlon or tlme, wbid1 we ~ubtlivîtlc juto twtmty· fonr ])R'fl"" or hnn,.., ol<IC' f>al olepeucl upon the •un, nor Mll'e trom il. A.s it is only tm entlre roll\Uon

"""" corn-

mit Led Io ~hl' Ch r i•tlan philoOOJ>hCr, thnt the rotatory mr>t lon of the RIU\ is the l11strn· mcnt.11! r11n•e " ' t he eil.rth'. motlou . ~ nd t lmt if it WC'~ flOS'\ihle to f(top Lhc roru\cr, t.hW: lalkr woulit in~tantly cœ.se.



he promotes the their inhabitants with a perpetual supply of food life of all things, and enlightens them with his luminous radiance.
Since the sun thus executes all the functions of parental duty, it follows from the connection and tenor of causes, that if we are desir
ous to unfold the history of the earth from her earliest infancy, and examine her from her origin, we must have recourse to the sun
himself; for every effect is a continuity of causes from the first cause and the cause by which anything subsists is continued to the cause by



subsistence being a kind of perpetual existence. exists the above train of reasoning, we now come at this conclusion: that as the earth receives all its nourishment from the sun as a parent,


and requires his perpetual presence to keep it in being, it is manifest that it must have burst forth from him as from a fruitful w^omb and that the sun, being a created instrument in the hand of the Divine

therefore to be regarded as the instrumental cause, origin

and parent of this our w orld.

We must,

then, view the sun as the instrumental cause of the crea

tion of this world.

Here the

materialist stops his inquiry, attributing

But everything to what he calls Nature, and worships this as God. must in their make no must Christians carefully way they halting The sun could no more create itself trace effects up to their cause.
than could the earth.


We must ascertain the origin of the natural and to do this, we must look through it to the spiritual world of causes, and finally to the Lord himself as the Fountain of life and In this stage of the inquiry, Revelation alone can afford us being.
the required assistance. In the Sacred Scripture,




called a Sun,

and the Sun

a Sun which never goes It is a truth that an everlasting light (Isa. Ix. 19). Jehovah God is the great First Cause and common Centre of all His love is the fount of life, and his wisdom, as the first things.
of righteousness
& t


or becomes dim, but



emanating sphere or brightness of that love, may be considered as the Divine Sun of the eternal world, whose creative rays of heat and light, or love and wisdom in union, fill the heavens with glory, and the Now to connect the created universe angels with joy and gladness. First the Cause God as with (for without this connection creation would expire), we must view the sun of this natural world as a created to receive and receptacle, formed by the Divine Wisdom, and adapted
concentrate the creative rays of the

Sun of




produced an intensity of heat, which


be termed



a body of PURE FIRE, or the sun of our solar system. This reception and concentration of the creative rays of the Divine Sun, pro<iuces the rotatory motion of the natural sun upon its own axis, by whicl1 light. and heat are wi<lely dispensed around. This, ngain, giycs ail the motion to the planctary orhs in our system, producing tl1e chant,res and vicis8itudcs in the diurnal motion of morning, meridian, eveniug . :md night, as well ns thœe of the annual motion round the sun, of the four seasons, spring, summer, auturnn and winter. Thus wc may sec that the snn of our world derives its heat and light from being perpetually operated upon by the Sun of the eternul world; and that if the conncction su bsisting between them were to be broken or ioterrupted, the suo would instantly lose all its vigoro11s priuciple.s of heat and light, and the conseq11ence would be, the total 1lestruction of that planetary system of which the sun is the ccmtrc. 'Ve may safely subscribe to the statement alrcady made, that, however long the chain of causes ancl eflècts may be, the first link of that chain is in the hand of God. Stability, firrnncss und duration are gfren to everything, because God is the ALL in al!. There is, thcn, no doubt but that this our globe is an outbirth or offspring of the sun, and thut it performed t.housands of rovolutions round its parent before it became fit for the habitation of animais and lastly of mu~.

Sir Humphry Davy's View.
Sir Humphry Davy, a philosopher to whom the world is greatly indebted, says: " The globe in the first state in which the imagination can venture to consider it, a1ipears to have bcen a. fluid mass, wîth an immense atrnosphere revolving in space round the sun. By its cooling, a portion of its atmosphere was probably condonse(i into water, whicl1 occupied a part of its surface. In this state, no forms of life sucl1 as now bclong to our worJ.1, could have inhabited it. The crystalline rocks, called by goologists primary rocks, and which contain no vestiges of a former order of things, werc the rcsult of the first consolidation on its surface. Upon the further cooling, the water which more or less had covered it, contracted, depositions took place; shcll-fish and coral iusects werc crcated, and began thcir labors; islands ap]Jeared in the midst of the ocean, raiscd from the deep by the }Jroductive cncrgics of millions of zoophytes. These islands becamc covered with vcgetahles fitted to bear a high temperat11re. The submarinc rocks of these new formations of land hccarne covereù with nquutic vcgetahlcs, on which


Tlll:J 10•,'l' OF KNOWLEDCB.

