You are on page 1of 39


Role of Information Systems in Business Today
• How information systems are transforming business
– Increase in wireless technology use, Web sites (B2C) – Shifts in media and advertising (decline in newspapers sales, google‟s

MIS - Basic Concepts
Shivani Parikh

online ad revenue has increased, all payments via credit card) – New federal security and accounting laws (e.g. emails to be stored for five years, chemical exposure data to be stored for 60 years)

• Globalization opportunities
– Internet has drastically reduced costs of operating on global scale (24x7, suppliers, imports) – Presents both challenges and opportunities (e.g. DVDs)

Role of Information Systems in Business Today
• Fully digital firms are now created
• Digital firms definition:
– Significant business relationships with customers, employees and suppliers are digitally enabled and mediated – Core business processes are accomplished through digital networks spanning across entire organization or linking multiple organizations – Key corporate assets are managed digitally (travel, desk, emails) – Time shifting, space shifting are a norm (e.g. Dell Computers)

Role of Information Systems in Business Today
Business firms invest heavily in information systems to achieve
the following six strategic business objectives:

1. Operational excellence 2. New products, services, and business models 3. Customer and supplier intimacy 4. Improved decision making

5. Competitive advantage

• Time Shifting: Business Conducted continuously i.e. 24x7, rather than 9am to 5pm • Space Shifting: work takes place globally in a global workshop (work from home, body shopping, Accenture)

6. Survival

Operational Excellence
• Operational excellence:
– Improvement of efficiency to attain higher profitability (e-mails, msn,
automobile industry has robots) – Information systems, technology an important tool in achieving greater efficiency and productivity – Wal-Mart‟s RetailLink system links suppliers to stores for superior replenishment system

New products, services, and business models
• New products, services, and business models:
– Business model: describes how company produces, delivers, and sells
product or service to create wealth (production outsourced, dominos, online insurance, – Information systems and technology a major enabling tool for new products, services, business models – Examples: Apple‟s iPod, iTunes, and iPhone, Netflix‟s Internet-based DVD rentals



Customer and supplier intimacy
• Customer and supplier intimacy:
– Serving customers well leads to customers returning, which raises revenues and profits – Example: Mandarin Oriental in Manhattan use computers to track customer preferences and use to monitor and customize environment

Improved decision making
• Improved decision making
– Without accurate information: • Managers must use forecasts, best guesses, luck • Leads to:
– Overproduction, underproduction of goods and services – Misallocation of resources – Poor response times

– Intimacy with suppliers allows them to provide vital inputs, which
lowers costs – Example: J.C.Penney‟s information system which links sales records to contract manufacturer (TAL Apparals) •

• Poor outcomes raise costs, lose customers

Example: Verizon‟s Web-based digital dashboard to provide managers with real-time data on customer complaints, network performance, line outages, etc.

Competitive advantage
• Competitive advantage
• • • Delivering better performance Charging less for superior products Responding to customers and suppliers in real time

• Survival
• Information technologies as necessity of business – May be: – Industry-level changes, e.g. Citibank‟s introduction of ATMs (BoB) – Governmental regulations requiring record-keeping

Example: Dell Computers (customized PCs in a day to few days)

– Examples: Toxic Substances Control Act, Sarbanes-Oxley Act

Perspectives on Information Systems
• Information Technology
• Consists of all hardware and software business needs to achieve its business objectives • Includes computers, printers, handheld PDA, Windows OS, MS Office suite etc

Information vs. data
• • Data are streams of raw facts Information is data shaped into meaningful form

• Information system:
• • Set of interrelated components Collect, process, store Data, and distribute information

Support decision making, coordination, and control

Raw data from a supermarket checkout counter can be processed and organized to produce meaningful information, such as the total unit sales of dish detergent or the total sales revenue from dish detergent for a specific store or sales territory.



Information system
• Input: Captures raw data from organization or external environment (e.g. pink lux 1 unit sold at star bazaar)

Functions of an Information System

• Processing: Converts raw data into meaningful form

• Output: Transfers processed information to people or activities

that use it (e.g. 5500 units of pink lux sold in Mumbai in 15 days)

• Feedback:







organization to help evaluate or correct input stage

Case Study
Toyota Motors has a software that helps its top management
decide on which models are doing well and what are the latest trends in the car market. It starts with first the customer selects a car and then various options like tinted windows, navigation system, music system, seat covers, wheel caps and so on. This data is fed into a central system and it generates reports like car models that are selling well. What music system is well sold with the car. What color seat covers are more desired. How many GPS navigation systems are sold and so on. Identify the following in the above case:
– Inputs – Processing – Outputs

Case Study
– – – – – – Car models tinted windows navigation system music system seat covers wheel caps

– All inputs are entered in a central software system

– – – – – Total no Total no Total no Total no Total no of of of of of cars sold per each model music system sold car seat covers sold car seat covers sold for each color available GPS navigation systems sold

Information Systems Are More Than Computers

Organizational dimension of information systems
• Organizational dimension of information systems
– Hierarchy of authority, responsibility
• Senior management • Middle management • Operational management • Knowledge workers • Data workers • Production or service workers

Using IS effectively requires an understanding of the organization, management, and IT shaping the systems. An information system creates value for the firm as an organizational and management solution to challenges posed by the environment.


Lenovo needed to create a new operating model that would fully capitalize on the merged entities‟ combined capabilities. Mexico and Europe. R&D hubs in China. 4 . This new operating model directly addressed the market‟s fears.21-Apr-13 Levels in a Firm Organizational dimension of information systems Organizational dimension of information systems • Separation of business functions – Sales and marketing – Human resources – Finance and accounting – Manufacturing and production • Unique business processes • Unique business culture • Organizational politics Business organizations are hierarchies consisting of three principal levels: senior management. Scientists and knowledge workers often work with middle management. For example. • When the company acquired IBM‟s PC division in 2005. Where will the company operate? What kinds of products will it sell? Which customers and segments will it serve? Which processes will be outsourced. middle management. operating model and tactical capabilities) to be closely aligned. systems and organization structures. it‟s important for all three elements (business model. In just a few months. the company established global centers of excellence based around locations with leading talent and resources: manufacturing hubs in China. To silence the critics. operating model • Lenovo offers a great example of the right way to restructure when push comes to shove. Information systems serve each of these levels. Japan and the US. hardware and software testing centers in China. and a marketing hub in India. and operational management. India. many people were skeptical. and performance measured? • Operating model: is the abstract representation of how an organization operates across process. organization and technology domains in order to accomplish its function. or handled in-house? Which alliances will be most critical? How will decisions be made. an operating model might specify which business processes are needed – and whether those processes should be outsourced. • A company‟s business model explains Operating Models operating model • Operating Model: describes how the business model will be implemented. Business model • business model: How does the business make money? • A classic example is Gillette‟s business model of giving away razors in order to sell blades – a model that many other companies have adapted to sell everything from wireless service subscriptions to inkjet cartridges. • Operating model design should not be confused with detailed design of tactical capabilities such as processes. and provided a strong foundation for growth that has helped Lenovo become the world‟s fourth largest PC manufacturer. centralized as shared services or handled by the business units – but would not define the details of the processes to be executed. They didn‟t see how a regional Chinese computer manufacturer could hope to integrate and leverage one of the world‟s most iconic brands. That said. And it needed to do it fast. It also established a fluid corporate structure with senior management teams culturally and physically dispersed across the globe.

