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----- Original Message ----From: lorenzo To: Dai Williams ; Chris Busby Sent: Sunday, January 08, 2012

6:55 PM Subject: Re: Erics Radiation Readings

Your asking a lot of questions, so let me try to give you some answers. Regarding the Shackleton's, they normally patrol the seas on anti-shipping/submarines between 1000 and 2000 feet. However, on Grapple Yankee, there is a YouTube video of one that filmed the detonation at 8,000 feet, the height of the detonation. I know it was a Shackleton because of the wingtip. With Cumulonimbus thunderheads, they can go as high as the tropopause. In the tropics there are 'anvil' shaped clouds as an example. One of the 76 Squadron aircraft, returning to England, flew through a thunderhead at 45,000 feet over India. The up/down draft in the cloud turned it onto its back, and the aircraft lost 25,000 feet before the pilot was able to get control. Back in England, they found that the incident had cracked the mainframe of the aircraft. On Grapple Yankee the last sampling exit from the cloud was at H+143 minutes. At that time we all returned to base for decontamination. Once out of the aircraft we were in the decontamination tent for debriefing and clean up. We did not clear the area till H+5 hours. At that time there was not much left to see. The people on the ground would just see the cloud in the atmosphere. They would be unable to see the cloud that had dispersed into the Stratosphere. Regarding the development of the clouds at different levels. When Yankee detonated it sent out two pulses, the first was the Shock wave, and on the YouTube videos you see the circular clouds that develop at different altitudes, dependent on the humidity level at different altitudes. The second pulse was the detonation of the liquid plasma, which took 49 seconds before consuming the nuclear fuels. The plasma ball was perfectly round, and was 6,000 feet in diameter. When the Shock wave bounced back from the sea, it flattened the bottom of the plasma ball, spreading the base to 13,000 feet. The heat of the plasma caused it to start rising. As it ascended the edges started to roil downwards, and the ball increased its diameter to 17,000 feet (3.2 nautical miles), which I measured at 46,000 feet as it rose past us. The ball was lifting the air above it, and at one point a small white spot caught my eye directly above the ball. I turned my gaze back to the ball. The next time I looked up the white spot had spread all the way across the sky. This was the water

in the air impacting the Tropopause and freezing into a flat layer of alto stratus cloud against the bottom of the Tropopause. It was this thin layer of cloud that enabled me to see how the ball lifted the tropopause, 3 times, before it breached through. The cloud itself spread across the bottom of the stratosphere to a diameter of 60 nautical miles, when it seemed to stop spreading. At this stage the cloud was black, and the only movement I observed was the roiling at the edges. I would suggest that the reason the cloud stopped spreading, the venting into the stratosphere was acting live a safety valve. The atmospheric cloud carried on roiling while there was still energy within the cloud. Roiling stopped about H+ 30 minutes, then the sampling started. We started the initial sampling lower down through the stem. A shallow cut to check cloud temperature, and for oxygen in the cloud to sustain the engines. The roiling of the cloud sucked in oxygen for the engines, plus a lot of water. Regarding ultra fine dust from the cloud, there was an orange haze left behind by the plasma. Like a fingerprint, bit I don't know what happened to it. Hope I've answered some of your questions. Regards Joe

From: Dai Williams <> To: lorenzo <>; Chris Busby <> Sent: Friday, January 6, 2012 9:31 PM Subject: Re: Erics Radiation Readings Dear Joe and Chris Thank you very much Joe for this latest and previous reports Joe. I have been discussing these with Chris this week who has additional FOI or similar data. Chris is doing further analysis of radiation sources so I have copied him in this reply. It would be helpful if you could include him in your data and assessments. One aspect that interests me is the extent of the cloud for each test, plus spread and drift relative to ground zero. The NOAA data gives potential drift at various altitudes, though limited at the higher levels. Most of the published photographs appear to be taken in the first 10-20 minutes - classic shape nuclear clouds rather like tight cap mushrooms. Your paintings and traverse timings suggest later evolution more like a

