# 1

Hata and CCÌR Formulas
1
» Following extensive measurements of urban and suburban radio propagation losses,
Okumura et al. published many empirical curves useful for cellular systems planning.
These empirical curves were subsequently reduced to a convenient set of »
formulas known as the Hata model that are widely used in the industry.
» The basic formula for the median propagation loss given by Hata is
(dB) log log a( ) L = 60.òò ÷ 26.16 ) ÷ 18.82 / ÷ /
10 10 1 2
( log ) log K ÷ 44.0 ÷ 6.òò / d ÷
10 1 10
where and are base station and mobile antenna heights in meters, respectively, / /
1 2
d )

is the link distance in kilometers, is the center frequency in megahertz
The term a( ) is an antenna height-gain correction factor that depends upon the » /
2
environment
The factor K is used to correct the small city formula for suburban and open »
areas

From J. S. Lee and L. E. Miller, . Boston: Artech House, 1998. CDMA Systems Engineering Handbook
2
Hata Model Parameters
Type of area a( )
open ( log ) log log
suburban ( log ) log
/ 1
1.1 ) ÷ 0.7 / 4.78 ) ÷ 18.88 ) ÷ 40.04
÷ 1.ò0 ) ÷ 0.8 2 ) ¸28 ÷ ò.

4
0
) 400) 8.2 11.7ò/ ÷ 4.07 0
medium-small city
large city ( (log )

» 1ò The category of "large city¨ used by Hata implies building heights greater than m.
» 8ò0 At the cellular frequency of MHz, the Hata model becomes
L log log a( ) log = 146.18 ÷ (44.0 ÷ 6.òò / ) d ÷ / ÷ 18.82 / ÷ 1
Hata 10 / 10 /: : 10 /
where
Type of area a( )
open
suburban
medium-small city
large city (log )
/ 1
28.26
2.ò2 / ÷ 8.77 0.70
0
8.2 11.7ò/ ÷ 4.07 0
:
:
10 :
2
3
CCÌR Model
» An empirical formula for the combined effects of free-space path loss and terrain-
induced path loss was published by the CCÌR (Comité Consultatif Ìnternational des
Radio-Communication, now ÌTU-R) and is given by
(dB) log log a( ) L = 60.òò ÷ 26.16 ) ÷ 18.82 / ÷ /
10 10 1 2
( log ) log B ÷ 44.0 ÷ 6.òò / d ÷
10 1 10
where and are base station and mobile antenna heights in meters, respectively, / /
1 2
d )

is the link distance in kilometers, is the center frequency in megahertz, and
( log ) ( log ) a( ) = 1.1 ) ÷ 0.7 / ÷ 1.ò6 ) ÷ 0.8 /
2 10 2 10
log (% of area covered by buildings) B = 80 ÷ 2ò
10
» This formula is the Hata model for medium÷small city propagation conditions,
supplemented with a correction factor, B.
The term B is such that the correction B 0 is applied for an urban area, one » =
that is about % covered by buildings; for example, if % of the area is covered by 1ò 20
buildings, then B log dB. = 80 ÷ 2ò 20 = ÷2.ò
10
4
The Extended Hata Model
» 1.ò 2 For urban PCS applications at ÷ GHz, it was found by a European study
committee (COST 231) that the Hata model consistently underestimates path loss,
and an "extended Hata model¨ was developed to correct the situation.
» The basic formula for the median propagation loss in dB given by extended Hata
propagation loss model is
log log log L = 46.88 ÷ (44.0 ÷ 6.òò / ) d ÷ 88.0 )
AHata 10 / 10 /: 10 'H:
a( ) log , ÷ / ÷ 18.82 / ÷ C
: 10 /
where
.
medium city and suburban areas
, metropolitan (urban) centers
= C
0,
8
_
» The ranges of parameters for which this model is considered valid are the following:
1ò00 _ ) _ 2000 80 _ / _ 200
'H: /
. 1 _ d _ 10 1 _ / _ 10
/: :
5
Walfisch-Ìkegami Model
» Ìn Europe, research under the Cooperation in the Field of Scientific and Technical
Research (COST) program has developed improved empirical and semideterministic
» Ìn particular, Project 231 (COST 231), entitled "Evolution of Land Mobile Radio
Communications,¨ resulted in the adoption of propagation modeling recommendations
for cellular and PCS applications by the Ìnternational Telecommunications Union
(ÌTU), including a semideterministic model for medium-to-large cells in built-up areas
that is called the Walfisch-Ìkegami model.
» The Walfisch-Ìkegami model (WÌM) has been shown to be a good fit to measured
propagation data for frequencies in the range of to , MHz and path distances 800 2 000
in the range of to km. 0.02 ò
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Walfisch-Ìkegami model (continued)
» The WÌM distinguishes between LOS and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) propagation
situations.
» Ìn a LOS situation, there is no obstruction in the direct path between the transmitter
and the receiver, and the WÌM models the propagation loss in dB by the equation
log log , L = 42.64 ÷ 26 d ÷ 20 ) d _ 0.02
1Oo 10 /: 10 'H: /:
Note that the propagation law (power of distance) for the LOS situation is »
modeled as being , so that L . 26¸10 = 2.6 · d
1Oo
2.0
This model assumes that the base station antenna height ( m) ensures that » _ 80
the path has a high degree of Fresnel zone clearance. Recall that the propagation
loss in free space is given by
log log L = 82.4ò ÷ 20 d ÷ 20 )
)- 10 /: 10 'H:
The LOS propagation loss can be written as »
L L log L log L log = ÷ 10.10 ÷ 6 d = ÷ 6 ò0 d = ÷ 6 d ¸20
1Oo )- 10 /: )- 10 /: )- 10 :
( ) ( )
7
» For NLOS path situations, the WÌM gives the path loss using the following parameters:
Base antenna height over street level, in meters ( to m) = 4 ò0 /
/
Mobile station antenna height in meters ( to m) = 1 8 /
:
Nominal height of building roofs in meters = /
1
Height of base antenna above rooftops in meters = / ÷ / = /
/ / 1
Height of mobile antenna below rooftops in meters = / ÷ / = /
: 1 :
Building separation in meters ( to m recommended if no data) = 20 ò0 /
Width of street ( recommended if no data) = /¸2 n
Angle of incident wave with respect to street (use ° if no data) = 00
Street level
Buildings
Base antenna
Mobile
antenna

