Preparation of Colloids

Lyophilic Colloids Because of the affinity of the lyophilic colloids for the dispersion medium these colloids are relatively easy to form. As there is a considerable interaction between the disperse phase and the dispersion medium, they form spontaneously by placing the colloidal material in contact with proper solvent. For example acacia and gelatin disperse easily to form colloidal dispersion when kept in contact with water. Hydrophobic Colloids Since there is a lack of affinity between the molecules of disperse phase and dispersion medium, lyophobic colloids are more difficult to prepare. There are three methods to prepare colloids 1. Dispersion 2. Condensation 3. Peptization

Dispersion
Dispersion can be done in three ways: 1. Physical 2. Electrical 3. Mechanical Physical Dispersion Lyophilic colloids showing affinity for dispersion medium. Hydrophilic  e.g. gum acacia and gelatin in hot water Lipophilic e.g. polysterene in benzene and pyroxylin in alcohol. Electrical dispersion Electrical current passes through/ between poles of metal submerged in water or other dispersion medium which make the particles disrupted and form colloids.e.g. colloids of Au Ag etc. Mechanical Dispersion Colloids are prepared by reducing into smaller particles. By Colloidal Mill (which consist of two parts, one is fixed and other is mobile). E.g. Colloidal Kaolin, Zinc Oxide, Sulfur etc. By irradiation cavities are formed which collapse into smaller particles

Condensation or Molecular Aggregation
Simple reaction are involved like  Oxidation

  

Reduction Hydrolysis Precipitation

Oxidation E.g. Colloidal solution of sulfur 2H2S + SO2 3S + 2H2O Reduction Colloidal solution of silver form AgNO3 with the help of various reducing agents like hydrogen tannic acid, formaldehyde etc. Hydrolysis Colloidal solution Fe(OH)3 by adding solution of ferric salts into boiling water Precipitation Colloidal solution of arsenic sulfide, H2S passes through arsenic trioxide, Resin form Tincture.

Peptization
For neutral particles charge creating agents are used e.g. Glycerin, Sucrose, Lactose, Dextrose etc. Due to charge particles repel each other and so colloids are formed.

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