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1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 3 4 Structure of a GSM PLMN Components of a GSM PLMN Structure of the NSS Structure of the BSS Structure of the OSS Transmission on the terrestrial interfaces Flexible Abis Allocation Strategy (FAAS) Transmission on the air interface Signaling in the BSS Radio Commander (RC) General RC Setup RC Hardware RC tasks Exercise Solution 3 4 6 10 12 14 16 22 24 27 28 30 50 63 67

© 2002 Siemens AG





© 2002 Siemens AG




Structure of a GSM PLMN


other networks




ISDN Data Networks

Fig. 1

© 2002 Siemens AG


and the Base Station System (BSS). • and the Operation Sub-System (OSS) 4 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG .1 Components of a GSM PLMN A GSM PLMN can be divided into three main parts: • the Network Switching Sub-System (NSS) • the Radio Sub-System (RSS).Siemens Introduction 1. itself consisting of the Mobile Station (MS).

2 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG 5 .Introduction Siemens RSS Radio SubSystem PLMN Public Land Mobile Network MS Mobile Station BSS Base Station Subsystem NSS Network Switching Subsystem OSS Operation SubSystem Fig.

public switched telephone network (PSTN)). The database of a MSC contains information for the routing of traffic channel connections and handling of the basic and supplementary services. have been reported stolen). The purpose of the Authentication Center is to protect the network against unauthorized users. Subscriber authentication is performed at each registration and at each call set-up attempt (mobile originating or terminating). Since in a PLMN the mobile subscriber is not permanently connected to a MSC.Siemens Introduction 1.. and • to other networks (e. and each group has different characteristics: • the black list for mobile stations that e.2 1.1 • • • • • Structure of the NSS Circuit-Switched Core Network The NSS is separated in a circuit switched and packet switched part. The Visitor Location Register contains the relevant data of all mobile subscribers currently located in the service area of a MSC. The IMEI uniquely identifies all registered ME. The circuit switched part consists itself of five parts: the Mobile services Switching Center (MSC) the Home Location Register (HLR) the Visitor Location Register (VLR) the Authentication Center (AC) the Equipment Identity Register (EIR) The Mobile services Switching Center is responsible for establishing traffic channel connections • to the BSS. There are three classes of ME that are stored in the database.g. • to other MSC. • the gray list for mobile stations to be observed • the white list for approved mobile stations 6 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG . The Equipment Identification Register is a database that stores the International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) numbers for all registered Mobile Equipment (ME). the subscriber administration is performed by a network component called Home Location Register.g.2. The MSC also performs administration of cells and location areas. The authentication feature ensures that the user (mobile subscriber) is who he claims to be.

3 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG 7 .Introduction Siemens VLR MSC HLR AC VLR MSC EIR Network Switching System (NSS) Fig.

8 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG . VLR. z performs security functions and access control (authentication/cipher setting procedures. z has a screening function. z can inquire about location information from the HLR (optional) transfers data/signaling to SGSN.2. other PLMN. z contains the routing information for GPRS subscribers available in the PLMN. and EIR.. z collects charging data. HLR..g. Packet Control Unit PCU (Gb).2 Packet-Switched Core Network The packet switched part of the NSS consists of two parts: • the Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) • the Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN) The Serving GPRS Support Node is responsible for establishing data connections • to the BSS. The Gateway GPRS Support Node is responsible for establishing data connections • to the SGSN. • provides interfaces to GGSN (Gn). • to other GPRS Support Nodes. SMS-GMSC. z is responsible for the paging of MS. and • to data networks (e. GGSN z is the node allowing contact/interworking between a GSM PLMN and a packet data network PDN (Gi interface). • to other GPRS Support Nodes...Siemens Introduction 1.). z traces the location of the respective GPRS MS ("routing area"). The SGSN: z is the node serving GPRS mobile stations in a region. and • to the Gateway GPRS Support Node. the Internet). z performs routing/traffic management.

Introduction Siemens SGSN GGSN Network Switching System (NSS) Fig. 4 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG 9 .

and also the signaling processing specific to the radio interface. the interface between BSC and TRAU is the Asub interface. BTSE and TRAU. The interface between the BSC and the BTSE is called the Abis interface. The Base Transceiver Station Equipment comprises the radio transmission and reception equipment. They are necessary for local fault clearance and for the commissioning of the system. The two main functional units of the TRAU are: • Transcoder (TC) for speech coding/compression • Rate Adapter (RA) for data rate adaptation Local Maintenance Terminals are the (notebooks) computers. The Transcoding and Rate Adaptation Unit is the equipment in which speech coding and decoding is carried out as well as rate adaptation. which the service technicians use for work on site with the BSC. it controls the whole Base Station System. The BTSE contains one or more transceivers (TRX) and serves up to 24 cells. The interface between the Base Station System and the Switching Subsystem (or the TRAU and the MSC respectively) is called the A interface. The BSC assigns traffic channel connections from the SSS to the BTSE.3 • • • • Structure of the BSS The BSS includes the following: Base Station Controller (BSC) Base Transceiver Station Equipment (BTSE) Transcoder and Rate Adapter Unit (TRAU) Local Maintenance Terminals (LMT) One Base Station Controller can control several BTSE and several TRAU. Furthermore. including the antennas.Siemens Introduction 1. The Base Station Controller is responsible for the intelligent functions in the Base Station System (BSS). 10 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG .

5 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG 11 .Introduction Siemens Base Station System BSS BSC Abis Base Station Controller PCU M S A C BTSE Base Transceiver Station Equipment Asub TRAU Transcoder and Rate Adapter Unit S G S N Gb Fig.

and the • Siemens Radio Commander (RC). In the OSS.Siemens Introduction 1. can be divided into two parts. The RC and SC are independent. 12 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG .4 Structure of the OSS The OSS. often called Operation and Maintenance System (OMS) or Operation and Maintenance Center (OMC). monitoring of the network components of the SSS and the BSS can be performed. For the RC there are three different possibilities to connect it to the BSC: • Either via dedicated line • via A-interface connection (nailed-up connection) • via an IP based connection. but may be combined in the same location. the • Siemens Switch Commander (SC).

7 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG 13 . 6 RC OMS SC dedicated line A-interface connection IP based connection BSS SSS HLR AC EIR BTSE BSC TRAU MSC VLR Fig.Introduction Siemens OMS RC SC Fig.

The PCM30 standard (ITU-T G.) is used. timeslot 0 is used for the Service Word (SW) and the Frame Alignment Word (FAW). in the U. The timeslots 1 up to 31 are available for calls (traffic) and for signaling between the components of the PLMN. Many subscribers can therefore use this link simultaneously. not only cables can be used. The transmission rate used for signaling channels depend on the type of the signaling: • • • • LPDLM and LPDLR: 16 or 64 kbit/s LPDLS: 64 kbit/s CCSS7: 64 kbit/s OMAL (X25 or IP): 64 kbit/s The PCM30 standard is a general standard for the transmission. In PCM30. Traffic channels are transmitted using 64 kbit/s (one full timeslot) on the A interface and with 16 kbit/s (one subslot) on the Asub and Abis interface. e. i.5 Transmission on the terrestrial interfaces For the transmission on the terrestrial interfaces the standard PCM30 (or in some regions PCM24.Siemens Introduction 1. which is necessary to transmit check bits and PCM internal alarm information.e.g. This principle is called Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA). i.S.e. Therefore it can never be used for carrying traffic or BSS signaling. 14 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG . but also optical fibers or microwave links.703) describes the transmission using 32 timeslots with 64 kbit/s transmission rate each. a link with a total capacity of 2048 kbit/s.

90625 µs Service Word / Frame Alignment Word Traffic or signaling Timeslots Timeslots 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Bits a b c d Subslots Fig.Introduction Siemens TDM frame 125 µs 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 3. 8 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG 15 .

2 16 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG . EDGE and TD-SCDMA. For packet services.6 22. Coding Scheme CS1 CS2 CS3 CS4 MCS1 MCS2 MCS3 MCS4 MCS5 MCS6 MCS7 MCS8 MCS9 Fig.6/14.4 27.05 13.4 59. requiring more than 16 kbit/s Abis throughput for specific radio channels.8 54.8 11. 9 Number of 16 kbps TS User Data Rate (kbps) 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 3 4 5 5 9.4 8.6 21. Flexible Abis allocation is necessary to support GPRS CS3-CS4. concatenated PCU frames are also necessary.Siemens Introduction 1.8 17.6 44.2 13.2/29.4 15.6 Flexible Abis Allocation Strategy (FAAS) Flexible Abis Allocation Strategy (FAAS) is a general strategy for handling Abis resources in a flexible way.

11 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG 17 . 10 Flexible Abis Allocation Strategy Flexible Allocation CS4 TRX-3-0 L A P D 4 0 4 4 0 4 0 L 5 1 5 1 5 1 5 1 A 6 2 6 2 6 2 6 2 P 7 3 7 3 7 3 7 3 D 4 0 4 0 4 0 4 0 L S W 5 1 5 1 5 1 5 1 A / 6 2 6 2 6 2 6 2 P F A 7 3 7 3 7 3 7 3 D W 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 TS pool for BTSM 0 TS pool for BTSM 2 TRX-1-0 MCS7 Fig.Introduction Siemens Flexible Abis Allocation Strategy Um TRX-0-0 TRX-0-1 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 L A P D 4 4 0 5 1 5 1 6 2 6 2 7 3 7 3 4 5 6 7 • 1 2 3 L A P D 4 5 6 7 • 1 2 3 Fixed Allocation Abis TRX-0-2 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 • 1 2 3 L A P D S W / F A W TRX-1-0 TRX-2-0 TRX-2-1 TRX-3-0 TRX-3-1 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 T R X 3 1 T R X 3 0 T R X 2 1 T R X 2 0 T R X 1 0 T R X 0 2 T R X 0 1 T R X 0 0 Fig.