there are processes that tend to be similar across business units. award winning shared services capability. large financial services institutions such as Merrill Lynch (Global Private Client) and MetLife benefit from “Coordination” because they can integrate multitudes of products and processes without forcing standardization. is usually not a primary driver of strategy for these organizations. or partners. which is one of the benefits of standardized processes. How to redesign your own operating model 3. No matter where customers tap into the organization. Though the companies are run autonomously. and the Gold Points Reward Network. That‟s smart business. Radisson Seven Seas Cruises. • The many-to-one vs. They own Radisson Hotels. To that end. Friday‟s restaurant. It‟s tempting to start implementing your new operating model without bothering to document the design and business logic. There might be hundreds of people involved in the detailed design phase. you have a diversified organization. Carlson Wagonlit Travel. 5 . • As highlighted in Enterprise Architecture as Strategy. Many-to-one means that every business unit is staffed up and “technologied ” up to execute the same processes. • If your business units have few common customers. Carlson has captured cost savings and synergies with a world-class. what they buy. • Carlson Companies is exemplified in the book. suppliers. especially when your competitors start spreading rumors and fanning the flames of doubt. Major cost savings can be gained when the processes are consolidated into a one-to-many shared services unit. But when it comes to making the 5 – 7 key design decisions typically required for restructuring. That‟s a mistake. fear not! You can still create major efficiencies with technology.G. are in the upper left quadrant. 2. but low levels of business process standardization. suppliers or ways of doing business. T. but pays big dividends in the long run. one-to-many principle comes into play here. Since time is of the essence. Lead with your best punch. service and business unit. Hence. Even in these situations. Example P&G Operating Models • Procter & Gamble has long been recognized as a market leader in consumer products. This ultimately saves time by keeping everyone focused on the same destination and providing a context and baseline for ongoing design improvements.6 billion over five years to make its global operating model more product-centric and agile. but is constantly striving to do even better. Rigorous documentation creates a clear link between the business model and execution details such as processes. That‟s redundant. local representatives know who they are. It restructured itself around a core of six product-based business units. simplified its management structure by eliminating layers. They share data because their business units share customers. or some combination thereof.I. Carlson Marketing Group. and shared services are a powerful way to achieve economies of scale. elite team of your most experienced and knowledgeable people to drive the overall design. and established centers of excellence for Process standardization Low Data Integration Coordination High Diversification Low Replication High Unification Operating Models “Diversification” model Coordination Model • Organizations that require high levels of data integration across business units. the company recently invested $5. take the initiative to contact them and explain what‟s happening. Significant and rapid changes to your operating model can make customers very nervous. products. Data integration improves efficiencies. you have minimal need for either data integration or standardization of processes across business units. It might seem like a nuisance in the short run. But.Keep your customers in the tent. as well as the overall customer experience at each organizational touch point. such as Human Resources and Finance. To keep your customers from panicking. it‟s smart to create a small. and many other defining characteristics – because they‟ve got the data! • Process standardization is low because it would wash out the uniqueness of each service operation and commoditize the customer experience …not to mention that standardization may be impossible because different products may require different processes! Low cost. even if they aren‟t directly affected by the changes. Put it in writing.21-Apr-13 How to redesign your own operating model 1. systems and organization structures. They have an integrated view of customers and can interact with them via processes that fit for each product. you need people with a broad view of how the operating model will affect the business – for better or worse.

via standardized processes. Sixty percent of Dow‟s work Operating Models • Of course there are hybrid situations as well. achieve a specific goal. Once you‟ve established where you fit in. defining process and IT strategies becomes much easier. Dow cross-sells products within regions.21-Apr-13 Replication model Unification Model • The “Replication” model on the lower right is for organizations whose success depends on efficient and repeatable processes. so it needs excellent data integration. together. Repeat the process meticulously and make sure that the experience is consistent at each company outlet and you‟ve got a winning formula for success! • “Unified” organizations bring it all together. • Examples: – Leave Application Process – Cheque Deposit Process – Loan Sanction Process – Annual Appraisal Process What is a Process Map? 6 . in more than 175 countries around the world. but not on shared customer relationships. Dow Chemical is an example used by the Enterprise Architecture as Strategy authors. and it sells the same products. Their needs for integration of data across business units and standardization of processes are both high. Any activity in which inputs are transformed into outputs is a Process. or where you should fit in from the standpoint of your operating model. Some companies employ one model for certain functions and another for others. Process Mapping Shivani Parikh What is a Process? • A process is a group of activities which. McDonald‟s and other franchise operations are clear examples of this type of organization.

---. 2.-------------------------.---..Quick Fix Solution Due date Effect Cross-functional process map POLICY TECHNOLOGY Prioritised Action plans Quick Fix Pr oject Decision PEOPLE x x 1. Defines key process input and outputs Process Mapping Symbols Action/Process System Activity Direction of Flow Start or End Document Display How to create Process Maps 1. (e. Importance 5....  Simplifies the process based on that understanding • • • Contains Diagrams which show each step of the process Process Maps: A Picture Is Worth 1000 Words Operation as a Process Input Similar to flowcharts Visual representation allows us to view the process as a whole and Transformation Process Output simplifies the redesigning the process Material Machines Labor/people Management Capital Feedback Goods or Service What is Process Mapping? • A visual aid for picturing work processes which show how inputs.---..---..---. or other factors that are essential to the process  Output: The end result i. Eliminate. Any activity in which inputs are transformed into outputs is a Process as the primary process  Primary Process: The tasks must be carried out in order to achieve a desired output from given inputs • Any method used to depict a process in a manner similar to the  Alternative Path: One or more options are presented that create a path off the primary path.---.. Performance 7 . 2..---. the product or service that a customer receives  Parallel Process: Another process that can be executed at the same time • A group of activities which .. 2. material or information flow in a diagrammatic form. ----------------------.---.---.e. together.-------------------------. Nailing down that one process that needs to be improved is essential before proceeding with the Process Mapping. Automate.21-Apr-13 Process Map • Helps in understanding a process by depicting it in a pictorial fashion.---. way a map depicts an area • Method for depicting a process.---.---.. the question being asked should be specific.-------------------------.---..---.g. existing workflow 1 Best Practice 1 GAP: 1.-------------------------. information. Select a process In any organization there will be various departments and numerous processes involved.  Decision Criteria: When incorporating alternative paths into a map.---. Define the process A clear definition of the Process that is selected helps in building the Process Map easily and efficiently. A Predefined Process On Page Connector Off Page Connector Problem Causes PROCESS Best Practices vs.---.-------------------------. Simplify.. money.---.---.. people.... which restaurant to eat is a decision)  Inspection Point: A pass/fail decision to test an output in process..---.-------------------------. Prioritised suggestions for improvement x x -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5 Problem Suggestion for improvement .-------------------------. outputs and tasks are linked Key Terms used in Process Mapping  Input: Materials. 4.---.---.---. 3... achieve a specific goal. there must be a choice to be made between 2 or more options..---..---.. Best Practice 2 GAP: 6.----       x x x x x x 3.

• Gives a big picture Given below is a generic classification of Process Maps: 1.g. Relationship Maps or Top Level Process Maps • Portrays how major functions of Business interact with one another 2. Map Alternative Processes Map points along the primary process where decision are made Evaluate Exam Score • Recognize one or more alternative paths Score > or = 50 Retake Test Example • Merge those paths back into the primary path Recruit Hire Orient Train Deploy Pass Procedure 5. Relationship Maps or Top Level Process Map • These maps are used to depict the customer-supplier relationship or linkages that exist between various departments of an organization. 1000 Nano cars order received 8 .21-Apr-13 Procedure 3. Flow Charts or Detailed Process Maps Relationship mapping between various departments in an organization e. Cross Functional Maps Example: Order Fulfillment Process as given below depicts the 3. Map the Primary Process • • • Define the tasks that will be required to reach the desired output Incorporate appropriate symbols in your Map Make sure to show parallel processes • Procedure 4. Use Your Map to Improve the Process Making breakfast • Eliminate non-value-added steps • Set standards for the process • What will pass and what will fail Types of Process Maps Process maps can be depicted in various formats.