varions species of s hcll-fish and common fish es found tlteir n ouri.t>hment. As the t empernture of the globe hecnmc lowcr, speeics of the oviparous reptiles appcn.r to have bcen crcuted to inhabit it ; o.nd the turtle, crocodile, and various gigantic auirnals seem to lui\'e haunted the bays and waters of the primitive lands. " llut in this state of tbing;s, there appears to l1ani been no ordcr of e\·cuts similar to the prcscnt. J mmcnsc volcanic explosions :seem to ha\'c taken pla(!e, accompanioo by clevations und de1wessions of the eurth'~ surface, 1 1r01lucing mouutains, hills awJ valleys, au<l enusing n ew and cxtcnsi \'e depositions from the pri10iti ve ocean. Tl1e remnins of living bcings, plants, fühcs, birds and reptiles, arc fouu<l in the stratn of rocks which arc the monumental evi<lenccs of tbcse changes. When t hese revolntions became Jess frcquent, and the globe b('Camc still more coolcd, nu<l inequalities of tcmperatnrc wcre establishcd by means of the mo1 m tain ehains, mure perfcet animals became its in habitants, somc of which have n ow hccome extinct. Five succoseivc races of plnnts and four of nnirnals, appear to h ave bcen crcated n.n<l swept away by the physieal revolntions of the globe, befurc the system of things bccame so perman ent as to fit the worlù for man. In none of' the:>e formations, whether callc<l sccond:iry, tertiary or dihn·ial, luwe the fo"sil romains of mnn or any of his works heeu disco,·ct·ell. At la.st ii1n.n was creatcd ; and since that perio<l there has been Iittle altcra· tion in tlie physical circumstanccs of our globe."•

C<mncction bctwcen the Creator and Ids ll'Orks.
In the orderly progrœsion of creation, e\·crytl1ing appe:ns to be11; the imprcs,i of a Dfrinc )1:md. Evcry stage in creation's work l'Ccms to lcad on to t.he cn!l in vicw-thc crcat.ion of man, the image n.ncl likene::-s of his l\f'nker, who by the gift. of rcasou coul<l contNnplate the living scenc of bcirntics around him, co11l1l examine the qualities aiul properties of the i1hy8ical phcnomena whieh met his \\Otuk•ring cyes; and, looking tltrough these, conld npcn his grntcful hC'a rt, and scnd fimb h is hreath of pruisc to Him who i.;; the Author 1\nd ~up­ porter of the whole. H e could oliservc that the Divine love and wi~do111, which !1i~pcnsed lifo and blcs~ing arourHl, radinte ctcrrndly from the Divine prc8ence. Feeling 1111 increasc of plca;:.urC' in such clc•·atcrl contemplation~, he rnigl1t take up the limgmi,u:e of the
t~ n work cnlitlcd, "Consoli•tions i n Trn\"cl, u r, The Last Pay~ of a Phll060phcr,r p ni;cs 121-127.


psalrnist and say, "As the hart panteth aftcr the water brooks, so pantcth rny soul after thee, 0 God. )ly sonl thirstcth for God, for the living Gocl." (Ps. xlii. 1, 2.) No person can contemplate crcation, with allïts wonders and beauties, without acknow]cdgiug that the po,rnr, wisdom and gooduess of Go<l are eminently <lis1ilayed therein. Wlrnt power short of omnipotent, coulcl fill the blue ethcreul spacc with myriads of su us, stars and plnnets, appearîng more brilliant tlrnn polishc<l sphcrcs of gohl und ~il ver? What wisdom, not pcrfoct and infini te, could arrange thesc ut immense distances froru ca!'h otLer, em1 ld orùer and direet their respective courses, and yet so adapt them hy a corrcspondîug eonncctiun, as to fonu 011e gruud wholc; all the parts of wliieh are in rapid motion, yet calm, rcgnlar and harmonious; învuriahly keeping the patl1s prescribed to thcm :-thcse plancrnry orbs, again, being worlds pcoplcd with myriads of intelligent heiugs formcd for cudlcss progrc~~ion in perfection and fclicity? Who can think of tl1ese things, und not ncknowledge tlrnt infinitc wisdom Ï::! di,;played therein? .And who can doubt of God's goodnes.s in creatioIJ, when he scci:; thut cvcry li\·ing thing is giftcd with an organic structure, exnctly 11dnpted to the situntion in whieh it lives, to the means of obtaining food, to the method of dcfending itself frorn danger, and to tlie enjoyment of its cxi:>tencc? The wants of animal lifo are abnrnlantly su11plied to the numerous families of living creaturcs, and with as much regularity and certainty as if God had but one to attencl to. Thcsc thint,'l! can spcak no othcr lunguuge thnn that of inspiration, which, with a power no rational rnind can or would wish to disprove, prodaims tlrnt" G()(l is gootl to all, and his tender mcrcics arc O\'er nll his works ! " That. man must be more than hlind, who, if he rdlect on crcution at ull, cannot di.scover tl1e power, wisdom, and goodness of God displayed thcrcin. Viewing crcàtion's mighty work in this way, wc at once discovcr an inrlissolu ble connection existing bct\H:en the Creator and the created; the latter requiring tl1c pcrpctual prcscnce and operation of the former to pcrpctuute its exÎ.>tcnce. Crcntion is not only an outbirth frorn Deity, hnt it at the same time exhibits, in all its multifarious forrns, a faithful image of IIim, the councction bcing so strong aml ccrtai1~ bct1rccn God and his worh, that ail outmird olijects, as ellects, are to be viewed as so rn:my types, rcpresentations and symbolic cmhlcms, which constnntly exhibit allfl shadow forth the uttributcs, the goodness, tl1e perfections nud wisdom of t.l1e great. Fir~t



