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NWL Technical Report No. TR-2869 December 1972

BOMB SURVIVABILITY IN FIRE PROGRAM by

C, P. Hontgas Test and Evaluation Department

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Distribution limited to U. S. Government agencies only; Test and Evaluation; December 1972. Other requests for this document must be referred to Commander, Naval Weapons Laboratory, Dahipren, Virgnia 22448.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We wish to acknowledge the drafting perfoined by Messrs. J. A. Sizemore and Messrs. J, A. Canfield, J. A. Copley and fires and computer heat transfer studies program's supporting tasks, of this program and the early research B, R. Johnson. We also wish to thank L. H. Russell for their research in fuel which assisted greatly in several of the

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FOREWORD The work presented herein was accomplished under AIRTASKS NOS. A05-53 2-015/291-1 /W4'703-029 and A05-53 2-01 1/29 1-4/00000, representing the joint efforts of NWL, Dahlgren, NWC, China Lake and NWS, Yorktown. The report has been reviewed by H. P. Caster, Head, Project Engineering D)ivision, and F. W. Kasdorf, Assistant Head, Test and Evaluation Department.

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. T. LL BLESCR, USN Head, Test and Evaluatinn D)epartmient

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ejection cartridge cook-off..•.. 1 • . .•.. .... ABSTRACT The bomb survivability in fire program was initiated to determine the hazards that exist when bombs are exposed in a carrier flight deck fire (fast cook-off) and to investigate methods of minimizing or eliminating these hazards... .~~~~~~~~~~~~..:'...I'.. wind effects....Ali Ml17. (4) adequacy of water and aqueous film forming foam (light-water) as cooling measures for preventing bomb cook-oft. /r' "• ":•..... when pertinent.. . (2) influence of aircraft structure on bomb cook-off time and severity of reaction... (3) likelihood of bomb cook-off after abbreviated heating periods.. . The results of supporting tasks investigating quick fire starting.. AN-M65 and MARK 80 series bombs employed in the program were exposed in a JP-5 jet fuel fire environment that simulated a flight deck conflagration.-.• - .o-•...'. water and light-water rates apparatus design. evaluation of fire retardant paints and computer studies and analysis are also presented. .. *1 ... . ...... :.: ... .... time to reaction and.. ..• • 4.a. *. ....• -• . *' -. I-. internal thermocouple design. Also determined from the program were: (1) relationship of bomb size..iiI oA... ': .. internal time-temperature information were obtained.. The severity of reaction. explosive load and fuzing configuration to cook-off time and severity of reaction... inert filler.2•... and (5) effect of elevated temperatures on bombs subjected to accidental ejection from parked aircraft or other accidental drops on board ship.•...

..... .HE Loaded Bombs) . ... . .. ...-.... FO R EW O RD .... . . ......... ....... .......... . . I.. .... ..... .. ....". 111... ....... .. .... G.. . .. Tables and Photographs Phase 3 and 3A Test Data Sheets......... ...Cooling Measures .. ii i i. H.. B.... ..II OBJECTIVES .. D. . . G... ... . ..... ... . .... 'rabies and Graphs Phase 4 Test Data Sheets and Tables Phase 5 Test Data Sheets and Photographs Supporting Tasks Results and Conclusions Distribution 4': iV ..... ..........14 D. . . . V. Phase 5 . F.. " "....... Phase 2B - Influence of Aircraft Structures .. Phase 3 .. ... S. ... .. VII....... SPECIFIC CONFIGURATIONS.. Phase 2 -........ .... 2A and 2B Test Data Sheets. ... INTRODUCTION ... E. 48 49 ........ ..(Abbreviated Heat Input ..H-6 TNT and TRITONAL Loads . 1 2 4 9 12 12 12 14 16 . .. . VI.... Phase 2A ...... . .... ........ ....... . . .. INSTRUMENTATION . Phase 4 ....1 A. ... ... .... . GENERAL TEST CONFIGURATIONS AND PROCEDURES .". . ..... RECOMMENDATIONS ... ......... . ....... .... . IV.. Phase 3A ....... C.. ... . Fast Cook-Off Test Specification for MARK 80 Series LD Bombs Phase 1 and IA Test Data Sheets and Photographs Phase 2. .. . .Impact Tests of Heated Bombs ... .Comp-B Loads .. .............. ... ... ..SUPPORTING TASK OBJECTIVES .. Phase 1. .. A....... APPENDICES E...... ........ 19 22 22 35 38 42 . .. .I. CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ... PROCEDURES AND RESULTS .... "ABSTRACT I.. Bomb Characteristics ........... . . . B. F..... .. Phase I A ... .. .....Effect Contiguous Heat Sources .. '... ... .. CONCLUSIONS ... .... . H..Abbreviated Heat Input (Inert Bombs) . ............ .... . .. . ......." ' . .. . . VIII... C. .... ..

...1... due to impact of bombs at elevated . after abbreviated heating "Phase 'B Phase 3 Phase 3A Water and light-water cooling measures for pruventing bomb couk-off while bomb is exposed in flames. and explosive load Phase 2A Cook-off of bombs when positioned just above the deck...... Additional hazards temperatures... the Naval Weapons Laboratory. Likelihood of bomb cook-off periods using inert bombs.......... Phase 4 Phase 5 Verification of Phase 3 results Using explosive loaded bombs.. Aircraft structure influence on cook-off time and severity of reaction. water and light-water rates apparatus design. Research was conducted relative to explosive load..... wind effects.... In order that tests would be truly representative of a flight deck contlagration.... evaluation of fire retardant paints and computer studies and analysis. In order to determine these hazards so that effective means of minimizing or eliminating them can be developed. Due to Its complexity the Bomb Survivability In Fire Program was divided into several phases of Investigation... Dahlgrcn was assigned by References I and 2 the task of managing and conducting simulated carrier flight deck fire (fast cook-off) research on ordnance...... bombs involved in the ut I Phase IA Phase 2 Hazards of Comp-B explosive loaded bombs when reacting.. bomb size.... ejection cartridge cook-off... heat flux effect and aircraft structure influence on cook-off. INTRODUCTION The USS FORRIESTAL conflagration exposed a deficiency in the knowledge of hazards associated with the reactions of general purpose bombs in a flame enveloping environment.... fuzing configuration. supporting tasks were conducted to investigate quick fire starting.... inert filler.... fuizing configurations relationships to cook-off. Internal thermocouple design... Bomb size.. .............. specifically: Phase I Fast Cook-off of selected USS FORRESTAL conflagration.....

Eiqualily important objectives of a general nature were to: (a) Determine the relative cook-off charucteristics of Comp-B. Determine the relationship of bomb size. (b) Provide to assist in establishing fire fighting procedure% where bombs are involved. Il I . and severity of reaction of selected bombs Involved in the USS FORRESTAL fire.5 feet above the fire surface to simulate their position when racked to ai aircraft wing. kind (c) Provide data useful in the design of future weapons.. The program was divided Into several phases whose specific objectives were as follows: Phase I To provide early information on fast cook-off time. Bombs positioned horizontilly approximately 3.data i~ Phase I A Phase 2 Phase 2A Phase 2B Phase 3 Phase 3A Phase 4 Verify. Determine by the use of inert bombs the internal temperature rise rates and air cooling rates of bombs. Determine cook-off timc and severity of reaction of a bomb positioned just above the deck. H-6 and TRITONAL explosives in different bombs and bomb configurations. that the internal temperature rise rates and cooling rates of Phase 3 ire characteristic of explosive loaded bombs. bombs could be cooled while •.. explosive load and fuzing configuratiun to cook -off time and severity of reaction. To determine what influence. To confirm the high-order (detonation) reactions that occurred during Phase I with Comp-B explosive loaded bombs. the presence of aircraft "structures have on cook-off time and severity of reaction. Determine if pre-heuted engulfed in flumes.tinder determine conditions ofta CVA flight deck conflagration that riight occur ilduring launch and recovery operations. if any.11. OBJECTIVES The prime objective of the Bomb Survuvability in Fire Program was to the fastrepresentative cook-off characteristics of bombs exposed in a flatne environment tl..

!.1 A '3 .Phase 5 Determine if any additional hazards exist if a live pro-heated bomb is forcibly ejected onto a steel deck.

control ot' the flame elvirol'imevilt was .1 few inches of water. Observations were made through a periscope and on a closed circuit TV receiver located in the shelter. This retaining wall constituted the test pan boundary. a pit 8 feet deep and 35 'eet square was constructed as shown in IFigure 2. A chimnney e'ffet. SuLccessful fast cook-off tests were condulctd rising the pIt iln winds up to 20 knots. AnI earthen retaining wall. which provided a level surface to float the JP-5 jet fuel used as the energy source for all fires. much preparation was required before tests could be conducted. Most cook-oft tests conducted were done in either the pit or pan. 3A and 4. all temperature recording and timing devices were started. Figure I is an example of a bomb positioned for testing In a cook-off pan. fast cook-off tests were conducted hy suspending a bomb. Thirty gallons of gasoline were poured over the JP-5 fuel surface for quick spreading of the tire.ritical. placed one in each corner of tile test pan. In order to overcome this difficulty. Bombs were susmended horiztontally by their lugs from a frame structure constructed of' heavy pipe secured to l-beams and positioned in the venter of the test pan. The pan was then lined with polyethylene to retain . Water was then added to thie * 4 'Cl . to teed air to the fire. Enough fuel was floated on the water base to insure flame engulfment and reaction. The test was visually observed for complete flume engult'fment and time to reaction of the bomb being tested. Il dihese cooling tests. A count down was begull and at time zero the fire was started by remotely detonating tfour thermite grenlades. of the bomb(s) under test. over a jet tdel fire then recording time to and degree of' rea•ction. The ground area to be used as the test site was cleared and leveled. Ilowever simple this procedure may appear. The exceptions were the bohab cooling tests of Phases 3. Instrumentution was then checked out and all personnel were called into shelter. Also at this time. approximatcly one-foot high and one-foot thick. was built to the desired length and width. Initially many tests had to be postponed because of excessive wind (4 knots or above) at the test site. thereflore a slint test panl Was constructed whereby the fire could be removed when desired. A mirror was also positioned outside tile sheltelr fo' viewing from tile shelter doorway. or bombs. The enviro(nment duplicated was representative of a worst case condition for bombs exposed in a CVA flight dock fire. The bomnb's height above the fuel surface was determined by the Information required from the test. TEST CONFIGURATIONS AND GENERAL PROCEDURES Basic~ally. was achieved by the placenment of large I'eeder pipes oi each side of tile pit.I11. This was accomlplished by designing the slant pan with it 10-degree slopinig bot tom and a r1emotely controlled drop gate at the lowest end 0Figure 3).

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slant pan until a level surface approximately 24 X 24 feet was obtained. JP-5 jet fuel was then floated on the surface. The bomb under test was suspended horizontally above the fuel surface and the fire ignited as previously described. When the bomb reached the desired internal temperature, or a specific amount of time had elapsed, the gate was dropped, immediately releasing the water and burning fuel Into a reservoir some distance from the test site. The need to standardize some of the basic fast cook-off test configurations and define the flame environment so that all agencies conducting svch tests could correlate data was recognized. On 20 May 1969, a bomb fast cook-off meeting was held at NWL and attended by all interested agencies of the Navy, Army and Air Force. A preliminary document was drafted anid agreed upon for fast cook-off test specifications for MARK 80 series LD bombs. A revised version of the document and the accepted NAVORD definitions for the various cook-off reactions are presented in Appendix A.

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IV. INSTRUMENTATION Instrumentation consisted of motion picture and still camera coverage for documentation, pressure measurements to help determine severity of reaction, and temperature measurements of the flame environment at the bomb. When necessary, thermocouples were placed inside the bomb between the body and hot-melt (interface) to determine (1) the origin of reaction, (2) temperature rise rate during heating, and (3) interface temperature at the time of reaction, In some cases, kthermocouples were placed in the center of the explosive load and on the nose and tail fuze wells to study the temperature profile in these areas. Two motion picture cameras were positioned (behind fragment shelters) 900 apart and upwind of the test area. When the cook-off pit was employed, the motion picture. cameras were elevated to a height of approximately 30 feet oni portable stands. Black and white stills were made before and after each test. Piezoelectric lollipop pressure gauges were positioned 50 feet from the bomb under test at four different locations to measure the pressure wave. When thermocouples were placed Inside the bomb, its interior surface was thoroughly cleaned with a reliable solvent that removed all substances such as grease, rust, hot-melts, or any foreign substance that might have an adverse effect in securing the thermocouple to the bombs interface. Iron-constantan thermocouples, manufactured by NWL, were used to measure both external and internal temperatures because of their accuracy at the more critical lower temperatures. The iron-constantan wire used was Type J, AWG #24 asbestos and fiber glass coated, manufactured by Leeds and Northrup Company. The two conductors were thoroughly cleaned, twisted, and then arc-welded, forming a bead junction. The external thermocouples were placed in a hoizontal plane coincident with the center line of the bomb being tested. The lead' were protected (bead junction only exposed to the flame environment) by encasing them in asbestos tape and then covering them with Duc-seal (a pliable asbestos base compound). Four external thermocouples were used, one at each end and one at each side, six inches from the bomb. Thermocouples that were placed internally (Figure 4) were positioned at 90 degree intervals around the nose, center and tail section, and secured in place by welding, cementing or with small strips of Scotch Brand Aluminum tape. The bomb's internal conduit system was removed and the connector (top center of the bomb) was used as the exit point for the thermocouple wires. This exit point was then sealed with an epoxy and asbestos sealant creating a high pressure and flame proof closure.

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At the test site, with the bomb properly positioned, both external and internal them with leads wer• to the pan wire, ,The leads were made into a bundle and thermally protected by covering 3-inch asbestos pipe covering and a wrapping of aluminum tape, The brought overhead or underground into a small junction box located next or pit and connected to an iron-con•tantan extension cable of AWG #20 extension wire was run underground to a field control box where a

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constant temperature electric oven was used to generate the 150°F used as a reference for all temperature measurements, The temperature signal was then transmitted on copper wire to the instrument van some 750 feet away where calibrations were made and data recorded, A high sensitive linegraph, self-developing photographic paper manufactrued by Kodak Company was used to record the signals from a Model 133 electromagnetic oscillograph manufactured by Consolidated • Electrodynamlc Corporation, The oscillograph employed a Type 315 galvanometer with a natural frequency response of 100 hertz. Sixty-cycle frequency filters were placed in the circuit to reduce extraneous readings. At the bomb shelter, a timing recorder, that started slmultanously with the ignition of the thermtte grenades, was used to accurately determine time to reaction.

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V. SPECIFIC CONFIGURATIONS PROCEDURES AND RESULTS A. Phase I - 11-6, TNT and TRITONAL Loads

Six tests were conducted with a representative sample of the different bombs that were on board the USS FORRESTAL at the time of the conflagration, The explosive loads selected did not include Comp-B, later determined to have been on board during the fire. Consequently, Comp-B loaded bombs were tested under Phase IA. All bombs had live nose fuze/booster combinations, and live tall fuzes installed. A brief summary of the tests is presented in Table I with a more detailed accounting and photographs appearing in Appendix B. In all the above tests, the flame temperatures were below the average of 1650"F experienced in subsequent fires. In none of the tests did the nose fuze/boosters or tall fuzes react before the bombs. In Tests PI-I thru PI-4, all reactions were much the same In that the bombs, when deflagrating, broke into several large pieces with burning and nonburning pieces of unreacted explosive being "scattered about the test site. Minor shock waves were created and damage to the witness panels was minimal. In Test P1-5, the bomb was loaded with TNT and reacted higher order (explosion) than the H-6 loaded bombs. The highest order reaction (partial detonation) was experienced in Test P1-6 with a TRITONAL loaded

bomb. A significant factor In this test was that the TRITONAL bomb had no
cavity hot-melt. It Is strongly suspected that the absence of cavity hot-melt contributed to the higher order reaction, since subsequent TRITONAL loaded bombs with hot-melt that were tested, generally deflagrated, B. Phase 1A
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Comp-B Loads

In Phase IA, only Comp-B loaded bombs were tested to complete that portion of the survivability program dealing with the USS FORRESTAL investigation. All bombs tested were equipped with live nose fuzes and In some cases live boosters. No live-tail fuzes were employed. Table 2 is a brief summary of Phase I A tests with a more detailed accounting and photographs in Appendix B, Upon detonating, the AN-M65 and MI 17 bombs reacted in or very near their design mode. Fragments were scattered over several thousand yards of the test area. The severity of the blast resulted in the formation of large earth craters which necessitated rebuilding of the test site for each test. The two MARK 81 bombs exploded and tossed large pieces of the bomb body up to 150 feet from the point of reaction. Unreacted explosive, sonic burning, was scattered about the area.

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82.......•........ : . ............. A total of 44 tests were conducted with M117'and MARK's 81.. .: . .TABLE 2 BOMB COOK... as deflnud in Appendix A were originally hlited only an high or low order. These bombs are representative of the ones found on board aircraft carriers and their approximate specifications are listed as follows: Minimum Wall Thickness (inches) 81 82 83 84 0....Bomb Characteristics Phase 2 served as that part of the program in which most of the bomb basic cook-off characteristics were determined. Ruzhlg Bomb AN-M65 AN-M65 MARK 81 MARK 81 M117 M117 M904E2 M904E2 M904E2 M904E2 M904E2 M904E2 Booster None None T4587 T45E7 T45E7 T45E7 Tall Plug Plug None None None None Reaction" Detonation Detonation Explosion Explosion Detonation Detonation 'Reaoutlons.475 0..... .. .400 0.OFF PHASE 1A TEST SUMMARY Time to Reaction (mni:sec) 1:25 2 10 2:15 1:55 2:00 2:14 Test No... '. . PIA-I PI A-2 PI A-3 PlA-4 P1A-5 PI A-6 . . Bomb Surface Arca (0112) 313 514 1000 390 192 445 946 360 1310 1870 4260 6800 4200 14 • ~~~~~~~.. ... Empty Weltht (ibs) 160 Bomb MARK MARK MARK MARK M117 Explosive (lbs) 100 Approx. C. 83 and 84 bombs.. . ..312 0.562 . Phase 2 ...

. In ' this series of tests. When the bombs reacted. which exploded. No high order (detonation or partial detonation) reactions occurred.The M904E2 nose and M990EI tail fuzes. loaded with H-6. heating rates and temperatUres at reaction were obtained. burning and unburned explosive was tossed over the test site and the bombs broke into several large pieces. fuze and booster cook-off characteristics were investigated. Comp-B loaded bombs (as seen from Table 2) react at a higher order and in a shorter time. Detailed information on Filler-E may be found in Reference 3. when fuze reactions did occur (after bombs reacted) some were high order. however.!i i1' i:: Ii . In Tests P2-1 through P2-25. In every case. all bombs were lined with approximately 1/8" of cavity hot-melt and then filled with Filler-E. In addition. an inert compound developed load. P2-1 1. A summary of all tests conducted in Phase 2 may be found in Table 3. (a) All the explosive bombs. Bomb fuzing configurations were varied as call be seen from Table 3. (b) '1 (c) A comparison of time-to-reaction vs explosive load of the iamec type bombs shows that both H-6 and TRITONAL explosive loaded bombs react In the same time frame. the bombs reacted before the fuzes. thick and thin walled MI fuze extenders were cooked off. In Tests P2-26 through P2-44. deflagrated. By insturmenting the bombs. It was also possible to study some of the for the Army with heat transfer characteristics similar to those of H-6 explosive. lined with approximately 1/8" of cavity hot-melt (the normal amount). with one exception. all of the basic cook-off data. Ht-6 and TRITONAL explosive loaded bombs were exposed in a cook-off environment and the following results obtained. (d) The average interface temperature at the time of reaction 'or fl-( loaded bombs was 557'F and for TRITONAL loaded bombs the average temperature was 537'F. then filled with either the Navy H-6 or Air Force TRITONAL explosive dynamic conditions and occurrences within a bomb during the heating cycle up to time of reaction. and T'45E7 adapter boosters were employed in this phase of testing. Detailed test data with photographs are presented in Appendix C. Test No. In Tests P2-I through P2-25. whereas. the bombs were internally instrumented as shown in Figure 4.

the thick walled extenders detonaited or exploded in it thme of 2 minutes 2. disregarding the MARK MARK MARK MARK 81 82 83 84 3 minutes 23 secondq 3 minutes 7 seconds 3 minutes 3 minutes 4 minutes 9 seconds 0 seconds 4 seconds Tests P2-26 through P2. (d) MI-1 fuze into two extenders whereas minimum D.4.5 F/sec. Phase 2A - Effect of Contiguous Heat Source Four tests were conducted in Phuse 2A.5 seconds.44 using Inert bombs and live fuzes and boosters. live M904E2 nose fuze/T45E7 booster combinations reacted in a longer cook-off time (6 minutes 10 seconds) and a higher order reaction (detonation) than the M904E2 nose fuze In combination with an adapter plug (3 minutes 48 seconds. The thin walled detlagrated in a minimum timec of 2 minuteLIs 15 seconds. The overall average 0 F/see. yielded the following results: (a) For the worst case. extenders tested were Conmp-13 explosive loaded and divided categories.()The maximum Interface temperature.7*F/sec. The Ml 117 and MARK 84 bombs selected for these tests were positioned 9 to 12 in10chS above thle ftuel surface Its 16 .3.7 0 F/sec. and MARK 84 . temperature rise rate for all bombs was 3. rise rate for various types of bombs 0F/sec. MARK 81 .8 The average explosive load.. was: Ml 117 .3. (b Wc The live T45E7 booster with an inert fuze resulted in a deflagration in 7 minutes 38 seconds. without thle conical tail fins the minimumi time to cook-oft' was 16 minutes 54 seconds.3 0 MARK 83 . was: M 117 cook-off times for the various bomnbs. deflagration).9*F/se.3. thin and thick wallcd. that is..3. MARK 82 -.. Minimum time to cook-off for the M990E1 tall f'uzes was 22 minutes when conical tail fins were installed.

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. P213-I Bomb MARK MARK MARK MARK MARK MARK MARK MARK 81 81 81 82 82 82 84 84 Explosive Load H.. six were without fuzes attached to the bombs and two with fuzing. with details and photographs appearing in Appendix C.4 E._a.8 •LL•.•.6 11..• r-.44i shown in Figure 5.. .30 Reaction Fxplosioll Explosion .. The wing structure was selected because the majority of aircraft carry their bomb load under the wing.'•1" i.. it was decided to conduct tests on bombs in close proximity to an aircraft wing.'.6 H-..4 P21-5 P211-6 P211-7 P2B.6 H-. Table 4 is a brief sumnmniary of' Phase 2A test results. . TABLE 4 BOMB COOK-OFF PHASE 2A TEST SUMMARY Test No.3 P2A.]:.xplhiton Explosion Explosion Explhsimh P1t1a1 D1cttoaltihi DIlh•gnifion "P213.".6 Fuzinlg Nose Booster M904E2 M90412 M904 E2 M904PJ2 T45E4 T45E4 T45E4 T45E4 Inches Above Fuel 9 9 Bomb MI 17 MI 17 MARK 84 MARK 84 Tall None None Plug Plug Time to Reaction (ruinec) 5:25 3:00 3:37 3:23 Reactioni Dcllgraiiuio Dltfgruitklot Lxplosloii 12 12 Dellugrathm.Influence of Aircraft Structures To study the influence of aircraft structures on cook-oft time and severity of reaction.>~r:.•. .. Explosive Load TRITONAL 11-6 TRITONAL 1-1. Of the eight tests conducted.3 P211. post test photographs and detailed results aire presented In Appendix C. "5" 9• = = . Phase 2D . TABLE 5 BOMB COOK-OFF PHASE 2B TEST SUMMARY Time (o Test No.6 1-1-6 1--6 TRITONAL Fuzing Nose Booster Plug Plug Plug Plug Plug Plug M904E2 M904E2 None None None None None None T45 Ei4 T45Fi4 Tail Plug Plug Plug Plug Plug Plug M990E1 M9t0l0l Reaction (mln:sec) 2:06 1:50 2:04 2:12 2:04 2:12 3:38 3.6 11. P2A-I P2A-2 P2A. Figure 6 shows a typical test set-up used in this phase of testing.. .. A summary of Phase 2B results is presented in Table 5. The bombs had M90402 nose tuzes and T45l14 adaptl r boosters but no tail fizes installed.2 P211.

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the more detailed time-temperature data are presented in Appendix D. Phase 3A . Large portions of the burning and unreacted explosive loads were found in all tests where explosion or deflagration occurred. G. and chemical) washdown system 7). . The unfuzed MARK 81 and 82 bombs exploded.03 gal/ft2 /min (nuclear. A brief summary of Phase 3 results are presented in Table 6. The first conducted using water (salt and fresh) at an application which simulated the flow rate of the NBC waslidown 22 "*1 . . whereas one of the fuzed MARK 84 bombs partially detonated and the other deflagrated. l e bombs were suspended 3 feet 4 inches at their lowest point above the fuel surface. The average internal temperature rise rate for MARK 81 bombs was calculated from the above data to be 4 .0*F/see and the average air cooling rate was 0. The average time to bomb reaction was: MARK 81 MARK 82 MARK 84 F. The internal remperature rise rate was recorded and after a pre-determined time the flames were removed and the air cooling rate recorded.470 F/sec. In test P2B-7.The first reaction occurring during each of this series of tests was the burning of the aircraft wings. The slant pan was used in the tests in order that control of the flame environment could be maintained.Cooling Measures The MARK 81 and 82 bombs employed in Phase 3A testing were instrumented as shown in Figure 4 The bombs were lined with the normal t l/8-inch) thickness of hot-melt before being inert loaded with Filler-E. Since the NBC exists on CVA's (Figure fighting and/or ordnance bomb cooling tests were rate of 0. All bombs were instrumented as shown in Figure 4 and lined with the normal (I/8-inch) thickness of hot-melt before inert loading. All tests were conducted in the slant pan so that control of the flame environment could be maintained.Abbreviated Heat Input (Inert Bombs) Unfuzed. inert Filler-E loaded MARK 81 bombs were used in all Phase 3 tests. the partial detonation scattered fragments several thousand feet from the test site. bac'eriological.. 2 minutes 0 seconds 2 minutes 09 seconds 3 minutes 34 seconds Phase 3 -. This was followed closely by the bombs reacting. The bombs were then suspended 3-1/2 feet at their centert1i'# above the fuel surface. the question of its effectiveness when used as a fire cooling device durivg a conflagration wus raised.