Sales Manufac turing • The act of mapping a process out in flow chart format helps you clarify your understanding of the process. Ask questions such as "What really happens next in the process?" and "Does a decision need to be made before the next step?" or "What approvals are required before moving on to the next task?" • Start the flow chart by drawing the elongated circle shape. which show instructions or actions Diamonds. and draw a rectangle or diamond appropriately. Where a decision needs to be made. and Arrows. • This makes them useful tools for communicating how processes work. and labeling it "Start". Write the action or question down. which signify the start or end of a process.21-Apr-13 Relationship Maps or Top Level Process Map Example for Order Fulfillment Flow Charts or Detailed Process Maps • Flow charts are easy-to-understand diagrams showing how steps in a process fit together. and linking these together using arrows to show the flow of the process. and for clearly documenting how a particular job is done. and helps you think about where the process can be improved. Rectangles. • These have been used to: – Define – Document Engineering Distribution • – Analyze processes – Detailed view The example given in the next slide shows the process that is followed to evaluate exams Flow Chart Symbols Elongated circles. and list them in the order they occur. showing actions and decisions appropriately in the order they occur. which show decisions that must be made • Work through your whole process. How to draw a Flow Chart • To draw the flow chart. And remember to show the end of the process using an elongated circle labeled "Finish". show the flow of the process label them with the outcome. and draw an arrow from the start symbol to this shape. Flow Chart Example 1 Start Flow Chart Example 2 Flow chart for the process of getting out of bed in the morning Attend Exam Evaluate Score No Score > or = 50 Yes Pass End 9 . • Then move to the first action or question. brainstorm process tasks. draw arrows leaving the decision diamond for each possible outcome.

quality and time (processing time and elapsed time) implications as you go • • • • • • • What happens next? What sequence are the activities performed in? Who reviews it and when? How long does it take? What is the nature.21-Apr-13 Cross Functional Maps • How an organizations major work processes cuts across various function? Cross Functional Map Example Order Fulfillment • Use cross-functional flowcharts to show the relationship between a business process and the functional units (such as departments) responsible for that process. frequency and cause of errors/problems? How are errors/problems/exceptions handled? What is the output? How many? Where does the output go? 10 . • More detailed when compared to Relationship maps Cross Functional Map Types Distribution Manufactur ing Engineer ing Sales Cust omer Cross-functional flowchart Example Horizontal Vertical Tips on preparing process maps Prepare • • • Use standard flowchart symbols Flow from top left to bottom right Bring people together who know the process to prepare Tips on preparing process maps • • • • • • • Who are the customers of the process? Who performs each activity? What generates the process/task? What forms and reports are used? What computer systems and files are used? How do we do it? Why do we do it? What decisions are made in the process? Execute • • • • Use group facilitated sessions with process owners Use individual interviews where appropriate Document process and technology opportunities for improvement as you go Understand cost.

destination etc.21-Apr-13 Process Mapping using MS Visio MS Visio Highlights • • • • • Helps in pictorial representation of information / activities & processes. organization charts. Purchasing is responsible for placing an order with the approved parts supplier for the parts. Parts team shall ask purchasing to create a purchase order for parts. of people. work order is sent to repair team (responsible for repairing the car) which creates a list of parts required for the repair. Book the tickets/Proceed to Payment Modify the details and check availability the customer makes the payment. The repair team asks parts Enter the details and check availability department to create an “order” for parts. Gender. Note: Steps may or may not be in the right sequence 11 . Sales team prepares a work order for the same. Make appropriate assumptions wherever necessary Use appropriate symbols wherever needed Book Online Tickets Exercise 2 – Jeep Repair Customer wants to repair his jeep and approaches sales team of "Popular" car repair company. type of card etc. updating the System displays results Yes Tickets Available No database on parts received (once it is confirmed that all parts are received) and preparing an invoice on completion of repairs and closing the order once The User would need to enter details of his/ Credit card. Parts team is also responsible for checking that all the parts have arrived from supplier. date. date of travel. Ease of Use Standard shapes/templates available Drag and Drop feature Helps in creating business-related diagrams such as flowcharts. MS Visio Template Selection Exercise 1 – Book Tickets Online • • The user Logs in to the Site The user enters the details (Age. and project scheduling diagrams. The Login to the Travel Website Book Tickets Online System displays the Homepage This is a predefined Process. gender. from and to destination etc. No. The User would need to enter details like age.) • • • • • • The user checks for the availability of tickets The system displays the results In case the tickets are available to User continues to book the tickets Else he/she modifies the details and resubmits.

installation and deployment • Post Implementatio n Phase • Normal maintenance of the system • Handling Change Requests • Handling bugs and fixes • Handling Version changes or upgrades • Smooth running of the system to avoid major glitches IT Security. and Society • Information technology has both beneficial and detrimental effects on Security and Ethical Challenges Shivani Parikh society and people – Manage work activities to minimize the detrimental effects of information technology – Optimize the beneficial effects 12 .21-Apr-13 SDLC and Biometrics Shivani Parikh SDLC SDLC: Software Development Life Cycle • • • • • Progression of phases in the life of a software project Stages involved in an information system development project Various SDLC Methodologies Methods selected specific to types of projects Documentation is crucial regardless of model (since no physical model) Feasibility Analysis Design Coding Test Implement Maintain • Go Ahead? • Project Plan • Budget Estimates • Gathering Reqmts • Detailed Study of Business needs • Changing Business Processes •High Level Design • Low Level Design • Overall Structure is defined • Critical Stage • Logical System is developed at this stage •Prototyping may be done • Designs are translated in code • Conventional programming • Programming tools are used • Based on type of application the right programming language is used • Separate and detailed Testing for individual modules • Integration Testing • Ensure interfaces between module work • System works on the intended platform • Volume Testing • User Acceptance Testing • Final stage of initial development • Acceptance. Ethics.

with a trend of families eating out • PepsiCo planned to open 60 KFC and service station in Corbin. Enron) – Stakeholders are all individuals and groups that have a stake in. who allow corporations to exist Ethics Case Studies . or claim on. whistle blower.21-Apr-13 Business Ethics Categories of Ethical Business Issues • Ethics confront questions as part that of managers their daily business decision making include – Equity (executive salaries. a company • Social Contract Theory – Companies have ethical responsibilities to all members of society. environmental issues – erin brockovich.g. Chinese toys. employee health screening) – Honesty (inappropriate gifts. KFC opened its first fast-food outlet in Bangalore in June 1995 • Bangalore was chosen as the launch pad because it had a substantial upper middle class population. govt contracts issue. downsizing. employment at will. Temple in Calcutta – movie. sexual harassment – Infosys Phaneesh Murty. plant closures. workplace safety – e.) Corporate Social Responsibility Theories Corporate Social Responsibility Theories • Stockholder Theory – Managers are agents of the stockholders – Their only ethical responsibility is to increase the profits of the business without violating the law or engaging in fraudulent practices • Stakeholder Theory – Managers have an ethical responsibility to manage a firm for the benefit of all its stakeholders (e.Enron) – Exercise of corporate power (product safety – coke. employee privacy. vapi .g. financial and cash management procedures . employee conflict of interest.KFC in INDIA • KFC was founded by Harland Sanders in the early 1930s • he started cooking and serving food for hungry travellers who stopped by his • On receiving permission to open 30 new outlets across the country. social issues raised by religious organizations – e. tissue papers. Kentucky. US • served people on his own dining table in the living quarters of his service station • His chicken delicacies became popular and people started coming just for food 13 .KFC in INDIA Ethics Case Studies . non competitive agreements) – Rights (customer privacy.g.