CILlt~e. There is, througliout al! nature, n close connection bctwccn the essence of a thing anù its form; the essence hcing the spirit, 11oul or lifo, and the form the external rnanifesttltion; hencc the forms of things exhibit to the intellectual eye of man the trnc quality of the c<>sences which respectively gtwe them birth ; and to produce prc· ci,,ion and cxactncss, both of distinction and fiescription, n:lmCS wcrc also n.nciently givcn to mark and express the respeetive qualitics of the t hings name<l. Tf, thcn, the life or opemtivc Spirit of Ood must consfantly flow into ttll creation, that it may be kept in existe11ce, in activity an<l growth, by which it can alone pcrfonn the uses it was cvidently designed; it follows, that, as it is animated by the Spirit of Go1l, imd upheld by his power, it must reffect back au image of Him, and show fürth in all its successi\·e productions, t he universality of his power and goo<l11css. Tlrn creittcd univcrsc may very propcrly ho termc<l a living temple, in which the living God delights to dwell, filling every part thereof with the breath of life; whilc each object, in the cnjoy· ment of inrlividual existence, sccrns to sing for joy, and b::i.sk in the s1111shillc of plensure. l t is certain that. we "cannot f,'O where uni· vcrsal love smiles not around ! " If the Yiew we have thus taken of creation be correct, ( of whieh a rational do11bt can hardly be supposecl)-ifthe goodncss, wisdom nud power of God are felt and seen in his works--if the whole, as a type, reflccts a faint image of th e Divine perfections; and if all outward obje:cts are corresponding cmblems of the affections, thought.s an<l powers of' the human mind, thereùy conneeting the material world with mnn, and by and through man with the Creator, thcn ,,.e must clearly observe an unhrokcn conncction, a relationship and corrc· sponclence betwccn aU creation and the omnipotent One " ·h o pro<luccd f1.ncl still supports t he whole. This view will lead us to a right u!lfler· standing of t he reasoning of Rt. Paul, who, in ad<lressing the R omans, 8a~·s : "The invisible t hingil of I-fün from the creation of the worlcl arc clenrly sccn , bcing uu clcrstood hy tho things that aro mn<le, evcn hi.; ctcrual power and Go<lhcad; so that t}1ey nrc without excu~c." ( Rom. i. 20.) The iniiûble things of Oocl arc certa.in1y tl1c opera· tions of his cre:ttivc power and goodn0's. Thesc arc ns the essenc('s which givc birth nnd being to all external forms, while the forms in their orclcr, quality and appearam. -e, mnkc the invisible csscnccs tu ho intellectunlly sœu an1l unrlcrst,ood. If thosc propertics whicl1 relate to the cternal powe.. anrl Godhcml arc to be understood by the



things that are made, thcn it follows that crcation is a ropresentative image of the Divine Being, and that his unity, goodncs:c>, power and wisdom are exhibited in all its part.<>. As Nature is the orderly production of God, and as a conncction exllits lictlrnen the Lord and his \\' Orks, so it is rensonablc to conclmle tlmt a similnr law of corrcsponding relation.ship nrnst be observed betwe.en Him and his \\'ord of Uevelation. The wisdom of God must be containcd in thosc sacred writings which arc emphatically denorntnatc<l the "'01w, and as such, must treat primarily of the spirit.li al crention of man; tliat is, of the renovation of his miml, by which he is preparcd for an ctcrnal statc of oxktcuce, and not merely of ihe outward things of nature, only so far as they arc mcntioucd as corrcsponding cmblerns to rcpresent those affections, thoughts a11d states of life, with their E ucccssive variations and changes which take place in nian, while in him the regenerating 11roccss is going on.

Renary Inspiration o f the Word of God.
The Bible is generally aeknowledged by Christians to be the W ortl of God; but this acknowledgrnent is grounded more in authurity thun in any internai conviction of the fact. "\Vhat a1)pears to be wanting is proof; but how is this to be givcn? Not l)y an appeal to the opinions of' thosc who lived in ancicnt timcs-not by producing n Joug füt of vcncrablc nnmes of men who lived in the days of ot her yeurs, with their Eentiments attached; for such 1t list could prove nothing hut the opinions of those whose namcs it containcd. If tlie Bible be the W ord of God, it must contain \YÎthin itself the certain evidcnccs of that fact; and that it does con tain the.se, we hopc clcarly to demonstratc by many exnmples. Any book acknowledged to be the W ord of God, must be writron by his imme<liate dictation ; for wlmt is the dictation of any being, but his word, will and command? And as every humnn wriiing contains, upon the subjcct trcatcd of, the mind and spirit of the writcr, so th ose, Scripturcs whieh Lc..'lr the high tille of the "\Vord of God," must contain the Divine mind, spirit and will. They muEt have bccn liictated hy the Spirit of God to the persons who were avpointed to write them, and of course writtcn by a plcuary ins1üration. The snbject.8, thcrcforc, of Euch a writtcn 'Vonl must be lofty, such as arc worthy a Divine Being, and mlapte<l to gui rie man in ail bis journey through the vicissitudes of this trnnsitory sccnc of Lhings, and to bring lüm in safety to the lrnven of his ~ppointed rcst.
27 *


The 'Vord ofGod, likc his 'rorks in out.wanl crcation, must be Ornl pcrfcct harmonious whole; a rcgularly connectcd chnin of enrl, causo and cffoct must be obscryed to pcrvailc cach. As creation was procluced by regular ln.ws according to the Divine will and plcasuro, in which God himself is const:mtly pre.;;ent to sustain and u phold, prevcnting thereby auy of its parts from <lilapidation or di;,;nsc; so hi~ W ord, which is a rcYelation of his will to hi:; ::;outient crcaturcs, must also \Je produced in a similar regular onlcr, ami must contain, withiu its liternl sensc, the stores of Divine wisdom, goodness and povrnr, in which the Lord hi1nself is so essentially pref>cnt by hi;i, Spirit, that not "one jot or tittle" of the Divine lnw cun evcr fnil. It is henœ certain that thosc Scl'iptures which arc the \V 01rn, are of pleuary inspiration, bccausc writt.en by Divine dictation throughout: if not so writtcn, thcy arc not the ord of Gofl. St. Paul, in bis epistle to Timothy, says: "All Scripturc is given hy impiration of God, and is profita,blc for délctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in rightcousncss: thut the man of God may be pcrfect, throughly furuished unto al! good works." (2 Tim. iii. rn, 17.) These expressions clearly state that the whole of the perfcctly inspired Scripturc, is givcn to insure the growth and perfection of the human chamcter-to enlighten the understanding and purify the will; thus, by maldng man wiser and bettcr, to fit him for the enjoyrnent of angclic perfection. The Greek single word hcrc rendercd by five, "given hy inspiration of God," is, rcspccting the plcnnry inspiration of Scripture, excecdingly strong and expressive. The word is füorrvwcroç ( 'l'hcopneu.stos); and being cornpounded of Oeoç. God, awl rrmJ, to brcathe, litcrally me:rns God-breallwd. "All Script.ure God-breathed," is therefore profilable for doctrine, reproof :md corrcction.3 The phrase" all Scripture," comprehends ail those books called the Law and tl1c l'rophct8, including the Psnlms. Thcsc arc also stylcd the Law and the Testimony, to which the Lorcl alluded whcn, aftcr his rcsurrection, He said to lü~ 1lisciplcs: "Ali tl1i11gs 111ust be fulfillcd which arc wriLtcn in the bw of l\foses, and in the Prophcts, ami in tlic Psalms cunccrning me." (Luke xxiv. 4-i.) Arnong ten thousand privileges cnjoycd in the t~ue spiritual church