FAAS consists of two functional building blocks. The first block allows flexible definition and reconfiguration of Abis pools per BTS site. Each Abis pool deals with arbitrarily defined sets of Abis subslots on individual PCMBs. The second block relies on the flexible allocation and release of resources taken from the Abis pool. During runtime, the new Abis allocation algorithm assigns sufficient Abis bandwidth to an air interface timeslot. It also releases bandwidth in case of congestion, according to service priorities and QoS constraints. Dynamic Abis resource allocation is applied to both, PS and CS services. The appropriate number of Abis resources is dynamically allocated, according to the service applied. Since the capacity of each air interface timeslot can vary during runtime, dynamic Abis allocation adjusts the Abis capacity to the required air interface capacity.

WARNING The Abis configuration of BR5.5 (with 2 PCMB lines and only one LPDLM) will no longer be supported. Therefore, before executing a change version procedure BR5.5 (or an earlier release), switch to a configuration with at least 1 LPDLM for each PCMB trunk. FAAS has to be coupled with the management of up to 8 Abis PCM lines per BTSE.


© 2002 Siemens AG



Flexible Abis Allocation Strategy

Integrated CrossCross-Connect or Multidrop

Pool Site_1

Pool Site_2


1 x 64kbps PCM slot


Pool Site_2




Abis Pooling on Site Basis

Fig. 12

One LAPD controls one subpool
TS 20 LAPD:0 TS 21

Assosiated LAPD is LAPD:0

Abis subpool: one LAPD and 11 Abis subslots
Fig. 13

© 2002 Siemens AG




The following HW configuration/platforms support flexible Abis allocation:

• Both BSC configurations: the old BSC HW, and the enhanced BSC HW

• BTSplus mainline with GSM-CU and E-CU, picoBTS, enhanced micro BTS, BTS1.


© 2002 Siemens AG

.. e-µ-BTS HW •Standard/concatenated PCU frames •CS1. pico BTS. CS4 •MCS1. ..... .. CS4 •MCS1... Fig. 14 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG 21 .. MCS9 on EDGE TRX •Dynamic Abis Dynamic Abis BSC with SN16/PPCU BTS 1 HW with old BBSIG •Only standard PCU frames •Only CS1. BTS 1 HW with BBSIG44 •Standard/concatenated PCU frames Concatenated or Standard PCU frames •CS1.Introduction Siemens BTS+. CS2 •No EDGE support •Dynamic Abis Standard PCU frames Old BBSIG NOT supported with BR7. ..0 Only Standard PCU frames are supported. .. MCS9 on EDGE TRX •Dynamic Abis Concatenated or Standard PCU frames BSC with SNAP/PPXU Both standard and concatenated PCU frames are supported.

Every subscriber performing a call in a cell (BTS) will use one timeslot of the TRX. located on CHAN-0 of TRX-0).7 Transmission on the air interface On the air interface Um a different transmission scheme is used. In every cell at least one channel of one transceiver is reserved for signaling in this cell (Broadcast Control Channel BCCH.e.Siemens Introduction 1. It is again based on TDMA. SDCCH). further signaling channels can be defined (e.g. several subscribers can simultaneously use the resource that is called a transceiver (TRX). All the remaining channels are used for speech or data transmission (Traffic Channels TCH). 22 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG . In a cell many TRX can exist at the same time. which is called channel (CHAN). This is also called Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA). using different frequencies (Radio Frequency Carrier RFC). Especially in bigger cells with many TRX. i.

616 ms 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 TCH Burst 577 µs Fig. 15 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG 23 .Introduction Siemens 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 MAINBCCH 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 SDCCH 4.

7) and OMAL (Operation and Maintenance Access Link) are used. it is carried within the same timeslot. Signaling link LPDLM LPDLR LPDLS CCSS7 OMAL CBCL Used between BSC – BTSE BSC – BTSE BSC – TRAU BSC – MSC BSC – RC BSC – CBC Function management of the BTSE sites. one link per TRAU call related signaling.e. the CBCL (Cell Broadcast Center Link). The CBCL uses resources of the OMAL link. An additional signaling link may exist. which is used only if Short Message Service Cell Broadcast is used. one link per TRX management of the TRAU. up to 11 links per BTSM call related signaling. up to 2 links per BSS information for SMS Cell Broadcast LPDLM for a BTSE and LPDLR for all the TRX housed in this BTSE are transmitted in the same timeslot. Furthermore CCSS7 (Common Channel Signaling System No. LPDLR and LPDLS. i. 24 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG . derived from ISDN technology) signaling is used within the BSS. up to 16 links per BSS (with BSC120) supervision and control of BSS.8 Signaling in the BSS For the internal communication in the BSS and between BSS and SSS different types of signaling are used. Three links have to be distinguished: LPDLM. LAPD (Link Access Protocol for the D-channel.Siemens Introduction 1.