an Atlanta-based pharmacist. John Pemberton. developed the original formula of Coke in 1886 • The ingredients were refined to create a refreshing carbonated soda. production of basic crops to more It was the flagship product of the Netscape Communications Corporation and the dominant web browser in terms of usage share • Microsoft was a late entrant into the Internet software market. and noticed the success of then– nascent eBay. Subsequently. its offers of free software to grab market share and its attempts to violated the US antitrust laws by Baazee. • In June 2000. the US District Court gave its ruling that Microsoft had products.21-Apr-13 Ethics Case Studies .S. as well as its upgrades for a single price. This tied down the customer to other Microsoft products. • Coke went on sale for the first time in the Joe Jacobs Drug Store • The product slowly gained acceptance after a heavy outpouring of free sample 14 . Office and BackOffice.KFC in INDIA Microsoft • He argued that non-vegetarian fastfood restaurants like KFC would encourage Indian farmers to shift from • Netscape Navigator was a proprietary web browser that was popular in the 1990s and had to be bought as a pack. lucrative varieties like animal feed and meat leaving poorer sections of society with no affordable food • PETA further intensified its campaign against the cruel treatment meted out Microsoft Microsoft……contd 1 • Netscape Corporation filed a suit against Microsoft and its main contention was that Microsoft was a monopoly. • He returned to India that year to start a • Coke • Avnish Bajaj Passout IIT Kanpur did MS in US • joined Apple Computer as a Software Engineer then did MBA from Harvard Business School • In late 1999 he was living in the U. which had used its monopoly power to suppress competition and gain an unfair advantage • Microsoft's aggressive pricing of • Microsoft's 'Enterprise licensing' enabled clients to get unlimited use of Windows NT.

the technology must be implemented so as to avoid all unnecessary risk 15 . intensified Colorado. • By displaying its logos prominently in public schools." • overweight children tend to consume • Is Coke ethical in their marketing strategy of having exclusive contracts with schools? more calories from soda than those who were not. they frequently thought that it was something that the schools were endorsing. – Those who benefit should bear their fair share of the risks. privacy. and water. • The controversy Springs. there must be no alternative that achieves the same or comparable benefits with less harm or risk Responsible Professional Guidelines • A responsible professional – Acts with integrity – Increases personal competence – Sets high standards of personal performance – Accepts responsibility for his/her work – Advances the health. juice. and those who do not benefit should not suffer a significant increase in risk • Minimized Risk – Even if judged acceptable by the other three guidelines. Coke hoped to re- potential when a district administrator of Coke in Colorado Coke Coke • Teenagers today drank twice as much soda as milk Questions: • Vending machines in schools created a preference for soda over milk. and general welfare of the public • Informed Consent – Those affected by the technology should understand and accept the risks • Justice – The benefits and burdens of the technology should be distributed fairly. further sent a ruled and a that saccharin. • Childhood obesity rates in the US had Principles of Technology Ethics • Proportionality – The good achieved by the technology must outweigh the harm or risk. source an was of important ingredient • Critics said that the these growing contracts trend of represented commercialization on school campuses. in Coke.21-Apr-13 Coke • Coke also faced problems in the 1970s when the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) harmful cancer. • When students saw products advertised in their schools.

software. or network resources – Using or conspiring to use computer or network resources illegally to obtain information or tangible property • Hacking is – The obsessive use of computers – The unauthorized access and use of networked computer systems • Electronic Breaking and Entering – Hacking into a computer system and reading files. software. or destruction of hardware. modification. data. or network resources – The unauthorized release of information – The unauthorized copying of software – Denying an end user access to his/her own hardware. but neither stealing nor damaging anything – Examples: phishing at ICICI bank • Cracker – A malicious or criminal hacker who maintains knowledge of the vulnerabilities found for private advantage Unauthorized Use at Work Internet Abuses in the Workplace • Unauthorized resource theft – Doing private consulting – Doing personal finances use of computer – General email abuses – Unauthorized usage and access – Copyright infringement/plagiarism – Newsgroup postings – Transmission of confidential data – Pornography – Hacking – Non-work-related download/upload – Leisure use of the Internet – Use of external ISPs systems and networks is time and – Playing video games – Unauthorized use of the Internet or company networks Software Piracy Viruses and Worms • A virus is a program that cannot work without • Software Piracy – Unauthorized copying of computer programs being inserted into another program – A worm can run unaided • Licensing • Purchasing software is really a payment for a license for fair use • These programs copy annoying or destructive routines into networked computers – Copy routines spread the virus A third of the software industry’s revenues are lost to piracy • Site license allows a certain number of copies • Commonly transmitted through – – – – The Internet and online services Email and file attachments Disks from contaminated computers Shareware 16 . access.21-Apr-13 Computer Crime Hacking • Computer crime includes – Unauthorized use. data.

Trojans. not just work. freedom of expression.S. repetitive tasks or standby roles 17 . total economic damage from virus proliferation was $166 to $202 billion – Average damage per computer is between $277 and $366 • The power of information technology to store and retrieve information can have a negative effect on every individual‟s right to privacy – Personal information is collected with every visit to a Web site – Confidential information stored by credit bureaus. and the government has been stolen or misused Opt-in Versus Opt-out Cyberlaw • Laws intended to regulate activities over the Internet or via electronic communication devices – – Encompasses a wide variety of legal and political issues Includes intellectual property. controversial – – – Some feel the Internet should not be regulated Encryption and cryptography make traditional form of regulation difficult The Internet treats censorship as damage and simply routes around it • Cyberlaw only began to emerge in 1996 – Debate continues regarding the applicability of legal principles derived from issues that had nothing to do with cyberspace Other Challenges • Employment – IT creates new jobs and increases productivity – It can also cause significant reductions in job opportunities. some skilled craftsperson jobs have been replaced by jobs requiring routine. privacy.21-Apr-13 The Cost of Viruses. and jurisdiction • Opt-In – You explicitly consent to allow data to be compiled about you – This is the default in Europe • The intersection of technology and the law is • Opt-Out – Data can be compiled about you unless you specifically request it not be – This is the default in the U. as well as requiring new job skills (e.g. credit card companies. Worms Privacy Issues • Cost of the top five virus families – Nearly 115 million computers in 200 countries were infected in 2004 – Up to 11 million computers are believed to be permanently infected – In 2004. SBI when implemented internet banking) Other Challenges • Individuality (online personality and offline one are different) • Dehumanizes activities and because depersonalizes computers • Computer Monitoring – Using computers to monitor the productivity and behavior of employees as they work – Criticized as unethical because it monitors individuals. and is done constantly – Criticized as invasion of privacy because many employees do not know they are being monitored eliminate human relationships – Inflexible systems • Working Conditions – IT has eliminated monotonous or obnoxious tasks – However.

whilst maintaining competitive advantage and value system integrity insurance system is down) • High profile disasters such as 18 . Leap years) • 9/11 • Little tolerance for any downtime or business disruption • Loss of revenue (e.21-Apr-13 Health Issues Ergonomics • Cumulative Trauma Disorders (CTDs) – Disorders suffered by people who sit at a PC or terminal and do fastpaced repetitive keystroke jobs • Designing environments healthy work – Safe. crippling ailment of the hand and wrist – Typically requires surgery to cure – Increases employee morale and productivity – Also called human factors engineering Protecting Yourself from Cybercrime Business Continuity Planning Business Continuity Planning (BCP) Need for BCP? • Business the continuity planning to • Y2k (9th Sep 1999.g. POS goes down. comfortable. e-commerce. online travel (BCP) is “planning which identifies organization's assets exposure to internal and external threats and synthesizes provide effective prevention and recovery for the organization. and pleasant for people to work in • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome – Painful.