a The original of this veIW does not stnte that ALL ~cripture is ~i\·en by i11splratlon; for cvery writin).( is scripture. Sorne writini,>S, that are eYcn bound up wllh our com· mou Bibles. arc not admitlcd to be canoni· cal, bccause not giYen by inspiration; and

yct \.hey h1we had, an(! still cont!mie to hiive, tbeir n>e in the churl'h. What tho v<>rse expres•IY 8tatc~ is, th•tt "all 8eripture God-breathcd," or "ghell by lu•plr11t1011," i.~ profiti.ble, etc.



of Christ, is one which may truly be terme<l the int.roductory menns of obtuining ull the re8t; without which, a correct knowle<lge of the Word of God throughout cannot be fülly obtaincd. Nothing surdy can contribute more to the furthcrance of the interests of vitnl religion, or to the wide extension of thcological truth, tlrnn to point out a mcthrnl by \\'hich the \Vord of God eau be faitl1fully an<l harmoniously interpreted-by which the sacred cabinet c:m be unlockcd mul its hca venly trensu res explored, It is su rely reasonable to suppos'' tlrnt, as there is a certain orderly and progœssivc rnethod to be carefully pursued in ohtaiuiug correct scienWic and philosophieal knowlcdgc, and that any <leviatiou from the gencral rule must involve ns in doul1t and crror; so there must be one general :mcl uniforrn system to be pursued in the search of spiritual or religions truth, a rlcviution from which must cqually involve us in ignorance, doubt aud error. "rhcn wc t.akc a vicw of the prescnt state of the Christian world, aud observe that doctrines as opposite to each other as light and darkness are taught as Christian verities-that al! arc pronounccd to be truly Christian, though widcly different ami opposite; "·e must think thi•t somcthing is wrong somewhcrc, or opposite \'Ïews could not be taught as SJ)ringiug from one and the same source. 'fliis fact is bcfore the eyes of every one who rcflects at all, and if thcrc be any truth to he drawn from it, it is this: that ail our errors arise from not "knowing the Scripturcs nor tl1e power of God." One system says, with the lips of its profcs.sors, that thcrc is but one God ; that in the Godhead, nevertheless, are three Persons of ona substance, each of whom is <listinctly and by himself God and Lord; but thnt in some mysterious way or other these three arc but one Go1L This explanation, if iL must be so called, i.s generally guar<led from any fürther inquiry, by "ask not how this can lie;" be silcnt and have fait.h ! The snmc system, in its furthcr mystcrious teachiug, says that Go<l is "without bo1ly, parts, or pussions;" and if \l'e a8k, How can n being without either body, parts, or pas.sim1s, be three pcrsons of one substance? we are answer ed, and told that iL is a vcry great mystery, impious to inquire into, aml that the human urnler;;tanding ought to ùc bound under obctlicncc to faitl1. Thus the truth, the grand truth of the Divine Unity, i;;, hy unmeaning crccds, hitl from our eyes, and the humim race Jeft to wurnler in tlie mysterious lahyrinths of universal dou bt. Anotl1er system, pceuliar to itsclf, tenches that Gocl has elcctcd !\ certain number of the human race t.o heavcn aud hap1iiness, without



nny foresight of faith, good works, or any concfüious performcd by the creaturc; nnd dcsigncdly consign cd the rcst to cvcrllli'ting wrath nn<l perdition for their sius. This appears to be the vcry 1l rcg~ of hcathen fütalism and nccœsily, which the reformer of Geneva gathcred together and tried to refine into the constituent principle:i of Cl1ri:>tianity, but which he made worse in the procc;;s. This gloomy thcory is mo8t decidedly opposed by the Arminian schcmc, whicl1 says of it, that it is altogcthcr fal;:;c and rmti-Cl1ristian, and in op1rnsition to it, mainta ins that God wills, :md has Jll'Ovidcd menus for, the happincss of all ; that by thc..«c He bas made salvation attainablc by all ; thus that man and n ot God is the author of ail his misery. Another system teacl1es that faitl1 atone, without works, is all that is neccssary to salvation; whilc auother, opposed to this, says, thu.t füith withont works, or a holy life, is dead and of no use, and that cluuity, holincss and pu rity are esscntial to tl1e attainmcnt of life cverl11sting. Another system denies the divinity of the Christian R edeemer, and tcachcs thut Jcsus Christ is nothing JnOl'c than a human creature, in all respects Iike unto ot.her men, fallible and pcccnblc, and thereforc not a.n obj ect of rel igious won;hip. This system is, by the Trinit11riru1 scheme, loadcd with ail kin<ls of ohloquy, and called t he half-wny house to infidelity. It may be such half-way h ouse leading to i11fi· llelity-pcrhaps it is: but if it be, popular Trinitarianism will, in this respect, always be found to be its next-door neighbor. 'Ve might still go on dcscribing the great diffcrences in the doctrines now tuught, cach of which daims for itsclf the character of orthodoxy-all are right and truc, though different and opposite, while the advocutœ of cach system respectively, say, "The temple of the Lord are wc." Our object, however, is not to dwcll upon thcse diffcrenccs, hut to point out that R u u : or h eavenly ScIENCE., by which the \Vor<l of Go<l throughout can with certainty and corrcctncss hc ex plaincd. N othing more strikingly show!> tl1e total iibsence of su ch rule or mcthod than the vastly <liff erent and opposite doctrines which arc 11ow zcalously taught. Amidst all tllÎs mcnta1 confusion- thcse "war~ and rumors of \Vars "-it must be iLCknowle<lgcd tlmt 11- sure ru le of Rcripture interprctation, woul<l indeed be a light in t he hunds of privatc Christians, as well us o. hclp to those whosc busines:; it i~, on the Stilibath, to dispen~ the W ord of Life to thcir fellow