8
Walfisch-Ìkegami model (continued)
» Ìn the absence of data, building height in meters may be estimated by three times the
number of floors, plus m if the roof is pitched instead of flat. The model works best 8
for base antennas well above the roof height.
» Using the parameters listed above, for NLOS propagation paths the WÌM gives the
following expression for the path loss in dB:
L
L L L , L L
L , L L
=
÷ ÷ ÷ _ 0
÷ < 0
`1Oo
)- rt- :d- rt- :d-
)- rt- :d-
_
where
L Free-space loss log log = = 82.4ò ÷ 20 d ÷ 20 )
)- 10 /: 10 'H:
L Roof-to-street diffraction and scatter loss, and =
rt-
L Multiscreen diffraction loss =
:-d
» The loss terms L and L are functions of the NLOS parameters shown previously.
rt- :-d
9
» The formula given for L involves an orientation loss, L :
rt- ori
L log log log L = ÷16.0 ÷ 10 n ÷ 10 ) ÷ 20 / ÷
rt- 10 10 'H: 10 : ori

where L
°
° ° °
° ° °
=
÷10 ÷ 0.8ò4 , 0 _ _ 8ò
2.ò ÷ 0.07ò( ÷ 8ò ), 8ò _ _ òò
4.0 ÷ 0.114( ÷ òò ), òò _ _ 00
ori
_
_
_

10
» The formula given for the multiscreen diffraction loss term L is
:-d
L log log log L = ÷ / ÷ / d ÷ / ) ÷ 0 /
:-d /-/ a d 10 /: ) 10 'H: 10
» Ìn this expression, L is shadowing gain (negative loss) that occurs when the base
/-/
station antenna is higher than the rooftops:
L
log
=
÷18 (1 ÷ / ), / 0
0, / _ 0
/-/
10 / /
/
_

» / / / / L decreases for wider building separation ( ). The quantities , , and deter-
:-d a d )
mine the dependence of the loss on the distance ( ) and the frequency ( ). d )
/: 'H:
» / The term in the formula for the multiscreen diffraction loss is given by
a
and
and
= /
ò4, / 0
ò4 ÷ 0.8 / , / _ 0 d _ 0.ò
ò4 ÷ 0.8 / (d ¸0.ò), / _ 0 d < 0.ò
a
/
/ / /:
/ /: / /:
_
_
_
[ [
[ [

This relation results in a -dB loss term if the base station antenna is above the ò4
rooftops ), but more than dB if it is below the rooftops. The increase from ( / 0 ò4
/
ò4 ò00 dB is less if the link distance is rather small (less than m).
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» / The distance factor in the formula for L is given by
d :-d
= /
18, / 0
18 ÷ 1ò ( / ¸/ ), / _ 0
d
/
/ 1 /
_
[ [

L increases with distance at dB/decade if the base antenna is above the » 18
:-d
rooftops ( ). But if the antenna is below the rooftops, the increase is higher / 0
/
( , dB per decade when it is only % as high as the buildings ( ). c.q. 80 20 / ¸/ = 0.8
/ 1
» / The frequency factor in the formula for the multiscreen diffraction loss is given by
)

medium city and suburban
, metropolitan area
= ÷4 ÷ /
0.7 ÷ 1 ,
1.ò ÷ 1
)
)
92ò
)
92ò
_
j ¡
j ¡

L and L together give an increase of dB per decade of frequency. The » 80
)- rt-
expression for indicates that this should be adjusted downward for GHz for / ) < 6.21
)
medium city and suburban environments or GHz for a metropolitan area. ) < 2.20
» 8ò0 / ÷4 For a typical cellular frequency of MHz, the value of is about dB for either
)
situation, so the total dependence on frequency for the -MHz cellular band is about 800