Software Testing – real life examples  First U.  Australia: Man jailed because of computer glitch. telephone lines etc) – Terrorism Agenda       Testing Definition Objectives and Goals of Testing Why do we test? Testing Principles Levels of testing Testing Phases Two Approaches to Testing Test Cases Testing Principles Software Testing    Shivani Parikh Software Testing  Software Testing is an activity that helps in finding out bugs/defects/errors in a software system under development. space mission to Venus failed. While buying a pen you would test if the pen is working fine.g. SARSonly calls. • • Greater geographical separation decreases the likelihood of two sites being affected by the same incident There is no „minimum‟ or „correct‟ distance for separation as the ability of worldwide infections and computer viruses to cause concurrent incidents demonstrates. 159 killed. It is a part of BCP Separation distance • Since the BC events against which we are planning frequently result in loss of access to or destruction of a location it is necessary to ensure that electronic and other records are duplicated at another geographically separated location in a form that allows them to be accessible and recovered for use within business-defined timescales. mountain crash in Colombia. Incorrect one-letter computer command (Cali. Boeing 575. He was jailed for traffic fine although he had actually paid it for 5 years ago.: Call centers at 2 locations Mumbai and Bangalore with SLAs set for them. Threat analysis • Some common threats include the following: – Disease (what is the difference between disease and the others. Computer gave him “temporary assignment”. (reason:  Software testing is used to measure the quality of developed software.g.21-Apr-13 BCP Concepts Disaster Recovery: primarily involves protecting IT infrastructure and data from disabling data loss after an equipment or site failure. have same coordinate code)  June 1996: Ariane-5 space rocket. conjunctivitis) – Earthquake – Fire – Flood (non-salinated and contamination-free water.g. $500 million. in order to provide a bug free and reliable system/solution to the customer.  Dallas Prisoner released due to program design flaw: He was temporary transferred from one prison to another (witness). Bogota 132 miles in opposite direction.  The process of analyzing a software item to detect the differences between existing and required conditions (I. Gillette razors reuse of software from Ariane-4 without recommended testing). 19 . self-destruction. 9/11) E. • • Also dependent on how much distance employees would travel (e..S. bugs) and to evaluate the features of the software item Examples: While inviting guests home for dinner you would taste the food cooked to make sure its fine. 26th July – food example) – Cyber attack – Sabotage – Hurricane – Utility outage (power.e. FOREX calculations we check for real time exchange rate pick ups Loan processing software to be tested for intensive calculations E. (reason: missing comma in a Fortran do loop)  December 1995: AA.

Goals of Testing – Evaluate properties of software • • • • • Objectives and Goals of Testing Software testing is used in association with verification and validation Verification: Have we built the software right? (i. is this what the customer wants). Core Banking software has various modules like loans.e.” • To prove it is both usable and operable  Exhaustive testing is not possible. (companies have testing department.. Application System System Test C ases System Test C ases System Test C ases …… User Acceptance Document Acceptance Test C ases …… Acceptance Test C ases Examples: Marriage.g. i. there are external testing agencies) Levels of Testing Prgm 1 Prgm 2 Prgm n Prgm 1 Prgm 2 Prgm n Testing Phases Unit Test  A unit is a piece of software implemented by a single programmer . failures and incidents. Citibank EOD failure) Memory Usage (E.21-Apr-13 Objectives and Goals of Testing Objectives Testing is obviously concerned with errors. autopilot) Testing Principles  All tests should be traceable to customer requirements.e. – A good test case is one that has a high probability of finding an as-yet undiscovered error. Cheque management etc.: Navigation should be simple. does it match the specification). Banking users do not want mouse related functionality) Why do we test? • Provide confidence in the system (e.typically Unit Test C ases 1 Unit Test C ases 2 …… Unit Test C ases n Unit Test C ases 1 Unit Test C ases 2 …… Unit Test C ases n single functions or small groups of functions that work together to accomplish some simple task. Validation: Have we built the right software? (i. they are tested as a group. Scalability. Login-Inbox-Compose.e.g. EOD in a bank e.g. Reliability Performance (Eg: Page Loading..: LOC) Security (e.  To be most effective. Requirements Operational. faults. OS Requirements Performance. authorization) Usability (e. testing should be conducted by an independent third party. • Establish the degree of quality (after requirements model is complete) • Establish the extent that the requirements have been met. Normally the former is considered a better practice since it allows interface issues to be localized more quickly and fixed. Unit Test C ases …… Unit Test C ases Integration Test  When several units are brought together to form a module.g.) 20 . A test is the act of exercising software with test cases with an objective of – Executing a program with the intent of finding an error. Module n Application Under Test Integration Test C ases Integration Test C ases …… Integration Test C ases Requirements C onfiguration H/w.. • Identify areas of weakness  Tests should be planned long before testing begins.. what the users asked for is what they got not what someone else though they wanted  Testing should begin “in the small” and progress toward testing “in the large.  Programmers are usually responsible for testing units alone during their Module 1 Module 2 Prgm 1 Module Test C ases 1 Unit Test C ases Module Test C ases n Prgm 2 Prgm n Module Test C ases 2 implementation before they are integrated with other parts of the system. Disaster Recovery…  Software components may be integrated in an iterative way or all together ("big bang"). or system. S/w. nostro.g.

. it must be tested as a whole. Acceptance Test  Alpha testing Alpha testing is simulated or actual operational testing by potential users/customers or an independent test team at the developers' site. In software development. Dubai Bank spelling mistake)  Recovery Testing The application is tested against heavy loads or inputs such as testing of web sites in order to find out at what point the web-site/application fails or at what point its performance degrades. 21 . known as beta versions. preferably the owner or client of the object under test. (e. through trial or review.  System testing Testing Phases contd. Examples: Power failure (transactions goes back or completes)  User Acceptance Testing Examples: Exam results posted on net. a word processor or graphics editor can be forced to read an extremely large document. or a financial package can be forced to generate a report based on several years' worth of data UAT is a process to obtain confirmation by a Subject Matter Expert (SME). ATM software testing. The software is released to groups of people so that further testing can ensure the product has few faults or bugs. It is conducted in a test environment identical to the production environment Recovery testing is basically done in order to check how fast and better the application can recover against any type of crash or hardware failure etc. Companies offering this service online. that the modification or addition meets mutually agreed-upon requirements. White-box: internal view Various types of Black-box Testing  Functional Testing Various types of Black-box Testing  Usability Testing In this type of testing. Sometimes.g. the software is tested for the functional requirements. UAT is one of the final stages of a project and often occurs before a client or customer accepts the new system. Type or extent of recovery is specified in the requirement specifications. Two Approaches to Testing Black-Box Testing (Behavioral Testing)  Black box testing takes an external perspective of the test object to derive test Black-box: external view cases. System Test  Once a system has been completely integrated. Alpha testing is often employed for off-the-shelf software as a form of internal acceptance testing. exercises a program with input generated from system requirements that may not reflect the use of the system by its intended users.. The tests are written in order to check if the application behaves as expected. before the software goes to beta testing. beta versions are made available to the open public to increase the feedback field to a maximal number of future users users. Acceptance Test (UAT: User Acceptance Testing)  Whole system is exercised with data reflecting use of the system by its intended  Beta testing Beta testing comes after alpha testing and can be considered a form of external user acceptance testing. This testing is done if User Interface of the application stands an important consideration and needs to be specific for the specific type of user.  Often small groups of users participate in acceptance testing in an effort to provide a more realistic trial of the software.  The test designer selects valid and invalid input and determines the correct output  There is no knowledge of the test object's internal structure. are released to a limited audience outside of the programming team.21-Apr-13 Testing Phases contd. Versions of the software.  Load Testing This testing is also called as „Testing for User -Friendliness‟.