32 l

Correspondence, the sure Rule of &ripture Interpretation.
The Rule, then, whicl1 is here recommended us the only sure one hy which the sacrcd records of Divine Truth can be clucidatcd, is that immutable relationship or correspondence existing between ail the objccts of the world of nature, whether anfoial, vegetablc or minerai, und the n.ffèctions, thoughts, and intellectual properties of man, as the "·orld of mind. This Rule, which is named the Science of Correspond ences, from the UIÜ\•ersality and certninty of its it}Jplication \'l·hen faithfully studied and correctly applied, will be foul]d to be, as expressed in the tit.le-page of' this work, "The key of knowledge" to the Holy Scriptures, by the use of which a truc system of Theology will be rcstored, and the W ord of God with elearncss and cedainty explained. This science grows out of and is exhibited in uni versai creatio11. It cnn thcrcforc ncvcr crr in itself, because it is the ordcr of the Creator, nnd exhîbited thronghout his works. A man, it is trne, may commit soruc crrors in cxpluining it, but thcsc arc to be attributcd to the explainer and not to the science; for that, in itself, fo; infallible and certain. Corrcspondencc, thcn, may be tcrmcd a univcrsal langunge, in which the Divine Beîng ~pe11k11 to his creatures, both in hîs work8 ami in his 'Vord. The first voice which is heard, or the first trnth made apparent in rmiversal creation, is, that there is a Cod, und that there is but One, who, from the lmrmony, regularity nnd bcauty of his works, is infinitc in wisdom and goodncss. To thi;; voice or truth, hnman reruion at once asscnts without the leust difficulty or hcsita· tion. AB it is in the works of God, so is ii in bis \V ord ; for Re\•elation throughout, invariably points to one Gad, in c;;sence and I'erson Û~E, who is at once the Creator, Redeemer, and Saviom; Cod manη fcst in the flesh, whom the àpostlc styles the "True God ami Etcrnal Lifc." If Rcvelation be deprived of this self-evidcnt truth-the per· fcct unity of God, as a single Divine neing-no clenr Light can enter the rnind upon any theological subject whateYer. .All the bright truths of the 'Vord will hecomc obscurc(l- thc selfhood and self: derived intelligence of man will corne in between him and the Sun of rightcousness-to him the Divine Lluninary will becomc cclipsed, and, in respect t.o religions truth, nothing but clarkness and gros;; durkne.'-5 can cover his moral land. ln stat.ing, first, what the science of Corresponrlencc is, wc c1mnot, pcrhnps, doline it bctt.er tlmn by i'aying tlmt iL treats of the relation·


ship which cxists lrntwccn the Cf(o<cncc of a thing anrl its fonr. or out.• wnrd nppeamncc, and that the form points out the rn,ture a111\ qnality of the essence within. Correspondence, according to its etynwk•gyit being compoundcd of tiro Latin wonl~, con, with, and rc1<p0111lere, to answer,1 to answcr with or togethe1:, to fit, to suit, or match; thus dcnoting the reciproc:tl relation of one thing to anothcr- is a science which trcnts of the harmouy, agreement and concord existing betwecn cause :rnd effect, essence and form, spirit and matter, soul nnd body, hcnven and earth. 'Ye may here obscn·e, that corrcspornfoncc 1•.an only be applied to those things \\'hich procecd from Godin the ordcrly course of creation; it cnnnot be mixed up with, or applied to, nny object or thing manufactnrcd or made by man. By thi:; univcrsal ~cicuce, ail outward nature (including the va;;t varictics of its abjects), is scen as a wliole to be a reprc.sentative image of man, while the abjects thereof correspond to l1is various affoctioml and thoughts, hoth goud all(l Lad. )fon agaiu is secn to be ercatc<l, mi the Scripturcs dcclare him to be, in the imnge and likeness of God; al! the powers and principles of bis mental constitution whcn in order,' shadow forth, hy the hnY of corre.•pondcnee, the infinite perfections of hi~ adorable Creator. Thus, a rcgular chain of conncction is establishcd between the Lord and bis works-God is the supporter of the whole, the All in ail. Correspomlcnce was a su hject familiar to the men of the most ancie11t times, who esteemed it the science of sciences, and cultivated it so univcrsally that ail their books wcre written in agreement with it. The hieroglyphics of the Egyptians, and the falrnlous staries of antiquity, were founded upon it. Ail the ancient churcheô wcrn rcp· r<'~cutative; thcir ccrcmonics, and evcu thcir statutcs, which wcrc rnles for the institution of their worship, shadowcd forth, by correspm1dc11cc, the spiritual thing:; of worslfip and of hcavcn; in likc manncr, everything in the lsraditish church, the bnrnt otforings, sacrifices, rneat offerings and drink off'erings, with al! the particulars ltclonging to each, werc of this spiritually rcprcscntative charactcr; they were all types and shadows of good things to corne. Tl1c science of faithfull y rcpreeenting, by outward objccts, the spiritual states and conditions of the mind and life, was not only known, but also cultivatcd in many kingdoms of Asia, particularly in
< 8omo hnve thooght that correspondcnco 1 the sig11itk>tti011 io th., .nmc clthct wny, lt h mli;ht be ruorc 11ropcrly ùcrlvcd from cor, , of lîltle co11>cqucuc~. JNrlvc lt ivhich WlLY the heurt, nutl rcspcmdcns, answcrlu!); but as · you pleuw, the mcnning l• •\Ill tnc so.me.



