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**Hata and CCÌR Formulas
**

1

» Following extensive measurements of urban and suburban radio propagation losses,

Okumura et al. published many empirical curves useful for cellular systems planning.

These empirical curves were subsequently reduced to a convenient set of »

formulas known as the Hata model that are widely used in the industry.

» The basic formula for the median propagation loss given by Hata is

(dB) log log a( ) L = 60.òò ÷ 26.16 ) ÷ 18.82 / ÷ /

10 10 1 2

( log ) log K ÷ 44.0 ÷ 6.òò / d ÷

10 1 10

where and are base station and mobile antenna heights in meters, respectively, / /

1 2

d )

is the link distance in kilometers, is the center frequency in megahertz

The term a( ) is an antenna height-gain correction factor that depends upon the » /

2

environment

The factor K is used to correct the small city formula for suburban and open »

areas

**From J. S. Lee and L. E. Miller, . Boston: Artech House, 1998. CDMA Systems Engineering Handbook
**

2

Hata Model Parameters

Type of area a( )

open ( log ) log log

suburban ( log ) log

/ 1

1.1 ) ÷ 0.7 / 4.78 ) ÷ 18.88 ) ÷ 40.04

÷ 1.ò0 ) ÷ 0.8 2 ) ¸28 ÷ ò.

4

0

) 400) 8.2 11.7ò/ ÷ 4.07 0

medium-small city

large city ( (log )

» 1ò The category of "large city¨ used by Hata implies building heights greater than m.

» 8ò0 At the cellular frequency of MHz, the Hata model becomes

L log log a( ) log = 146.18 ÷ (44.0 ÷ 6.òò / ) d ÷ / ÷ 18.82 / ÷ 1

Hata 10 / 10 /: : 10 /

where

Type of area a( )

open

suburban

medium-small city

large city (log )

/ 1

28.26

2.ò2 / ÷ 8.77 0.70

0

8.2 11.7ò/ ÷ 4.07 0

:

:

10 :

2

3

CCÌR Model

» An empirical formula for the combined effects of free-space path loss and terrain-

induced path loss was published by the CCÌR (Comité Consultatif Ìnternational des

Radio-Communication, now ÌTU-R) and is given by

(dB) log log a( ) L = 60.òò ÷ 26.16 ) ÷ 18.82 / ÷ /

10 10 1 2

( log ) log B ÷ 44.0 ÷ 6.òò / d ÷

10 1 10

where and are base station and mobile antenna heights in meters, respectively, / /

1 2

d )

is the link distance in kilometers, is the center frequency in megahertz, and

( log ) ( log ) a( ) = 1.1 ) ÷ 0.7 / ÷ 1.ò6 ) ÷ 0.8 /

2 10 2 10

log (% of area covered by buildings) B = 80 ÷ 2ò

10

» This formula is the Hata model for medium÷small city propagation conditions,

supplemented with a correction factor, B.

The term B is such that the correction B 0 is applied for an urban area, one » =

that is about % covered by buildings; for example, if % of the area is covered by 1ò 20

buildings, then B log dB. = 80 ÷ 2ò 20 = ÷2.ò

10

4

The Extended Hata Model

» 1.ò 2 For urban PCS applications at ÷ GHz, it was found by a European study

committee (COST 231) that the Hata model consistently underestimates path loss,

and an "extended Hata model¨ was developed to correct the situation.

» The basic formula for the median propagation loss in dB given by extended Hata

propagation loss model is

log log log L = 46.88 ÷ (44.0 ÷ 6.òò / ) d ÷ 88.0 )

AHata 10 / 10 /: 10 'H:

a( ) log , ÷ / ÷ 18.82 / ÷ C

: 10 /

where

.

medium city and suburban areas

, metropolitan (urban) centers

= C

0,

8

_

» The ranges of parameters for which this model is considered valid are the following:

1ò00 _ ) _ 2000 80 _ / _ 200

'H: /

. 1 _ d _ 10 1 _ / _ 10

/: :

5

Walfisch-Ìkegami Model

» Ìn Europe, research under the Cooperation in the Field of Scientific and Technical

Research (COST) program has developed improved empirical and semideterministic

models for mobile radio propagation.

» Ìn particular, Project 231 (COST 231), entitled "Evolution of Land Mobile Radio

Communications,¨ resulted in the adoption of propagation modeling recommendations

for cellular and PCS applications by the Ìnternational Telecommunications Union

(ÌTU), including a semideterministic model for medium-to-large cells in built-up areas

that is called the Walfisch-Ìkegami model.

» The Walfisch-Ìkegami model (WÌM) has been shown to be a good fit to measured

propagation data for frequencies in the range of to , MHz and path distances 800 2 000

in the range of to km. 0.02 ò

6

Walfisch-Ìkegami model (continued)

» The WÌM distinguishes between LOS and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) propagation

situations.