Leave user ID and password blank and click on enter 8. a skilled tester is needed to carry out this type of testing. Conditions given are your user ID should be Alphanumeric and less than Length of 30 characters and password should be Alphanumeric and special characters and its 4.Try to enter password less than 3 characters 11. which can bring in hidden defects.Enter right user ID and right password 2. It may take many test cases to determine that a requirement is fully satisfied.Enter wrong ID and right password 5.) “BLACK BOX” TESTING SELECTED INPUTS RESULTANT OUTPUTS INTERNAL BEHAVIOR “WHITE BOX” TESTING DESIRED OUTPUT SOFTWARE DESIGN • Identifying an efficient Team Mix for Testing Exercise 2 Login Test Cases Exercise 2 Login Test Cases 1.21-Apr-13 White Box Testing White-box Testing – Advantages/Disadvantages Advantages  As the knowledge of internal coding structure is prerequisite.Try to enter special characters in the user ID box 9. in optimizing the code  The other advantage of white box testing is that it helps  It helps in removing the extra lines of code.DO not enter user ID and enter password 6. which may create problems. which increases the cost.Try to enter password greater than 12 characters 12.  And it is nearly impossible to look into every bit of code to find out hidden errors. it becomes very easy to find out which type of input/data can help in testing the application effectively.Try to enter user ID greater than 30 characters 10. Disadvantages  As knowledge of code and internal structure is a …our goal is to ensure that all statements and conditions have been executed at least once… prerequisite.Enter right ID and wrong password You have an account on Gmail and you need to login to the same.Enter wrong ID and wrong password 3.Check if the Password is masked by asterisk Length should be > 3 and <12. resulting in failure of the application Black Box vs. • Test cases are often incorrectly referred to as test scripts.Enter user ID and DO NOT enter password 7. Password should be masked by asterisk 22 . White Box Testing Test Cases • A test case in software engineering is a set of conditions or variables under which a tester will determine if a requirement or use case upon an application is SELECTED INPUTS RESULTANT OUTPUTS DESIRED OUTPUT partially or fully satisfied. • Need to decided which bugs to be given priority (UI / functional etc.

Checking for Quality 6. enroll employee in company Business processes Examples of functional business processes – Manufacturing and production • Assembling the product (raw materials. Printing of letters 3. Filing of document in a filing cabinet 5. offer letter to candidate. collect resumes. accounting. interview candidates.21-Apr-13 Business processes • Business processes – Sets of activities. rank candidates. steps – May be tied to functional area or be cross-functional (e. Leave application by employee 4.g. eating Italian food at a high end bistro) Types of IS Shivani Parikh • • Businesses: Can be seen as collection of business processes Business processes are at the heart of every business Examples of Business processes: • • Applying for a driver‟s license at the RTO Hiring a new employee – this can be broken into various steps such as placing ads in newspaper and online. quality) Exercise 1 Identify which of the following are processes and which are not: 1. Ordering for stationary in an organization – Sales and marketing • Identifying customers (cold calling) – Finance and accounting • Creating financial statements (P&L. 23 . Annual reports) – Human resources • Hiring employees Exercise 1 Processes • • • Leave application by employee Checking for Quality Ordering for stationary in an Business Processes and Information Systems The Order Fulfillment Process Non-processes • • • Scanning documents Printing of letters Filing of document in a filing cabinet organization Fulfilling a customer order involves a complex set of steps that requires the close coordination of the sales. contact employment agencies. Balance sheet. Scanning documents 2. leave application. and manufacturing functions. make employment decision. review resumes. production. Ordering a hamburger at McDonalds.

selling the products and services. development and maintenance of production facilities. disbursement. bank statements) Types of IS (functional perspective) Each firm has a different system for conducting e-mail campaigns to ads placed on Google. payment to book ordering) – Replace sequential steps with parallel steps (pay before drink. Increasing efficiency of existing processes – Automating steps that were manual (password management systems. (robotics) Acquisition. Enabling entirely new processes that are capable of transforming the businesses – Change flow of information making it more possible for more people to access and share information (Amazon. pay and 1.g. storage and availability of production materials (RFID) Scheduling of equipment. taking orders and following up on sales Sales and marketing systems • • • • Help monitor trends. Manufacturing and production systems 3. Finance and accounting systems 4. balance enquiry in call center. maintaining records on existing employees and creating programs to develop employees talents and skills. online service by ICICI) Examples: POS devices Finance and accounting systems (F&A systems) • Finance is responsible for managing the firms financial assets such as cash. Human resources systems park) – Eliminate delays in decision making Sales and Marketing systems • • Sales and marketing are responsible for selling the organizations products and services Marketing is concerned with identifying the customers for firms products and services. stocks. planning and developing products and services to meet their needs and advertising and promoting these products and services Manufacturing and production systems • Manufacturing and production functions is responsible for actually producing the firms goods and services Manufacturing and production systems deal with the following: • • • Planning. bonds. Onida gave cell phones to sales agents) Processing orders • products Example: Inventory Management System • • Providing Customer service support (e. • • • Also responsible for managing capitalization of the firm To determine whether the firm is getting best ROI Accounting function is responsible for maintaining records like receipts.21-Apr-13 Business Processes and Information Systems Information technology enhances business processes in two main ways: 1. depreciation. to keeping an account for flow of funds within the firm • Senior Management uses F&A systems to establish long term investment goals and long term forecasts on firms financial performance • Middle Management uses F&A systems to oversee and control firms financial resources • Operational Management uses F&A systems to track flow of funds in a firm through transactions such as payroll. facilities. analyzing advertising and promotional campaigns (Italian restaurant in LA did analysis of trends) Helps locating prospective customers (e. security reports and receipts Human resources systems • HR is responsible for attracting. determining what customers need or want. passport office forms. Systems from a functional perspective 2. • Example: Online Training 24 . materials and labor required to finish • Sales is concerned with contacting the customers.g. Sales and Marketing 2.g. developing and maintaining the firms workforce • HR information systems help in identifying potential employees. payroll. sms on cell phones) Tracking sales (e.