the lanrl of Canaan, Egypt, Assyria., Chalùca, Syria, Arabia, Î.ll 'l'yre. :-:idon , and Ninevch; from thencc it \nLS co1l\"eyed into Grcccc, whcre, a~ uppcars from the works of the most ancie.ut Grccian writeri!, it was chungcd into fable. Ail thingii that appear on the füce of the enrth, being obj ecta which corupœc the 11utcrQCQS11~ or great worl<l, ure correspoudi11g ernblems of 11ll the ni.rious affections, thoughts, intellectual iàculties aud power6 of J11a11, whom the ancicnts called the 111icrocosm or littlc world ; conscqncntly, not .onYy trccs and vegctables, but also bcnstl!, birds, fisheil of every kind, with ail other animuls, down to the worm and crceping things of the ground. Thcsc nre ail mc11tione<l in Scripture in refcrcuœ to the mental propertics of man. Henca tl1e L or<l says by the prof'hct, "In that cfay will I makc a covenan t fur them with the heust~ of the field, and with the fowls of hcuven, and \IÏth the creeping lhings of the ground." (Hosea ii. 18.) This covcnant is certainly not made with unthinking animals, but with retlecting man, who fa here describcd as to his uffections and thonghts, from the 11ighcst. to the lowcst, by bcat!ts, birds and creeping thillf,'S. In agreement with the uni,-ersal principles of correspondcnce, the ancicnts, who were versed therein, made themscl vœ images to reprc:;cnt things cclcstiul, and were, no doubt, grcutly delighted thcrcwith. liy rcason of their spiritual signification, they could, and did, discern in them what rclatc<l to hcaven and the clrnrch. Hcnce they pluccd those irnuges both in their temple.~ and houses, not with 11ny intention to worship them, but to serve as rncans of recollecting the cclestial things signitied by thcrn. In Egypt and in othcr p laces, thcy 111u<le images of calYes, oxen, serj)Cnti!, and also of children, old men and virgins: 'Vhy they did this, corre,;pon<lcnce nlonc c1111 6how. Calvœ and oxen sih"llify the affections and power.; ·of the natural mimi; serpents, the prudence and cunning of the scnsuul mnu ; children, Îllnocence and churity ; ol<l men, wisdom ; aml virgin11, th e affections of truth. SucceediJJg ages, whcn the knowledgc of cor rcspondence bccume obliteru.t.c<l., beC11.nse they foun<l t hese pictL1res and images set up by thcir forefathers in and about. thcir temples, beg:m to worship thcm as deities ; and frorn this, idolutrous WOn!hip took its risc. The ancicnts perforrne<l their worship in gardcus and groves, und also on ruountains nnd hills; by the langirnge of correspondence, gardcns and groves signity wisdom and intelligence, nnrl e\·cry 1mrticular t rcc something relating thcrct-0: a mountain dcnotè8 the highcst principle of celt.Stial love to the Lord ; nud hills,


brothcrly love aml charity. It is from this their s11iritual significu· tion, thut wo read in Scripture, "The mountains u11d the hilbi isltall break forth b cforc you into singing, and all the trees of the field shall cfap thcir hands." (lsaiah h·. 12.) This true iscicnce not only lucidly c.xplains ull Scripture, but rilso the rnanners nnd customs of thoisc whü fü·cd in the primitirn timcs; and if ever the ancicut Grecinn fablui, or the Egyptiun hicroglyphics, sball be truly dcciphercù, it must he by this . me:u.is. No other mcthod will ever correctly unfol<l thcir meaning.





CORRF.Sro:rm1·,NCE-T1n: P1t..0.YER OF MosES,

"LORD, 1





The Origin of Correspondence.
O point out the origin of correspondence, and why the W ord ~f God is \vritten accor<ling to it, wc must endeavor to show the ordcrly desceut of Divine Truth from its bcginning in the bosom of Deity, toits being embodi<ld in the natural language of men on eart.li. This is, indeed, 110 very easy task; but still some knowledge, howcver faînt we may deem it, eau be obtaincd by those who thirst for the truth 'that thcy may be freed from error and doubt. To obtain information upon this lofty and momentous subjeet, wc must make a direct appeal to the W ord itsclf; for that alon~ is the centre :md source of knowledge. David says, "Forever, 0 Lord, thy \Yo.r d is scttled in heaven." (Ps. cxix. 89.) Now of this Word, which he here describes as being forever settled in heaven, he says in the 105th verse of the same psalru, "It is a lamp unto ruy feet, and a light unto my path." This language evidenily declares that the Word of God hrui its heginnings in heaven, where it is in cverlasting brightness, and from tl1eJ1ce descending to the carth, bccomcs to the lrnman race the lamp to thcir fect, and the light to guide thcm in thcir rcligious path or walk.