16 CBCL LPDLS CBC BSC TRAU CCSS7 MSC MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG 25 .Introduction Siemens OMC OMAL LPDLM BTSE LPDLR BTS: TRX:0 TRX:1 TRX:2 Fig.

Siemens Introduction 26 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG .

Introduction Siemens 2 Radio Commander (RC) Fig. 17 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG 27 .

and • a dedicated X-Terminal-Server (OMX). The OMTs work as clients. The OMT are the Workstations with both. which are used by the OMC staff to enter their commands and to get a graphical representation of the condition of the BSS. but they need a Workstation or a dedicated X-Terminal-Server to process the user tasks. and • the functions of the Operation and Maintenance Terminals (OMT). a Graphical User Interface and a Command Line Interface. maximum 20 user sessions can be handled by the OMP with reasonable response time. where all the tasks for the supervision and control of a BSS are processed. So the functions of the XTerminal are restricted to handle the user input (keyboard and mouse) and to display the output (monitor). For the OMT different hardware types can be distinguished: • the Workstation (WS).1 General RC Setup The RC functionality is split into • the functions of the Operation and Maintenance Processor (OMP). they cannot run a session alone. the XTerminal-Server can handle many sessions for X-Terminals. On the other hand. Depending on the hardware used. the OMP is responsible for the connections to the BSC of the BSS to be controlled. implemented as an Ethernet. • the X-Terminal (XT). The OMP works as a server and is connected to the OMT via a Local Area Network (LAN). one session runs at the OMX and all the other sessions run at the XT.e. 28 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG . which can handle just one additional session. However. One of these sessions can also run locally. The X-Terminals do not require such a powerful hardware as the Workstations.Siemens Introduction 2. Although a bigger number of OMT can be physically installed in an RC. The OMP is the main hardware. i. and • optionally servers for the O&M Toolset. Unlike the Workstations. the Workstations can handle one or two sessions: one local session and one additional session of an X-Terminal.

LAN ..............Introduction Siemens OMC OMT WS 0 WS n X-T m+1 X-T k .. OMX Server X-T 0 X-T m OMC OMP OMC Toolset Server Fig. 18 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG 29 .

or HSI/PCI board for dedicated line configurations 30 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG . along with the relevant mass storage and input/output devices.Siemens Introduction 2.2 RC Hardware An Operation and Maintenance System (RC) comprises the following components: • Nearly unlimited number of Operation and Maintenance Terminals (OMT0-OMTn) including both workstations (WS) and X-Terminals (X-T). CD Reader Unit and Tape Reader Unit • Color Printer or Black/White printer • Local Area Network (Fast Ethernet) • Operation and Maintenance Processor with the relevant mass memory and Tape Unit • • • • • • External Disk Storage Array (Hard Disk Multipack) External Tape Autoloader for ORACLE backup and restore operations Operation and Maintenance Console optionally a Terminal Server Operation and Maintenance Printer Communication Controller: PT E1 or PT T1 board for A interface connections.

Introduction Siemens OMT Server Colourprinter X-T 0 X-T 1 WS 0 LAN Console OMP WS 1 WS 2 Tape device for Backup & Restore Spoolprinter via A interface BSC BSC Fig. 19 External Hard Disk IP based dedicated line BSC MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG 31 .

five different OMP hardware configurations. equipped with 2 CPU/2 GB RAM (plus storage devices for installation and backup purposes).Siemens Introduction 2. as the OMP can also double as an OMT. Fire server belong to the new generation).2. the processing power can be easily extended by hardware upgrading of the OMP itself (RAM. Each configuration can be based on more than one HW platform. hard disk capacity.1 OMP Hardware The minimum configuration for the Radio Commander is just one OMP. With a growing number of Network Elements being connected to the system. The main reason is SUN end-of-life policy (enterprise servers are already END OF LIFE. CPUs) To fulfill different customer requirements. • • • • • Basic OMP Configuration Extended Simple OMP Configuration Extended Redundant OMP Configuration Full Redundant OMP Configuration Simultaneous Support OMP Configuration OMP Configuration Basic OMP / Basic Extended OMP SUN Server for existing sites Sun E420R SUN Server for new sites Sun Fire V440/V480/ F4800/E4900 Sun Fire F4800/E4900 (flexible scalability) Extended simple OMP Extended redundant OMP Full redundant OMP Simultaneous support OMP Sun E4x00 Sun E4x00 - 32 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG .

Introduction Siemens Enterprise 420R Sun Fire V480 Sun Fire F4800 Enterprise E4500 Server Sun Fire E4900 Fig. 20 Servers used as OMP MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG 33 .

Siemens Introduction 34 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG .

i. related to the type of • Availability of additional devices needed for other features. data-backup tape that can be connected to the OMP also require different types of free slots in the server.e. external alarm devices. Simultaneous support of GERAN/UTRAN. requiring different types of free slots in the server. selector unit. devices such as printers.e..2. for example.1 Basic configuration rules for selecting an OMP configuration The choice among the different OMP configurations can be carried-out bearing in mind the following aspects: • Size of the network that must be managed. alignment time b) total amount of RAM memory needed by the application processes to properly run c) the architecture and the external disk size. connection equipment to 2G and 3G network elements. the availability of • Redundancy. direct serial connection.Introduction Siemens 2. the number of TRX objects has been chosen has a parameter to evaluate the network mean size.. RAM. such as. As the unit of measure for the size of the network. the simultaneous support feature also requires different HW configurations: CPU. the WAN connection redundancy and the link redundancy. the total number of HMO/FMO objects has been chosen as the most appropriate. • Type of physical connections to the GERAN NEs. physical connection used.1. different cards must be used. for UTRAN networks the number of managed cells and NodeBs will be used. expected to double the number of used physical connections and the number of needed boards in the server (E4x00 family servers). MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG 35 . PCM connection via MSC or TCP/IP connection. the size of the network that the RC must manage has a fundamental impact on the following hardware resources: a) total number of CPU needed to satisfy the performance requirements. for GERAN NEs. WAN serial connection. i. the redundancy features.

therefore the supported network capacity remains the same as Extended Configurations based on the same platform. The Sun Fire F4800/E4900 as Basic OMP uses a smaller configuration than being used as Extended simple OMP. in addition. Sun Fire V480 (two processors). Extended redundant OMP The main characteristic of the Extended redundant OMP is. that it enhances the reliability and availability of the RC system. The Basic OMP can be based on the following servers (number CPU and size of RAM depends on NE to be managed): • • • • • Sun Enterprise 420R (two or four processors). adding the following: • redundancy of the Sbus/PCI I/O boards • redundancy of the RC LAN connection • redundancy of internal and external disks (mirroring is mandatory). which provides internal redundancy feature. It provides the same features as Extended Redundant OMP with. The Extended Redundant OMP can be based either on the Sun Enterprise 4x00 server or the Sun Fire F4800/E4900 server. the fault tolerance over the CPU/Memory boards. Sun Fire E4900 (up to twelve processors).Siemens Introduction Basic OMP The "Basic OMP" can be made up by the E420R/ Sun Fire V440/V480 Server or by the Sun Fire F4800/E4900. Sun Fire V440 (two processors). Extended simple OMP The configuration "Extended simple OMP" used to manage more NE can be based on the Sun Enterprise Server family E4x00 (E4500 or E4000) or Sun Fire F4800/E4900. The E420R Server is less scalable than the other Servers used. Although providing more CPUs and more RAM than other configurations it is designed to support a failure of a CPU/Memory board without decrease of managed network capacity. TIP Disk mirroring is optional for Basic and Extended simple OMP and mandatory for the redundant OMP configurations. Full Redundant OMP This configuration is based on Sun Fire F4800/E4900 server and is an improvement of Extended Redundant configuration. 36 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG . Sun Fire F4800 (up to eight processors).

21 Extended Redundant OMP MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG 37 .Introduction Siemens Redundancy of the LAN connection 2 x connection Equipment like HSI or SpriteE1 Redundancy of CPU and Memory (like extended simple OMP Redundancy of Sbus and I/O boards Redundancy of PCI boards Redundancy of internal HD Sun Server Enterprise 4x00 2 x external Hard Disks (mirroring) Fig.

0/UMR4.0) In BR8. • split the machine into 2 independent domains (each domain managing one network technology) It uses SUN domaining concept to split the machine in two independent parts (domains) having their own operating system image and SW load installation. This type of Simultaneous Support OMP Configuration does not support internal redundancy feature. Two different configurations are possible. Minimum requirements per domain are: 1 x CPU Board 1 x PCI I/O Tray (SF 4800) 2 x PCI I/O Tray (E4900) 1 x D240 Media Tray 1 x External Disk Array + Host Bus Adapter BR8.Siemens Introduction Simultaneous Support OMP This configuration is based on Sun Fire F4800/E4900 servers and is designed to manage both UMTS and GSM network from the same HW installation.0 the simultaneous support of GSM and UMTS systems are also supported in a common platform (Sun Fire F4800/E4900 configurations equal or greater than Extended Simple OMP) but configured in one domain only. and managing their own I/O Tray for connecting to network and external devices.0/UMR4. Network type Number of BSCs 84 36 0 Number of TRXs 21000 5000 0 Number of RNCs 0 15 20 Number of NBs 0 1500 (4500 cells) 5000 (15000 cells) • common platform for GSM and UTRAN in one domain (NEW WITH 100% GSM 50% GSM 0% GSM 0% UMTS 50% UMTS 100% UMTS 38 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG . In that case the max capacity of the common platform is shared between the two systems (see table below).