Transaction Processing Systems 2.21-Apr-13 Types of IS (constituency perspective) Systems from a constituency perspective Transaction processing systems Transaction processing systems 1. hotel reservation. System outputs include online and hard-copy reports for management and employee paychecks. structured goals and decision making • TPS are so central to a business that TPS failure for a few hours can lead to a firm‟s demise and perhaps other firms linked to it TPS Example A Payroll TPS Management information systems • • • Serve middle management Principle question addressed by MIS is “Are things working well?” Provide reports on firm‟s current performance. Management Information Systems 3. payroll. air tickets reservation • Allow managers to monitor status of operations and relations with external environment • Serve operational levels • Serve predefined. Decision Support Systems 4. Typically have little analytic capability Example: Tickets sold on each route Sample MIS Report Decision support systems • Decision support systems • • Serve middle management Support non-routine decision making – Example: What is impact on production schedule if December sales doubled? • Often use external information as well from TPS and MIS 25 . Executive Support Systems • Perform and record daily routine transactions necessary to conduct business – Examples: sales order entry. and predict future performance based on data from TPS that are produced on regular schedule • • The basic data from TPS are compressed and usually presented in reports Provide answers to routine questions with predefined procedure for answering them • • A TPS for payroll processing captures employee payment transaction data (such as a time card).

cash flow. accounts payable. and insight • Incorporate data about external events (e. systems analysts. also includes chief security officer (CSO) and chief knowledge officer (CKO) – Separate department under central control – Each division has separate group but all under central control End-users: – Representatives of other departments. accounts receivable. information systems managers Information Systems Function in Business • Small firm may not have formal information systems group • Larger companies typically have separate department which may be organized along one of several different lines: – Decentralized (within each functional area) – Often headed by chief information officer (CIO). evaluation.21-Apr-13 Executive support systems • Support senior management • Address non-routine decisions requiring judgment.g. for whom applications are developed Organization of the Information Systems Function Organization of the Information Systems Function 26 . and inventory Systems from a constituency perspective • Transaction processing systems: supporting operational level employees • Management information systems and decision-support systems: supporting managers (middle management) • Executive support systems: supporting executives (senior management) Information Systems Function in Business Information systems department: – Formal organizational unit responsible for information technology services – Includes programmers. project leaders. new tax laws or competitors) as well as summarized information from internal MIS and DSS • Example: ESS that provides minute-to-minute view of firm‟s financial performance as measured by working capital.

and/or (e. • This means that the operator needs to provide minimal input to achieve the desired output. designing a website for heart attack or diabetes . AC.g. On some systems icons represent files (word. allowing the system to indicate the effects of the users' manipulation • Goal is to produce a user interface which makes it easy. paste. ATM) – Output. and • • – e. plane) Poor user interface design is the reason why so many software systems are never used Graphical User interface (GUI) Characteristics Description Multiple windows allow different information to be displayed simultaneously on the users screen Icons represent different types of information.g.g. copy. Computer – explain how are User interface • User interfaces should be designed to match the skills. experience and expectations of its anticipated users these used) • The user interface includes hardware (physical) and software (logical) components • User interfaces provide a means of: – Input. and also that the machine minimizes undesired outputs to the users • (e.old people prefer fewer clicks and tend to focus more on bullets.g. PowerPoint) in some they represent Process (e. allowing the users to manipulate a system. delete) Commands are selected from a menu A pointing device such as mouse is used for selecting choices from a menu or indicating items of interest in a Window (which others are available) Graphical elements can be mixed with text on the same display security Windows Icons Menu history Pointing Graphics 27 .g. efficient. tables – E. Washing Machine. designing a website for a city‟s public transportation system System users often judge a system by its interface rather than its functionality (discuss about NMIMS placement cell example) A poorly designed interface can cause a user to make catastrophic errors enjoyable to operate a machine in the way which produces the desired result. excel.21-Apr-13 Organization of the Information Systems Function Usability Shivani Parikh User interface • A user interface is a collection of techniques and mechanisms to interact with machines (e.g.

(e. Error message “are you sure you want to delete”) Websites work anyway. inappropriate alarms and messages can increase stress and hence the likelihood of more mistakes (e. • In this presentation we‟ll bring some examples of good and bad design (and some smart solutions to the bad ones) The question is not whether they do. some like text Real life usability • People are trying to make things easier to use for a long time now. deaf) • People have different interaction preferences Some like pictures. It is how GOOD they are! 28 . If you present more than this. they are more liable to make mistakes • People make mistakes When people make mistakes and systems go wrong.g. don‟t they? Yes. but… • People are different People have a wide range of physical capabilities.g. how fast can a travel agent book tickets) Usability problems are difficult to quantify – Memorability – Error frequency and severity – Subjective satisfaction Human factors in interface design • Limited short-term memory People can instantaneously remember about 7 items of information.21-Apr-13 Usability • Usability refers to how well users can learn and use a product to achieve Why is it so hard? • It‟s common practice between developers to postpone non-technical their goals and how satisfied they are with that process • Usability is closely related to ease of use • Usability is a combination of factors including: • problems to the end. But then it‟s too late to make changes Many usability problems are considered peripheral – Ease of learning – Efficiency of use (e. Blind.g. Designers should not just design for their own capabilities.

Is this usable? When trying to open this file cabinet users found themselves pulling the handle on the top (See arrow).21-Apr-13 Which design makes it easier to match the knob to the plate? People generally don‟t comply to pre defined paths… Either drink or hear music ! The emit street of lights the yellow light instead white more typical bluish The problem is that sometimes it is difficult to tell whether a light is a yellow street light or a yellow traffic light. Guess what happened? 29 .

experience and capabilities of the system users • Designers should be aware of people‟s physical and mental limitations and should recognise that people make mistakes • UI design principles underlie interface designs although not all principles are applicable to all designs 30 .21-Apr-13 WHY? Is that clear that you can turn right when the red lights are on? UI design principles • UI design must take account of the needs.

TurboTax changed words from Accounts receivables and Accounts Payable to cash in and cash out) The interface should be consistent in that. wherever possible.21-Apr-13 UI design principles Principle Description The interface should use terms and concepts which are drawn from the experience of the people who will make most use of the System (e. Shopping Cart. • Copied & pasted his text into his trusty text editor. soft deletes) The interface should provide meaningful feedback when errors occur and provide context-sensitive user help facilities (user manuals.. comparable operations should be activated in the same way Users should never be surprised by the behaviour of system The interface should include mechanisms to allow users to recover from errors (UNDO. MS have files. or “people off the street” – Just sketch or prototype and ask your neighbor When trying to report user‟s passport lost to the relevant UK Government agency.g. where he found out he had written 170 characters Passport Office example contd.g. documents as words. folders. online help) The interface should provide appropriate interaction facilities for different types of system user Design issues in UIs • Two problems must be addressed in interactive systems design – How should information from the user be provided to the computer system? – How should information from the computer system be presented to the user? User familiarity Consistency Minimal surprise Recoverability • User interaction and information presentation should be integrated User guidance User diversity How do you get good usability • Ask the users! (e. banking users do not want mouse functionality.Examples Passport Office – “Guess a Number” • The 50-cent usability test – Usually 5-6 people is enough. call centers need head phones. will start to see consensus – Don‟t need formal usability lab. What principle has been broken? If you‟re going to tell someone they‟ve done something wrong you have the responsibility to tell them exactly what it is they‟ve done wrong. and how they can remedy it most easily 31 . only to be told that it could only be max 90 characters Passport Office example contd. washable keyboard) Usability Mistakes . user wrote his explanation in a box..

. (e. – To make matters worse. Had it been black it would make users read again. and I‟ve made a quantifiable “error”. Tell me I‟ve written 170 characters. at least give me specific feedback so that I can quantify by how far out I am. When I see a <textarea>.e. traffic signals) • If you‟re going to use a convention. I think I have plenty of scope to write.g. What they’ve done wrong What should they have done? • They‟ve used a web convention (asterisk to denote required field). but in the opposite way to its conventional use. by limiting the max length parameter of a field If you can‟t manage any of these. Placing the buttons on the tabs themselves. • In general print. show the ones that are required. Whenever user sees a red asterisk on a form. If the buttons are placed outside of the set of tabs. • If they want to distinguish for their users which fields are required. you can use an asterisk to refer to a footnote or similar additional minor comment. use it conventionally. What could have been done better? • There are several things the designers could have done to make this situation more manageable Example 2 Customer Support • • Ideally. the user can correctly consider those buttons as controlling the entire set of tabs. the asterisk is also rendered in red. don‟t limit the maximum length for an important free-text input like this to something so little as 90 characters. so in theory it can mean anything. If you do have technical or design limitations for space. so I know I need to cut it down by 50%. confuses the users as to the consequence of selecting the buttons. which is the universal color for alert/ danger / important. Don‟t let the user make a mistake in the first place. saying "43 characters left".21-Apr-13 Passport Office example contd. • • • Show a Javascript-powered counter. not the ones that aren‟t • But there are 2 problems here: – One is that the web convention is to use asterisks to denote required fields. don‟t give them a text area to do it. he/she assumes 100% that it means “required”. You just have to look at the comment. i. 32 .