Some Proofs Given.
This desoent of the Divine Trµth from heaven to earth, so tliat it may be to man his true and stcady light to guide him in ail his ways, is beautifully described .in Psalrn xviii. D, where we read: "He (tlie Lord) llowed the 11cavens also, and came down, and darknc.ss was under his fcct.'' To Low the l1eavens and corne ùown, is a Scripturn




phrase signi(ying the Lord's prcsencc, not only in the heavens, his more exalted dwelling·place, but in the earth, and in all parts of his wide aml living crcation.-" He bowed the heavens ltl;;o, and came down." The mind of mau whcn vcnturing to contemphte the Majesty of heavcn, Ctlll reatlîly conceive Him to be a Being whose essence is b\·e, unboundcd and pure, und that tl1e proximate sphere thereof, being the brightness by which love h; marlc known, is the most pure and perfoct wis(lom. Love and wisdom, thcn, are the essential properties wlâch constitutc, if wc may so speak, "our Fat.her in the l1eavcus." Tl1cse iwo dwcll in evcrJasting union; thcy canuot be se11aratcd in act, however man, through his prcjudice and foolishnc.ss, may septmüe thcrn in t.hought, and suppose them to be two di:;tinct cntities. Love, ns the source of creation, is the essence of wisdom, the source an<l root of all being; and as such, in Seripture, is called FATHER; Divine ·wis<lom, as being the first and only sphere of Love, is the form of such Love, and is callcd so~, and thcfirst and OXLY-IlEGOTTEN. As love dwells witliin wisdom, and eannot be scparatcd from it, so Divine Revelation, inasmuch as it is GOll's own 'yord dcclaring the truth, tcaches that the Fu.tl1cr is in the Son-that the Son carne forth from ihc bosom of the Father, and that the Fathcr and the I~ord .Jcsus Christ as the Trutl1, arc ÛNE. "I an<l the Fathcr are one." (John x. 30.) 'flie first emanating sphere of the Divine :\fojest.y is termc<l the "'isdom of Gotl, and an everlasting light. This is the only Truth ! it is the ·word that was in the bcginning with God, an<l was God, of which ,Jesus Christ was the manifcsted form.• Tl1i:; is agrectthlc to the Divine decln.ration, "the 'Vord was m:ide flesh." (Jolm i.14.) This s11hcrc of Didnc Truth in the he:wcns, where the psalrnist says it is forcver scttlcd, must cxist in its highest <legree of celestial bright· ncss, and partaking of all the qualities of angclic purity and wi:;;dom, must fait.hfully describe them and bring thcm forth: lrnt in its further descent through the hcavcns to men on carth, that is, in bowing the hcavens and coming down, it is receive<l in a lowcr dcgrcc of fi11ite existence, and ent.cring the rninds of thosc pcrsons, who were the prcpared instruments to embo<ly tlie 'Yonl of Go<l in huruan languagc, must partake of tho~e affcctioiis, thoughts and properties pcculiar to
6 In11.,much as Jesu• I• the Truth itself, 1of thorns and purplc robe, nnd 8ald, in rcf· thcretnrc Pil!Ltc's question," Whnt i• tmth 1" crcncl' to himse\f, "llel.iolt! the Mnu ! "-See ru; putto tl1c J,or<I, rcl'clvcd n cllsti11ct answcr John xix. 5. whcn J~~us ce.me forth, wcaring the crown



man wl1ile existing in a world of nature. As such, the language of the mritten \\'onl must be made up of tho.'ie tl1ings which appear in thi:> wo:rld; ail of which, hy an immutahle lnw of correspoudence, are use1l to express the qualitics arnl properties of mind, whethcr they be good or bad, true or false. \Vhile, then, it is a trut11 that. the W ord or Wisdom of God is in all the heavens-forever settled there, and from whcnce imgelic perfection is derived; it is equully true that the smne \Vorcl "bowed the heavens and came <lmYn," and thus becarne to man on earth his lamp of safoty, bis everlasting light, his sure and certain guide. ~fan, in rcfcrcnee to his cxist.encc in this worltl, Î,; imlce<l mude a little lo\Yer thnn the angels: but l1ccau.se the trntl1 of Go<l mcets him here, supplying al! bis wunts and leading hhn to the heaven of angcls, he is thcrcfore crowned with glory and honor. Divine Truth, in bowing the heavens ami coming ùown, is presenLed to men on eartl1, accornruodateJ to their wants, to their states of affection nnd thought. It i.s therefore clothcd in tho gnrmcnts of hnman lauguage, and, in its litcral sense, the Divine brightness within is clotlJcd or covercd; thus it is tho \VonD in its most cxternul forrn, in whic11 the light or brightnl'SS of its internai spirit tcrrninntcs in the shade or clou<l of the lcttcr. In Scriptnre, heaven is called t11e Lord's throne, but the earth, his footstoo1. The i<lea prcscnted to tl1e miml hy the throne of God, fa that of Divine justice and jndgmcnt dwclling togcther, from whence every one is to receive the just reward of his doillf,'S; for it is an unquestiona!Jle luw of Divine or(ler, both in natnre nnd in gmce, that "whatsocvcr a man so\\'S, that. shall he also reap." In hcavcn, wherc the thronc of G()(l is, 'fruth is in ils glory, in its hrightness: but on tl1e carth, which is the J,or<l's footstool, it is dotl1ed in hurnan languagc, and its literal .~cnse, though a guard and defonce to the glory withiu, is, wl1e11 comparcd to lt;\ intemal contents, as durkness to liglit. Hcnce it said, that in bowing t11e heuvens and coming <lown, "darlmeos was mHlcr his fcet." Tl1e \Yord of God is not durk1U'8l'i to the Christian: ail its lit.cru! truths are to him the clouds of heavcn, in whic11 the S]Jirituul man cnn always diseern the prcsence of the Lord coming witli power and glory. Rut to the wicked, to those who are in states of opposition, who love dnrknc~s rathcr than light because their dceds arc ovil, to snc11 tlie Worrl in its literai form is <lnrknŒs; for they can discern notliing of that light whiel1 shincs throngh tlie letter frorn the Divine brigl1tness witl1ii1. Yet Rotwith~tanding thcir hlindness and opposition, thcir contempt of' ail sacred things, the Lord's i1resence in bis 'Yon} is prc-cmiuently