4 GB 6 x 36.4 GB Total Size 54 GB 109.4 GB 436.4 GB 12 x 36.8 GB Notes Reusing OMC 1 disks Reusing OMC 1 disks From RC 6.2 GB 4 x 36. Type of disk array MultiPack MultiPack D 1000 D 1000 D 1000 StorEgde 3310 StorEgde 3310 Disk Configuration 6 x 9.4 GB 12 x 73. external hard disks are used.8 GB 440.2.4 GB 6 x 73. The external disk units can be installed single or mirrored.1 GB 6 x 18. The external disk devices are connected to the OMP via internal SCSI cards on the servers I/O boards.0 systems From RC 6.Introduction Siemens 2.2 GB 145.6 GB 218.2 External disks For storage of fault and alarm data.1. The disks are SCSI devices. performance measurement results etc. If disk mirroring is used (to avoid system outage in case of disk errors and maintenance).0 systems New projects New projects MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG 39 . both disk copies must have the same capacity.4 GB 880.0 systems From RC 6. The online system recovery functionality ensures that both hard drives have the same status of data at all times.

• Dedicated line connection. The hardware required in the OMP is the PT E1 (PCM30) or the PT T1 (PCM24). the HSI/PCI interface card. i. the BSC are connected either via a packet data network or directly.25 connection called X25A (X. The signaling link is based on a X. the Dedicated line connection. In case of A interface connection all BSC will use one timeslot on the A interface and Asub interface for this bi-directional communication. Therefore a different interface card has to be installed in the OMP. Link redundancy For the OMAL link a redundant configuration can be used. To achieve the highest reliability.25 connection via A interface). The HSI/PCI houses 4 connection ports with connectors for up to 30 BSC on each port.Siemens Introduction 2.2 Interface types for OMP-BSS connection For the connection of the RC to the BSC of all the BSS to be supervised. the so called OMAL.e. also internal OMP redundancy should be used. two links can be configured that can use either the same interface type or a mixed configuration.2. A mixed configuration of A interface and dedicated line configuration can be used with a total of 4 boards in the OMP server. maximum 31 BSS can be connected (24 in case of PCM24). each with a speed of 64 kbit/s. allowing a total of 48 BSC to be connected in total. the network operator has to choose which type of connection he will use: • A interface connection. Since one PCM30 is connected between the MSC and the RC. In the second case. or • IP based connection. 40 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG .

23 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG 41 .11 Interface BSC dedicated point to point connection I X L T OMC HSI/PCI Modem PSDN X.Introduction Siemens PT card OMC PCM30 Link 64k TS PCM30 Link 64k TS NUC BSC TRAU Nailed Up Connection BSC TRAU MSC Fig. 22 X.25 network Modem connection via a packet switched data network Fig.21/ V.

dedicated line Different LAN cards in RC for RC LAN and BSC LAN required Hardware requirement in BSC: MPCCv9 IP link is also used for CBC.e. the IP based O-Link has been introduced. no mixed configuration Link supervision by ping command TIP IXLT cards are still required for the local connection to an LMT. IP networks are faster and widespread available. Aspects of introduction: • • • • • No TCP/IP over PCM timeslot. i. The RC for UTRAN supports IP over Ethernet connection to RNC.Siemens Introduction IP based O-Link Because of the restricted capacity of the current X. 64 kbit/s.25 connections that allow max. 42 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG .

Introduction Siemens Reasons for introduction: • Current X.25 Dedicated X. no mixed configuration • Link supervision by ping command Fig.e. dedicated line • Different LAN cards in RC for RC LAN and BSC LAN required • Hardware requirement in BSC: MPCCv8 • IP link is also used for CBC.25 PCM Timeslot IXLT-1 Standby MPCC-1 Test only X CBC Fig.25 PCM Timeslot IXLT-0 Active MPCC-0 IP-0 Hub or Switch or Router RC BSC X. 24 IXLT cards are still required for LMT. 25 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG 43 .. 64 kbit/s • IP network is faster • RC for UTRAN supports IP over Ethernet connection to RNC • IP network widespread available Aspects of introduction: • No TCP/IP over PCM timeslot..11 64Kbit/sec X. . i.25 links allow max. LMT LAN LMT V.25 Dedicated X. power on/off.