» Ìn a LOS situation, there is no obstruction in the direct path between the transmitter

and the receiver, and the WÌM models the propagation loss in dB by the equation

log log , L = 42.64 ÷ 26 d ÷ 20 ) d _ 0.02

1Oo 10 /: 10 'H: /:

Note that the propagation law (power of distance) for the LOS situation is »

modeled as being , so that L . 26¸10 = 2.6 · d

1Oo

2.0

This model assumes that the base station antenna height ( m) ensures that » _ 80

the path has a high degree of Fresnel zone clearance. Recall that the propagation

loss in free space is given by

log log L = 82.4ò ÷ 20 d ÷ 20 )

)- 10 /: 10 'H:

The LOS propagation loss can be written as »

L L log L log L log = ÷ 10.10 ÷ 6 d = ÷ 6 ò0 d = ÷ 6 d ¸20

1Oo )- 10 /: )- 10 /: )- 10 :

( ) ( )

7

» For NLOS path situations, the WÌM gives the path loss using the following parameters:

Base antenna height over street level, in meters ( to m) = 4 ò0 /

/

Mobile station antenna height in meters ( to m) = 1 8 /

:

Nominal height of building roofs in meters = /

1

Height of base antenna above rooftops in meters = / ÷ / = /

/ / 1

Height of mobile antenna below rooftops in meters = / ÷ / = /

: 1 :

Building separation in meters ( to m recommended if no data) = 20 ò0 /

Width of street ( recommended if no data) = /¸2 n

Angle of incident wave with respect to street (use ° if no data) = 00

Street level

Buildings

Base antenna

Mobile

antenna

∆

8

Walfisch-Ìkegami model (continued)

» Ìn the absence of data, building height in meters may be estimated by three times the

number of floors, plus m if the roof is pitched instead of flat. The model works best 8

for base antennas well above the roof height.

» Using the parameters listed above, for NLOS propagation paths the WÌM gives the

following expression for the path loss in dB:

L

L L L , L L

L , L L

=

÷ ÷ ÷ _ 0

÷ < 0

`1Oo

)- rt- :d- rt- :d-

)- rt- :d-

_

where

L Free-space loss log log = = 82.4ò ÷ 20 d ÷ 20 )

)- 10 /: 10 'H:

L Roof-to-street diffraction and scatter loss, and =

rt-

L Multiscreen diffraction loss =

:-d

» The loss terms L and L are functions of the NLOS parameters shown previously.

rt- :-d

9

» The formula given for L involves an orientation loss, L :

rt- ori

L log log log L = ÷16.0 ÷ 10 n ÷ 10 ) ÷ 20 / ÷

rt- 10 10 'H: 10 : ori

where L

°

° ° °

° ° °

=

÷10 ÷ 0.8ò4 , 0 _ _ 8ò

2.ò ÷ 0.07ò( ÷ 8ò ), 8ò _ _ òò

4.0 ÷ 0.114( ÷ òò ), òò _ _ 00

ori

_

_

_

10

» The formula given for the multiscreen diffraction loss term L is

:-d

L log log log L = ÷ / ÷ / d ÷ / ) ÷ 0 /

:-d /-/ a d 10 /: ) 10 'H: 10

» Ìn this expression, L is shadowing gain (negative loss) that occurs when the base

/-/

station antenna is higher than the rooftops:

L

log

=

÷18 (1 ÷ / ), / 0

0, / _ 0

/-/

10 / /

/

_

**» / / / / L decreases for wider building separation ( ). The quantities , , and deter-
**

:-d a d )

mine the dependence of the loss on the distance ( ) and the frequency ( ). d )

/: 'H:

» / The term in the formula for the multiscreen diffraction loss is given by

a

and

and

= /

ò4, / 0

ò4 ÷ 0.8 / , / _ 0 d _ 0.ò

ò4 ÷ 0.8 / (d ¸0.ò), / _ 0 d < 0.ò

a

/

/ / /:

/ /: / /:

_

_

_

[ [

[ [

This relation results in a -dB loss term if the base station antenna is above the ò4

rooftops ), but more than dB if it is below the rooftops. The increase from ( / 0 ò4

/

ò4 ò00 dB is less if the link distance is rather small (less than m).

11

» / The distance factor in the formula for L is given by

d :-d

= /

18, / 0

18 ÷ 1ò ( / ¸/ ), / _ 0

d

/

/ 1 /

_

[ [

L increases with distance at dB/decade if the base antenna is above the » 18

:-d

rooftops ( ). But if the antenna is below the rooftops, the increase is higher / 0

/

( , dB per decade when it is only % as high as the buildings ( ). c.q. 80 20 / ¸/ = 0.8

/ 1

» / The frequency factor in the formula for the multiscreen diffraction loss is given by

)

medium city and suburban

, metropolitan area

= ÷4 ÷ /

0.7 ÷ 1 ,

1.ò ÷ 1

)

)

92ò

)

92ò

_

j ¡

j ¡

**L and L together give an increase of dB per decade of frequency. The » 80
**

)- rt-

expression for indicates that this should be adjusted downward for GHz for / ) < 6.21

)

medium city and suburban environments or GHz for a metropolitan area. ) < 2.20

» 8ò0 / ÷4 For a typical cellular frequency of MHz, the value of is about dB for either

)

situation, so the total dependence on frequency for the -MHz cellular band is about 800

26 dB per decade.

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