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. a flush deck nozzle was positioned directly under the bombs as shown in Figure 9.03 0.03 0.. The spray pressure could be varied in order to obtain the desired application rate. "Evaluation of the NBC washdown system was continued by employing 3/4-inch Grennell S-110-. However. Tests were also conducted with a water application rate 0. Water was observed impinging onto the bomb after flame build-up.- . A view of the system employed is shown in Figure 8.3 P3A-4 Rate (pl/ftt/min) 0.7 3. A summary of the four tests conducted are presented In Table 7.0 (min:seo) 1:00 0:52 1:00 1:00 Active (*F/le) 5.'I system. In the first test series.0 5. the more detailed time-temperature data are presented in Appendix D.5 1.7 3.4 After Time.4 After Time. therefore the rates do not reflect the amount of water reaching the bombs when they were engulfed in flames..48 gSl/ft 2/min in a deliberate over test. Water application rates were determined under a no-fire condition.5 1.48 0. Temp.48 Inactive (CF/sec) 5. TABLE 7 WATER SPRINKLER TESTS SUMMARY PHASE 3A Internal Temp. Rise Rate System Max. in N Application System On System Off Test No. Rim Rate System Internal Temp. does not show any cooling effect onl the bombs.0 5.0 (min:aec) 3:00 3:04 2:00 3:00 Bomb OF 735 773 . 239 352 A comparison of bomb temperature rise rates during the times the sprinkler system was passive and then active. In this configuration the center water plume of the nozzle was impinged directly on the bottom of the 25 S. Thirty degree injection type "full jet" nozzles manufactured by Spraying System Company "dispensing a full cone spray pattern were employed. . The philosophy of test design was one of positioning the bombs in an optimum cooling configuration so that in the event tests were unsuccessful no further tests would be needed. P3A-1 P3A. The two sprinklers were located one on either side of the bomb and were positioned approximately 12 feet away and 4 feet above the bomb.438 flush deck nozzles that are used on carrier NBC washdown systems. decrease in flame temperature of approximately 20% was recorded after the sprinkler system was activated.2 P3A.

"I'I LU 26 .

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The pumping system used In all NBC waslidown system evaluation tests is shown in Figure 11.1 1.2 . A water pressure of 60 gpm was used in the single nozzle configuration and 75 gpm in the two nozzle configuration.5 1. Figure 12. A summary of the result of three tests conducted are listed in Table 8 and the more detailed data are presented In Appendix D. Test No. nozzles were positioned on either side. P3A. .54 "An examination of the data shows very little difference in the bomb internal temperature rise rate before or after the NBC system was activated.6 5:00 1:51 1:28 0.6 Internal Temp. Fire fighters. 10 feet away and perpendicular to the bomb as shown in Figure 10.7 No. : ii ~TABLE 8 FLUSH DECK NBC WASHDOWN SYSTEM WATER COOLING TESTS SUMMARY PHASE 3A . Water was pumped from the tank by a "Hale" pump capable of delivering 350 gpm. applied water over the outside surface of the bomb from a 1-1/2-inch hand held fire hose.0.. a 2-1/2-inch fire hose was coupled to a 1-1/2-inch water pipe that connected to the sprinklers.5 2. A 1000 gallon water storage tank was positioned on the back of a flat bed truck.. Three water cooling tests with fire fighting personnel were conducted. Personnel were positioned at various angles (from 100 to 500) to the bomb's nose or tail section to help determine the effective angles of water application.•Z bomb.6 P3A. From the pump.Internal Temp.5 P3A. i.8 1. These tests were designed to simulate ordnance Ideally positioned between two nozzles with the side spray of ~each Impinging on either side of the bomb.6.• .8 .8 1.0 0. Table 6. Rise Rate System Inactive (*F/se) 3. positioned from 50 to 70 feet from the bomb. Rise Cooling late Rate System Fire System On Active Removed System On (IF/sec) (min:ue) CF/se) 1. of Nozuaes 1 2 2 Preusure In System (PSI) 60 75 75 System On (rin:ec) 1. In the remaining tests.:. ' .00 0-56 0. These pressures were maintained at the nozzles by regulating a hand valve In the system. Some improvement was noted in cooling the bombs after the fire was out as compared with the air cooling rate in Phase 3..•.

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A standard hose nozzle producing at fairly tight stream of water was directed onto the bomb in such a manner as to have the water completely cover its outside surface. Water application rates were varied from 60 to 90 gpm. A summary of results of the three tests conducted are listed in Table 9 and the more detailed data art, presented in Appendix D.

TABLE 9 SUMMARY OF WATER COOLING TESTS EMPLOYING FIREMAN
Internal Temp. Rise
RaU

Wator
Dellvery

Time of
Water

Test No.

Rate (GPM)

Angle of Application

No Water C'F/wc)

Appliation (mniniec)

Bomb Mux. Internal Temp (OF)

Intomal Cooling
Rate

Stablizing

Time Fire

7.

Water On (OF/no)

Temp (OF)

Out (mini.er)

P3A.8 P3A-9

60 60 95

1tOV-l$TaUl
450-5OTal 30*.35*Noa

4.6 3.4 3.4

140
1:10
1i30

330 260 415

5.0 2.6
2,.

110
110

6:00 7:25
6:00

P3A.10

110

*1
I

Water applied at rates of from 60-95 gpm and at angles of from 100 to 500 to the nose or tail section of the bomb cooled the bombs while they wo're engulfed in flames, In all tests where water was properly and continually applied, internal bomb temperatures stabilized at I 10*F, (250 0 F is considered critical for these tests.) The same series of cooling tests as previously discussed were conducted using foaming "light-water" chemical mixed with fresh or salt water, "Light-water" concentrate FC-194, manufactured by the 3M Company, is a product based on the chemical action of flurochemical wetting agents. Its action stems from its ability to make water float on flammable fuels which are lighter than water, In all the following tests, the "light-water" used consisted of a 6% solution mixed with fresh or salt water, Three sprinkler tests were conducted. A summary of results is presented in Table 10, the more detailed time-temperature data are presented in Appendix D,

32

TABLE 10 "LIGHT-WATER" SPRINKLER TESTS SUMMARY PHASE 3A Internal Temp. System Inactive (F/mo) 1.7 3.2 3.5

Rioe Rate
Tat No, P3A.11 P3A.12 P3A.13

Internal

(a/ftl/mn)
0.03 0.03 0.03

Application Rate

System On Temp, Rise Rate After Thme 0 System Active (F/Iec) (mln:me) 3:151 1:31 1:12 1.7 3,2 3.5

System Off After Time 0 (min:sec) 6:40 3:00 3:00

Max. Temp. In Bomb IF 508 680 710

MeFlmo buald up ttm wu 2 minutes,

No change in the bomb's internal temperature rise rate was noted whelt the sprinklers were on or off. The application of such a small quantity of' "light-water" had no measurable effect on extinguishing the test fire. Three "light-water" cooling tests were conducted with a single flush deck nozzle (Grennell S-110-.438) positioned directly under the bomb. A suninuary of' results is presented in Table 11 and the more detailed tinih-temnperatu.-V datzi are presented in Appendix D. tested, A small decrease in the temperature rise rate was noted in the bombs tested, however, cooling of the bombs did not take pluce, It was noted that the test fires were effectively extinguished by the application of "light.water".

The final six "light-water" cooling tests in Phase 3A were conducted with fire fighting personnel (see Figure 13), The procedures employed were the same lis those used in tests P3A-8 thru P3A-10 inclusive. The first three tests were done with a "light-water" application rate of 60 gpm and the finul three delivering

33

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TABLE 11 FLUSH DECK NBC WASHDOWN SYSTEM "LIGHT-WATEn" PHASE 3A
Internal Temp. Rise Rate System Inactive Internal Temp. Rise Rite System Active

COOLING TEST

4

Test

Pressure In System

System On

Fire Out

Cooling Rate Fire Out System On

No. P3A.14 P3A.15 P3A-16

(PSI) 75 60 60

(0F/sec) 3,5 2.3 3.5

(min:sec) 1:10 1:40 1:12

(OF/sec) 1.5 1,1 2.7

(min:sec) 2:25 2:3S 2:00

eF/sc) 0.5 0,7 0.7

95 gpm. A summary of results i,4 presented in Table 12, the more detailed time-temperature data are presented in Appendix D, No appreciable de.ecrease in temperature rise rate in the bombs was noted while "Iight-watcr" was applied over the bomb's surface with the ordnance engulfed i-, flames. No ittempt was made to extinguish the fires but because to the "lfigat-water" falling off the bomb into the test pit the fire was out In 2 to 4 minutes, No stabilization of temperature in the bomb was noted after the fire was out and "light-water" was being applied,
1-1. Phase 4 - Abbreviated Heat Input - HE Loaded Bombs

*

, ,

All ordnance used in the nine tests conducted were MARK 81 bombs. Some of the bombs were fuzed (see Appendix E) in order to gather additional data on fuze effects. A brief summary of test results are presented in Table 13 and the more detailed time-temperature data aye presented in Appendix E, The average internal temperature rise rate for explosive loaded MARK 81 bombs, calculated from the data presented in Table 13, was 4.4°F/sec and the air cooling rate was 0.41*7F/sec. The bomb used In Test P4-3 did not react "and was reused three days later in Test P4-4. In Test P4.3, the highest average at I minute 40 seconds into the test was 336 0 F and in Test 114-4 tile average temperature at reaction was only 278"F.

S.average
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.termperatuet'

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0 ~ o~ r N 9 9 ~ NIn 0 0 00 00 00 N q- *~404 -~ _n - - N 2 w3 .I4.1 LA 00 Inh Ifn U.

s..i l'7 01 d.. ~ 37 N N .- MI I Wi e"I zz . . t .:j. I I'ln i .:" - . R-1 Ii o o..' ".

The best example of an exothermic reaction was observed in Test P4-9. In this test, after the fire was removed, all but one of the thermocouples showed the bomb to be cooling at a rate of 0.5*F/sec, The exception was thermocouple No. 7 which continued to show a temperature increase in the bomb until it deflagrated 38 seconds after the fire was removed. 1. Phase 5 - Impact Tests of Heated Bombs

"4

"In the hot drop tests of Phase 5 the bombs were suspended by a 1/2-Inch steel cable 6 feet above the fuel surface (Figures 14 and 15). Two Inches below the fuel surface was a one-inch steel plate 8 X 8 feet square that simulated u carrier deck. After the bomb was pre-heated it was remotely released by means of a cartridge activated cable cutting guillotine (Figure 16) and allowed to strike the steel plate, thereby simulating a pre-heated bomb being forcibly ejected onto a steel deck due to, ejection cartridge cook-off. Additional tests were conducted on live ejection cartridges installed in triple ejection racks (TER) with mixed live and inert MARK 81 bomb loads, In Tests PS-I through P5-4, the bombs were pre-heated for approximately 2 minutes (interface temperature about 250'F) and then dropped, In no case, did a bomb react on impact. Reaction did occur after Impact and ranged from 2-1/2 to 5 minutes. In Tests P5-5 and P5-6, the aluminum TER racks melted at approximately 2 minutes releasing the bomb load, The cartridges were heard to deflagrate intermittently starting at 2 minutes 47 seconds after start of thr. test, The detailed data and post test photographs are presented in Appendix F,

38

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VI. CONCLUSIONS A. General

Bombs exposed in a flight deck conflagration present a serious hazard to personnel, equipment and aircraft when reacting, The hazards result primarily from bomb case fragments that can be scattered over a large portion of the flight deck, also unreacted, burning explosive that can kindle new fires over the deck. A study of data from Phases 2, 3, and 4 shows that a fairly even temperature distribution exists over the inside surface of bombs exposed in a fast cook-off environment, The likelihood of bomb exothei'nic cook-off after a short heating period is possiblo. That is, if a bomb is exposed to extreme heat for less than the 2 or 3 minutes required for cook-off, an exothermic condition could exist in the explosive fill and the bomb continue to reaction, Fifty-three bomb tests were selected from applicable phases of the program because they closely followed the specifications outlined in Appendix A. The data from these tests are presented on the next page in a summary of reactions and reaction times listed by bomb type and explosive load, From the condition of the unreacted explosive examined after HE loaded bomb tests in fires, along with data from instrumented live bomb tests, it is concluded that the asphalt hot-melt liner has melted as has a portion of the explosive load and the two (asphalt and melted explosive) have mixed. It was determined, Reference 4, that asphalt and explosive when mixing in a heated condition accelerate the rate of thermal decomposition of the explosive, Therefore, when temperatures exceed 4500F at the bomb interface, gas evolution of the mixture becomes relatively fast, resulting in a shorter cook-off time. B, Phases I and IA

Time to and severity of cook-off reactiona of Comp-B loaded AN-M65 bombs tested at NWL were in agreement with estimates obtained in the USS FORRESTAL conflagration (Reference 5), Results of' tests conducted revwal that the probability of a detonation (high order reaction) of a Comp-B loaded bomb in a relatively short time is extremely high while the probability of achieving a detonation from fast cook-off of an H-6 loaded bomb is unlikely. As a possible reason for Comp-B being more sensitive than 42

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BOMB FAST COOK-OFF SUMMARY
Mean Reaction Shortest Rewction

Number Tested 13
3 1)

Bomb MARK 81
MARK 81 MARK 81

Explosive Load H-6
TRITONAL Comp-B

Time (rain:sec) 2:32
2:35 2:05

Time (min:sec) 1:50
1:56 1:55

Type of Reaction Explosion and d~flakqatlon
Explosion and deflugration Explosion

9 2 21 21 3
2 5 4

MARK 82 MARK 82 MARK 82 MARK 82 MARK 83
MARK 83

H-6 TRITONAL Minol PBXW-107 H-6
TRITONAL

3:00 3:00 3:22 3:42 2:53
3:07

2:04 2:56 3:18 3:38 2:32
2:56

Explosion and deflagration Dutlagration Deflagration Deflagration Deflagration
Deflagration

MARK 84
MARK 84

H-6
TRITONAL

3:43
4:09

3:02
3:23

Deflagration
Deflagration

4
4

M117
M117

H-6
TRITONAL

3:22
3:59

3:00
2:55

Deflagration
Deflagration

2

MI 17

Comp-B

2:07

2:00

Detonation

aonducted, but not port of thi': program, which may be of Interest to the reader 'Teats

43

now-'.

C . . Bomb fuzes or boosters did not initiate any of the reactions. . . . it is suggested in Reftrence 6. . as defined in Appendix A. 2A and 28 A slight increase in time to cook-off was noted as bomb size increased. a fuze can react in a short time as evidenced in Test P2-29 where the fuze cooked off in 3 minutes 48 seconds. • . '. :. Their reactions are low order (deflagration) and occur at about 17 minutes. . " " . While the probability of fuze cook-off triggering a bomb reaction is small. On the following page is a summary of the fuze and booster cook-off data from Phase 2 of the program. Some of these fuze reactions were observed to be detonatiuns. 44 ".••. that the presence of aluminum powder in the explosive may reduce the possibility of a cook-off detonation since H-6 is Comp-B with 20% aluminum powder.. i. ' In a standard fire. Comp-B explosive loaded bombs. Both TRITONAL and H-6 loaded bombs (of the same size) had essentially the same reaction times and the same type of reaction (deflagration or explosion). generally react In a shorter time thun TRITONAL or H-6. Bombs positioned just above the fire surface cook-off within the same time "frame and react with the same severity as do bombs positioned 3 to 8 feet above the flame surface. . .1-1-6. The order of reaction for larger bombs (MARK 84) was no greater than that for smaller ones (MARK 81). Internally instrumenting bombs to acquire temperature data did not alter the bomb's cook-off characteristics.. the temperature rise rate in all types of H-6 and TRITONAL loaded bombs average 4. . The M990EI tail fuzes do not present a cook-off hazard. . . . .! . " "" •' ' . All fuze reactions were observed to take place ifter the bomb's HE load reacted. .00F/see and the bomb Interface temperature at time of reaction was between 5000F and 5600F. that the conical tail fins protect the tail fuze from cook-off by about 6 additional minutes.. It is felt that bomb wall thickness (larger bomb. I -: .. " . " ' . . thicker wall) and area of bomb exposed to the fire environment may be a contributing factor. and will prove helpful In the bomb cook-off fix program. It is interesting to note. . Pha ses 2 .

..5 to IS minutes after start of tests.• . 45 . from The uvrrage internal (interface) temperature rise rate of inert Filler-E bombs when exposed in a standard cook-off environment (Appendix A) wits 4. Phases 3 and 3A is increased.1 extondors which roacted firmt aa reportod wote Installed between live T4WE7 nduptet booiters and M904E2 note fuies.001F/see which correlates well with the live explosive loaded bomb temperature data recorded in Phase 2. such as a wing. D. The average air cooling vite was 0. rest NM-.. generally.L . • ~. 00" • " •• -".470F/sec. ""Tk presence of an afrcraft structure. 1.BOMB FUZE/BOOSTER FAST COOK-OFF SUMMARY Mean Reaction Time (minsec) 7:35 4:05 7:57 29:18 Shortest Reaction Time (nrin:sec) 6:10 3:48 7:38 22:00 Number Tested 2 3 3 31 Device Tested Fuze 904E2 Booster T45E7 Nose 904E2 Nose Fuze T45137 Booster M990EI Tail Fuze (Conical fins installed) M990EI Tail Fuze (No conical fins) Explosive Load Tetryl Tetryl Inert Bomb MK 81 MK 82 MK 82 MK 82 Type Reaction Detonation Deflagration Deflagration Deflagration 'Fetryl Tetryl Tetryl 31 Tetryl MK 82 19:53 16:54 Deflagration r 62 Fuze M-l Extender Conip-B 81 MK MK 82 3:12 2:15 Detonation rflrn were out fronm 11.. does influence cook-off time und severity of reaction in that cook-off times are shorter by approximately one minute and severity of reaction deflagration to explosion.

salt water or light-water. with the NBC washdown system dispensing light-water the fires were quickly extinguished. no adequate cooling of the bomb was experienced. It is concluded that bombs engulfed in a JP-5 jot fuel fire cannot be effectively cooled by a sprinkler system (dispensing rates up to 0. it was noted that the flame temperature at the bomb was reduced by approximately 30%. no effective coolilng resulted. However. however. cooling took place In the area of impingement but elsewhere on the bomb the internal temperature continued to Increase. Phase 4 The average internal (interface) temperature rise rate of the live explosive loaded bombs tested In a standard cook-off ewvironnment Phase 4 was 4. 'rho water or salt water must be applied in such a manner as to continually and cntmpletely' cover the outside surface of tile bomb. in the case where water was used.48 gal/ft 2 /min) oi7i • the NBC washdown system currently on board carriers. 40 . the light-water was effective in putting out the fires. The average air cooling rate of 0.03 to 0. However.The use of sprinklers placed on either side of a MARK 81 bomb. dispensing 0. tile bomb can be cooled while engulfed in flames. E. For the water cooling tests employing a 1-1/2" hand held fire hose delivering 60 to 95 gpm It Is concluded that when water or salt water is applied to the bomb surface at an angle of from 100 to 50 to the nose or tail section. In cooling tests employing a 1-1/2" hand held firo hose applying light-water. when these systems are dispensing fresh water.47' UF/ee air cooling rate of inert bombs of Phase 3. are not sufficient to cool or appreciably decrease the rate of heat transferred to the bomb.41°F/sec in the phase also conmpares favorabhy with the 0. It is therefore shown that the thermal characteristics of tile inert compound Filllr-L are sinihar to those of 11-0 and TRITONAL explosives when loaded in a bomb and exposed in a flahme environmient.48 gul/ft 2 /min of water or light water onto a bomb engulfed in flames. When flush deck nozzles were ideally placed on either side of U MARK 81 bomb and activated so that water or light-water impinged on the bomb.00F/sec of Phase 3. In the case whore a flush deck nozzle was positioned directly under a MARK 81 bomb so that the center water or light-water picnic uo tile nozzle impinged on a small area of the bomb.4°F/sec which correlates extremely well with the live explosive loaded bomb data of Phase 2 and the inert FIller-E bomb average heating rate of 4.

t! "" A "e •'Can 'I 47 . made primarily of aluminum. -. the TER first' melted allowing the bombs to fall. Phase 5 l'rLe-leuttd bombs when forcibly impacted onto a steel deck did not reacl "from the impact. it is concludcd that no additional hazard exists when a& N'orcibly ejected onto a steel deck. Later. the reaction was so mild that it did not trigger the eje. cooked off. it is felt that very little possibility exists of bombs on a TER rack being forcibly ejected due to cook-off of the ejection cartridges.:ated botbis When triple ejectot wacKb (iLR). Consequently. g.-refore. were loaded with live ejection cartridges and bombs a'd.'tion mechanism. pre-h..F. when cartridge cook-off occurred. r-.

That the current fix program as defined in Reference 8 be continued. 48 .7-. (b) All carrier personnel be made aware of bomb cook-off characteristics and be instructed in procedures for fighting fires where bombs may be present. VII. In addition. "(d) Bombs exposed in or near a fire be disposed of quickly because of a possible exothermic reaction and that prior to disposal. (e) In a flight deck fire water be applied to bombs adjacent to the fire to prevent their cooking off. the following recommendations are made: 1" I• (a) That cook-off testing of ordnance be incorporated as part of the standard weapons clearance for carrier use. water be continually applied over thl bomb surface to retard the exotherm. RECOMMENDATIONS It was recommended to and approved (Reference 7) by the Naval Air Systems Command that all Comp-B loaded bombs be removed from carrier operation. A method for the abatement of smoke produced In cook-off test fires currently being investihged at NWL be continued. (c) That light-water be used in the carrier NBC washdown system to help control jet fuel fires that might occur.. (f) (g) It is suggested that a fire fighting technique be considered wlieiebl tNams of firuiighters be trained to confront a carrier conflagration by dispensing light-water to control and extinguish the fuel fire and water applied to the bombs to cool them.

This Involves design of hardware for mounting thermocouples internally and 'passing the leads via an external connector without defeatinig the integrity of the bomb case. Experiments were conducted to determine I. Piping and nozzle layouts 5. were designed to provide spray rates comparable to those of the NBC washdown systern. mnethod which provides almost instantaneou% ignition across the fuel surface. Thet tasks wore divided into several catagorics that are listed as follows: Quick Fire Starting. Evaluation of Fire Retardant Paints. Tomperatures at various heights within the flame environment of still and wind blown JP-5 fires will be studied to determine the 3. A heat transfer computer program was 7.Apparatus Design. Computer Studies and Analysis. Internal Thermocouple Design.VIII. In order to economically test and evaluate intUraescent. a cylindrical (pipe) test was devised. Wind Effects. The results and conclusions from searches are presenitcd in Appendix G. experiments conducted and literature 49 - . conductance.). 6. melting point. etc. written suich that it simulates the cook-off process and can be used to predict cook-off time tinder a variety of flame enveloping conditions. The filler was used hi botrbs to conduct heat transfer characteristic analysis. SUPPORTING TASK OBJECTIVES Owing to a lack of knowledge in some of the areas pertinent to conduti~ng the weaupons survivabl~ity in fire program a supporting task p!an was formulated. Selection of Inert Filler. Water and Foam Rates . a 2. 4. subliming or ablating fire retardant paints that mnight be used to prolong bomb cook-off. A literature search was conducted to find a filler closely matching 1H-6 and TRITONAL explosive thermal properties (specific heat.

April 1969. Jack M." (U) NWC Technical Report TP4709 Part 2. (CONFIDENTIAL) 7." Report No. May 1969. Effect of Asphalt on the Decomposition of TNT. i. (CONFIDENTIAL) USS FORRESTAL 161048Z August 1967 Pakulak. Joyner.REFERENCES 1.. 4 Explosives and Propellants. June 1958. J 50 LI . 4. B. "Thermal Decomposition of Explosives. No. 6. 34. "Progmrss Report No. A05-532-015/291-1 /W4703-02 AIRTASK No. "Development of Inert Fillers Containing the Glyceride of 12-Hydroxystearic Acid. A05-532-011/291-4/00000 Murray and Denstish..21. T. 4532. Jr. Jeltman Research and Engineering Laboratories. 8. AIRTASK No. NAVAIR 012327Z December 1967 Naval Weapons Cook-Off Program Plan of April 1971. Explosives Development Section." (U) NWC Technical Report REG. Picatinny Arsenal. 2.II I 1 r I " 1 -: I= -- I I I | I . 5..

.. .. .' I.' . j I 'ABS I. I . . . . . ¼ f C *. 14 . . . p.... I ...1 A . .r . *I*I I' '1. APPENDIX A 4 II A II If it V. 4 M$44I%%W#MU I 44I I##tn 4 !t'34t1 Q ) I I II I II .