• availability of I/O slots for the additional graphic card.Siemens Introduction 2. has the following configurations: • • • • OMT minimum OMT normal OMT X-Server OMT X-Terminal Each configuration can be based on platforms: the Sun Ultra family and the Sun Blade family.3 OMT hardware configurations The OMT graphical station. TIP The OMT Server for new projects (BR8.0/UMR4. Basic Configuration Rules for choosing the OMT and OMT Server HW Configuration The choice among the different OMT configurations can be carried-out bearing in mind the following aspects: • availability of serial and parallel connectors for I/O devices such as printers and External Alarm device.2. which represent the new generation. required to display the Graphical User Interface (GUI) of the RC. 44 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG .0) is based on V480/V440 Server. • number of RC GUI sessions that can run on a single OMT.

Introduction Siemens 9 OMT (2 sessions) 9 Minimum OMT (1 session) Ultra 10 / Sun Blade 150 Ultra 5 Sun Blade 100 9 OMT Server 9 X Terminal Ultra 60 Sun Blade 1000/2000 Sun Fire V440/V480 NEW ! Sun Fire V440 Ultra 1 140E/170E/200E Ultra 5 Sun Blade 100/150 Fig. 26 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG 45 .

1 BTS Panel. several active graphic user interface (GUI) sessions plus a number of alphanumeric sessions can run simultaneously. Additionally.Siemens Introduction Simultaneous sessions at OMT / X-Terminal There is no limit to the number of terminals that can be configured to the OMP. The typical GUI session scenario to which these data apply. RC Scalability leads to different types of OMT and X-Terminals with different capacity: Like in OBR 5. in two of the active GUI sessions one global Alarm Monitor list (showing all BSS and RNS) is opened with 5000 active alarms. and total amount of RAM memory. 1 Command History. according to their hardware characteristics. 1 TRAUE Panel. 1 BTSE Site Panel. As for multi-session capability. The OMT systems. the number of sessions supported by the OMT-Server depends on the used HW platform and on used HW resources TIP With introduction of new OMT-Server Sun Fire V440/V480 up to 10 sessions can be supported. in terms of open panels is: • • • • • • • • 1 Active alarm Monitor with view on one BSS. 1 OMC-Region Panel. 46 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG .5 one normal OMT can provide 2 Sessions. can be used for running a different number of GUI sessions. 1 BSS Summary Panel. mainly in terms of number and speed of CPUs. The sessions can be local or remote. 1 BSCE Panel.

Introduction Siemens OMT configuration OMT minimum 512 MB OMT Normal 1GB OMT server 4GB (for Blade 1000/2000 server based configuration) OMT server 4GB (for V480/V440 server based configuration) # of GUI sessions 1 2 4 10 RC Configuration GSM only Number of parallel GUI sessions at RC Number of parallel alphanumeric sessions at RC (CLI) 12 16 24 32 Basic 10 BSCs and 2500 TRXs 10 15 20 30 Basic Extended 36 BSCs and 5000 TRXs Extended 48 BSCs and 12000 TRX Extended (add. 84 BSCs and resources) 21000 TRXs TIP The number of GUI and CLI sessions shall be valid in parallel. MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG 47 .

on an E4X00 system. a "backup server" system must be designated. 360GB.2. on a E420R system.Siemens Introduction 2. on a E420R system • Deskside L280 Autoloader. the device must • StorEdge L9 Autoloader. The following tape devices can be connected to the "backup server" system: • StorEdge FlexiPack AutoLoader DDS-3 (jukebox). 48 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG . transfer rate 1MByte/sec. or a PCI Ultra differential Ultra SCSI host adapter. 72 GB. or a PCI differential Ultra SCSI host adapter. on an E4X00 system. an OMP. which can be a RC component. transfer rate 5 MByte/sec. the device must be connected to a free Fast/Wide SCSI-2 port be connected to the RC by means of an SBus Fast/Wide differential intelligent SCSI-2 host adapter. the device must be connected to the RC by means of: an SBus Fast/Wide differential intelligent SCSI-2 host adapter. or also an external one. 280 GB.4 External Tape Drives In addition to the internal tape device an external tape device is required to support the data backup feature. transfer rate 6MB/sec. In order for this feature to work.

27 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG 49 .Introduction Siemens StorEdge FlexiPack AutoLoader DDS-3 StorEdge L9 Autoloader Fig.

3 • • • • • RC tasks The tasks of the RC can be classified into the following categories: Security Management Configuration Management Performance Measurement Management Software Management Fault and Test Management 2. Examples for the Security Management are • creation of log files containing the commands entered from all the terminals by all the operators • protection of the RC access by access profiles and passwords • distinction between RC application access and UNIX access • supervision of local access on sites (LMT access supervision) 50 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG .1 Security Management The Security Management is related to all the functions to prohibit an unauthorized access to the network.Siemens Introduction 2.3.