. How many users want these? Many users are intimidated by computers Users can‟t control the mouse well • What‟s the problem? – sub-optimal pointing devices – bad conditions (dirty.) vs . demo version) – Too busy / distracted / impatient “Users don‟t read anything” – Spolsky – advanced / too busy – novice hope defaults are ok – in-between try to read but get confused • floating menu bar huge system tray vs . or cheap mouse. old. . – in a hurry vs (no dialog) Which is better for an intimidated user? .. Don‟t tax the user‟s memory • • Make objects. and options visible User should not have to remember (too much) information Some bad designs adaptive menu office “assistant” 33 . arthritis. old. crowded desk) – medical disabilities (young.21-Apr-13 Too much freedom is dangerous Make explanations brief • “Users don‟t read the manual” – Spolsky – May not have the manual (on airplane. actions.

Too many tabs… A smart solution! 34 .21-Apr-13 Terrible Designs….

Visual perception color constancy 2. but many use it for lists font spacing: color-blind: 8% of men. get predesigned card. the more people can use it • 10% more usable  50% more users Activity-based UI • Two ways of designing UI: 1. What activities will users do? – Greeting card example: birthday greeting. the easier you make the program. anniversary greeting (leads to unexpected features: remind to send next year) • Example: – Excel was designed for financial number-crunching.5% of women Conclusion • • Usability testing should be an ongoing concern of every designer. What features should be there? – Greeting card example: send by email. add picture. party invitation. 0. print add text. Making things easier to use can‟t be prejudicial … Thank you! 35 .21-Apr-13 The bell curve • Users lie on a bell curve – 98% can use a TV – 70% can use Windows – 15% can use Linux – 1% can program After accepting Word’s suggestion see what you get! • Users are not dolts • But.

e. The content is up-to-date. . commas for 1000s. The site is free of typographic errors and spelling mistakes. a passport number.e.g. when a form is incomplete. no Section508. For optimal website usability don't place important information in images as it might go unnoticed. no numbers. IRCTC Provide “thank you” when forms are submitted • • • • • Error prevention: Even better than good error messages is a careful design which prevents a problem from occurring in the first place. Users do not need to enter characters like £ or % • • • • • • Field labels on forms clearly explain what entries are desired Text boxes on forms are the right length for the expected answer There is a clear distinction between "required" and "optional" fields on forms Forms pre-warn the user if external information is needed for completion (e. dates) and output (e. Usability Guidelines • • • • • • • • • Usability Guidelines • Effect of Domain Name Extensions (i. units of values). SSN no) Pull-down testimonials) to verify the accuracy of information.g.g.g. • • Navigation-only pages (such as the home page) can be viewed without scrolling Avoid Plug-ins Usability Guidelines • • • • • Restrictions must not be placed on users Impossible to e-mail the link to someone else Problems with printing (pages should be in printable format) Users feel trapped if external links open in the same window The site automatically enters field formatting data (e. When we scan web pages certain items stand out: – Headings. authoritative and trustworthy. the cursor is placed where the input is needed. We generally don't read pages word-for-word . PAN no. .g. There is a visible change when the mouse points at something clickable The site makes it easy to correct errors (e.). radio buttons and check boxes are used in preference to text entry fields on forms (i. we see text before we see images on the Most Users Do Not Scroll Blue Is The Best Color For Links The Ideal Search Box Is 27-Characters Wide White Space Improves Comprehension Effective User Testing Doesn‟t Have To Be Extensive Banner blindness Quality Of Design Is An Indicator Of Credibility Warn people when a task will take longer than a few seconds. With data entry screens. citations. positioning the cursor at the location where correction is required). The need for instructions generally indicates bad design Color Blindness Photographs of people can induce trustworthiness by adding a „human touch‟ Effect of Font Size Internet. E. Forms allow users to stay with a single interaction method for as long as possible • • • • • • • • • • The site makes it easy to correct errors (e.g. positioning the cursor at the location where correction is required) Delivery costs are highlighted at the very beginning of checkout. Usability Guidelines • • Data formats are clearly indicated for input (e.g. Bold trailing or leading spaces).21-Apr-13 Usability Guidelines • Form Labels Work Best Above The Field The F-Shape Pattern • Nielsen‟s eye tracking research has demonstrated that users read web content in an F-shaped pattern. Link text.g. Bulleted lists • Did you notice that images were left out of that list? Contrary to the way in which we read printed matter. short domain names e. text entry fields are not overused). • The F-shape reading pattern refers to the viewing order: users start by reading across the top line and then look down the page a little and read across again and then continue down the left side. The site avoids extensive use of upper case text No horizontal scrolling should ever be given URL > 75 Characters 36 . currency symbols.6 seconds is the maximum time web users will wait for a page to download We read web pages in a different manner to the way we read printed matter. The site contains third-party support (e.instead we scan web pages. when a form is is still ok since its meaningful • • Usability studies have shown that 8.

but they also should have a secondary visual cue for color-blind users. bold text. Especially in the case of missing or incorrect data in forms. They do not need to include full sentences or the word “please”. Detailed Photos • • • • • • • • Photo details • The left photo is from the whitehouse. not shown as pop-ups. This helps users find errors Usability Guidelines Error Messages • All error messages should contain 2 parts: – a description of the problem – what the user needs to do to fix it Error messages should be written in the user‟s language and should be easy to understand. then receive more error messages. Inflexible Search Engines 37 . re-select Save or Submit. let alone which one. Error messages in a form can be red. They should have a specified style to enhance predictability and professionalism of the site or application. which usually does a great job with small images on the homepage. • This photo illustrated a story about flooding. even though the image is only 65 x 49 pixels. in this case. President. In long forms. Error messages should not make the user feel stupid. You can't even really tell that they're in a park. keeping the errors within the page provides the users with context for the errors where and when they need it. field-level error messages should appear both at the top of the page in a summary and within the page.S. Error messages should validate all errors on a screen at once. One example is to use red. Error messages should be displayed in context. Error messages should be concise. Ensure that language is not accusatory or blaming. To the extent possible. No Prices No B2C ecommerce site should make this mistake • If I hadn't told you that. users should not have to fix a problem. next to the fields with errors. Error messages should be consistent in look and behavior. It shows the U. • The right photo is from cnn. and the Director of the National Park Service walking in the Santa Monica mountains. the Secretary of the Interior. you can clearly see what's going on. Small Thumbnail Images of Big. you wouldn't have known by looking at the thumbnail: It's just a photo of three site.

without any distractions or means of leaving the page. This keeps the user focused on the sign-up process.21-Apr-13 Exercise The Basecamp sign-up page has a smart trick. Exercise Exercise Exercise Exercise left-aligned labels 38 . It has no website navigation aside from a home-page link.

21-Apr-13 Exercise Exercise Exercise 39 .