.2 Construction of Test Site . I -.1. '. . . ' ..4. 1.1... •"' " . or if the test destroyed by the test. pipes are placed on each side to furnish oxygen to the flame.1. Maximum pit or pan size requires an addition of thirty gallons of gasoline and/or one gallon of ether. . The test pan is constructed on the surface of the ground. ' . will sustain a fire for approximately fifteen minutes. . .) 1. test pit or pan and 2000 gallons of fuel in the 35 ft.4. .. '. 1.2 Fuel Ignition. A-I1 •.STANDARD FAST COOK-OFF TEST SPECIFICATION FOR BOMBS 1.2. .. (As an example.1. .3 Flame Surface -. 1. .1.Minimum test pit or pan size for fast cook-off 1.. r. . Test Pit -The test pit is embedded in the ground and the walls banked to a height of approximately eight feet. Polyethylene is then placed over the pan and mounded walls... twenty gallons of gasoline and/or one gallon ether should be added after the fuel is poured. whichever is shorter.1.' . .To ensure a level surface for the flame..1..1 .The test area may be semi-permanent basis with steel plates.Fuel to be used should be JP-5 aircraft fuel when available JP-4 aircraft fuel as an alternate.1 testing is 24-foot square and maximum size is 35-foot square. • . or ensure a fifteen minute fire. it may be constructed from Construction may be in the form of a pit in thu ground of the ground..To ensure fuel ignition in a minimum time. .1 FAST COOK-OFF TEST ARRANGEMENT Test Pit or Test Pan Size -. see Figure 1L) 1.l't " " . see Figure 2.2.. water should be used to completely cover the bottom of the pit or pan before the fuel is added. Around the perimeter of the pit. . sq. constructed on either a area is expected to be earth and polyethylene. or a pan on the surfaee 1.. " ..1 Quantity of Fuet . (For example: 1600 gallons of fuel in the 25 ft sq. '. (As an example. :.2 Test Pan -.) 1.1. ... .4 Fuel Specifications -. . " ' !li... .. The applicable dimensions are obtained and earth is elevated around this perimeter to form a mound of approximately 8 to 12 inches in height. test pit or pan.The quantity of fuel used should be sufficient to cause a reaction of the ordnance being tested.

4~C J- 1 A-2 .

A-3 .1 POLYETHYLENE B!T0 12 . K t: (OPTIONAL) V SECTION A-A FIGURE A-2 ~j (V.I Wo mI Ip AI PA.

Additional operational configurations as required. 1.For a test pan.3 Test Item(s) Configuration a. This temperature is determined by averaging the flame temperature from the time the flume reaches 1000 0 F until it drops below 1000*F or until (in the case of live ordnance) there Is a reaction from the item(a) being tested. - The flame buildup time to 1000 0 17 should not exceed 1LE1S Weather Conditions (Test Pit Only) -For a test pit.2 TEST ITEM(S) PLACEMENT -The 1. b. 1.1. - The following configurations tire to be used: All-uip round.2 Suspension of Test Itemn(s) .5. 1. etc. squib or powder bugs. Inort fuzes and no finl assembly. Such devices as thermite grenades with blasting caps. i.4 Flame Buildup thirty seconds.Test support stand should be of' such con)strulction all to withstand thle tire environment and suprort thle ordnance under test for thle duration of the test. C.The test itemi(s) should be suspended by thle lugs (if applicable) used to attach to the aircraft. a variable wind of up to 3 knots measured within 1000 feet of the test site Is acceptable.1 Test Stand .2 Height of Test Item(s) (Live and/or Inert) Above Fuel minfimum height a test item(s) should be suspended (measured from the itemn(s) centerlineo) above the fuel surface is between thirty-six and sixty-six inches.4. 1.1.A flamle-producing device should be used to initiate tile fire.4. These devices should be located in at least the four corners of the pit or pan to initiate burning over thc cntire fuO SurtfaCe as rapidly as possible and should be electrically or retnotey ignited from it sheltered areu. T1he centerline of' the item(s) should be parallel to the fluel surface and centered In tile test pit or panl.2. may be used. a wind of' 20 knots or less measured within 1000 feet of the test site is acoceptable. A-4 .2.1.3 Uniformity of Fuel Ignitions . inll~uding operational fuzes and finl assembly.1.2. 1.1.1 Weather Conditions (Test Pon Only) -.2.2.6 Average Flame Temperature ...An average fluitic temperature of lbO 0*F or greater at the test item(s) will be considered a good test.v. 1. 1.

1..3.....Internal thermocoupleB are located wherever necessary to obtain an accurate time-temperature history and accessibility permits. . providing a continuous "thermocouple recording is used. 1...Color motion picture cameras should be used to cover each test..w.... 1. weather conditions and test results should be kept..1 Thermocouple Locations (External) -A minimum of four iron-constant or chromel-alumel external thermocouples should be located in a horizontal plane coincidental with the centerline of the test item(s).2 Time Records -Complete time-to-event histories of ouch test will be kept. Munition performs in design mode.3.... Ignition of the fuel will serve as zero time. Severity of blast causes maximum ground crater or flight-deck hole capable by the munition involved.......3.... . These cameras should be set up in such a location as to cover the test from at least two directions (90* apart). ...1 Thermocouple Locations (Internal) .... one at each end and one at each side. !'A ( A-5 = .. 1..3.These definitions are defined in NAVORD OP 5. ..A complete data sheet describing the item under test..1. '_ .. This record may be obtained from the thermocouple records. When the temperature of the fire first exceeds 10000 F (as measured by one or more of the external thermocouples) is the time at which the test item(s) is considered engulfed in flame. '. . -. Maximum possible air shock formed. .. :. spaced equally around the test item(s). Essentially all of case broken into small fragments..3 INSTRUMENTATION 1.. These should be one to six inches from the surface of the test item(s). 1.....4 DATA SHEET -.. Still cameras are also used for documentary purposes. Third Revision and are repeated here: "A..- • .. 1.4 Pressure Measurements -Pressure measurements may be taken to aid in determining the severity of the reaction(s) that occurs... Blast and fragment damage is at maximum..."1.... .J=!' ...--.3.5 DEFINITION OF REACTIONS FOR EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE AND ROCKET MOTORS . .. Vol.... 1.... A normal (25 fps) and a high frame rate (48-200 fps) camera may be used to provide coverage...3 Camera Coverage. Detonation (cook-off). test configuration.

Only part of total explosive load In B.'. Deflatiatlon (cook. however. no fragmentation of the case. A-6 I. munition detonates. Explosion (cook. Case may rupture or end-plates blow out. Damage to environment duo only to heat and smoke of fire. Severity of blast could cause minor ground crater. Some blast and fragmentation damage to environment.off). Fire and smoke damage as in deflogration. Small fragments are similar to those in normal munition detonation. Violent pressure rupture and fragmentation of munition case with resulting air shock. hole size depends on amount of explosive that detonates. Strong air shock and small as well as large case fragments produced. Amount of damage and extend of breakup of case Into small fragments Increase with increasing amount of explosive that detonated. Extensive blast and fragmentation damage to environment.off). .Partial Detonation (cook-off). "D. No discernible damage due to blust or fragmentation. or small depression on flight-deck of carrier if munition Is large bomb. Explosive in munition burns. No fragments are thrown about. or large flight-deck hole on carrier if munition is large bomb. Severity of blast could cause large ground crater. C. Most of metal case breaks into large pieces which are thrown about with unreacted or burning explosive.

. CIO II ....... .41...

. 15 August 1967. The tail fuze was found 30 feet on the starboard side of the bomb. 20 X 30 feet.. M990EI base fuze and M131 low drag fin assembly.. configured with a M904E2 nose fuze. Evidently it was expelled. 2000 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel. y . Examination reveako had burned. bi-. Flgur. the bomb deflagrated throwing the nose fuze about 100 feet forward of the bomb. base plate and a portion of the bomb Device Tested: Date of Test: Bomb Position: Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: Results: .BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 1 Test No. 750 lb.o . At 2 minutes 25 seconds after start of fire. . The remainder of thc bomb and unreadted explosive was found in the test pan. T45E7 adapter booster.. The Ml 17 bomb was seldom engulfed In flame due to fluctuation wing conditions.. .3 .. bomb containing cavity hot-melt and H-6 explosive luad. is a post-test photograph of the nose and tail fuze.. struck tie test stand then that the tail fuze glanced to this posftiom. Pl-I Data Sheet M117. 8 feet at the centerline above fuel surface. I ..- ..

rc 11-2 .

. T45E7 adapter booster. At 3 minutes 0 seconds after start of fire the bomb deflagrated. M990EI tail fuze and conical tail fin assembly. B- . 250 lb. bomb containing cavity hot-melt and H-6 explosive load: configured with a M904E2 nose fuze.. the nose fuze deflagrated tossing a section of the bomb (with part of the fuze still attached) approximately 60 feet from the test pan. At 7 minutes i 5 seconds. 8 feet at the centerline above fuel surface.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE I Test No. 800 gallons of JP-5 aircraft fuel. The one thermocouple used to record flame temperature averaged 10000 F for the duration of the test. 25 X 16 feet. Date of Test: Bomb Position: Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: Results: 'B-3 -* . The MARK 81 bomb was engulfed in flame 45 seconds after start of fire. See Figure B-2 for a post-test view of the bomb body. P1-2 Data Sheet Device Tested: MARK 81. Large pieces of the bomb and unreacted explosive were scattered up to 60 feet distance from the test stand. 15 August 1967.

54. * to "16 "AP orS 13-4 .ACL I. 'ts .

500 lb. appeared to have partially detonated resulting in bomb nose damage as shown in Figure B-3.reaction. The MARK 82 bomb was engulfed in flame 10 seconds after start of fire. At the time of a thermocouple locati. The one thermocouple used to record flame temperature averaged 900'1F for the duration of the test. 1000 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel. T45E7 adapter booster. P1-3 Data Sheet Device Tested: MARK 82. Pieces of the bomb. configured with a M904E2 nose fuze. S'fi Date of Test: Bomb Position: Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: Results: I-.m the test site. 16 August 1967. .. bomb components and unreacted explosive were scattered up to 200 fec' . i. bomb containing cavity hot-melt and H-6 explosive load. B-5 *. The nose fuze/adapter booster.' 18 X35 feet. At 7 minutes 15 seconds.l. a second reaction was observed. 8 feet at the centerline above fuel surface. on the outside skin at the top of the bomb was reading 150'F. At 4 minutes 0 seconds after start of fire the bomb deflagrated. M990EI tail fuze and conical tail fin assembly. Fj ii° •BOMB - FAST COOK-OFF PHASEI Test No. A second thermocouple under the tail fin assembly (on tail fin interface) was reading 215 0 F.'I'.

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Portions of the bomb and unreacted explosive were scattered up to 250 feet from the test site. T45E7 adapter booster.t "":. 35 X35 feet. Date of Test: Bomb Position: Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: 16 August 1967. At the time of reaction thermocouples located on the rear fuze and tail fin interface had reached flame temperature. (I V.: . P1-4 Data Sheet Device Tested: MARK 83. At 2 minutes 55 seconds after start of fire. B-7 . The one thermocouple used to record flame temperature averaged 1200°F for the duration of the test. detonated. bomb containing cavity hot-melt and 1-6 explosive load.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE I Test No. 1000 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel. The nose fuze/adapter booster. configured with a M904E2 nose fuze. . The MARK 83 bomb was engulfed in flames 9 seconds after start of fire. the bomb deflagrated. Results: At 8 nAnutes 15 seconds a second reaction was observed. which were propelled 10 feet from the test site after the initial reaction. . The tail section was recovered with the burned out tail fuze still in position as shown in Figure B-4. . M990EI tail fuze and conical tail fin assembly. 8 feet at the centerline above fuel surface.d . 1000 lb.

P1. .d FIGURE B-4 Tail Section of the MARK 83 Bomb After Fast Cook-Off Test No.4 Notice the Burned Out Tail Fuze Still in Position. ."74j .

. - . PI-5 Data Sheet Device Tested: AN-M65.. . . . At 4 minutes 5 seconds after start of fire. . ei -. 17 August 1967. 8 feet at the centerline above fuel surface.. 35 X 35 feet. configured with a M904E2 nose fuze.. . At the time of reaction a thermocouple located on the bomb's outer skin was reading 340°F. base plug and T142 conical tail fin assembly. at the tail fin interface the temperature was 330'F and 200*F at the base plug. . BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE I Test No. . the bomb explosed..A ". / 4 . ' :. Date of Test: Bomb Position: Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: Results: No other reactions were observed. Large and small portions of the bomb (Figure B-5) and unreacted explosive were scattered up to 250 feet from the test site. ...." '. . bomb containing cavity hot-melt and TNT explosive load. • . I. The one thermocouple used to record flame temperature averaged 7000F for the duration of the test. :. 1000 lb... The AN-M65 bomb was engulfed in flames 15 seconds after start of fire. .. .. • '' . B-9 -. 1000 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel.

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I?... bomb without cavity hot-melt. Damage to the test pan Is shown in Figure B-6.. . .'i IAd BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE I Test No. configured with a M904E2 nose fuze. .. PI-6 Data Sheet Device Tested: M1 17. . Small fragments and large portions of the bomb were scattered over a large area.... . The M117 bomb was engulfed in flumes 12 seconds after start of fire.. ..... .. . .-... -- N . The one thermocouple used to record flame temperature averaged 14000F for the duration of the test.. . A section of the base fuze adapter was located 300 feet from the test site.. 17 August 1967. . . 35 X 35 feet..... . .. No tail fin assembly was employed. T45E7 adapter booster and base plug. 750 lb... 8 feet at the centerline above fuel surface. .. the bomb reacted In Date of Test: Bomb Position: Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: Results: a partial detonation.. . ' . . At 2 minutes 55 seconds after start of fire. 1000 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel. .. containing TRITONAL explosive load. .... : .. . ...... . ...

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BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE IA Test No. PIA-l Data Sheet Device Tested; AN-M65, 1000 lb. bomb containing cavity hot-melt and Comp-B explosive load; configured with a M904E2 nose fuze, simulated adapter booster tail plug, and box tail fin assembly. 23 August 1967. 8 feet at Figure B-7, the centerline above fuel surface as shown in

Date of Test: Bomb Position: Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire:

1000 gallons of JP-5 aircraft fuel, 35 X 35 feet. The AN-M65 bomb was engulfed in flame 36 seconds after start of fire. The one thermocouple used to record flame temperature averaged 17000F for the duration of the test. At 1 minute 25 seconds after start of fire, the bomb detonated. Some of the fragments recovered after the test are pictured in Figure B-8. Witness panels placed adjacent to the bomb contained from 60 to 600 fragment holes per panel and were blown 150 "to 250 feet from their original position. Some of the fragment holes in one of the 10 panels used are shown in Figure B-9.

Results:

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Device Tested:

AN-M65, 1000 lb. bomb containing cavity hot-melt and Comp-B3 explosive load; configurud with a M904E2 nose fuze, simulated adapter booster; tail fuze plug, and box tail fin assembly. 28 August 1967. Bottom of bomb touching the fuel surface. 1000 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel, 8 X 12 feet. The AN-M65 bomb was engulfed in flames 12 seconds after start of fire. The one thermocouple used to record flame temperature averaged 1000'F for the duration of the test, At 2 minutes 10 seconds after start of fire, the bomb detonated

Date of Test: Bomb Position: Fuel:

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"Results:

leaving a crater 10 tout in diameter and 6 feet deep on the
outer rim. Pictured in Figure B-10 is an overall view of the crater rim.

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3-1/2 feet at the centerline above fuel surface. Parts of the bomb that were recovered are shown in Figure B-1 1. configured with a M904E2 nose fuze. T45E4 adapter booster. the bomb exploded.' . 1000 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel.. and conical tail fins. 14 August 1968. Date of Test: Bomb Position: Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: Results: B-i 9 . At 2 minutes 15 seconds after start of fire. 250 lb. bomb containing cavity hot-melt and Comp-B explosive load. The MARK 81 bomb was engulfed in flames 45 seconds after start of fire. tail plug.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE IA Test No. PIA-3 Data Sheet "j Device Tested: MARK 81. 20 X 18 feet.

4AA ~w FIGURE 8-11 Parts of the Comp-1B Loaded MARK 81 Bomb Recovarred Aftor Expin'ding During Fast Cook-Off Test No. PlA-3 13-20) aw~i.0. J AA 4... ..

PIA-4 Data Sheet r • . Nose fuze/adapter booster and nose section of the bomb were recovered after the test and are shown in Figure B-12. The MARK 81 bomb was engulfed in flames 30 seconds after start of fire. T45E4 adapter booster. and conical tail fins. 1000 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel. 20 X 18 feet. configured with a M904E2 nose fuze.BOMB FAST (:OOK-OFF PHASE IA Test No. •. Device Tested: MARK 81. Bomb Position: 3-1/2 feet at the centerline above fuel surface. The fuze/booster combination did not react. tail fuze plug. 250 lb. V Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: Results: B-21 L -.. 22 August 1968 Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Clear with 3-6 knot wind. . At 1 minute 55 seconds after start of fire the bomb exploded. bomb containing cavity hot-melt and Comp-B explosive load.

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bomb containing cavity hot-melt and Comp-B explosive load. At 2 minutes 0 seconds after start of fire. 15 August 1968. Bomb Position: Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: Results: 3-1/2 feet at the centerline above fuel surface. T45E4 adapter booster. PIA-5 Data Sheet ¶ Device Tested: Ml17.1 ( B--23 - *I. the bomb detonated as evidenced by fragment holes and markings on a portion of the test stand recovered. 1000 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE IA Test No. - . Many fragments were recovered.. The test site was destroyed by the reaction. The MI 17 bomb was engulfed In flames 30 seconds after start of fire. rI ". Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Clear. tall fuze plug and conical tail fins. 20 X 18 feet. configured with a M904E2 nose fuze.I . 750 lb. temperature 85"F with 2-6 knot wind. Figure B-13.

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I j Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Clear. and conical tail fins. 13-25 .-- . . 30 August 1968. PIA-6 Data Sheet i ii Device Tested: MI 17. The witness panels and test site were destroyed as evidenced In Figure B-14. the bomb detonated. configured with a M904E2 nose fuze. The M117 bomb was engulfed in flames 35 seconds after start of fire. 750 lb. 145E4 adapter booster. bomb containing cavity hot-melt and Comp-B explosive load. Results: • '. temperature 70*F with 2-4 knot wind. 1000 gallons of JP-5 jot aircraft fuel. 20 X 18 feet. Buomb Position: Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: 3-1/2 feet at centerline above the fuel surface.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE IA Test No. tail fuze plug. At 2 minutes 14 seconds after start of fire.

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BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2 Test No. Some unreacted explosive was found in tho immediate area. Bomb Position: * Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: Results: 3-1/2 feet at the centerline above fuel surface. Thermocouple locations are shown in Figure C-I and complete time-temperature data are presented in 'rable C-I. A portion of the nose section recovered after the test is pictured int Figure C-2. The Ml17 bomb was engulfed in flames 60 seconds after start of fire.4'F/sec was recorded in the aft section of the bomb.sure of 1. the bomb deflagrated.d I with H-6 explosive. tail fuze plug and co111¢al tail fins. 7 February 1968.el. 750 lb. P2-1 Data Sheet Device Tested: MlI 17. 20 X 20 feet. A maximum temperature rise rate of 3.8 psi was recorded 50 ftet from the test site. An overpres. configured with a nose fuze plug. Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Clear with 0-3 knot wind. C-1 SC-I *'* . At 3 minutes 35 seconds after start of fire. 500 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft Ml. instrumented bomb loa.

.. TL. I.TO TOT-T 21~ iLTOTA OF 12OJS I N "I T%13 FRON SE4O T 60 PC MI SETO T T 10 EA CTIO Tg-2 1.

* .4'r/wc. 'Thermocouple mtsd in calculating the maximum temperature rise rate of 3. . P2-1 (Thermocouple Locations Are Given In Figure C-1) Thermocouple Number1 Time (9ec) 0-40 80 120 160 180 2153 2 75 100 137 137 160 170 3 85 145 195 290 315 330 4 50 85 110 120 145 160 5 6 7 8 9 Temperature 'F 175 295 295 350 365 375 170 245 255 280 315 320 105 160 205 275 315 315 10 It 122 13 75 85 110 115 135 137 *1 75 100 112 125 125 125 50 85 85 100 125 370 125 165 210 260 295 300 185 250 295 315 360 365 135 245 365 495 565 565 'Thermocoupto No..TABLE C-1 THERMOCOUPLE TEMPERATURE AND TIME DATA FOR M117 BOMB TEST NO. C-3 . 'Time of reaction. . 1 data not listed because of very little temperature rise.

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68 psi. Bomb Positiun: Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: 3-1/2 feet at the centerline above fuel surface. The M117 bomb under test was engulfed in flames 30 seconds after start of fire and remained so for the duration of the test. A maximum temperature rise rate of 3. 400 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel.I ALI . 50 feet from the bomb was recorded. instrumented bomb loaded with H-6 explosive. configured with nose plug. 13 February 1968.9°F/sec was recorded in the bomb's tail section. Additional time-temperature data are presented in Table C-2 and a post test photograph is shown in Figure C-3.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2 Test No. An overpressure of . 4 II C-5 -. 20 X 20 feet. M990EI tail fuze and conical tail fins. Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Clear with 0-4 knot wind. 750 lb. P2-2 Data Sheet Device Tested: Ml17. At 3 minutes 20 seconds after start of fire the bomb Results: deflagrated.

1 ii 4 . STlme of reaction.1 data are not listed because of very little temporature rise. P2-2 (Thermocouple Locations Are Given In Figure C-2) Thermocouple Number1 Time (sec) 0-40 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Temperature F 60 175 260 390 435 435 50 205 240 315 385 395 50 130 225 400 495 495 10 11 122 13 50 100 195 280 330 360 50 125 200 285 335 380 50 50 78 105 142 150 50 130 230 330 415 430 50 90 150 200 248 265 70 155 275 360 370 400 70 245 315 390 485 485 50 150 230 305 385 385 50 50 65 65 65 65 "80 120 "160 190 2003 'Thermocouple No. C-6 14. 5 Thermocouple used in calculating the maximum temperature rise rate of 3.TABLE C-2 THERMOCOUPLE TEMPERATURE AND TIME DATA I'OR M117 BOMB TEST NO.90F/sec.

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configured with a M904E2 nose fuze. T45E4 adapter booster. consequently. The nose fuze and adapter booster were recovered in an unreacted condition (Figure C-5). the bomb deflagrated and is shown in Figure C-4. Because of no wind. the flames were directed straight up. The tail fuze was not recovered and there was no indication that it had reacted. The M1 17 bomb was engulfed in flames 50 seconds after start of fire.V. At 3 minutes 35 seconds after start of fire.1 Results: . 750 lb.. Bomb Position: Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: 3-1/2 feet at the centerline above fuel surface. Thermocouple instrumentation was lost 106 seconds into the test. C-8 i- C-8 ii"- . 20 X 20 feet. 5 April 1968. M990EI tail fuze and conical tail fins.! BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2 Test No. no time-temperature data arc presented. Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Cloudy with no wind. Some unreacted explosivc was scattered around the immediate area. . bomb loaded with I1-6 explosive. P2-3 Data Sheet Device Tested: Ml17. 1000 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel.

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750 lb. An overpressure of 1. At 2 minutes 55 seconds after start of fire the bomb deflagrated. 9 February 1968. configured with nose fuze plug. tail fNzC phlg and conical tail fins. P2-4 Data Sheet Device Tested: MI17. Results: Si. 1 rm~AAA~A~ iM C-Il1 . The MI 17 bomb was engulfed in flames 20 seconds after start of fire and remained engulfed to reaction. 400 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel. Bomb Position: Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: 3-1/2 feet at the centerline above fuel surface.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2 Test No. Large pieces of the bomb were found 50 feet from the point of reaction and are shown In Figures C-6 and C-7.8 psi was recorded 50 feet from the test site. 20 X 20 feet. " Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Broken clouds with 0-3 knot wind. bomb loaded with TRITONAL explosive. No fragments were produced and unreacted explosive was scattered around the test site.

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Engulfment was intermittent because of fluctuating wind conditions..- .54psi were recorded 50 feet from the reaction.. .. Overpressures of from . Unreacted explosive was scattered around the area. configured with a nose fuze plug. P2-5 Data Sheet Device Tested: MI17. . 15 February 1968. M990E1 tail fuze and conical tail fins.35 to . Bomb Position: Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: 3-1/2 feet at the centerline above fuel surface. 750 lb.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2 Test No. At 3 minutes 27 seconds the bomb doflagrated... The MI 17 bomb was engulfed in flames 37 seconds after start of fire.. *1 Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Broken clouds with 0-5 knot wind. Results: y' I C-I 4. No fragments were produced and all parts of the bomb were found In the test pan. instrumented bomb loaded with TRITONAL explosive. The bomb body after test Is shown in Figure C-8 and the unreucted tail fuze in Figure C-9. 400 gallons of JP-5 Jet aircraft fuel. 20 X 20 feet. Time-temperature data are presented in Table C-3.

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3. 5 and 14 are not listed becauw. 2. P2-5 (Thermocouple Locations Are Given In Figure C-1) 1 Thennocouple Number Time 4 6 7 8 92 10 11 12 13 (we) 0-30 40 80 120 160 170 2071 50 50 50 75 85 85 95 70 90 130 170 220 230 250 125 162 275 365 485 520 590 Temperature OF 85 115 200 280 345 365 380 110 140 250 355 435 465 525 70 120 230 270 370 390 450 50 200 345 445 560 580 525 50 180 190 190 240 4-20 370 50 70 80 90 100 100 130 .TABLE C-3 THERMOCOUPLE "EMPERATURE AND TIME DATA FOR M117 BOMB TEST NO.3°F/cc. L~.4 I ')ata fiarm thermocouple Nos. I. 'Time of reaction. of very little temperature rise. 'Thermocouple used in calculating the maximum temperature rise rate of 3. - C-17 .

The Ml 17 bomb was engulfed in flames 72 seconds after start of fire. Unreacted explosive was scattered around the test site. Time-temperature data are presented in Table C-4. No fragments were produced. 24 X 24 feet. Bomb Position: Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: 3-1/2 feet at the centerline above fuel surface. Neither the ftizes nor the adapter booster reacted. P2-6 Data Sheet Device Tested: Ml 17. At 4 minutes 10 seconds after start of fire. Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Clear with 0-5 knot wind.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2 Test No. the bomb deflagrated. Results: C-1 8 . 3 April 1968. Engulfment was intermittent because of fluctuating wind conditions. instrumented bomb loaded with TRITONAL exploqive. M990EI tail fuze and conical tail fins. configured with a M904E2 nose fuze. 750 lb. 800 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel. T45E7 adapter booster.