toadstool or very flat cap mushroom. Do you have any other images of the clouds at H+60 to H+120 or H+180 minutes? Or could you sketch some now? Sounds like they mostly flattened out at the tropause. And were they largely circular, or very elongated? Curious to know how much dispersal was radial (in all directions) from the initial blast and following updraft through the stem, versus elongated by prevailing winds. The extent and duration of the cloud is relevant to rain reports at ground level. At high altitudes (temperatures down to -70C from Met data?) this must have started as freezing rain down to freezing level (typically 4-5000 metres). What was the stem and cloud made of? - ice crystals perhaps? The highest natural met equivalent might be CBs - cumulo nimbus peaks of thunder clouds, usually max to 10,000 metres. Or were there some temperature paradoxes in the clouds? Was airframe icing a problem? Incidentally what altitudes were the Shackletons typically operating at? Another question might be the extent of non-visible fallout under the cloud and around the stems - ultrafine dust rather than water vapour. As usual the hunt goes on to identify the potential dispersion, deposition and physical properties of fallout. Your original tasks were awesome Joe. Your clarity now many years later is amazing. I hope we can be in contact again over the weekend. Chris is working on a deadline for next Wednesday. Yours Dai . ----- Original Message ----From: lorenzo To: Dennis Hayden Cc: Stephen Evans ; DAI WILLIAMS Sent: Friday, January 06, 2012 9:08 PM Subject: Erics Radiation Readings

Dennis In response to your recent e-mail, are you and Shirley aware that I have all of Eric Denson's radiation readings? I logged down all the radiation readings transmitted during Grapple Yankee. It was part of my job. Sampling aircraft had to broadcast the readings every 15 seconds. In case they hit a 'hot' spot, and melted away. Back at Grapple Operations, the sampling aircraft were being tracked by radar, while they were conducting their sampling runs. If they melted away - the blips would have disappeared.

I'm sure that the radar traces were also being filmed. Over a year ago I placed a FOI request for the voice recordings of the radiation doses that had been broadcast - to be told that they did not exist. The readings, together with photocopies of my original Navigation Log. Where I recorded all the readings. Were sent to Stephen at Rosenblatt, two years ago. Together with a bunch of other materials pertinent to the tests. After 50 years my original Navigation Log is difficult to read. The lead pencil writing is falling off the paper. So I made a transcript of all the radiation readings I recorded after the detonation of Grapple Yankee. Eric's readings, broadcast by my best pal Dickie Kingdon (Eric's Navigator) are attached. This is just one page of three that I made, but it is Germaine as it focuses on Eric's Sniff Two mission. You need a translator to decipher this 'gob-baldy goop'. So here goes: HT = Height in 100 foot intervals TIC = Time in Cloud H+ = Minutes after bomb detonation R = ROMEO A Geiger counter installed in the aircraft, that recorded the 'gamma' radiation dose rate per hour. C = CHARLIE A cumulative radiation measuring meter that 'should' have provided the cumulative 'gamma' dose. (Some hope!) S = SALMON A Gas Sampling meter. When it is maxed out at 50+, the 'gamma' dose rate exceeds 200 Roentgen per hour. These readings were broadcast every 15 seconds, so you can measure how much time an aircraft was in the cloud. Eric made two cuts through the Yankee cloud. The first at H+ 68 minutes 10 seconds, at a height of 51,000 feet. The second at H+ 79 minutes 30 seconds at an incredible altitude of 53,500 feet. He would have been flying with his finger nails. No one else got near that height. Which may explain why he got the highest dose of the day. (See the radiation readings). He must have been flying a few feet away from the bottom of the tropopause, where the radiation concentration would have been at the highest level. We did not have pressure suits. It would have required major aircraft modifications to have them installed. Without them, we should not have climbed above 47,000 feet. If the cabin depressurized, we would have 'boiled' to death.

Unfortunately, there were many problems with all the radiation instruments. They did not work well, and certainly were not talking to each other. Take the first run. The SALMON instrument was asleep and recorded nothing. You will notice the ROMEO readings building up, then falling off right at the end just before the cloud was exited. NOTE ALSO THE FINAL CHARLIE READING OF 9.9 Roentgen. With the second cut, the CHARLIE meter has re-zeroed, and starts off at 4.3 Roentgen. What happened to the 5.6 Roentgen that dropped off?????? These don't get counted in at the FINAL CHARLIE count. Also, throughout the entire run the SALMON meter is recording 50+, which is indicative of a dose rate in excess of 200 Roentgen. However the maximum ROMEO reading is only 20. Perhaps ROMEO was busted on the first run through the cloud. On the second run, SALMON indicates a minimum Roentgen level of 200 gamma Roentgens per hour. It could have been higher - 300 or even 400 Roentgen per hour. Assuming it stayed at 200 Roentgen - then 5 minutes in the cloud would have yielded a cumulative dose of 17 Roentgen. Plus the 10 Roentgen received on the first run, yields a bare minimum of 27 Roentgen. More likely he was way up in the 40 Roentgen levels. Last August, I think I demonstrated how useless Film Badges are in recording radiation levels. This should serve to show that the aircraft instrumentation were equally as bad. The same things occur with Sniff One and Sniff Four, instruments going to sleep and not communicating with each other. Hope this gives Shirley something she can use to compare to the 'fictional' readings being generated by AWE and MoD. Best to all Joe