28 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG 51 .Introduction Siemens ! Fig.

52 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG . Some examples for configuration tasks are • adding new sites to the PLMN (new BTSE) • adding or removing TRX to/from a site • changing frequencies in the radio cells Several ways of working in the configuration management are implemented: • online • using script files.2 Configuration Management The configuration management is related to all changes in the structure of the PLMN and to changes of all parameters relevant for the communication in the radio cells. and • using the DBAEM tool.Siemens Introduction 2.3.

29 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG 53 .Introduction Siemens Fig.

He can schedule. modify. The operator establishes measurements with individual parameters. and help to optimize and extend the existing network. which are not detected by the fault management. deactivate and display parameters of existing measurements and administer them interactively.Siemens Introduction 2.3 Performance Measurement Management Performance measurements are essential for the surveillance of a mobile network. The corresponding information enables the operator to identify failures or quality of service problem areas within the network.3. 54 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG . delete. All the measurements coming from a NE and requested by the operator are stored on the omp and can be exported to post-processing tools.

Introduction Siemens Fig. 30 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG 55 .

4 Software Management From the RC the complete software of the BSS is administered. for backup procedure) 56 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG .g.3.Siemens Introduction 2. Therefore the RC operator is able to: • • • • • • • import BSS Software images and data coming from software factory download the BSS software images and data files download and activate patches activate BSS software upload data files from the BSS migrate BSS data base export data (e.

31 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG 57 .Introduction Siemens Fig.

colors and animation. which provides further information on how to deal with the fault. the state and status of the objects concerned changes. he has access to the on-line maintenance documentation. each alarm is qualified by a probable cause giving more detailed information about the nature of the fault and an alarm severity. The operator receives information about the probable cause. The defective unit can be replaced later. These changes are displayed on the graphical workstation by graphical symbols. Therefore. Alarm reports always result in one of five error types specified by GSM: • • • • • Equipment alarm Communication alarm Quality of service alarm Environment alarm Processing alarm Moreover. Fault handling can be divided into the following main functions: • • • • Fault detection Fault recovery Alarm logging Alarm reporting If a fault is detected. Each single failure (failure source) generates a single alarm report. Operation is normally switched to another module that takes over the function of the defective unit. Hardware faults are usually isolated to a particular module.3.Siemens Introduction 2. In addition. 58 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG . all alarms are transferred from the BTSE and TRAU via the BSC to the OMC and the LMT.5 Fault and Test Management Fault Management includes all the measures required to detect and repair faults in the mobile communications network.

32 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG 59 .Introduction Siemens Fig.

performed to minimize the loss of service caused by a fault. BTSE. and • OMP to OMT via keep-alive messages (TCP/IP). Also in the RC the service is supervised in order to detect internal faults. The operator is able to activate remote diagnostic procedures. BSC and TRAU autonomously perform fault recovery. The recovery process can be seen as a sequence of defense actions. which can be retrieved by operator’s request for further analysis.Siemens Introduction Test Management is closely related to the fault management. Handling of RC faults The RC supervises the following connections in order to detect possible link failures: • RC to SBS via layer 2 supervision (LAPB). Test results coming from BSS are logged in a test result database table. so-called tests in order to get further information for maintenance. 60 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG .

33 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG 61 .Introduction Siemens Test MPC C ? Fig.

Siemens Introduction 62 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG .

Introduction Siemens 3 Exercise MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG 63 .

Siemens Introduction 64 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG .

Can A interface connection and Dedicated Line connection be used simultaneously with one OMP? Name the tasks. Which types of OMT do exist and how do they differ? Can the OMT be connected to the BSC directly? List the OMAL connection types and the hardware required.Introduction Siemens Exercise Title: Query Which signaling links do exist in the BSS? What's their purpose? RC function and setup Name the functions of the OMP and of the OMT. MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG 65 . which can be performed by the RC.

Siemens Introduction 66 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG .

Introduction Siemens 4 Solution MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG 67 .

Siemens Introduction 68 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG .

a PT card and an HSI/PCI card have to be mounted at the same time. Always the interface cards of the OMP are required. which can be performed by the RC. RC function and setup Which types of OMT do exist and how do they differ? See page 28. Can the BSC be connected to the OMT directly? No. See page 28. List the OMAL connection types and the hardware required. See page 50 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG 69 . not more than 48 BSS can be controlled. Name the tasks. Name the functions of the OMP and of the OMT.Introduction Siemens Solution Title: Query Which signaling links do exist in the BSS? What's their purpose? See table on page 24. Can A interface connection and Dedicated Line connection be used simultaneously? Yes. However. See page 40.

Siemens Introduction 70 MN1783EU11MN_0001 © 2002 Siemens AG .