TABLE C-4 THERMOCOUPLE TEMPERATURE AND TIME DATA FOR M117 BOMB TEST NO. 3TImo of reaction. P2-6 (Thermocouple Locations Are Given In Figure C-1) Thermocouple Number1 Time 5 6 7 8 10 112 12 (see) 0-50 . 1. 13 and 14 are not listed becAuse of very little temperature rise.2..4.80 120 160 200 240 2503 65 75 135 180 210 225 232 65 88 145 230 260 438 445 68 105 180 280 415 655 655 Temperature 'F 65 85 145 215 295 360 340 65 100 190 260 365 430 400 85 135 245 315 388 525 530 60 80 225 325 410 460 440 Data from thermocouple Nus.3. C-19 ' I I I I I I . 3'Thormoccuple used In calculating the maximum temperature rise rute of 4 .0" F/sec.

"t I.. . Results: C-20 C-20 I " "I . 4.#. No fragments were produced but the break into several large pieces as shown in Figure unreacted nose fuze and adapter booster are Figure C-1i1.7 Data Sheet Device Tested: MARK 81. Flame temperature at the MARK 81 bomb exceeded 1000 0 F within 30 seconds after start of fire and averaged 13600F fbr the duration of the test. At 3 minutes 20 seconds after start of fire. 350 gallons of JP-5 Jet aircraft fuel. Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Clear with steady 2 knot wind. deflagrated scattering unreacted explosivc up to 30 the test site. Bomb Position: Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: 3-1/2 feet at the centerline above fuel surface. configured with a M904E2 nose fuze. 6 March 1968. P2. . 20 X 20 feet. . . '. 250 lb.. T45E7 adapter booster.I I I I I I I I I l . and conical tail fins. Time-temperature data are presented in the bomb feet from bomb did C-I 0. instrumented bomb loaded with H-6 explosive.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2 Test No.I I .. The shown in Table C-5. tail fuze plug. : • :.

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. . P2-7 .......It-I AkA FIGURE C-11 Unreacted Nose Fuze/Adaptar Boostnr Still In Nov' Sectioni of the Bomb After Fast Cook-Off Tost No...

'....-....... "Timle of reaction. !! •-•.......... C-23 ( C-23 i ~~~~~.••• •• ... ... " .9°F/mac. 3Thermocouple uacd in culculating the maximnuni temporaturo rise rate of 3.'.. P2-7 (Thermocouple Locations Are Given In Figure C.. .. l• ... :• IiiI I .-....'rABLE C-5 THERMOCOUPLE TEMPERATURE AND TIME DATA FOR MARK 81 BOMB TEST NO....... I and 9 malfunctioned.-..1) 1 Thermocouple Number Time (sec) 0-30 60 80 120 160 190 2003 2 3 4 S 6 8 10 Temperature 'F 72 11 12 13 14 50 50 50 50 60 60 60 55 80 130 185 245 295 295 50 65 70 75 90 110 132 50 80 110 155 205 250 250 50 60 62 68 80 105 105 55 95 140 200 360 475 475 50 75 115 195 135 190 190 50 60 75 105 155 215 235 50 70 175 290 395 415 450 65 125 160 235 285 335 335 50 60 70 75 75 85 85 50 50 50 50 55 65 105 'Thermocouple Non.....

Results: I . 24 X 24 feet. Engulfment was intermittent because of fluctuating wind conditions.. T45E7 adapter booster.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2 Test No...1 C-24 ... Time-temperature data are presented in Table C-6. A...... 1000 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel. No fragments were produced but unreucted explosive was scattered up to 50 feet from the test site.... .. P2-8 Data Sheet Device Tested: MARK 81... Bomb Position: Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: 3-1/2 feet at the centerline above fuel surface...... 12 March 1968. Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Intermittent rain with 0-5 knot wind.... ".. also shown are the unreacted nose faze/adaptur booster still positioned in the nose section of the bomb and the unreacted tail fuze shown in the center of the photograph...L.. instrumented bomb loaded with H-6 explosive....... 250 lb.. ....... At 3 minutes 20 seconds after start of fire the bomb deflagrated. configured with M904E2 nose fuze. M990EI tail fuze and conical tail fins.... The bomb split longitudinally as shown in Figure C-12. The MARK 81 bomb was engulfed in flames 28 seconds after start of fire..

FIGURE C-12 The MARK 81 Bomb Aftv.r Fatst Cook-Off Test No. . 132-8 Notice the Unreacted Nose FLuza/Adaptur Boostar iv~ the Nose Fuze Well. The Unreacted Tail Fuze Is Visible in the Center of the Picture.

1) Thermocouple Number1 Time (sec) 0-40 60.-- 387 365 485 375 'Thermocouple No. P2-8 (Thermocouple Locations Are Given In Figure C.TABLE C-6 THERMOCOUPLE TEMPERATURE AND TIME DATA FOR MARK 81 BOMB TEST NO..k6 . 290 250 155 470 .. 4Instrumentatlon lost it 135 seconds. 1 and 2 malfunctioned.-- 10 0F 112 12 i3 14 70 80 174 350 4353 ----- 60 65 95 135 210 270 60 65 95 120 200 245 60 60 73 88 125 150 70 75 155 320 460 475 65 75 140 185 315 380 63 95 140 185 290 350 70 90 195 285 435 505 60 68 125. 100 120 160 180 2006 3 4 5 6 7 9 8 Temperature 65 72 150 205 3004 . 60 70 105 1301 .. 'Instrumentation lost at 160 seconds. lnstrumentatlorn lost at 120 seconds.. 'Thermocouple used In calculating maximum temperature rimc rate of 3. "C-26 j. .8'F/lcu. 165 265 340 60 65 115 1401 .... 'Time of reaction.

BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2 Test No. The nose section with the unreacted nose fuze/adapter booster still intact was recovered and is shown in Figure C-13. Time-temperature data are presented in Table C-7. . Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Cloudy with 0-3 knot wind. No fragments were produced but the bomb did break up into several large pieces. I Results: I C-27 ''tl I. Flame temperature at the bomb exceeded 1000'F within 33 seconds after start of fire and averaged 1247*F for the duration of the test. none of which were thrown more than a few feet. T45E7 adapter booster and conical tail fins. 8 March 1968. Bomb Position: Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: 3-1/2 feet at the centerline above fuel surface. 250 lb. P2-9 Data Sheet Device Tested: MARK 81. 24 X 24 feet. the bomb deflagrated scattering unreacted explosive up to 30 feet from the test site. instrumented bomb loaded with TRITONAL explosive. 1000 gallons of JP-5 Jet aircraft fuel. At 2 minutes 55 seconds after start of fire. configured with a M904E2 nose fuze.

U. C IL i Ci IN .

TABLE C-7 THERMOCOUPLE TEMPERATURE AND TIME DATA FOR MARK 8I BOMB TEST NO. p nued Ill calculu "Tllhermocour -(29 . ...rimnouplo No. tionod. I . of low eLed Th. I tt tlisted bucamwI tinlg the tiiil. P2. . tumtemoperature ris a te ul" 3.5 'F/. 'Time or reaction.9 (Thermocouple Locations Are Given In Figure C.I . 'ILL.1) Thermocouple Number' Time (see) 0-30 60 80 100 120 140 160 170 1753 2 3 4 6 7 10 9 8 Temperature °F 55 105 150 190 232 270 320 350 350 55 100 225 255 315 380 380 375 375 60 145 170 270 355 420 440 440 440 112 12 13 14 50 78 97 130 160 220 280 302 302 55 125 175 230 285 355 400 420 405 55 100 133 175 210 270 310 330 343 60 105 150 220 265 330 405 455 462 60 155 225 260 335 420 450 470 440 60 175 250 305 385 445 495 505 540 60 120 165 255 270 360 400 380 380 50 110 140 135 125 65 65 65 65 50 90 115 100 95 75 62 60 60 hitg und TC 5 ti aI run.

At 2 minutes 55 seconds after start of tire. ins~trUffenLod bomb loaded with TRITONAL explosive. Time-temperature data arc presented in Table C-8. Results: . Flame temperature at the bomb exceeded 10000 lZý within 52 seconds after start of fire and averaged 1270'Ft for the duration of the test. P2-10 D)ata Sheet Device Tested: MARK 81. 14 March 1968.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2 Test No. 1000 gallons otf JP-5 jet aircral't fuel. No fragments were produced. Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Cloudy with 0-6 knot wind. B~omb Position: Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: 3-1/2 feet at the centerline above 1111el sufacV. configured with a M904132 nose f'uze. 24 X 24 feet. M990EIl tail fuze and conical tail firis. the bomb deflugrated scattering uiireacted explosive around the test site. 'J'451E7 adapter booster. 250 lb.

- 'nThrmocouple No.. .. 12.10.1 C-3 I .10 (Thermocouple Locations Are Given In Figure C-1) Thermocouple Number: Time (sec) 0-40 60 go 100 120 140 1603 3 4 5 6 Temperature *F 45 55 80 110 150 200 225 50 65 90 120 170 225 250 7 9 11 60 90 150 255 380 480 565 50 52 70 90 115 200 290 60 90 185 285 365 440 460 70 110 170 235 330 390 385 70 110 200 305 360 3752 -.TABLE C-6 THERMOCOUPLE TEMPERATURE AND TIME DATA FOR MARK 81 BOMB TEST NO. . 1not listed because of low reading and TC's 2." 4 • .13 and 14 malfunctioned. 'All Instrumnenttion failed at 160 seconds. . 8. " " . P2." . 'Thermocouple faided at 130 seconds.'..

('-32 . The nose fuze/adapter booster combination did not react. bomb loaded with H-6 explosive: configured with a M904E2 nose fuze. 500 lb. Flame temperature at the bomb exceeded 1000'F within 30 seconds after start of fire duration of the test. 35 X 35 feet. 27 June 1969. T45E7 adapter booster and conical tail tins. Bomb Position: Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: 3-1/2 feet at the centerline above fuel surface. 800 gallons of JP-5 Jet aircraft fuel. P2-1 I Data Sheet Device Tested: MARK 82. The bomb body broke into several pieces. Results: and averaged 1540°F for the At 3 minutes 6 seconds after start of' fire the bomb exploded scattering burning and unreacted explosive up to 150 feet in all directions. Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Cloudy with 2-4 knot wind.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2 Test No. the pieces were found up to 100 feet from the test site.

Engulfment was intermittent because of fluctuating wind conditions. configured with a M904E2 nose fuze. 500 lb. The MARK 82 bomb was engulfed in flames 32 seconds after start of fire. jw"4- C-3 3 .BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2 Test No. the bomb Date of Test: Weather Conditons: Bomb Position: Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: Results: deflagrated. 24 X 24 feet. Overcast with 2-5 knot wind. 3-1/2 feet at the ceonterline above fuel surface. instrumented bomb loadcd with H-6 explosive. 1000 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel. P2-12 Data Sheet Device Tested: MARK 82. Unreacted explosive was scattered up to 40 feet from the test site. T45E7 adapter booster and conical tail fins. 19 March 1968. No fragments were produced. Time-tcmperature data are presented in Table C-9. At 3 minutes 0 seconds after start of fire.

13 and 14 are not listed because or very little temperature rise. C-34 .TABLE C-9 THERMOCOUPLE TEMPERATURE AND TIME DATA FOR MARK 82 BOMB TEST NO. P2-12 (Thermocouple Locations Are Given In Figure C-1) 4 ~Thermocouple Number1 'lime (eec) 0-40 6Q 80 100 120 140 160 1633 3 4 5 60 68 90 60 6 64 75 95 135 170 205 7 8 9 Temperature OF 60 75 105 140 60 100 150 220 255 300 405 415 80 110 195 10 11 12 60 90 160 235 335 395 450 456 70 90 140 200 55 55 150 270 380 60 60 170 240 310 360 420 425 15 120 200 270 310 350 353 140 205 270 235 240 290 260 445 515 522 235 300 342 350 295 370 425 428 515 5502 - 257 261 'Datak from thermrocouple Has. 2. 1. 2 Thermocouple railed at 150 second&. aRecorder failed at 163 seconds.

Date of Test: F:Weather Fuel: Paii Size: Conditions: Bomb Position: Test Fire: Results: I. P3-13 Data Sheet Device Tested: Ibooster.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2 Test No. Unreacted explosive was scattered all around the test site. 20 March 1968. The nose fuze/adarnter booster and tail fuize did not react. Engulfment was intermittent because of fluctuating wind conditions. Instrumented bomb loaded with H-6 explosive. 3-1/2 feet at the centerline above fuel surface. No fragments were produced by the reaction. The MARK 82 bomb was engulfed in flames approximately 40 seconds after start of fire. T45E7 adapter M990EI tall fuze and conical tall fIns.. configured with a M904E2 nose fuze. At 3 minutes 42 seconds after start of fire the bomb dullagratcd. f I C-35 . 500 lb. 800 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel.Time-temiperature data are presented in Table C-10. 24 X 24 feet. MARK 82. Clear with 2-6 knot wind.

.TABLE C-10 THERMOCOUPLE TEMPERATURE AND TIME DATA FOR MARK 82 BOMB TEST NO. 4 'ime of reaction. P2-13 (Thermocouple Locations Are Given In Figure C-1) Thermocouple Number! Time (sec) 0-30 60. IlThermovouple failure at 170 seconds.. 90 120 150 180 210 2224 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Temperature OF 75 112 168 270 440 520 570 615 70 100 138 170 214 260 340 356 65 85 108 138 170 218 280 300 103 120 163 218 270 310 330 340 11 12 13 14 60 70 105 145 200 290 415 480 65 82 122 170 230 280 308 325 60 78 88 100 135 1542 -- 65 80 105 125 150 170 210 228 80 125 186 305 385 435 535 585 75 115 145 165 295 340 380 400 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 64 65 95 120 160 1653 . C-36 . 3 Thermocouple failure at 130 wcundi.~ a• . I and 2 are not listed because of very little tomparature rise. --- 'Data from thermocouple Nos.

P2-14 Data Sheet Device Tested: MARK 82. instrumented bomb loaded with TRITONAL . T45E7 adapter booster and conical tall fins. but unreacted was found around the test site. The MARK 82 bomb was engulfed in flames 22 seconds after start of fire and remained engulfed to reaction.' explosive. 500 1b. SResults: Sexplosive C-37 . configured with a M904E2 nose fuze. 800 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel. 24 X 24 feet.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2 "Test No. At 2 minutes 56 seconds after start of fire the bomb deflagrated. No fragments were produced. Date of Test: 21 March 1968.3 . Nose fuze/adaptor booster did not react. ¾ Weather Conditions: Clear with no wind. Bomb Position: Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: 3-1/2 feet at the centerline above fuel surface. Time-temperature data are presented in 'rable C-I 1.

..11 THERMOCOUPLE TEMPERATURE AND TIME DATA FOR MARK 82 BOMB TEST NO. 5 and 12 malfunctioned... . .. . 'Thermocouple used in calculating the maximum temperuture rise rate of 5. ..TABLE C.. . . 13 and 14 ars not listed bucause of very little temperature rise.•:'*. . . thicroiluouplu Nos. P2-14 IThermocouple Locations Are Given In Figure C-1) 1 Thermocouple Number Time (sec) 0-40 60 80 100 120 140 160 1763 32 4 6 7 8 Temperature *F 65 75 95 140 150 335 410 435 65 85 125 185 265 360 410 395 9 10 11 60 65 105 225 370 445 555 588 60 80 115 163 205 255 395 405 75 115 205 285 335 385 435 445 60 60 85 130 205 315 430 480 60 65 90 135 195 255 365 444 60 70 95 140 185 320 415 438 'Thermocouple Nos. . . .'.•. -*.. . . .. I* . . •v. . . . .. . 2. . Data frop. ... . .. *.30 F/eec. 1.. C-38 I.:• .STime of reaction.".

. Upon examination the explosive was partially melted and mixed with the melted No fragments .BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2 Test No. T45E7 adapter . At 3 minutes 5 seconds after start of detlagrated. This second reaction was believed to be the nose fuze/adapter booster exploding. Bomb Position: Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: Results: 3-1/2 feet at the centerline above fuel surface. were produced. Date of Test: 29 March 1968. Unreacted explosive was scattercd site. more violent than the first. . Weather Conditions: Clear with 0-3 knot wind. 500 lb.. At 5 minutes 20 secpnds a second reaction. M990EI tail fuze and conical tail fins.*"". 800 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel. P2-I5 Data Sheet Device Tested: MARK 82.. . The MARK 82 bomb was angulfed In flames 26 seconds after start of fire and remained engulfed to reaction. booster. was observed..- fire.--. Time-temperature dat& arc presented in Table C-12. . configured with a M904E2 nose fuze.. the bomb around the test found to have asphalt hot-melt. 24 X 24 feet. instrunented bomb louded with TRITONAL explosive... . .J C-39 I I -.

2. .. 3 and 4 malfunctioned. C' it ). rThermocouplo failed at 180 seconds. thermiucouple Nom. P2-15 (Thermocouple Locations Are Given In Figure C-1) 1 Thermocouple Number Time 5 6 7 8 9 10 112 12 (Sec) Temperature 'F 70 80 105 125 145 165 185 215 215 "0-40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 1854 65 65 6S 95 125 145 180 235 333 65 80 115 155 215 255 355 385 420 75 95 120 165 215 245 305 375 410 68 75 95 115 135 155 195 248 265 70 80 105 148 187 240 285 340 375 65 80 125 185 255 365 425 415 385 95 105 125 170 205 245 275 305 3 'Tharmocouplo used incalculuting maximum tomperature riAe rate of 4.13 and 14 were not monitored. Thormocouple Nos.TABLE C-12 THERMOCOUPLE TEMPERATURE AND TIME DATA FOR MARK 82 BOMB TEST NO. 1.0)F/sev. :Time of reaction. c-4o0.

........ No fragments were produced.......... ...... ... however.... 800 gallons of JP-5 Jet aircraft fuel....... .. configured with a M904E2 nose fuze. Bomb Position: Fuel: .. 24 X 24 faet... ........ P2-16 Data Sheet "Device Tested: -...... T45E4 adapter booster and conical tail fins. S~ .....~'' *. Results: *- 4i...... Pan Size: Test Fire: 3-1/2 feet at the centerline above fuel surface. At 3 minutes 13 seconds after start of fire.......... Tine-temperature data are presented in Table C-13... i1 C-41I ..**-...BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2 Test No.. The MARK 83 bomb was engulfed in flames 24 seconds after start of fire and remained engulfed to reaction......... instrumented bomb loaded with H-6 explosive. unreacted explosive was found 100 feet from the test site. Weather Conditions: Overcast with no wind....... ....... ' ... 10 April 1968.. Date of Test: MARK 83.... 1000 lb..... The nose fuze/adapter booster did not react.. the bomb deflagrated... .

)Is 255 140 160 180 1933 115 135 178 200 178 218 257 278 260 295 310 315 340 390 418 430 130 155 185 200 190 224 300 345 240 280 320 335 305I 345 365 372 Data for thermououple Noa.3!/•e"/ .".16 (Thermocouple Locations Are Given In Figure C. 1 2.13 and 14 were lot reduced boeause of very little temperuture roe.Thormocouplo used in calculating thu muninmunm tomporeture rise rate of 2. 'Time of reaction. 3. P2.I TABLE C-13 THERMOCOUPLE TEMPERATURE AND TIME DATA FOR MARK 83 BOMB TEST NO. . C-42 .1) 1 Thermocouple Number Time (se8) 0-30 4 5 6 72 8 Temperature OF 60 40 9 10 11 60 60 65 55 50 50 40 60 60 60 75 100 82 120 97 165 45 55 70 100 65 100 80 140 80 100 120 70 83 97 118 135 150 170 200 225 200 255 305 70 89 108 118 140 165 140 170 200 185 .

1000 lb. 3-1/2 feet at the centerline above fuel surface. Results: At 2 minutes 32 seconds after start of fire the bomb deflagrated.C-43 ii. 24 X 24 feet. . M990EI tail ruze and conical tall fins. .BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2 Test No. Some of' the unreacted explosive collected at the test area and the unreacted tail fuze are shown In Figure C-1 S. conflgured with a M904E2 nose fuze. 12 April 1968. T45E4 adapter booster. P2417 Data Sheet Device Tested: MARK 83. Thb MARK 83 bomb was engulfed In flames 19 seconds after'A Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Bomb Position: Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: A start of fire and remained engulfed to reaction. 800 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel. Time-temperature data are presented in Table C-14. Clear with no wind. splitting longitudinally as shown in Figure C-14. instrumented bomb loaded with 11-6 explosive.

132-17 .VEC1 F I~w' G MARK 83 Bomb Reactnid In a Defingration. Splitting Longitu'dinially Fast Cook-Off Test No.

...4..1 ~.1.. ..~* ' CL 4d C-405 clo. ..

"C-46 . ....2'Ffsec.. ... 4. aThermocouple used In calculating the maximum temperature rise rate of 5. 3.. 13 and 14 were not reduced because of very little temperature rise. P2-17 (T11mrmocouple Locations Are Given In Figure C-1) 1 Thermocouple Number " I 11 60 90 175 235 320 405 470 510 12 60 105 175 242 282 365 450 500 Time (sec) 0-30 40 60 80 100 120 140 1521 5 55 70 112 169 195 205 230 242 6 55 90 165 200 22'" 322 425 490 72 8 9 Temperature *F 55 90 153 210 305 415 400 550 55 55 50 92 195 205 247 270 10 55 90 130 180 215 250 280 300 60 90 200 210 305 430 522 580 tThermocouple data for TC's 2.(1 TABLE C-14 THERMOCOIJPLE TEMPERATURE AND TIME DATA FOR MARK 83 BOMB TEST NO. . 'Time of reaction.

T45E4 adapter booster and conical tail fins. 17 April 1968. Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Bomb Position: Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: Results: : :1 At C-47 Ji 4 4 .BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2 Test No. P2-18 Data Sheet Device 'rested: MARK 83. configured with a M904E2 nose fuze. 1000 lb. the bomb deflagrated breaking Into several large pieces. Engulfment was intermittent because of fluctuating wind conditions. Time-temperature data are presented in Table C-15. instrumented bomb loaded with TRITONAL explosive. 800 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel. The MARK 83 bomb was engulfed in flames 37 seconds after start of fire. Unreacted explosive was scattered up to 75 feet from the test site. Cloudy with 0-2 knot wind. 3-1/2 feet at the centerline above fuel surface. the largest section is shown in Figure C-16. 24 X 24 feet. At 3 minutes 19 seconds after start of fire.

Al c-48 .Ceo cU.

."TABLE C-15 THERMOCOUPLE TEMPERATURE AND TIME DATA FOR MARK 83 BOMB TEST NO.. C :1 1 . ' Time of reaction. 13 and 14 were not reduced because of vary little temperature rrlu. 3.C-49 I' ' .1) Thermocouple Number' Time (sec) 0-30 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 1993 5 6 7 9 82 Temperature OF 65 70 110 190 283 393 450 440 430 420 68 70 110 180 245 300 373 388 405 412 10 11 12 60 60 70 88 110 145 185 235 280 305 70 72 95 136 185 140 172 122 162 188 65 65 98 160 205 226 172 122 162 188 70 75 115 180 227 255 320 350 380 400 65 65 98 160 220 280 355 385 415 430 45 40 80 160 260 380 440 445 452 458 aThermornouple data from TC'O 2. sThormooouple used in calculating the maximum temperature rime rate of 4. 4. P2-18 (Thermonouple Locations Are Given In Figure C.2"F/lac..

The MARK 83 bomb was engulfed in flames approximately 30 Sseconds after start of fire.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2 F 'F Test No. scattering unroacted explosive around the test area. Bomb Position: Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: Results: 3-1/2 feet at the centerline above fuel surface. P2-19 Data Sheet Device Tested: MARK 83. 1000 lb. 18 April 1968. Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Overcast with 2-4 knot wind. instrumented bomb loaded with TRITONAL explosive. Time-temperature data aLre presented in Table C-16. Neither the nose fuze/adapter booster combination nor the tail fuze reacted. 800 gallons of JP-5 jet aircrua't fuel. 24 X 24 feet. configured with a M904E2 nose fuze. T45E4 adapter booster. M990EI tail fuze and conical tail fins.1 ' F ' 'i.- '. 1 C'50 Fi C-5 -. At 2 minutes 56 seconds after start of fire the bomb deflagrated. ' ' .

•'' . : '• ' ".- I I p . 4 S.. 2.•' C-5 1 •"... 3.'-••.. . .. . . ...c. . .' .TABLE C-1B THERMOCOUPLE TEMPERATURE AND TIME DATA FOR MARK 83 BOMB TEST NO. '.. . 13 and 14 were not reduced because of very little temperature rixe. ' • ' • • •' -. 4 Time of reaction. .•..) . " . . 'Malfunction.:. .... . . ...90 F/sc.. *Thormocouple used in calculating the maximum temperature file rate of 3. .. .. 2'•. P2-19 (Thermocouple Locations Are Given In Figure C-1) 1 Thermocouple Number Time (see) 0-20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 1764 4 5 6 9 8 7 Temperature OF 70 80 100 135 162 195 243 348 363 68 75 90 120 241 241 197 240 250 72 85 115 165 208 240 288 340 350 10 112 12 62 68 88 125 178 188 250 290 385 85 105 135 165 232 325 360 370 350 90 120 152 182 190 230 282 230 240 80 98 130 185 220 275 310 365 382 85 115 170 250 326 395 415 405 395 'Data from thermocouple Nos.. . ut Iii . . I .• ..

At 3 minutes 31 seconds after start of fire the bomb deflagrated.. A maximum temperature rise rate of 4. I ~ .1*F/see was recorddd in the aft section of the bomb. Date of Test: Bomb Position: Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: Results: C. 3-1/2 feet at the centerline above fuel surface. The MARK 84 bomb was engulfed In flames 20 seconds after start of fire.' I . . instrumeinted bomb loaded with H-6 explosive.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2 Test No. configured with nose fuze plug.. and conical tail fins. Additional time-temperature aita are presented in Table C-17.. tail fuze plug.20 Data Sheet Device Tested: MARK 84. 24 X 24 feet. 9 April 1968. The base fuze plug was blown out of the bomb.site. P2.~A. Approximately 100 pounds of unreacted explosive was scattered about the tes-. 700 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft I'Liel. 2000 lb. The bomb case remained intact and was thrown 750 feet from the test site.