full and complete; the Spirit of Go<l pervades the whole, and his Jire sustains every jot and, tittlc. This univcrsal presence of the Lord in his 'Vord, which givcs lifo and spirit to the whole, is finely described by the psalmist in these words," He rode upon tt chcrub and did fly; yea, he did fly upon lhe wings of the wind. Ile made darkness his secret place; his pavilion round about him were dark waters and thick clouds of the skies." (Ps. xviii. 10, 11.) Thcsc expressions, the dark waters and thick clouds which form the Divine pavilion, aie expressive of thosc appearitnces of truth in the litera} scnse, by which the Divine brightness Î$ 11s it were obscured by thosc perversions of the natural an<l carnal mind; which arc hcre called dark waters and tlâck cl-ouds. The truth of these rernarks is experienced in every-day life an<l abundantly borne out by the madness of those athcistical comments upon Scripture, which are daily issuing from the school of materialIBm and infi. <lelity. They arc made by persons whose only object is to throw obloquy and eontempt upon a Book, the contents of which they do not understand. 'Ihey actas if they had ncithcr cycs to see its glory, nor hearts to focl its power. They would fain have us believe that the Bible is a wortltlcss and even immoral book, invented in the darv ages by ignorance and priestcraft. But to these gratuitous and uuproved charges, we roply that the sight of tho owl is not sufficiently strong to cnable it to look upon the sun in its brightness. Surely theso dark waters and thick clouds which rise up from lhcir perverted minds, obscure the genuine light of truth. They follow their own will-with-a-wisp, and are led into innurnerablc doubts and crrôrs, because thcy have no wish to know the Scriptures nor the power of God. The Divine brightnes.s within the letter of the Vvord, when fully rcccived, accomplishes in man full and pcrfcct regeneration. It Î!! thercfore said that "At the brightncss that wns before hirn, his thick elouds passed, hailstones and coals of fire." (Ps. xviii. 12.) It will be scon at once that these thick clouds, hailstones and coals uf firc cannot stand before the Divine brightness-they passed away ! These worùs show the order " ·hich the divine truth, as the brightness of ,Je]10\'ah, pursucs in frceing man from all falsity and evil and saving the soul alive. This brightncss is the spiritual truth of Go<l infillcd with the warmth of celestial loYe. 'Vhcrcver tl1is goes forth, inLo "'hatever mind it enters, the il.nit things to be dispcrsed are the thick clouds, then the hailstones, and la.stly the coahi of fire. The



thick clouds are here put to dcuotc thosc fülse and pcrvcrted notions wliich rise up as mists from the cama) mind, and which obscure the light of hcaven; but these will ccrtainly pass away when the man, with a true encrgy of soul, hef,rins to contemplate the truth of heaven. The spiritual brightness of Revelation will penetrate his thick clouds, and open to his mind a new and glorious scene. This hrightness will also cause tlie hailstones to pass away. Hailstones, literally, are frozen drops of rain congealcd into hnrd lumps, in consequcnce of the absence of heat. They descend to the earth in a destructive, not in a produc· tivc capacity. As hailstones they are of no use whatever in fertilizing the land; before they can be rendered beneficial to the soil they must, by the application of heat, be turned into a liquid ; then, aud not till then, are they made useful. So in a spiritual sense, all those doctrines of religion. whid1 are profcssed by the lips, which exist in the understanding as so rnany cold and frozen speculatious, but which regard not the life, arc not animated by the fire of hcaven, and in whieh the celestial warmtb of love and devotion is not-thcse arc the hailstones whicl1, in religion, are destruetirn and worthless. But no sooner does the Divin1> brightness appear than the hailstones pass away. 'Vhon the warmlh of love and purity of life is found to mingle with the doctrines w(> profeSS--:.whon every doctrine is seen to regard the lire, and that the füè of religion is tô do good, thon our hailstones pass away; our frozen drops of speculation are meltcd and changcd to the fcrtilizing waters of life. Then, too, though Jast, yet groatcst in irnportunce, will the coals of flre. pas8 away. These are the true emblems of ail those lusts, concupisécnces, and depraved desirc.s which, if suffered to remain in the Ii.atural mimi, will, like coals of unhallowcd :lire, hurn up and destroy every vestige of the heavenly state in the soul of man. But these, at the Divine brightncss, will retire, and leave the man in full possession of light and pcace and every joy. In further explanation of the nature of correspondence as well a.~ of its use as a key to unlock the sacred cabinet of Divine Revelation, we may observe that in this material world the forms of things only meet our corporeal vision. By onr bodily sight we can look upon and examine minutely the form, construction, and organization of all bodies, whether minera}, vegetahle or animal; hut the essence or spirit which gave them birth and keeps them in existenèe, tbis w~ cmmot sce; it is i10 · object of bodily sight, but of mental visionof deep intellectual reflection and thought; hencc it J)elongs mora



c~pecially to the !IOul or miud. _,\ li outword forms :trc co\·eriugs of tlic secret opcrntions and wonders of the Cre:~tor, and arc cxpre&ih·e of tl1c qnulitie::; of the spirit or Jife within. .lv; it is with t he material worl<l :rnd its objcct.s, so is it with the worl!l of mind nnd its intellectual objects and affections. The an· cicnts, who wcrc in the habit of calling man a microoo«fln or little world, werc nccustomcd to dclincate his mental condition by the outward appearnnces in the macrocomn or grcat worlrl of nature. Thus thcy dcscrilK,'(] a good and wisc man by the appearancc of the carth dre&scil in hc:mty, fortility nnd fruitfulnl.'$-by gnrrlcns, grorns aud parmlises; \l'hile cYil and ignorant p1en they compared t o rude and barren descrts, to wildcrnesscs and solita ry places, where n othing hut sterility appearcd, or whcre thorns and noxious weeds grew. They smr, almo:it at n glance, the relationship or corrcspon<lcncc betwecn bnrrcn earlh and t he banen miiul, and tl1ey <lcscriberl the latter by such appropriate tenus as exprc