TABLE C-17 THERMOCOUPLE TEMPERATURE AND TIME DATA FOR MARK 84 BOMB TEST NO.20 (Thermocouple Locations Are Given In Figure C-1) 1 Thermocouple Number Time (sec) 0-30 60 90 120 150 180 2113 1 50 50 50 50 50 60 60 2 50 55 60 65 65 70 80 3 50 60 70 100 120 120 135 4 50 50 60 60 80 100 120 9 10 Temperature 'F 50 50 100 100 130 150 170 50 100 180 300 440 520 500 11 50 160 290 400 490 600 600 122 50 110 230 320 470 570 675 13 50 50 SO 50 50 110 130 14 50 50 50 50 50 100 130 Center xeution of bomb (TCO 5.. 7 and 8) was not Instrumented. rThormocouple uxod In caloulting the maximum temperature rise rate of 4.c. C2-53 i. A '1 ýA Ill . 6. P2. -. STime of reaction. .] .10 F/i..

BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2 Test No. configured with a M904E2 nose fuze. The second reaction was believed to be the nose fuze exploding. At 3 minutes 2 seconds after start of fire the bomb deflagrated. more violent than the tirst was observed.llons of P-5 Jet aircraft fuel. and conical tall fins. Instrumented bomb with H-6 explosive load. 24 X 24 feet. 3-1/2 feet at the centerlino above fuel surf'ace. .54 . . 11 April 1968.... The MARK 84 bomb was -ngulfed in flumes 8 seconds after start of fire. . . Time-temperature data for the test are presented in Table C-I 8. This reaction was followed by 4 minutes of explosive burning out the base end. P2-21 Data Sheet Device Tested: MARK 84. T45E7 adapter booster. . M990EI tail fuze. . . 800 . Date of Test: Bomb Position: Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: Results: ILI (C. At 6 minutes 30 seconds another reaction. blowing out the end plate. . 2000 lb.

. =' I C-55 .*.*" . P2.. 6. 360 40 140 260 490 510 490 490 11 12 13 14 40 90 130 155 170 180 190 40 60 90 130 240 205 210 40 160 210 350 365 370 340 40 80 120 160 270 290 300 40 210 350 440 480 510 510 40 105 170 240 320 375 400 40 40 100 120 110 110 105 40 60 60 60 60 60 50 'Conter Mection of bomb (TC's 5. 6 ' V/muc. Tim= of reaction.21 (Thermocouple Locations Are Given In Figure C-I) V: Thermocouple Number' Time (Neu) 0-30 60 90 120 150 170 1823 1 2 3 4 102 9 Temperature *F 40 90 150 220 320 3ý'Q.. rate of 4 .. 'Thortnocuupla used in oalculiting the niaximum tempexaturc rIw.TABLE C-18 THERMOCOUPLE TEMPERAlURE AND TIME DATA FOR MARK 84 BOMB TEST NO. *-:** . 7 aind 8) was not instrumented.

1 . P2-22 Data Sheet Device Tested: MARK 84. 24 X 24 feet. T45E7 adapter booster. 17 April 1968. configured with a M904E2 nose fuzc. Date of Test: Bomb Position: Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: Results: . Tine-temperuture data from the test are presented in Table C-19. instrumented bomb with H-6 explosive load. 600 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel. 3-1/2 feet at thle centerline above fuel surface.1 . . The MARK 84 bomb was engulfed in flames 90 seconds after start of fire. . The long time to engulfment was attributed to fuel ignition difficulties.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2 Test No. rupturing the bomb case. tail fuze plug. The nose fuze blew out and was observed burning. 2000 lb.' . I. and conical tail fins.C. At 5 minutes 2 meconds after start of fire the bomb deflagrated.

'Contotr Aection 'Til•niocouplo failud aftor 180 seeind.TABLE C-1S THERMOCOUPLE TEMPERATURE AND TIME DATA FOR MARK 84 BOMB TEST NO. °'Tilno of reacution. rise rate ot 3..d.i i 1*1 C-57 '..* - . . 6. ITherniovouple usud In cluuitlating the maximum tomporatur..7 and 8) was not inittun tcui. P2-22 (Thermocouple Locations Are Given In Figure C-1) 1 Thermocuuple Number Time (sec) 0-20 60 IO0 140 180 220 260 1 2 3 4 9 10 Tomporature OF 70 80 80 80 100 115 160 230 70 90 100 165 220 285 450 580 II 122 13 14 70 70 70 75 80 90 100 120 70 80 90 110 180 210 305 380 70 75 80 110 200 200 220 260 70 70 70 80 90 110 130 260 70 70 100 280 390 3 --.51:/soc.. 70 70 80 160 260 390 610 720 70 70 70 80 80 140 150 205 70 70 70 80 80 90 140 190 3024 of bomb ('r( s.

. . The bomb was engulfed fire.•• . zG30 lb.. .. • i ' . . • . rupturing the bomb case. M9ý"F! 1'il Oize...A surface. P2-23 Data Sheet Device Tested: MARK 84. configured with a M904E2 nose fuze.÷ • •• ... • .. . . and conical tail fins. .•. Time-temperature data from the test are presented in Table C. 800 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fue& 24 X 24 feet.. T45E7 adapter booster.• • •. ..l.g.mes 30 suconds af'ter start of Results: At 4 minutes 57 seconds after start of fire the bomb deflagrated. C-58 -. '. Post-test examination showed the un~reacted tail fuze still in the -bomb case. ..' 4. .BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2 Test No.20.. .. . . A 11 minutes 15 seconds the nose fuze deilagrated.. 'L Date of Test: Bomb Position: Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: tu. 19 April 1968.. 3-1/2 feet at the centerline above fu. instrumented bomb with TRITONAL explosive load.

'Time of reaction.:... C-59 . 6. Thermucouple.20 i/sec. THERMOCOUPLE TEMPERATURE AND TIME DATA FOR MARK 84 BOMB TEST NO. 7 and 8) was not instrumented.TABLE C20. P2-23 (Thermocouple Locations Are Given In Figure C-1) Thermocouple Number' Time (sec) 0-20 1 2 3 4 9 10 Temperature 'F 40 40 12 12 13 14 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 60 100 140 180 220 260 2973 40 40 50 50 70 310 340 45 60 75 90 70 170 270 70 140 300 350 350 320 320 65 120 210 320 350 320 320 50 80 90 110 80 130 140 50 85 120 170 190 290 370 70 110 170 240 280 340 540 80 1S5 220 300 330 370 380 40 40 40 40 60 60 60 s 50 8n.' . . 40 40 60 300 300 Center se'ttin of bomb (TC's 5. used in calculuting the maximum temperature rise rate of 2. 5 k.

2000 lb. P2-24 Data Sheet Device Tested: MARK 84.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2 Test No. tail fuze plug. the bomb deflagrated rupturing the bomb case. instrumented bomb with TRITONAL . X (-60 ' IA . 3-1/2 feet at the centerline above fuel surface. The MARK 84 bomb was engulfed in flames 40 seconds after start of fire. and conical tail fins. configured with a M904E2 nose fuze. The nose fuze did not react but had burned. At 3 minutes 31 seconds after start of fire. Time-temperature data from the test are presented in Table C-21. T45E7 adapter booster. Unreacted explosive was scattered around the test site. Date of Test: Bomb Position: explosive load. Fuel: Test Fire: Results: 800 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel. 23 April 1968.

2' F/sec. 6.TABLE C-21 THERMOCOUPLE TEMPERATURE AND TIME DATA FOR MARK 84 BOMB TEST NO. P2-24 (Thermocouple Locations Are Given In Figure C-1) Th e rm o c o up le N u m b er. ' Thermocouple I. T =im e of rea ction.' 4 ~C-61I - . 7 and B)was not instrumented. Time (see) 0-20 60 90 120 150 180 : 2113 1 2 3 4 9 10 112 Temperature OF 40 60 100 160 220 310 360 12 13 14 40 40 50 60 70 75 150 40 40 55 60 70 170 190 40 90 165 235 280 370 420 40 50 40 130 310 510 610 580 300 40 150 180 480 560 590 650 40 80 130 200 310 380 360 40 40 40 120 110 130 165 40 40 100 90 105 110 110 50 60 80 190 200 - 'Center seotion of bomb (TC's 5. used in calculating the maximum temperature rise rate of 3.

instrumented bomb with TRITONAL explosive load. Time-temperature data from the test are presented in Table C-22. P2-25 Data Sheet Device Tested: MARK 84.k' j BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2 Test No. configured with a nose fuze plug. and conical tall fins. Date of Test. The MARK 84 bomb was engulfed In flames 70 seconds after start of fire. 2000 lb. Bomb Position: Fuel: Test Fire: Results: C-62 4A . 630 gallons of JP-5 Jet aircraft fuel. tall fuze plus. At 4 minutes 24 seconds after start of' fire the bomb detlagrated Unreacted explosive was scattered around the test site. 25 April 1968. 3-1 /2 feet at the centerline above fuel surface.

"Thermououple used in widculating the maximum temperature rieo rate of 3. 6.3°FiSec.N i. Time of reaction.11) Thermocouple Number. P2-25 (Thermocouple Locations Are Given In Figure C. Time (see) 0-20 6b 100 140 1 2 3 4 112 10 9 Temperature OF 40 40 50 80 165 255 360 390 40 40 50 80 250 430 475 530 40 50 60 120 200 330 460 560 12 13 14 40 50 50 50 50 50 70 80 40 50 50 50 60 75 85 90 40 40 50 70 80 110 110 155 40 40 50 60 70 90 210 215 40 40 70 130 190 320 440 475 40 40 40 50 70 80 70 70 40 40 40 40 60 50 55 55 "I 180 220 250 2643 tCenter section of bomb (TC'O 5. 7 and 8)wes not instrumented. TABLE C-22 THERMOCOUPLE TEMPERATURE AND TIME DATA FOR MARK 84 BOMB TEST NO. 4( C-6 C-63 .

temperature 65OF with 0-4 knot wind. The fire was out In approximately 5 minutes.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2 Test No. Date of Test: 27 March 1968. bomb tail section. 35 X 35 feet. 3-1/2 feet at conterline above fuel surface. Fragments were scattered over a large area of the test site. remaining in thle. and M990EI tail fuze installed In an inert MARK 81 bomb with conical tail fins.. The fuz~e and booster under test were engulfed in flame 40 seconds after start of fire. T451`7 adapter booster. Results: (2-64 . At 9 minutes (4 minutes after the test fire went out) thu nose fuze/adapter booster combination detonated splitting open the bomb nose section as shown in Figure C-I17. 800 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel. The tail fuize did not react. Weather Conditions: Bomb Position: Fuel: Poll Size: Test Fire: Cloudy. P2-26 Data Sheet Device Tested: Live M904E2 nose fuze.

r FIGURE C-17 Damage Sustained In the Nose Sectioni of a MARK 81 Bomb When the Nose Fuze/Adaptor Boustar Combination Detonatud After Fast Coo. -r•5S Notie Stll ll P th sitl. P2-26 Notice the Tail Fuzt Still In Position.•4 Tal Fu• .-Off T-st No.

remaining In the bomb's nose section. Test Fire: I. A photograph of the recovered fuze 1r. shown In Figure C-18. 35 X 3 feet. At 6 minutes 10 seconds the nose fuze caught fire. Weather Conditions: Overcast with 2-6 knot wind.. ' 1~Date of Test: Bomb Position: 28 February 19'69. C--66 - 1 -- 1 . P2-27 Data Sheet Devices Tested: Live M904E2 nose fuze and T45E7 adapter booster installed In an inert MARK 81 bomb with tail fuze plug and conical tail fins.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2 Test No. The adapter booster did not react.i . The fire was out in approximately 5 minutes. and at 6 minutes 26 seconds tho fuze was violently ejected from the bomb. 4 feet at the centerline above fuel surface. The none fuze and adapter booster under test were engulfed ini flame 30 seconds after start of fire.Results. Fuel: Pan Size: 800 gallons of JP-5 Jet aircraft fuel.

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Bomb Position: Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: 3-1/2 feet at the centerline above fuel surface. The nose fuze under test was engulfed in flame 30 seconds after start of fire and the average flame temperature at the fuze was 1660'F during the test. 35 X 35 feet. 1000 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel. the nose fuze deflagrated propelling itself approximately 30 feet from the bomb. .BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2 Test No. Results: At 4 minutes 27 seconds after start of fire. . 11 February 1970. That portion of the fuze recovered after the test is shown in Figure C-19.k"- . C-68 )• . Device Tested: Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Clear with 8-9 knot southwest wind.L. P2-28 Data Sheet Live M904E2 nose fuze with an inert T45E7 adapter booster installed in an inert MARK 82 bomb with tail fuze plug and conical tail fine.. .

411 IL C-09 .

. P2-28. Bomb Pos/tioo: Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: 3-1/2 feet at the centerline above fuel surfaoe. The nose fuze under test was engulfed in flaii-t 38 seconds after start of fire and the average flame temperature at the fuze was 1685F during the test. 1000 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel. Results: CI" C-70 • • . P2-29 Data Sheet Device Tested: Live M904E2 nose fuze and inert T45E7 adapter booster installed in an inert MARK 82 bomb with tail fuze plug and conical tail fins. 10 February 1970 Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Rain and cold with 3 knot wind. I I I I i . 35 X 35 feet. .BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2 Test No. It was found in much 'tie saine condition as the fuze in Test No. the nose ruze deflagrated propelling itself out of the bomb a distance of approximately 35 feet. At 3 minutes 48 seconds after start of fire.

.. . . . . . :I• . 9 February 1970." :•. ..- " • .. 1000 gallons of . Results: C-7 I '.. . .. . . . . .. . ..... .' . l... •. ' . Pan Size: Test Fire: 35 X 35 feet.. • •... It was found in much the sUme condition as thu fuzes in Test Nos. .. The nose fuze under test was engulfed in flame 45 seconds after start of fire and the average flame temperature at the fuze was 161501 during the test. . . _ . Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Ruining and cold with 2 knot wind. •_• . . At 4 minutes 0 seconds after start of fire the nose fuzo deflagrated propelling itself out of the bomb case a distance of approximately 35 feet.'. Bomb Position: Fuel: 3-1/2 feet at the centerline above fuel surface..._ . " .BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2 Test No. . •.P-5 jet aircraft t\fel. . P2-28 uad P2-29.." **'. . P2-30 Data Sheet Device Tested: Live M904E2 nose fuze and inert T45E7 adapter booster installed in an inert MARK 82 bomb with tall fuze plug and conical tail fins. .• .•. . • . .. • . .: ... . • •.. • . '•. . . -•: .

an inert M904E2 nose fuze installed in an inert MARK 82 bomb with tail fuze plug and conical tail fins.2 knot wind. Results: '. 1200 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel. The adapter booster under test was engulfed iii flame 30 seconds after start of fire and the average flame temperature at the booster was 1695*F during the test.'- C-72 :. The nose svection of the bomb and ejected aluminum sleeve are shown In Figure C-20. 25 June 1970.. Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Clear with 1. At 7 minutes 38 secoilds after start of fire. Bomb Position: Fuel: Paul Size: Test Fire: 3-1/2 feet at the centerline above fuel surface.BOMB iAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2 Test No.4 r j. P2-31 Data Sheet Device Tested: Live T45E7 adapter booster. the adapter booster deflagruted ejecting the inert fuze and aluminum sleeve of the booster forward a distance of 100 feet.. 35 X 35 feet.- .

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. .. . 1200 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel.. P2-32 Data Sheet Device Tested: Live T45E7 adapter booster and inert M904E2 fuze installed in an inert MARK 82 bomb with tail fuze plug and conical tail fins. the adapter booster deflagrated ejecting the inert fuze. The adapter booster and its Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Bomb Position: Fuel: Pit Size: Test Fire: Results: aluminum sleeve remained in the bomb nose.... . At 8 minutes 9 seconds after start of fire. . 35 X 35 feet. I!:I Ji I.. J. Clear with 0-3-1/ knot wind. The adapter booster under test was engulfed In flame 30 seconds after start of fire and the average flame temperature at the booster was 19250F during the test. 3-1/2 feet at the centerline above fuel surface. 24 June 1970. C-74 A .BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2 Test No.

35 X 35 fact. The adapter booster under test was engulfed in flumes 30 seconds after start of fire and the average flame temperature at the booster was 1780"F during the test. Partly cloudy with 5-6 knot wind. the adapter booster deflagrated ejecting the inert fuze and aluminum sleeve of the booster approximately 70 feet from the test stand. 23 June 1970. C-7 5 ."BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2 Test No. Results: At 8 minutes 4 seconds after start of fire. P2-33 Data Sheet Device Tested: Live T45E7 adapter booster and inert M904E2 nose fuze installed in an inert MARK 82 bomb with tail fuze plug and conical tail fins. Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Bomb Position: Fuel: Pit Size: Test Fire: 3-1/2 feet at the centerline above fuel surface. 1200 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel.

OFF PHASE 2 Teat No.. Figure C-22.. ... is a photograph showing several pieces of the tail f'uze recovered after the test...... Results: C'-76 .. however. 14 December 1970. the tail fuze deflagrated causing a bulgo In the uft section of the bomb as seen in Figure C-21 ..5 minuteg at which time the flame temperature dropped below 10000 F.. P2-34 Data Sheet Device Tested: Date of Teat: Live M990EI tall fuze installod in an Inert MARK 82 bomb with conical tail fins... 1500 Sallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel. 35 X 35 feet. the reaction was not so intense as to blow off the tail fin assembliy.5 minlutes. Fire was out at 11.....BOMB FAST COOK..... At 22 minutes after start of test...... Bomb Position: Fuel: Pit Size: Test Fire: 3-1/2 feet at the centerline above fuiel surface. The tail fuze under test was engulfed in flame 14 seconds after start of fire and the average flume temperature at the fuze was 1713*F for 8.. Weather Conditions: Clear and cold with 2-3 knot wind.

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The results were very much the same as those of Test No. Bomb Position: 3-1/2 feet at the centerline above fuel surface. Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: 2000 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel. C-79 . Fire out at 15 minutes. the tail fuze deflagrated causing a bulge in the aft section of the bomb. Weather Conditions: Clear and cold with 4-5 knot wind. P2-34. 35 X 35 feet. P2-35 Data Sheet Device Tested: Live M990EI tail fuze installed in an inert MARK 82 bomb with conical tall fins. Results: At 32 minutes 20 seconds after start of test. Date of Test: 15 December 1970. the reaction was not so intense as to blow off the tail fin assembly. at which time the temperature dropped below 1000"F. The tail fuze under test was engulfed in flame 12 seconds after start of fire and the average flame temperature at the fuze was 1878*F for 8 minutes. however.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2 Test No.

. Results: S~*It~M' ~ C-80 . Weather Conditions: Intermittent rain with 2-3 knot wind. Bomb Position: Fuel: Pit Size: Test Fire: 3-1/2 feet at the centerline above fuel surfacc. ~21 21.*A I-. . P2-34 and P2-35. 4~'#.. Date of Test: 16 December 1970. The tail fuze under test was engulfed in flame 20 seconds after start of fire and the average flame temperature at the fuze was 1660°F for 8 minutes.V4. Results were much the same as those of rest Nos. 35 X35 feet. Fire out at 15 minutes. P2-36 Data Sheet Device Tested: Live M990EI tail fuze installed in an inert MARK 82 bomb with conical tail fins.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2 Test No. however. At 33 minutes and 35 seconds after start of test.. the reaction was not so Intense as to blow off the tail fin asscmbly. the tail fuze deflagrated causing a bulge in the aft section of the bomb... at which time the temperature dropped below 1000"F.....sa%... 2000 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel.

At 19 minutes 30 seconds. Date of Test: 20 January 1971.a~ . the tail fuze in the center bomb deflagrated much as the other two had. .. Weather Conditions: Cold with 6-8 knot wind. P2-37 Data Sheet Devices Tested: Three live M990EI tail fuzes individually installed in three seperate Inert MARK 82 bombs without tail fins.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2 Test No. the tail fuze in the bomb to the right In Figure C-23 deflugrated causing the aft section of the bomb to bulge slightly.1 . '. 35 X 35 feet. the second fuze to the left in Figure C-23 deflagrated much as the first fuze. tail to nose as in Figure C-23. J . .Li ---.. A post-test photograph of the test is shown in Figure C-24.~ . . Pit Size: Test Fire: Results: .. r. .8 . They were lined up s'de by side. *7 y. At 16 minutes 54 seconds after start of test. All three tall fuzes under test were engulfed In flame 65 seconds after start of fire and the average fjame temperature at these three fuzes was 1700OF for 15 minutes..~. .* .' . Bomb Position: Three bombs were suspended 3-1/2 feet at their centerline above fuel surface and positioned 3 feet apart. at which time the test fire burned out. . At 23 minutes 15 seconds. .

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9 July 1968. no tail fuze or fins installed. 36 inches long. extender from the bomb. The adapter booster did not react and is shown in Figure C-25. Because of ignition malfunction flame e•ngulfment extender and adapter booster took 2 minutes. 1000 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel. Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Clear and warm with no wind.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2 Test No. 30 X 30 feet. Bomb Position: Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: Results: 3-1/2 feet at the centerline abovo fuel surface. P2-38 Data Sheet Device Tested: Comp-B loaded MI thin walled fuze extender. installed in an inert MARK 81 bomb. and T45E7 adapter booster with an inert fuze. of fuze At 7 minutes 2 seconds after start of fire the fuze extender deflagrated blowing out the inert nose fuze and dislodging the. C-84 .

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Both the nose fuze (Figure C-26) and adapter booster were recovered live after the test. P2-39 Data Sheet Device Tested: Comp-B loaded MI thin walled fuze extender.I . fuze extender and adapter booster engulfed in flames 30 seconds after start of fire. 3-1/2 feet at the centerline above fuel surface. 30 X 30 feet. clear day with 0-4 knot wind. 36 inches long. 10 July 1968. No tail fuze or fins installed. M904E2 nose fuze and T45E7 adapter booster. 1000 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel. installed in an inert MARK 81 bomb. were Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Bomb Position: Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: Results: At 2 minutes 15 seconds after start of fire the fuze extender deflagrated blowing out the nose fuze and dislodging itself from the bomb. Hot.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2 Test No. The nose faze. C-86 I.

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No tail fuze or fins installed. the fuze extender deflagrated ejecting the nose fuze which struck the test stand with some force. 23 July 1968. nose fuze and adapter booster were only intermittently engulfed in flame. 1000 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel. clear day with 3. At approximately 3 minutes after start of fire. splitting open and ejecting the fuze extender from the bomb. Date of 'Test: Weather Conditions: Bomb Position: Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: Results: A ('-88 . Figure C-28. Warm. second reaction took place when the adapter booster exploded.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2 Test No. 3-1/2 feet at the centerline above fuel surface.6 knot wind. as shown in Figure C-27. 36 inches long. M904E2 nose fuze and T45E4 adapter booster. installed in an inert MARK 81 bomb. Because of wind conditions the fuze extender. 30 X 30 feet. At approximately 36 minutes after the test. P2-40 Data Sheet Device Tested: Coinp-B loaded Mi thin walled fuze extender.

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nose fuze and adapter booster were not engulfed In flame until 2 minutes after start of test. 30 X 30 feet. 36 inches long. a detonation occurred in one of the live components. Because of wind conditions the fuze extender. The resulting damage to the bomb is shown in Figure C-29. At 3 minutes 30 seconds after start of fire. Because of the short time to reaction. 25 July 1968. 1000 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel. C-9 Results: kii I . Bomb Position: Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: 3-1/2 feet at the centerline above fuel surface. M904E2 nose fuze and T45E4 adapter booster.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2 Test No. Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Hot. installed in an inert MARK 81 bomb. it is felt that the fuze extender initiated the reaction. No tail fuze or fins installed. P2-41 Data Sheet Device Tested: Comp-B loaded MI thiok walled fuze extender. slightly cloudy day with 4-6 knot wind.

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P2-42 Data Sheet Device Tested: II * Date of Test: Comp-B loaded thick walled fuze extender. 6 August 1968. 1000 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel. As in the preceeding test. Bomb Position: Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: 3-1/2 feet at the centerline above fuel surface. The nose fuze. The resulting damage to the tai' section of the bomb is shown In Figure C-30. cloudy day with 2-5 knot wind.. in flame 40 seconds after start of fire and remained so for the duration of the test. it is felt that the fuize extender initiated the reaction. 36 inches long. a detonation occurrv.tn one of the live components.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2 Test No. 30 X 30 feet. No tail fuze or filns Installed. M904E2 nose fuze and T45E4 adapter booster. At 3 minutes 38 seconds after start of fire. fuze extender and adapter booster were engulfed. Results: C-93 . The bomb tail section was used because of extensive damage to the threads in the nose. Weather Conditions: Warm. installed in the tall of an inert MARK 82 bomb.

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BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2 Test No. P2-43 ~Data Sheet : Deviec Tested: Comp-B loaded thick walled fuze extender.'.. blowing the remainder of the fuze extender (Figure C-31) out of the bomb. I August 1968. 30 X 30 feet.. •C-95S -. Results: I9 •. 1000 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel. 18 inches long. Bomb Position: Fuel: Pan Size. . 'The nose fuze. At 7 minutes 30 seconds the adapter booster deflagrated and burned. M904E2 nose fuze and T45E4 adapter booster.-. At 4 minutes 25 seconds after start of fire either the nose fuze or fuze extender exploded. .M~*4~4~*~ . V. No tail fuze or fins installed. installed in an inert MARK 82 bomb. Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Clear with 3-6 knot wind.! Test Fire: 3-1/2 feet at the centerline above fuel surface. fuze extender and adapter booster were Intermittently engulfed in flame because of the varying wind conditions during the test..

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It Is felt that the fuze extender initiated the reaction. Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Broken clouds with 2-5 knot wind. C-97 .. J Ij At 2 minutes 25 seconds after start of fire. Bomb Position: Fuel: . 1000 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel. 18 inches long. The resulting damage to the bomb Is shown In Figure C-32. P2-44 Data Sheet Device Tested: Comp-B loaded thick wallcd fuze extender. . 30 X 30 feet. a detonation occurred in one of the life components.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2 Test No. booster were . iI I . M904E2 nose fuze and T45E4 adapter booster. Pan Size: Test Fire: Results: 3-1/2 feet at the centerline above fuel surface. fuze extender and adapter engulfed in flame 28 seconds after start of fire. 8 August 1968. No tall fuze or fins installed. Because of the short time to reaction. installed in an inert MARK 81 bomb. The nose fuze.

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P2A-1 Data Sheet Device Tested: MI17.iw I.. T45E4 adapter booster and conical tail fins. 24 X 24 feet. instrumented bomb loaded with TRITONAL uxplostve' configured with a M904E2 nose fuize.Eli BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2A Test No. 25 April 1968.3 0 F/xc. The M117 bomb was engulfed in flames 23 seconds after start of fire and remained engulfed for 3 minutes at which time the Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Bomb Position: Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: Results: At 5 mInutes 25 seconds after start of test (2 minutes 25 seconds after fire was out).At. . 9 inches at the conterline above fuel surface. Cloudy with 0-4 knot wind. 750 lb. 500 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel. the bomb dtliagratcd. ('-99 We. Time-temp•erature data from the first 3 minutes of test show a mtaximum temperature rise rate or 4. Nose fuze/adapter boostvr did not react.

BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2A Test No. iel. The nose fuze/adaptur booster did not1 react tuid rennilned in the bomb's nose t'Lfze well Us shown In Figure (-33. bomb loaded with 1--6 explosive. At 3 minutes 0 seconds alter slart of lire the bomb deflugrated.100 AL_ LLý"A ms&akli . The Ml 17 bomb was engulfed in flames approximately 20 seconds after start of fire and remained ungulfed to reaction. P2A-2 Data Sheet Device Tested: M 117. T4514 adapter booster and conical tail fins. 9 inches at the centerline above tuel suriace. Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Bomb Position: Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: Results: ('. 1000 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft 30 X 30 feet. breaking into several large pieces. configured with M904E2 nose fuze. 2 July 1968. Hot and clear with 2-4 knot wind. 750 lb.

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.. 24 X 24 feet. L Date of Test: [ Weather Conditons: Bomb Position: Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: Results: Clear with no wind.. I "s.. 2000 lb. Device Tested: MARK 84. configured with M904E2 nose fuze... At 3 minutes 37 seconds after start of fire the bomb exploded.. .. . • .. T45E4 adapter booster. . bomb loaded with TRITONAL explosive.. The test stand was damaged.F BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2A Test No. 800 gallons of JP-5 Jet aircraft fuel. 30 April 1968. '. . . . fir... tall fuze plug and conical tail fins. ... . The MARK 84 bomb was engulfed in flames approximately 5 seconds after start of fire.% . . . Witness panels were blown down and the base plate was found 1500 feet from the test site. P2A-3 Data Sheet.. 12 inches at the centerline above fuel surface. .

after start of fire. The MARK 84 bomb was onjgulfcd in flamecs 8 seconds after start of fire. A large amount of scattered around the test area. 820 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel. 26 Aprfl 1968. 24 X 24 reet. 12 inches at the centerline above fuel surface. bomb loaded with H--6 explosive.jI! Device Tested: Date of Test: Bomb Position: Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2A Test No. tail tuIZe plug and conical tall fins. Results: At 3 midnutes 23 seconds deflagrated. T45E7 adapter booster. 7 minutes later throwing the bomb unrcacted explosivc the bomb the nose out of the was found 4 C-1 03 . Approximately fuze/adapter booster exploded test pit. P2A-4 Data Shect MARK 84. 2000 lb. Weather Conditions: Clear with no %Y]nd. configured with a M904112 nose fuze.

Flame temperature at the MARK 81 bomb exceeded 1000 0 F within 20 seconds after start of fire and averaged 1860'F till reaction. tall fuze plug and conical tail fins. The wing structure was observed melting and ftaling into the test pit I minute 21 seconds after st-tirt of fire.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2B Test No. 3 feet 9 inches at the centerline above the fuel surface and 2 feet 4 inches at the centerline below the wing. MARK 81. Dote of Test: -. P2B-l Data Sheet . bomb loaded with H-6 explosive. The wing structure was L'completely destroyed with only puddles of inclted aluminum remaining. At 2 minutes 6 seconds the bomb exploded. Clear with 2 knot wind. 2 September 1970. Several large pieces of the bomb were found approximately 30 feet from ground zero and are shown in Figure C-34.Weather *'Bomb Conditions: Position: Fuel: Pan Size: * Test Fire: Results: IC C-10 . cuntiguird Swith nose fuze plug. Numerous pieces of unreacted explosive were scattered about the test site. 800 gallons of JPS jet aircraft fuel. 250 lb. :• Device Tested. 35 X 35 feet. Bomb "was suspended under an aircraft wing in a racked to aircraft simulation.

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800 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel. At 1 minute 50 seconds after start of fire. Bomb Position: Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: 3 feet 9 inches at the centerline above the fuel surface and 2 feet 4 inches at the centerline below the whig. 250 lb. The remains arc shown hi Figure C-35.a . Device Tested: Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Partly cloudy with 12-15 knot wind. The wing structure was completely destroyed. tail fuze plug and conical tail fins. configured with nose fuze plug. Bomb was suspended under an aircraft wing in a racked to aircraft simulation. Several large pieces of the bomb were found in the test pit. bomb loaded with H-6 explosive. MARK 81. the bomb exploded. 4 September 1970. Flame temperature at the MARK 81 bomb exceeded 10000F within 23 seconds after start of fire and averaged 1765°F till reaction. P2B-2 Data Sheet. Results: C-106 !.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2B Test No. Numerous pieces of unreacted explosive were scattered about the test site. 35 X 35 feet.

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Numerous pieces of unreacted explosive were scattered about the test site.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2B Test No. the bomb exploded. tail fuze plug and conical tail fins. P2B-3 Data Sheet MARK 81. 1 C-I108 . . 35 X 35 feet. 30 September 1970. Bomb was suspended under an aircraft wing in a racked to aircraft simulation. Results: . 250 lb.. Device Tested: Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Partly cloudy with 6-10 knot wind. Bomb Position: Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: 3 feet 9 inches at the centerline above the fuel surface and 2 feet at the centerline below the wing. Flame temperature at the MARK 81 bomb exceeded 1000 0F within 32 seconds after start of fire and averaged 1825'F till reaction. configured with nose fuze plug. At 2 minutes 4 seconds after start of fire. bomb loaded with H-6 explosive. 800 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel. Several large pieces of the bomb were found approximately 40 feet from ground zero and are pictured in Figure C-36.

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Device Tested: Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Clear with 8 knot wind.BOMB FAST COOK.OFF PHASE 2B Test No. 500 lb. 35 X 35 feet. the bomb Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: Results: "exploded. Flame temperature at the MARK 82 bomb exceeded 1000'F within 14 seconds after start of fire and aveiagod 1860F till reaction. C-11 C-lII0 •- . Unreacted explosive was found scattered about the test site. Bomb was suspended under an aircraft wing in a racked to aircraft simulation. Picces of the bomb were found 750 feet from ground zero. 24 August 1970. h L' . P2B4 Data Sheet MARK 82. 800 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel. bomb loaded with H-6 explosive. Bomb Position: 3 feet 9 inches at the centerline above the fuel surface and 2 feet 4 inches at the centerline below the wing. Several of the recovered pieces of the bomb are shown in Figure C-37.. tail fuze plug and conical tail fins. At 2 minutes 12 seconds after start of fire. configured with nose fuze plug.'v .

IWI ~fii 1 rjj ~ CL 01 if 'Oo .

bomb loaded with H-6 explosivv. Results: The wing structure was observed burning 55 seconds after start of fire and falling into the pit at I minute 10 seconds.i. 25 August 1970. Thu bomb deflagrated 2 minutes 4 seconds into the test. P2B-5 Data Sheet Device Tested: MARK 82. Clear with 5-10 knot wind. sinice most of it remained In the bomb and burned as seen in Figure C-38. configured with niose fuze plug. 500 lb. Bomb was suspended under an aircraft wing In a racked to aircraft simulation. 3 feet 9 inches at the centerline above the fuel surface and 2 feet at the centerline below the wing. 35 X 35 feet. ! . tail ftize plug and conical tail fins. Flame temperature at the MARK 82 bomb exceeded 1000°F Ai Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Bomb Position: Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: within 17 seconds after start of fire and averaged 1950'F till reaction. 'CI C-i12 .. 800 gallons on JP-5 Jet aircraft fuel.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2B Test No. Very little explosive was found at the test area.

4 . J ..* A j-.Yo .a ~~ E. f1 V. ~z 'It4I J E L 113.

. Fuel: Test Fire: Results: V i.. Bomb Position: 3 feet 9 inches at the centerline above the fuel surface and 2 feet 2 Inches at the centerline below the wing.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2B Test No.i . configured with nose fuze plug. Flame temperature at the MARK 82 bomb exceeded 1000°F within 16 seconds after start of fire and averaged 1780'F till reaction.! C-1 14 . Bomb was suspended under an aircraft wing in a racked to aircraft simulation. . 500 lb. 800 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel. Figure C-39 pictures some of the larger pieces of the bomb case recovered after the test. 21 September 1970. P2B-6 Data Sheet MARK 82. tail fuze plug and conical tail fins. Several pieces of the bomb case were found approximately 55 feet from ground zero. bomb loaded with H-6 explosive. Device Tested: Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Clear with no wind. At 2 minutes 12 seconds after start of fire the bomb exploded tossing unreacted explosive about the immediate test area.

1 . C-1-5 .

3 feet 6 inches at the centerline above the fuel surface and 2 feet at the centerline below the wing.' Bomb Position: Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: Results: CI1 £I. Because of the order of reaction. it is felt that the nose aze/adapter booster may have initiated the reaction. P2B-7 Data Sheet Device Tested: MARK 84. Shortly after the fire was started. 24 X 24 feet. Very little unreacted explosive was found. 2000 lb. Clear with 1-2 knot wind. The MARK 84 bomb was engulfed in flames within 30 seconds after start of fire and remained engulfed till reaction. Date of Teat: Weather Conditions: 15 August 1968. Bomb was suspended under an aircraft wing in a racked to aircraft simulation. I. . At 3 minutes 38 seconds the bomb reacted in a partial detonation which destroyed the test pan and A-frame stand supporting the bomb. M990EI tail fuze and conical tail fins. magnesium in the wings strucutre and covering was observed burning (sparkling).'. configured with a M904E2 nose fuze.. Bomb fragments were found several thousand feet from ground zero. T45E4 adapter booster. bomb loaded with H-6 explosive. 700 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2B Test No.

The nose section of the bomb after reaction is shown in Figure C-40. 2000 lb. One minute after start of fire magnesium in the wing's structure and covering was observed burning (sparkling).uspended under an aircraft wing in a racked to aircraft simulation. configured with a M904E2 nose fuze. 29 August 1968. M990EI tail fuze and conical tail fins. Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: Results: • *. At 3 minutes 30 seconds the bomb deflagrated. Large chunks of unreacted explosive were in the test area. i C-I 17 I . 630 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel. P2B-8 Data Sheet Device Tested: MARK 84. The MARK 84 bomb was engulfed in flames within 25 seconds after start of fire and remained engulfed till reaction. The nose and tail fuzes and adapter booster were recovered live. T45E4 adapter booster. Bomb was . Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Clear with no wind.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 2B Test No. bomb loaded with TRITONAL explosive. Bomb Position: 3 feet 6 inches at the centerline above the fuel surface and 2 feet at the centerline below the wing. 24 X 24 feet.

'I6 LLL C'1181 .

. k [ * II I ' I *I.. '4 I I 'I I. I APPENDIX D I r i C t . '4 I I.. -. A* I' *: A'..m .. 1 4...h... I.r V IL I I .

Temperature data were taken for 5 minutes. Time-temperature data are presented as follows: Test Procedures: "Results: Thermocouple Number' Time (sec) 0-20 50 70 902 120 150 4..BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 3 'rest No. . -.. Date of Test: 2 October 1968. 1eO sconds 'At ! .. 1 60 110 158 213 257 255 267 6 62 110 150 211 256 255 269 7 61 80 160 214 262 260 271 8 9 Temperature VF 62 110 150 212 258 256 269 10 60 115 156 216 264 262 274 11 60 105 145 200 247 250 264 12 63 110 149 211 261 261 270 60 105 155 210 257 257 264 1803 210 240 265 264 267 266 268 262 263 261 263 262 272 268 263 260 269 268 removedmaximum from bomb.. Test Fire: Flame temperature recording equipment failed.. Weather Conditions: Broken clouds with 3-5 knot wind. . . ' . One minute 30 seconds after start of test the fire was removed and the bomb was allowed to air cool.. .. . SAt approximately 90 seconds fire was bomb interface temperaturei were reached.. . . . A visual inspection of the fire indicated very little flame engulfment of the bomb due to the wind.. . .. P3-M Data Shoot Device Tested: MARK 81 bomb inert loaded with Filler-E and thermocouples as shown In Figure D-1...

At 1 minute 30 seconds the fire was removed. Thermocouples located on the nose and tail fuze wells indicated very slow but constant temperature rise rate. '.17'F/sec.At approximately 20 seconds into the test interface temperatures (between bomb casing and hot melt) began to rise at the rate of 2.. internal temperatures continued to rise for 1 minute "30 seconds to a maximum of 271 0 F. A maximum temperature of 16SOF on the nose well and 105*F on the tail well after 5 minutes were recorded.3°F/ssc.V -•'j- D-2 . The air cooling rate was 0.

I I D-3 ( . I -j * I me u V I S I I 0 9 ii I Riliji-J 1.py I II 0 -9.

Time-temperature data tire presented as follows: I Results: Thermocouple Number' Time 1 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 (see) 0-30 60 90 120 1402 '170 200 220 63 158 302 401 489 503 461 433 61 127 250 378 436 487 469 449 64 157 303 401 480 497 455 434 Temperature OF 68 156 307 411 493 497 452 436 68 161 310 410 483 506 465 435 67 158 295 385 455 490 454 .BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 3 Test No. 2.128 67 157 298 402 485 499 463 437 61 82 120 162 193 213 224 230 .D-4 '-4 A . "Date of Test: 7 October 1968. . 'At 140 seconds fire was removed from bomb. 4. 3.Thermocouple Nos. P3-2 Data Sheet Device Tested: ds MAIK 81 bomb inert loaded with Filler-E and thermocoupled shown in F~igure I-I. Temperature data were taken for 5-1/2 minutes. Test Fire: Test Procedures: Flame temperature at the bomb exceeded 1000*F 35 seconds after start of fire and averaged 1590'F to removal of fire. "Weather Conditions: Clear with 0-1 knot wind. 5 and 6 were not munitored. 'At approximately 170 seconds maximum bomb Intortace temperatures were reached. Two minutes 20 seconds after start of test the fire was removed and the bomb was allowed to air cool.

D-5 . Thermocouples located on the nose and tail fuze wells Indicated a very slow temperature rise on the tail well but a 10 F/sec rise rate on the nose well.5*F/scc. interface temperatures continued to rise for approximately 30 seconds to a maximum of 506 0 F. temperatures began to rise at the rate of 3. The air cooling rate was 0. At. At approximately 30 seconds into the test bomb interface.6*F/sec.4 . 2 minutes 20 seconds the fire was romoved.

Test Fire: Test Procedure: Extremely poor fire because of the wind.' . the fire was removed and the bomb allowed to air cool. Temperature duta were taken for 6 minutes. Two minutes 15 seconds after start of test. Flame temperatures never exceeded 9000F. 1.J k.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 3 Test No. . 2. 4 Lind 6 wort not monitored. Time-temperature data are presented as follows: Results: Thermocouple Number" Time 5 61 97 139 189 210 7 63 97 141 190 211 8 62 95 141 186 210 "(wc) 0-40 80 100 120 9 10 Temperature °F 62 95 137 183 208 11 62 98 135 187 211 12 62 97 140 190 216 62 98 141 190 215 "1352 1603 190 210 250 266 216 209 197 266 221 213 199 262 216 208 197 261 212 204 189 269 222 214 199 263 218 211 197 264 221 213 196 iThormocouple No&. 'At approximately 160 Roconds bomb Inturlaco tompeurtures wure reachod. 'At 135 seconds fira was removed from bonib.D-6 . Weather Conditions: Scattered clouds with 3-5 knot wind. P3-3 Data Sheet Device Tested: Date of Test: /r:" MARK 81 bomb inert loaded with Filler-E and thertnocoupled as shown in Figure D)-I 9 October 1968. 3.

the fire was removed. No data were obtained on t. if'i 'J ' . . At 2 minutes 15 seconds. '.1 D-7 . internal temperatures continued to rise for 25 seconds to a maximum of 269°F. The air cooling rate was 0.10 F/sec. nose or tail t'uze wells. .270F/sec..At approximately 50 seconds into the test bomb interface temperatures began to rise at a rate of' 2..

. • . .. '.•: .. . Time-temperature data are presented as follows: Results: Thermocouple Number' Time (sec) 0-15 30 45 60 75 902 5 76 175 271 358 411 475 7 72 170 260 350 405 472 8 72 172 266 358 414 478 9 10 Temperature 'F 77 176 270 363 417 485 11 72 170 264 353 401 470 12 74 174 268 360 415 467 13 61 69 86 106 126 144 76 174 266 359 410 473 1203 150 180 5 482 457 437 474 452 423 479 455 431 489 465 440 474 451 427 473 450 432 476 453 430 158 170 199 Thermocouple Nos.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 3 Test No. 1.. 2.... 4 and 6 were not monitored." ..•'. :• . 10 seconds after start of fire and averaged 1720°F to removal of fire. . .. Weather Conditions: Clear with no wind.:• ..• .' .'. . . . .. " .. 3. One minute 30 seconds after start of test. D-8 •" •. i .L :. . 'At approximately 120 seconds maximum bomb Interface temperatures were reuched.•.... the first was removed and the bomb was allowed to air cool. P3-4 Data Sheet Device Tested: MARK 81 bomb inert loaded with Fillcr-E and thermocoupled as shown in Figure D-1.. 4 .•. ". -. . Test Fire: Test Procedures: Flame temperature at the bomb exceeded 10O00F. Date of Test: 11 October 1968. At 90 seconds fire was removed from bomb...•" ?". • • ':. Temperature data were taken for 1 hour..F ". . / .

At ~ approximately 15 seconds into the test bomb interface temperature began to rise at the rate of 5.-' 4 . internal temperatures continued to rise for 30 seconds to a maximum of 4890F. Temperature recordings were continually made for one hour that showed a substantial drop in cooling rate.I IrL ' ..39°F/sec. The air cooling rate for the next 4 minutes was 0. from 6 to 30 minutes the cooling rate was . ---------------------------...I.039°F/sec. At 1 minute 30 seconds. V. That is.14"F/sec and from 30 to 60 minutes this rate dropped to 0.20 F/sec. the fire was removed.

? . "At approximately 170 seconds maximum bomb interface temperatures were reached.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 3 Test No. P3-5 Data Sheet Device Tested: Date of Test: MARK 81 bomb inert loaded with Filler-E and thermocoupled as shown in Figure D-l. 3. Temperature data were taken for 5-1/2 minutes. Time-temperature data are presented as follows: Results: Thermocouple Number1 Time (sec) 0-30 60 90 120 1352 1703 5 62 148 281 378 418 433 7 61 146 276 372 410 427 8 62 147 280 120 408 430 9 10 Temperature 'F 63 152 288 382 422 436 11 63 142 266 357 392 414 12 62 146 276 367 407 421 13 60 72 90 115 138 303 62 151 281 378 410 429 200 230 260 411 391 382 406 389 380 410 389 381 415 397 386 407 392 384 399 380 370 404 383 372 284 266 264 Thermocouple No&. 1. 'At 135 seconds fire wu removed from bomb. . 14 October 1968..2. the fire was removed and the bomb allowed to air cool.44 and 6 were not monitored. Weather Conditions: Overcast with 0-I knot wind. Test Fire: Test Procedures: Flame temperature at the bomb exceeded 1000*F. D-10 . 40 seconds after start of fire and averaged 1370"F to removal of fire. Two minutes 15 seconds after start of test.f.

60F/sec.90F/sec.'J At approximately 30 seconds into the test interface temperatures began to rise at the rate of 3. AL. the fire was removed. internal temperatures continued to rise for 35 seconds to a maximum of 271 0 F. . The air cooling rate was 0.I. D- . At 2 minutes 15 seconds.

Weather Conditions: Clear with 2-4 knot wind. Time-temperature data are presented as follows: Results: Thermocouple Number' Time (see) 0-45 75 90 1052 165 225 5 62 104 166 226 261 249 223 7 61 107 166 225 258 248 231 8 60 103 162 222 253 238 230 10 9 Temperature @F 62 103 154 217 252 244 223 11 60 105 156 220 254 247 231 12 60 102 163 220 254 13 60 104 159 221 244 240 231 S353 60 106 166 225 259 250 233 247 228 'Thermocouple Nom. 2. At 105 woonds fire was removed from bomb. Temperature data were taken for one hour 6 minutes. One minute 45 seconds after start of test. 4 and 6 were not monitored.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 3 Test No. 60 seconds after start of fire and averaged 1360°F to removal of fire. $At approximately 135 seconds maximum Interface temperatures were reached. Date of Test: 18 October 1968. 1. Test Fire: Test Procedures: Flame temperature at the bomb exceeded 1000°F. the fire was removed and the bomb allowed to air cool. P3-6 Data Sheet Device Testee : MARK 81 bomb inert loaded with Filler-E and thermocoupled as shown In Figure D-I. 3. D-I 2 .

. . . The air cooling rate for the next 3 minutes was 0... .093*F/sec... i!L . . ...40 F/sec.. That is.30 F/sec... internal temperature in the bomb continued to rise for 30 seconds to a maximum of 261*F.... Temperature recordings were continually made for one hour 6 minutes that showed a substantial drop in cooling rate... ifib"Vt - - ..At approximately 60 seconds into the test bomb Interface temperatures began to rise at the rate of 3.. At I minute 45 seconds. At . . from 21 to 66 minutes the rate was 0. -. the fire was removed.

At 4 minutes 15 seconds into the test the fire was removed from the bomb. No water was observed impinging on the bomb. No change in temperature rise rate was noted when the sprinklers were turned off.5 to 5.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 3A Test No. 16 January 1969. Test Procedures: Results: . All thermocouples located in the bomb indicated a temperature rise rate of from 4. During the time sprinklers were ON.03 gal/ft 2 /min onto a-.1 7'• . the sprinkler system was turned on and remained on for two minutes before being turned off. Safter Test Fire: Flame temperature at the bomb exceeded 1000lF. Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Sunny with 2 5 knot wind. 45 seconds start of fire and averaged 2000°F during the time sprinklers were OFF.0*F/see during the entire 4+ minutes of the test. A maximum temperature of 735°F was recorded at the bomb interface.Filler-E loaded"'"MARK 81 bomb which was thermnocoupled as shown in Figure D-1. 3A-1 Data Sheet Device Tested: Cooling effect of two FULLJET 300 injector type sprinkler nozzles positioned applying water at the rate of . One minute after start of test. the flame temperature averaged 15600F.

During the time sprinklers were ON. Test Procedure- Results: 1)-IS4 .52 secondq after start of test. No water was observed impinging on the bomb.BOMB F~AST COOK-OFF PHfASE 3A Test No. P3A-2 DaaSheet Device Tested: Cooling effect of' two FULLJET 30' injector type sprinkler nozzles applying water at the rate of 0. the flame temperature averaged 15600 F.l 29 January 1969. sprinklers were still on. At 3 minutes Into the test the fire was removed from the bomb. Date of Test- Weather Conditions: Sunny with 1-2 knot wind. the sprinkler system was turned on and remained on for the duration of the test. A maximum temperature of 773'F was recorded at the bomub interface. At . All thermocouples located in the bomb Indicated a temperature rise rate of from S.50F/sec during the 3+ minutes of the test. Test Fire: Flame tormperature at the bomb exceeded 10000 F.0 to 5. 12 seconds after start of fire and averaged 20500 F during the time sprinklers were OFF.03 gal/ft2 /mIin onto a Filler-12 loaded MARK 81 bomb which was thermocoupled as shown in Figure D-. No change in temperature rise rate was noted when the sprinklers were turned off or during the time they were on.

Y BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 3A Test No.48 gal/ft 2 /min onto a Filler-E loaded MARK 81 bomb which was thermocoupled as shown in Figure D-1. !! Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Sunny with steady 2 knot wind. Test Fire: Flame temperature at the bomb never exceeded 10000F. Water was not observed impinging on the bomb during the test. Temperature averaged 550*F during the time sprinklers were OFF and 3500F during the time they were ON.7°F/sec during the entire test. P3A-3 Data Sheet Device Tested: Cooling effectiveness of two FULLJET 30" injector type sprinkler nozzles applying water at the rate of 0. D-16 . A maximum temperature of 239'F was recorded in the bomb at 2 minutes into the test. 15 April 1969. No change in temperature rise rate was noted when the sprinklers were turned on. Test Procedure: Results: D1 . the sprinklers were turned on and remained on for the duration of the test. One minute after start of fire. Thermocouples located in the bomb indicated a temperature rise rate of 1.

• : Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Foggy with 0-3 knot wind. A maximum temperature of 352"F at the bomb . the sprinklers were turned on Resulta: All thermocouples located in the bomb indicated a temperature Srise rate of 3.48 gal/ft 2 /min onto a Filler-E loaded MARK 81 bomb which was thermocoupled as shown in Figure D-1. 17 April 1969. P3A-4 Data Sheet Device Tested: Cooling effectiveness of two FULLJET 30° injector type sprinkler nozzles applying water at the rate of 0. While averaged 750OF at at the bomb exceeded 1000*F. Test Procedure: ~and remained an for the duration of the test. Neither visual observation nor film review could conclusively show water impinging on the bomb.hi4. :•r BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 3A ~~Test No. 17 'A . "Teat Fire: Flame temperature after start of fire were OFF. 'IF. One minute after start of fire. .4'F/see before and after sprinkler system was activated. ".Interface was recorded. 40 seconds and averaged 1400*F during time sprinklers sprinklers were ON the flame temperature the bomb.

BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 3A Test No. One minute after start of fire the single flush deck nozzle was '. Thermocouple No. For the firt minute of the test. Results: J . Temperature 78'F.1 I .50F/sec. P3A-5 Data Sheet Device Tested: Water cooling effect of a single flush deck nozzle (Grinnell S-110-. Flame temperature at the bomb exceeded 1000°F. Water pressure on the system was 60 psi..438) positioned 3-1/2 feet directly under a Filler-E loaded MARK 81 bomb. the fire began to die down and was out at 5 minutes. While flush deck nozzles were ON.6 to 0. A` 4 minutes. 7 recordings show a defilite cooling of the bomb in that area.urned on and remained on for 5-1/2 minutes. Sunny with 0-2 knot wind. a maximum temperature rise rate of 3. 15 September 1969.80F/sec was observed on TC7 while the rest of the bomb was cooled at the rate of approximately 0. This was the area where water from the center plume of the nozzle directly impinged on the bomb. 15 seconds after start of fire and averaged 1560"F during time the flush Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Test Fire: dock nozzles were O)FF. Sflame Test Procedure: temperature averaged 9300F at the bomb. The bomb was Instrumented as shown in Figure D-1.80F/sec. All "other areas of the bomb showed a temperature rise rate of from 011 to I. After the fire was out a cooling rate of 1.5*F/see was recorded.

19 . P3A-6 Data Sheet Device Tested: Water cooling effect of two flush deck nozzles (Grinnell S-1 10-. Temperature 790F. the the the was S~'. Water pressure on the system was 75 psi.10 F/sec for first minutte of the test. Fair with I-51/1 knot winds.8°F/sec and when the flame was removed process was reversed and a cooling rate of IV.OF/sec recorded.438) positioned 3-1/2 feet beneath and one on either side. The bomb was Instrumented as shown in Figure D-l. •'.I (J. 16 September 1969. 15 seconds after start of fire.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 3A Test Nu. Flame temperature at the bomb exceeded 1000'F. The fire was removed from the bomb at 1 minute 51 seconds. 10 feet from a Ffller-E loaded MARK 81 bomb.•. •. Temperature was approximately 1450°F until nozzles were activated (after 56 seconds) at which time flame temperature dropped to approximately 750*F for the remainder of the test. Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Test Fire: Test Procedure: At 56 seconds after start of fire the nozzles were turned on and remained on for 2 minutes 16 seconds. Results: The temperature rise rate in the bomb was 2. 1 13. When the water was turned on riso rate was 1.

the nozzles were turned un and remained on for 3 minutes 23 seconds.60F/sec. '6 . Test Fire: Flame temperature at the bomb exceeded 1000'F. The bomb was instrumented as shown in Figure D-1. 17 September 1969. Water pressure on the system was 75 psi. 1J. D-20 . Temperature was at about 15000F until nozzles wer activated (after 54 seconds) at which time flame temperature dropped to approximately 6000 F for the remainder of the test. 10 seconds after start of fire. None of the thermocouples In the bomb showed a significant decrease in the temperature rise rate of' 1. Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Fair with 0-1/a knot wind.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 3A Test No. Temperature 77*F. After the fire was removed from the bomb (nozzles remaining on) a temperature decrease of 0. P3A-7 Data Sheet Device Tested: Water cooling effect of two flush dock nozzles (Grinnell S-1 10-. The fire was removed from the bomb at I minute 28 seconds.438) positioned 3-1/2 feet beneath and one 10 feet on either side of a Filler-E loaded MARK 81 bomb.2°F/see was recorded. Test Procedure: Results: '. At 54 seconds after start of fire.•'.

P3A-8 Data Sheet Device Tested: Cooling effect of water being applied over an inert Filler-lE loaded instrumented MARK 81 bomb at the rate of' 60 gpni The water was applied by firemen from a hand-held 1-1 /2-inch fire hoso.frne I lD-21 . thle flume temperature was 1290'F.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 3A Test No. Test Procedure: One mninute 40 seconds after start or test. Thec rate of flow was 60 gpin.6" F/sec was rucorded onl the approx imaseteyi 1 0 ofa n iebmn m Figure o D-2.le producing a fairly tight stream of bwater was used. Results: A mauximum floating rate of 4. Bomb renuiuned engulfed in flumec for the duration of the test. We th nefc eprtr ttepitrahd351. 30 seconds after start of fire. 13 August 1969. Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Broken clouds with 3-6 knot wind. Test Fire: [ I Flame temperature at the bomb exceeded 1000 0 F. At I milnute 40 seconds when water was applied to thle bomb. temperature 82'F. A standard nozz. Firemen were positioned at an ungle of 100-150 to thle tall of the bomb. fireme'n standing approximately 65 feet from the bomb started applying water from a hand-held 1-1/2-inch fire hiose directly onto the bomb.

.Sao 1000 so. .. 0o so tc 100 aiISO si 46 40 io mc% D-2 ..

3. Results: A maximum heating rate of 3.4*F/sec was recorded on the bottom midsection of the bomb (TC7 of Figure D-i). The water was applied by firemen from a hand-held 1-1/2-inch fire hose.1 'I •outside 130 0 F. At 1 minute 10 seconds when water was applied to the bomb. Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Fair with 5-12 knot wind. Cooling continued but at a much slower rate. One minute 10 seconds after start of test. until a stabilizing temperature approximately 110*F was reached. temperature 70"F. as can be seen in Figure D. Bomb remained engulfed in flames for the duration of the test.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 3A Test No. A standard nozzle producing a fairly tight stream of Test Procedure: water was used. of LI A D-23 . dnute 10 seconds). When the interface temperature at this point reached 260"F (I . Firemen were positioned at an angle of 45"-500 to the tail of the bomb. Test Fire: Flame temperature at the bomb exceeded 1000"F within 30 seconds after start of fire. firemen standing approximately 50 feet from the bomb started applying water from a hand-held 1-1/2-inch fire hose directly onto the bomb. The rate of flow was 60 gpm. The bomb then began to cool at the rate of 2. firemen began applying water onto the bomb making sure that the water was completely covering the surface. the flame temperature was I1900F.6*F/sec and at 2 minutes 30 seconds was at approximately . P3A-9 Data Sheet Device Tested: Cooling effect of water being applied over an inert Filler-E loaded instrumented MARK 81 bomb at the rate of 60 gpm. 19 September 1969.

001 LIor * __ 104- -- ~eD ~ - cc -D-2 ..

The rate of flow was 95 gpm. P3A-10 Data Sheet Device Tested: Cooling effect of water being applied over an inert Filler-E loaded instrumented MARK 81 bomb at the rate of 95 gpm. At 1 minute 35 seconds when water was applied to the bomb.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 3A Test No. Y. Water was applied by firemen from a hand-held 1-1/2-inch fire hose. A standard nozzle producing a fairly tight stream of water was used. Test Fire: Flame temperature at the bomb exceeded 1000'F within 30 seconds after start of fire. When the interface temperature at TC7 reached 370'F (1 minute 35 seconds). 8 September 1970. firemen began applying water onto the bomb making sure that the water was completely covering the bomb's outside surface. Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Clear with 0-3 knot wind.5°F/see and at about 5 minutes had begun to stabilize at approximately 1200 F as seen in Figure D-4. A maximum heating rate of 3. temperature 940F. The bomb then began to cool at the rate of 2. Test Procedure: Results: k j. Bomb remained completely engulfed in flames for the duration of the test. One minute 30 seconds after start of test. firemen standing approximately 70 feet from the bomb started applying water from a hand-held 1-1/2-inch fire hose directly onto the bomb. flame temperature was at 1250'F.4*F/see was recorded at the bottom midsection of the bomb (TC7. Temperature in the bomb continued to climb for 25 seconds to a maximum of 415°F. Firemen were positimned at an angle of 300-350 to the nose of the bomb. D-25 . Figure D-1).

. .. . .. .4N- cc . . ... ... . . . . 10 no-6 . ... .r'I.... . .... . ...

D-27. (Lightwater was impinging on the bomb.80F/sec.) Results: 41 :rise qý '•iinterface... No change in flame temperature was noted when 2 sprinklers were activated.. IV` t." SJ.. P3A-1I Data Sheet Device Tested: Cooling effect of two FULLJET 300 Injector type sprinkler nozzles positioned on either side of a Filler-E loaded MARK 81 bomb and dispensing a 6% solution of "lightwater" "at the rate of .. "Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Clear with 5-7 knot wind. At the . All thermocouples located in the bomb Indicated a temperature rate of IA to 1.03 gal/ft 2 /min. . . Test Fire: Three minutes 15 seconds after start of fire the sprinkler system was turned on (bomb internal temperature 250'F) and remained on for the duration of the test.03 gal/ft /min rate of application the fire was not put out. . r 4:. An average flame temperature of 1300'F was recorded after a 2-nilnute fire build-up time. 11 August 1969. No change in bomb temperature rise rate was noted wheni the sprinklers were on or off and the bomb engulfed in flame. After fire was removed the cooling rate was approximately . temperature 800F.7 °F/sec during the first 6+ minutes of the test. A maximum temperature of 508'F was recorded at the bomb None of thle lightwater was observed impinging on" thu bomb.91~ BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 3A Test No.. The bomb was thermocoupled as shown in Figure D-1. L.

A maximum temperature of 6800F was recorded at the bomb interface. All thermocouples located in the bomb indicated a temperature rise rate of 3. . i .03 gal/ft 2 /min.' . . ' • • . . temperature 80'F. (Lightwater was impinging on the Results: D-28 S. ..•.0 to 3. Internal temperature of the bomb was 250OF' at 1 minuto 31 seconds at which time the sprinkler system was activated.) ." . After the firu was out. P3A-12 Data Sheet Device Tested: Cooling effect of two FULLJET 30' injector type sprinkler nozzles positioned on either side of a Filler-E loaded MARK 81 bomb and dispensing a 6% solution of "lightwater" at the rate of .•A . the cooling rate was approximately bomb.. .7*F/see. "•". At 1 minute 54 seconds.. . the flame temperature had exceeded 1000*F.• . ' . • . during the first 2 minutes of the test.. 12 August 1969. . None of the lightwater was observed impinging on the bomb.ri BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 3A 'Test No. .t . • . . At 40 seconds after start of test. V Date of Test: Teit Fire: Weather Conditions: Clear with 0-31/ knot wind.. The bomb is thermocoupled as shown In Figure 1-1.• . . . . . No change in bomb temperature rise rate was noted when the sprinklers were on or off and the bomb engulfed in flumne. the flame was removed from the bomb and at 3 minutes the sprinkler system was turned off. ..20 F/see..

P3A-13 Data Sheet Device Tested: Cooling eftect of two FULUET 30' injector type sprinkler nozzles positioned on either side of a Filler-E loaded MARK 81 bomb and dispensing a 6% solution of "llghtwater" at the rate of .03 gal/ft 2 /mln.. "at I minute 12 was activated. After the fire was out. DJ-29 . A maximum temperature of 710'F was recorded at the bomb interface.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE JA Test No. Test Fire: At 34 seconds exceeded 1000*F.5*F/see during the first 2+ minutes of the test.I. (Lightwater was impinging on the bomb. after start of test.0 to 3.0°F/sec. . Clear with 0-1 knot wind. The bomb is thermocoupled as shown in Figure D-I. . the flame temperature Internal temperature of the bomb was 250OF seconds at which time the sprinkler system 2 minutes 5 seconds.) ID I. At from the bomb turned off. temperature 830F. Date of Test: Weather Conditions: 15 August 1969. the flame was removed and at 3 minutes the sprinkler system was Results: All thermocouples located in the bomb indicated a temperature rise rate of 3. . - II~~ . the cooling rate was approximately S1. No change in bomb temperature rise rate was noted when the sprinklers were on or off and bomb engulfed In flame. . None of the light water was observed impinging on the bomb but rather appeared to be vaporized by the flames.

.. the flush deck nozzle was turned on..50 F/see was recorded at the bomb interface. a maximum temperature rise rate of 3... . P3A-14 Data Sheet Device Tested: Lightwater cooling effect of a single flush deck nozzle (Giinnell S-1 10-. At this time.. the lightwater had successfully extinguished the fire. Light rain with 1-3 knot wind..i 18 August' 1969. At 4 minutes Into the test.50F/sec. the thermocouples located in the area where the dock nozzles center plumb was Impinging (TC's 7 and 8) show a cooling rate of 4. the bomb began to cool at approximately 0. no stabilization of bomb temperature was apparent (temperature ranged from 70*F to 2500F). Date of Test: Weather Conditions: " Test Fire: Results: For the first 1 minute 10 seconds of the test.. The flame temperature at the bomb then dropped to approximately 950*F and at 2 minutes 26 seconds the lightwater had extinguished the fire.. At approximately 1 minute 40 seconds. At 2 minutes 25 seconds... Average flame temperature for the first I minute 10 seconds of the test was 1310*F at which time the nozzle was activated. Bomb was Instrumented as shown In Figure D1.438) positioned 3-1/2 feet directly below a Filler-E loaded MARK 81 bomb.... temperature 83*F. With the nozzle still on. the temperature rise rate then decreased to I..... Pressure at the nozzle was 75 psi. D3I0 .F BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 3A Test No..1*F/sec.50F/se.

. Bomb was instrumented as shown hi Figure D.2°F/sec.temperature D.31 (A.. . a maximum temperature rise rote of 2. no stabilization of bomb temperature was apparent (temperatures ranged from 65OF to 180"F).* • '." '" -. For the first 1 minute 40 seconds of the test.1°F/sec.. t• • . Test Fire: All flame temperature data were lost due to a recording malfunction.. However.i" •"••' "" " '" •l. P3A-15 Data Sheet Device Tested: Ughtwater cooling effect of a single flush deck nozzle (Grinnell S-I I0-438) positioned 3-1/2 feet directly below a Filler-E loaded MARK 81 bomb.:. .I " . . Pressure at the nozzle was 60 psi.30F/sec was recorded at the bomb interface. '(t i.'--''• . : . With the nozzle still on.- u. j. the bomb began to cool at approximately 0. D-31. Results: '(I VIA.I19 August 1969. • •.-.••. the lightwater had successfully extinguished the fire...". The flush deck nozzle was then turned on and the rise rate decreased to l.•' . At 2 minutes 35 seconds... temperature 780F. . the thermocouple on the bottom rear section of the bomb (TC 11) where the nozzle's center plumb was impinging showed a cooling rate of 3. At 5-1/2 minutes into the test.. . .l Date of Test: Weadior Conditions: Light rain with 3-6 knot wind. -.7*F/sec.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 3A "Test No.-• . the internal bomb temperatures would indicate a good test. At approximately 2 minutes..

7*F/sece. the Internal bomb temperature would indicate a good test.rfuce.. P3A-16 Data Sheet Device Tested: Ughtwater cooling effect of a single flush deck nozzle (Grinncll S-1 10-.438) positioned 3-1/2 feet directly below a FilIcr-E loaded MARK 81 bomb. Bomb instrumented as shown in Figure D-l. The thermocouple on the bottom center section of the bomb (TC 7) wht rt the nozzle center plumb was impinging showed a cooling rate of 5. All flame temperature data were lost because of equipment malfunction. no stabilization of bomb temperature was apparent."BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 3A Test No. (Temperature ranged from 650 F to 2950 F. temperature 78"F. For the first 1 minute 12 seconds of the test.5°F/see was recorded at the bomb int. However. The flush deck nozzle was then turned on and the temperature rise rate decreased to 2. At approximately 2 minutes into the test. th. 5 .) Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Test Fire: Results: D1- . the bomb began to cool at the rate of 0.70F/seoc At 4 minutes Into the test. a maximum temperature rise rate of 3. Fair with 3-4 knot wind. lightwater had successfully extinguished the tire.5*F/sec. With the nozzles still on. 2 August 1969. Pressure at the nozzle was 60 psi.

The nozzle was Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Test Fire: Test Procedure: adjusted to throw a wide spray rather than a tight stream. Results: A maximum heating rate of 3. At 3 minutes 50 seconds. lightwater was continually applied and a cooling rate of 2. Lightwater applied by firemen from a hand held 1-1/2 fire hose. Firemen were positioned at an angle of 450 to 500 to the nose of the bomb. Broken clouds. The bottom portion of the bomb continued to heat at approximately 3°F/sec. P3A-17 Da'ta Sheet Device Testedi Cooling effects of light water being applied over an inert Filler-E loaded instrumented MARK 81 bomb at the rate of 60 gpm. the lightwator had completely extinguished the fire.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 3A Test No. cooling was observed only on the left side when direct impingement took place.8°F/sec was observed as can be seen in Figure D-5. The lightwater was observed to be covering the entire bomb as in the water test. firemen positioned approximately 50 feet from the bomb started applying a 6% mixture of light water from a hand held 1-1 /2-inch fire hose directly onto the bomb. temperature 80°F. flame temperature was 11500 F. wind 3-8 knots. One minute 35 seconds aftfr start of test. Lightwater was applied at the rate of 60 gpm from a 1-1/2-inch hand-held fire hose by firemen.2°F/sec was recorded along the bottom of the bomb (TC's 3. D-33 . 7 and 11 of Figure D-I) and its left side (TC's 4 and 8) for the first 1 minute 35 seconds of the test. Flame temperature at the bomb exceeded 1000°F within 25 seconds after start of fire. Lightwater completely extinguished the fire in approximately 2 minutes. however. 21 August 1969. at which time lightwater was applied to the bomb from the left side. At 1 minute 35 seconds when light water was applied over the bomb.

Fw IN doI 1 I IMI 16I D-34 .

flame teonperitturo was 500' 1. 4 and 3) recorded cooling In their the surface l)-3 5 . At I minute 20 second%. P3A-18 Data Sheet Device Teswd: Cooling effects of' lightwater being applied ov'er an inert V Date of Test: Filler-ti loaded instrumented MARK 81 bomb at the rate of ýýI j~. Several of the (TC's 8.. when lightwator was applied over the bomb. Test Fire: Flame temperature ait the bomb exceeded 1000 0FZwithin 30 seconds viter start of fire. One minute 20 seconds after start of test.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 3A Test No. Application of the lightwater completely Lit extinguished the fire in approximately 4 minutes. firemen positioned approximately 50 feet f'roin the bomb began applying a 6% mixture of lightwater from a hand-held 1-1 /2-inch fire hose directly onto the bomb. Firemen were standing at an angle of' 350 to 400 to the nose of the bomb. 16 October 19611. the remaining thermocouples continued to rise in temperature as shown in Figure D)-6. Test Procedure: Results: Figure D1)-). A maximum heating rate oft 2. 8 and 11. Weather Conditions: Clew with 4 knot wind. temperature 580 F. however. Trho nozzle was adjusted to throw a tight stream ruther than a wide spray.2*F/soc was recorded along the left side and over bottom of' the bomb (crcs 4."Lightwuter" applied by firemen from a hand-held 1-1/2-inch fire hose. At I minute 20 seconds. of the bomb. firemen began applying lightwater thermocouples areas.

• FIGURE D-6 Time-Temperature Graph of Bomb Heating and Cooling Rates for Bomb Cook-Off Test No. P3A-18 K' D-36 . .•i'' !340 4W Io too SIC 911 0 o It we M No 40 !IV .... . .. • _f .. M ...

.•. *. Test Procedure: At 1 minute 38 seconds after start of test. • l ::'' ' g .BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 3A Test No." ' " " 4 . when lightwater was applied over the bomb. '..L.! D-37 S. temperature 40F F. . firemen began applying lightwater to the bomb at the rate of 60 gpm. P3A-19 Data Sheet Device Tested: Cooling effect of lightwater being applied over an inert Filler-E loaded instrumented MARK 81 bomb at the rate of 60gpm. '.. ' ..20 F/sec was recorded along the bottom and left side (due to wind) of the bomb. firemen positioned at 1750 0 F. At one minute 38 seconds.• I. The nozzle was adjusted to throw a tight stream of water rather than a wide spray.. Results: A maximum heating rate of 3. .•i *. . .'' -. I)-37. • 4'**. Lightwv'er applied by firemen from a hand held 1-1/2-inch fire hose.. . Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Broken clouds with 4-8 knot wind.'.. flame temperature was in approximately 2-1 /2 minutes. Most of the thermocouples began to show a decrease in temperature (see Figure D-7) with the exception of TC 4 (Figure D-I). The application of lightwater extinguished the fire approximately 50 feet from the bomb began applying a 6% mixture of lightwater from a 1-1/2-inch fire hose directly onto the bomb. !' 3 1 Test Fire: Flame temperature at the bomb exceeded 1000*F within 27 seconds after start of fire. . This area of the bomb did not begin to cool until the fire was practically extinguished. .. . 30 October 1969.. At 1 minute 38 seconds. Firemen were standing at an angle approximately 450 to the tail of the bomb.

19 D-38 -6 ~~~A 4- - - - ./ Boo -5 I~ II' A so oc mcv FIGURE D-7 Time-Temperature Graph of Bomb Heating and Cooling Rates for Bomb Cook-Off Test No. P3A.100 - sooof .

. Test Fire: Flame temperature at the bomb never reached 1000'F. . Lightwater applied by firemen from a hand-hield 1-i /2-inch fire hose. Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Clear with steady 3 knot wind. At 1 minute 8 seconds after start of test. Within 30 seconds. See Figure D-8. P3A-20 Data Sheet Deyice Tested: Cooling effect of lightwater being applied over an inert Filler-. Firemen were standing at an angle approximately . loaded instrumented MARK 82 bomb at the rate of' 95 gpm.20 F/sec was recorded along the bottom and right side of the bomb. lightwater was applied over the bomb. 15 July 1970. A maximum heating rate of 3./] BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 3A Test No.. At one minute 8 seconds after start of test. the tire began to die down due to the lightwater. lightwater was applied at the rate of 95 gpm over the bomb's surface. and at 2 minutes 8 seconds the fire was removed from the test pan. At I minute 8 seconds. temperature 800F. The nozzle was adjusted to a tight stream of lightwater rather than a wide spray. firemen positioned approximately 50 feet from the bomb began applying a 6% "mixture of lightwater from a 1-i/2-inch fire hose directly onto the bomb. Thermocouple locations are shown in Figure D-1 Test Procedure: Y... .5' to the nose fo the bomb.throw Results: . In internal temperature of the bomb began to level off but no decrease in temperature was noted. 039 D-39 .

Maoo. LU - Io NO (% awI I TM 0 D-40 .1' &'10 ION 40 o cc 110o Ito Iii 96 *0 .

41 ' ( . at which time lightwater was applied to the bomb. As lightwater began covering the fire surface.6°F/sec was recorded over much of the bomb's surface . the fire began going out and at this point a temperature decrease of 1.4°F/sec was observed. The application of llghtwater rapidly decreased the flame's intensity and had extinguished it by 3 minutes 45 seconds into the test. P3A-21 Data Sheet Cooling effects of lightwater being applied over an inert Filler-E loaded instrumented MARK 82 bomb at the rate of 95 gpm. The hose nozzle was adjusted to throw a tight stream of Llghtwater. At 1 minute 20 seconds. from an angle of 400 to the bomb nose. cooling took place in the left forward portion of the bomb (maximum lightwater was applied). Llghtwater applied by firemen from a 1-1 /2-Inch hand held fire hose. Time-temperature data are presented in Figure D-9 and thermocouple locations are shown in Figure D-1. When lightwater was first directed onto the bomb. 15 seconds after start of fire. temperature 80'F. 28 July 1970. the flame temperature was 1810*F. Device Tested: Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Clear with no wind.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 3A Test No. Test Fire: Flame temperature at the bomb exceeded 1000°F. At 1 minute 20 seconds after start of test firemen positioned approximately 50 feet from the bomb began applying a 6% mixture of lightwater from a 1/2-inch hand-held fire hose onto the bomb. A maximum heating rate of 3. Test Procedure: Results: D.

400 too INI no 4ol K100 s oo0 IS FIGURE D-9 Time-Temperature Graph of Bomb Heating and Cooling Rates for Bomb Cook-Off Test No. P3A-21 D-42 .

m _ . the flame temperature was 1970'F. 20 August 1970.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 3A Test No.. .5-inch hand-held hose. . _ . P3A-22 Data Sheet Device Tested: Cooling effects of lightwater being applied over an inert Filler-E loaded instrumented MARK 82 bomb at the rate of 95 gpm. . Test Procedure: At I minute 10 seconds after start of test. .5°F/sec as can be seen in Figure D-10.7*F/sec was recorded over the right side and bottom portions of the bomb. The application of lightwater rapidly decreased the flame intensity and had extinguished the fire by 2 minutes 5 seconds into the test. .'. At I minute 10 seconds. Lightwater was applied from an angle of 45' to the nose of the bomb (right side). . Results: D-43 . When lightwater was applied the temperature at the bomb interface continued to climb for the most part until the fire was almost out atl which time the bomb began to cool at 2. Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Clear with 3 knot wind. . temperature 80 F. .2. Test Fire: Flame temperature at the bomb exceeded 10000F within 15 seconds after start of fire. The hose nozzle was adjusted to throw a tight stream of lightwater. Lightwater applied by firemen from a 1. firemen positioned approximately 50 feet from the bomb began applying a 6% mixture of lightwater from a 1-1/2-inch hand-held fire hose onto the bomb.A_ A. at which time light water was applied to the bomb. Thermocouple locations are shown in Figure D-1. . A maximum heating rate of 4.

- .r 4D / / I t00 .0.1 ON 'II m.. me t 'U ( Ii N 00 'U Urn m *r FIGURE D-1O Time-Temperature Gruph of Bomb Heating and Cooling Rates for Bomb Cook-Oft Test No.! O/ _ 0p- I0 MO . P3A-22 D-44 I 14 I' - ..

. . .* .. . -I - :.* I I 11 *1 'I I - I' t II I APPENDIX B (I .- .jI I A . .. I' Ii 'Ii II Ii I 'I ...- .. I-... . ..r . . .. . . . I ABA4 WItd -. . I .1 II k ..

At 1 minute 56 seconds after start of test. 6 and 14 w0rc not . ! i. The nose raze/adapter booster did not react. i' : ii i.' 91 315 218 113 302 206 379 473 507 526 107 308 210 383 469 495 514 109 304 208 105 306 200 381 366 506 526 106 299 212 387 455 488 512 106 '. Ii t•.. := •" '.. Horizontal attd 3 feet 4 inches at its =enterline above the t'uel : q.•i'. h:' . b ' . Cloudy with no wind..: •. St Fire removed from bomb.. '" •' ' . . •i i" 'i'. ' ' Test Fire: -" Test Procedure: Flame temperature at the bomb exceeded 1000OF twenty seconds after stt•rt of fire and averaged 1730°F at time of removal of lir•..: •-. 22 October 1968. ir •j t(.• •'i:i. .'.•. G (see) 0-20 60 80 1O0 110a I 16• 40 I06 80 147 214 248 277 Temperatu re oF 64 238 170 309 381 429 450 ig• "•i" :. •.tC '•i •'•: BOMB FAST COOK-OFF TEST PHASE 4 Test No. 3.• "'• 400 gallons of JP-5 Jet aircraft fuel. Temperature 650F.'. 24 × 24 feet. Time-temperature data recorded to reaction was as follows: l'hernlocoulfle Numbert Time 5 7 8 9 I0 II 12 13 . 2.! .i .! ii ....i '.. .:.':•. The live bomb under test was pre-heated for I minute 50 : •:: t.. i• '•/•' E-I .. P4-1 Data Sheet ¢ t:." Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Bomb Position: i!" . 400 479 518 541 380 467 523 544 . 4.. 1. '! '• . :' .'•.. Fuel: Pan Size: .. the bomb deflagrated. ' Bomb deflagratod. t:. :: •..• t Thermocouple Not." . •t i.. Results: ". " surface..' seconds at which time the fire was removed. boosterC°nfiguredNoWithtail a fuzeMg04E2 nose fuze and T45E4 adapter or fins installed...:.• 'r'• .mnltored.'. The bomb was instrumental as shown in Figure E-I. ]w2: "':• Device Tested: MARK 81 250 Ib bomb loaded with TRITONAL explosive'.:.

IF 1T4 X*5 TC Oil TI9 FIUE AThemaul e ouin -V2ETL El atCo-f et hs o .

A maximum temperature rise rate of 4. the average internal temperature of the bomb at the time of reaction was 516*F. 4 . 5 disregarded. Thermocouple No..i'I' 7 and.7 F/sec was observed :.

No datat available b0COLISO Of illstrumentation failure. 400 gallons of' J11-5S jet aircralft fuel. 30 October 1968. No ftiizes. The bomb Under test was pre-heated for 1 minute 30 seconds at which time the fire was removed and the bomb was allowed to air cool. P4-2 Data Sheet Device Tested: MARK 81. No reaction of' the bomb took place.IA BOMB FAST COOK-OFF TEST PHASE 4 Test No. 2. boosters or tall Nins were Installed. . 3 fact 4 inches at its centerline above the fuel Date of Test: Bomb Position: Fuel: Pon Size-. I ire runiaveod m bomb. Thic bomb was instrumented as shown In Figure F3-1. Time-temperature data recorded Lire presented as follows: Results: 1 Thermocouple Number Time (see) 0-30 75 902 1053 165 240 600 900 1 156 368 371 386 360 298 --- 3 138 368 388 394 368 306 -- 4 156 371 390 390 383 364 299 269 5 140 367 388 393 367 301 199 170 6 140 365 387 391 363 299 199 173 7 8 9 Temperature *F 140 355 376 386 357 301 204 177 141 359 379 386 366 305 201 174 144 376 394 399 369 301 199 172 1o 140 366 3 85 390 364 303 2100 173 1I 147 374 396 398 371 309 202 175 12 144 365 382 388 367 304 203 186 14 140 374 391 393 365 304 203 175 ITherincxouplo No%. 250 lb bomib loaded with TRITONAL explosive. Test Fire: Test Procedures: Weather Conditions: Overcast with I knot wind. 2Niaxiniuni Inturnal tomperitturo reituhud In the bomb. 2and 13 mall'unvi1l'zod. Temperature data was taken for 15 minutes. Horizoritally surface.4 X 24 feet.

The maximum temperature reached was 399'F at about 1 minute 45 seconds.5*Fj'sec was recorded. E-5 . 15 seconds after the fire was removed.~' ~'A 0 F/sec and an air maximum temperature rise rate of S.5 cooling rate of O.

.. 250 lb bomb loaded with H-6 explosive. 24 X 24 feet. 400 gallons of JP-5 Jet aircraft fuel. The bomb was Instrumented as shown in Figure E-I. t ../LJ. P4-3 Data Sheet N Device Tested: MARK 81. Time-temperature data recorded and presented as follows: Thermocouple Number Time (sec) 0-40 60 100 140 1 106 278 339 322 2 154 232 331 340 324 298 271 250 3 157 235 332 342 328 306 281 257 4 149 221 310 322 308 283 262 244 5 200 296 387 380 358 326 299 275 6 172 251 334 334 317 290 250 7 8 9 Temperature "F 189 270 181 261 179 259 337 335 10 187 346 340 11 176 336 328 305 283 262 244 12 182 262 341 318 293 251 13 165 237 308 288 266 229 14 182 261 338 336 315 291 267 247 270 255 80 329 344 337 339 333 321 294 252 315 293 270 251 337 304 314 322 289 294 265 245 272 2S1 220 296 300 271 380 250 270 272 269 245 E. configured with 904E2 nose fuzc and T45E4 adapter booster. Test Fire: Test Procedure: Flame temperature at the bomb exceeded 1000 0 F 30 seconds after start of test and averaged 1920OF to removal of fire... 25 October 1968. BOMB FAST COOK-OFF TEST PHASE 4 Test No.. Results: The bomb did not react.. . Temperature 651F7. The bomb under test was pre-heated for 1 minute 28 seconds at which time the fire was removed and the bomb was allowed to air cool.. No tail fin installed.6 - . Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Clear with one knot wind.. Bomb Position: Fuel: Pan Size: Horizontally suspended 3 feet 4 Inches at its centerline above the fuel surface. Temperature data were taken for over six minutes...

... ... The mv.. . that.inun1 teivrrerature rate of O. . 12 seconds after fire was removed..2 reachod was 3 87 'F at I minute 40 secojnds.6 0 F/see and a cooling 0 P'/sec was recorded. A maximum tcmperaturý rise rate of 4. is.

Flame temperature at the bomb exceeded 10000 F. 250 lb bomb loaded with H-6 explosive.. 24 X 24 feet.. . J "-•:• . . . 400 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel.. "• '' "• • •-= : -" '.. . P4. the gate on the test pan did not function and the bomb remained exposed to cook-off. At 2 minutes 8 seconds into the test the bomb deflagrated. .. The bomb was instrumented as shown in Figure E-1 and was the same bomb used in test P4-3. . . .4 PHASE 4 Data Sheet Device Tested: MARK 81. No tail fin installed.r v • COOK-OFF BOMB FAST ~'rest No. . Bomb Position: Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: Test Procedure: Horizontally suspended 3 feet 4 inches at its centerline above the fuel surface. .. . . configured with M904E2 nose fuze and T45E4 adapter booster.• . Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Cloudy with 3 knot wind.. . . 60 seconds after start of test and averaged I170OF to reaction. I. 28 October 1968. . Time-temperature data recorded up to reaction are listed as follows: Results: Thermocouple Number Time (see) 0-20 40 80 1 67 86 170 2 64 86 127 172 214 253 271 3 64 86 129 174 216 252 272 4 64 84 124 168 207 246 266 5 65 97 146 199 250 291 304 6 68 100 149 202 252 293 305 7 8 9 Temperature 'F 64 94 142 185 228 263 276 68 95 138 185 228 264 276 63 89 132 177 223 257 269 10 66 97 143 191 232 269 283 II 64 90 133 177 219 253 264 12 66 93 141 185 228 263 286 13 64 92 137 180 225 262 275 14 66 94 137 184 227 261 274 60 126 100 210 120 250 1'28 267 E-8 tui Ik -i ': . . The bomb under test was to be heated for 1-1/2 minutes and then the fire removed. i " '=_ . however. . i . .

A maximum temperature rise rate of 2.6 0 F/sec was recorded. E-91 . The maximum temperature reached in the bomb was 305OF at the time of reaction.

the bomb reacted before the elapsed time. configured with steel nose and tail plug. 250 lb bomb loaded with H-6 explosive. ." '. Clear with 1-11• knot wind. The bomb was instrumented as shown In Figure E-1..' i' - * ... 10 . Flame temperature at the bomb exceeded 10000F within 30 seconds after start of test and averaged 1932 0 F to reaction. 400 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel. Time-temperature data recorded up to reaction are listed as follows: Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Bomb Position: Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: Test Procedure: Results: Thermocouple Number Time (see) 0-15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 1 67 100 150 235 307 378 444 502 548 2 66 99 153 242 319 393 460 514 550 3 68 104 149 248 327 398 463 524 564 4 66 100 152 242 320 393 459 518 561 5 68 105 163 254 335 406 473 531 572 6 7 8 9 Temperature *F 67 104 157 243 316 387 453 512 550 10 11 67 106 153 251 325 393 452 510 557 12 13 14 65 103 155 239 317 387 451 510 552 . 24 X 24 feet. however. 1 November 1968. . P4-5 Data Sheet Device Tested: MARK 81. At 2 minutes 15 seconds into the test.g. the bomb deflagrated. 68 68 106 106 165 163 253 253 330 324 399 394 459 458 510 513 562 553 66 69 109 117 166 184 257 287 338 374 405 448 473 517 534 581 577 628 68 66 106 102 167 157 258 246 334 325 401 399 466 467 519 527 564 574 E. The bomb under test was to be heated for 2-1/2 minutes and then the fire removed. . Horizontally suspended 3 feet 4 inches at Its centerline above the fuel surface.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 4 Test No.

The bomb under test was time-temperature data recorded. heated to reaction and At 2 minutes 15 seconds into the test the bomb deflagrated. Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: Test Procedure: Results: 400 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel. Bomb Position: Horizontally suspended 3 feet 4 inches at its centerline above the fuel surface.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 4 Test No. Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Cloudy with 1-2 knot wind. [ . 24 X24 feet. 250 lb bomb loaded with H-6 explosive. Time-temperature data recorded up to reaction are listed as follows: Thermocouple Number Time (see) 0-15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 7 Temperature 'F 70 71 121 111 165 157 221 223 283 276 372 367 441 436 524 526 568 576 10 11 12 13 14 70 71 118 122 164 167 223 228 286 290 362 368 441 442 523 525 576 578 69 118 163 223 280 347 421 492 556 72 68 122 113 167 159 230 211 287 276 362 360 440 438 517 512 570 560 72 68 113 119 157 160 213 221 273 285 366 372 444 443 520 525 572 571 E-1lI 70 114 158 215 280 365 431 517 565 70 115 157 212 273 349 422 495 543 66 72 108 112 149 160 203 215 262 282 352 378 436 457 507 532 542 580 72 111 156 209 272 358 436 512 561 l" . 8 November 1968. Flame temperature at the bomb exceeded 100001F within 15 seconds after start of test and averaged 17950 to reaction. P4-6 Data Sheet Device Tested: MARK 81. The bomb was instrumented as shown in Figure E-1. configured with steel nose and tail plug.

Notice the good corelation of data between this test and test P4-5. The flame temperatures.7 0 F/soc was noted. F4 E-I 2 . time to reaction and temperature rise rates are very similar.A maximum temperature rise rate of 4.

24 X 24 feet..... Test Procedure: Results: No reaction of the bomb took place.... Bomb Position: Fuel: Pon Size: Test Fire: Horizontally suspended 3 feet 4 inches at its centerline above the fuel surface......... The bomb was instrumented as shown in Figure L-1.. . Fire rirnuved from bomb.. ii.... configured with steel nose and tail plug.. 250 lb bomb loaded with H-6 explosive.. . 400 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel... The bomb under test was pre-heated for 1 minute 30 seconds at which time the fire was removed and the bomb allowed to air cool.. Dote of Test: Weather Conditions: Overcast with 1-3 knot wind....... E-1 3 J/ •l:'' -'g: . :': I..... m ... 19 November 1968... Flame temperature at the bomb exweeded 10000F approximately 33 seconds after start of test and averaged 1745*F to removal of fire... P4-7 Date Sheet Device Tested: MARK 81.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 4 Test No.. ..... Time-temperature data recorded are presented as follows: Thermocouple Number I I Time (see) 0-30 60 901 1102 140 170 210 1 71 161 307 349 339 329 309 2 71 163 316 356 340 329 310 3 71 157 303 344 334 325 305 4 71 164 321 359 346 332 313 5 69 161 316 360 349 333 312 6 7 8 Temperature 'F 68 155 302 342 339 326 305 71 162 273 356 347 333 314 71 164 317 358 346 334 312 9 71 159 310 356 349 333 312 10 68 158 315 357 345 333 312 11 09 158 304 344 340 329 310 12 71 163 317 362 351 338 317 13 71 158 311 358 348 333 314 " Maxlmuni temperatures regached.

4 5*F/sec was recorded. E. that Is. 20 seconds after the fire was removed.7*F/Gec and an air cooling rate of O. The maximium temperature reached was 3690 F at approximately I minute So seconds.A maximum temperature rise rate of 4.14 .

400 gallons of JP-5 jut aircraft fuel. 160 335 366 362 354 346 A maximum temperature rise rate of 2. . Time-temperature data recorded up to reaction are listed as follows: Thtrrmocouple Number Time 1 60 173 262 2 60 98 166 244 310 342 3 60 90 149 210 267 297 4 60 100 175 261 336 5 62 100 173 257 332 6 61 99 174 262 338 368 "(see) 0-15 75 105 7 8 9 Temperature 'F 60 56 95 125 173 233 63 105 181 264 337 365 64 100 173 258 333 365 10 62 100 171 252 317 11 61 103 176 254 322 12 61 104 178 253 320 341 13 61 97 175 256 334 369 14 61 98 166 245 318 347 45 100 135 303 '.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 4 Test No.. 24 X 24 feet.8°F/sec was computed. Date of Test: 25 November 1968. the bomb defragrated. Flame temperature at approximately 20 seconds -1570oF to reaction. Weather Conditions: Broken clouds with !-5 knot wind. . . Bomb Position: Fuel: Paon Size: Test Fire: Horizontally suspended 3 feet 4 inches at its centerline above fuel surface. 250 lb bomb loaded with H-6 explosive. the bomb exceeded 1000'F after start of test and averaged heated to reaction and Test Procedure: Results: The bomb under test was time-temperature data recorded. P4-8 Data Sheet "iDvice Tested: MARK 81.. The bomb was instrumented as shown in Figure E-1. configured with steel nose and tail plug. At 2 minutes 40 seconds into the test.

24 X 24 feet.. Time-temperature data collected follows: 1 Thermocouple Number Test Procedure: Results: Time (see) 0-15 30 45 60 1 2 78 152 238 316 385 430 423 423 3 82 164 252 331 400 445 438 428 4 77 157 246 327 394 438 433 431 5 74 154 238 321 388 439 436 427 7 8 9 Temperature OF 73 146 229 291 355 418 420 425 75 158 244 327 393 444 436 427 75 154 237 323 391 441 438 429 10 75 153 238 316 383 435 426 424 Ii 76 159 244 327 391 442 434 425 12 72 156 239 323 390 440 436 428 13 73 154 234 321 389 439 435 431 14 73 151 232 311 375 429 420 413 80 161 249 333 "75 399 90 440 105 436 120 420 Thermocouple Amalfunctioned.. '.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF PHASE 4 Test No. . .j... •• • •'•: . At 2 minutes the bomb deflagrated.. . •= . Flame temperature at the bomb exceeded 10000F approximately 10 seconds after start of test and averaged 18430F to removal of fire. . . configured with steel nose and tail plug.IA'. ." -: " . . '.. ..-"i•" . Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Clear with 0-1 knot wind. . P4-9 Data Sheet Device Tested: MARK 81. At 1 minute 22 seconds into the test. . "LA'•=• 0 '. The bomb under test was pre-heated for I mninute 22 seconds at which time the fire was removed and the bomb allowed to air cool.. The bomb was instrumented as shown in Figure E-I. . 250 lb bomb loaded with H-6 explosive. .. . . This was an excellent example of an explosive exothermic reaction. 400 gallons of JP-5 Jet aircraft fuel..... .. • ""d ':' S' . flame was removed from the bomb. . 3 December 1968. E-16 A1 . Temperature data were taken for a total of 2 minutes at which time the bomb reacted.-j .:•••. Bomb Position: Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: Horizontally suspended 3 feet 4 inches at its centerline above the fuel surface.

.r'.' . This was the only bomb cooling tests in which an explosive exothermic reaction was observed.7 E. I.50F/sec was noted on all thermocouples except TC 7. k.. A maximum temperature rise rate of 4. - '.. Then the fire was removed. Thermocouple 7 continued to show a temperature rise until the bomb deflagrated. the temperature continued to climb for approximately 23 seconds on all thermoco'uplos.. At this time a temperature decrease of 0.9°F/sec was computed. •.E LN .

APPENDIX F "-.i~ JA .

PS-I Data Sheet Device Tested: MARK 81.6 i' F-I I k. 13 May 1969. the bomb did react in a deflagration at about 5 minutes into the test The nose fuze/adapter booster did not react. however. the pre-heated bomb was dropped 6 feet onto the steel deck. 1000 gallons of JP-5q Jet aircraft fuel. 250 lb. At 2 minutes.fuze or fins were Installed. Horizontally 6 feet at Its oenterline above the fuel surface. 35 X 35 feet. then 10000 F averaged remotely Date of Test: Weather Conditions: "Bomb Position: Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: Test ?rocedure: Results: dropped. gusting to 4 knots. bomb loaded with H-6 explosive. !'I . configured with M904E2 nose fuize and T45E7 adapter booster. No tail . A'Ai . Flame temperature at the bomb exceeded approximately 40 seconds after start of fire and 1670 0 F for the first 4 minutes of the test. The live bomb under test was pre-heated. No reaction occurred at impact.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF TEST PHASE 5 Test No. Clear with 0-2 knut wind.

35 X 315 feet. 1000 gallons of JP-5 jct aircraft fuel. Bomb Position: Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: Horizontally 6 feet at its centerline above the fuel surface. P5-2 Data Sheet Vwith Device Tested: MARK 81. Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Clear with 1-2 knot wind. under test was pre-heated. however. No reaction occurred at impact-.4 BOMB FAST COOK-OFF TEST PHASE 5 Test No. Y V . 250) lb bomb loaded with H--6 explosive. Flame temeat ue t thle bomb approx~mately 25 ecod aftersato 1770'F for the duration of the test. thle bomb did react in an explosion at 2 mninutes 28 seconds into the test. No tail fuze or fins were installed. The ilose I'uie/adapter booster exploded at 4 mninutes 20 seconds. Test Procedure: The live bomb dropped. configured M904E2 nose fuze and 1T45F7 adapter booster. then remotely exceeded 1000or eadaeae Results: At I minute 30 seconds. 16 May 1969. the pre-heated bomib was dropped 6 feet onto thle steel deck.

..... however.... F-3 S-- I L .. 1000 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel... '=. Flame temperature at the bomb exceeded 1000*F approximately 50 seconds after start of fire and averaged 1050*F for the duration of the test....... 6 June 1969..... bomb under test was pre-heated then remotely "Test Fire: Test Procedures: Results: At 2 minutes. the bomb did deflagrate at about 4 minutes into the test. ~..... No tail "fuze or fins were installed... ..... Bomb Position: Fudl: Pan Size: Horizontally 6 feet at Its centerline above the fuel surface.. 250 lb bomb loaded with TRITONAL explosive..........V.... ..= ...-...----. No reaction occurred at Impact. P5-3 Data Sheet Device Tested: MARK 81. Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Clear with 2-4 knot wind. 35 X 35 feet..t i i II I/ •. BOMB FAST COOK-OFF TEST PHASE 5 Test No....... The nose fuze/adapter booster did not react. configured with M904E2 nose fuze and T45E7 booster. the pre-heated bomb was dropped 6 feet onto the steel deck. The live dropped..

temperature 72'F. the bomb did deflagrate at 3 minutes 51 seconds into the test. 250 lb bomb loaded with TRITONAL explosive. Cloudy with 2-4 knot wind. Flame temperature at the bomb exceeded approximately 40 seconds after start of fire and 1400 0 F for the duration of the test. No reaction occurred at impact: however. No tall fuze or fins were installed. At 2 minutes. The nose fuze/adapter booster did not react.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF TEST PHASE 5 Test No. 1000 0 F averaged Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Bomb Position: Fuel: PaF Size: Test Fire: Test Procedure: Results: The bomb under test was pre-heated. then remotely dropped. the pr-heliated bomb was dropped 6 feet onto the steel deck. P5-4 Data Sheet Device Tested: MARK 81. fA: [:-4 . Horizontally 6 feet at Its centerline above the fuel surface. 35 X 35 feet. 10 June 1969. 1000 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel. configured with live M904E2 nose fuze and T45E7 booster.

Three bombs were racked to the TER rack which contained live ejection cartridges to determine the order of reaction when exposed in a fire environment. Test Purpose: Results: F-5 A . Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Cloudy with 2 knot wind. At 2 minutes 58 seconds. The ejection cartridges were heard to deflagrate intermittently after the first b'mb reaction. At approximately 2 minutes. gusting to 11 knots. the first bomb deflagrated followed by the second at 4 minutes 24 seconds and the last at 5 minutes 19 seconds. configured with live M904E2 nose fuzes and T45E7 adapter boosters. remains of the bombs are shown in Figure F-I and of the TER as Figure F-2. Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: 800 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF TEST PHASE 5 Test No. The bombs were racked to a triple ejection rack (TER) that was loaded with live MARK 2 MOD 1 impulse cartridges. Bomb Position: The bottom bomb on the rack was 4 feet at its centerline above the fuel surface. the TER began to melt releasing the bombs onto the deck. No tail fuzes or fins were installed. Flame temperature at the ejection rack and the bombs exceeded 10000F approximately 30 seconds after start of fire and averaged 13200F for the duration of the test. 24 X 24 feet. P5-5 Data Sheet Device Tested: Three live MARK 31 bombs loaded with H-6 explosive. 27 February 1969.

H Ii IL. '1 1* II a) w A A I *1 I- I ? A I-h I .

2U L6I F-71 .

P5-6 Data Sheet Device Tested: Three inert MARK 81 bombs loaded with Filler-E. . onu bomb fuzed with live M904E2 nose fuze and T45E7 adapter booster. 4. No other reactions occurred. 35 X 35 feet. At 2 minutes 47 seconds. Clear with 4-6 knot wind. 9 April 1969. Fuel: Pan Size: Test Fire: Test Purpose: Results: F-8 'A . The bombs were racked to a triple. temperature 7 00F. The other two bombs were unfuzed and none of the bombs had tail fuzes or fins installed.BOMB FAST COOK-OFF TEST PHASE 5 Test No. At approximately 2 minutes. To determine the time to reaction of ejection cartridges and bomb nose fuzes when both are installed on a TER and exposed in a fire environment. . the first cartridge deflagrated followed by the nose fuze/booster deflagrating at 7 minutes 36 seconds. 1400 gallons of JP-5 jet aircraft fuel. Post-test photograph is shown as Figure F-4. Flame temperature at the ejection rack exceeded 10000 F 15 seconds after start of fire and averaged 15600F for the duration of the test. A second cartridge deflagrated at 9 minutes 6 seconds. ejection rack (TER) that was loaded with live MARK 2 MOD 1 impulse cartridges. the TER had melted releasing the bombs and cartridges. Date of Test: Weather Conditions: Bomb Position: The bottom bomb on the rack was 4 feet at its centerline above the fuel surface (see Figure F-3).

Th( nr A K8 ob s ntle naTRRc n PoiindfrFs okOfTs o3- .7" FIU E .

P6-6.-pw F Il FIGURE F-4 Remnants of the TER Rack Aftor Fast Cook-Off Test No. VI .

11 -d I.........o I r I r I ( *1 I ii II - ..... .. . '1 ....... C] *1 .......... *........ .......... I ...... APPENDIX U :1 * A - p C Ii........... * .....ij ... ...... ... * ... ii ...*. I ...... .. ... .. . ....... . ..... ..

The time to total surface ignition was then compared to a standard test of JP-5 without a starter. The test configuration consisted of a 5 X 5 foot pan with 1 inch ýf water to insure a flat surface.k' ! SUPPORTING TASKS 1.5 gal. If a delay of 7 to 10 minutes is experienced. proved to be the best combination for quick fire starting. Five gallons of JP-5 jet fuel 'was then poured over the water surface and rcmotely ignited by electrical squibs in powder bags placed at each corner of tile test panl . however. . the gasoline and ether mix completely with the jet fuel and no benefits are derived.3 gallons gasoline 150cc ether 200cc ether 300cc ether I pint of 190 Proof Alcohol . gasoline + 150cc ether Conclusion: I IG-1 The pouring of regular grade gasoline and ether over the JP-5 fuel surface.. ignition should be accomplished as soon after their addition to the JP-5 as possible. Objective: Approach and Tests: Lighter. Quick Fire Starting To determine a method whereby the quickest ignition across the entire fuel surface of the test fire could be obtained. more volatile fuels were poured over the surface of -JP-5 fuel and ignited.Results: Thne to Total Ignition (Sec) 25 8 7 6 5 25 3 Test STANDARD 2 3 4 5 6 Starters Poured Over JP-$ JP-5 Fuel without starter .

designed to measure radiant hea~t flux temperatures within at large JP-5 fuel fhec was conduceted at NWL. As the wind velocity increases (24 knots). uu .using AN/4 14 thermite incendiary Subsequent experiments11 grenades.) A slight increase in thle burnling rate of' the J11-5 fuel in a high windl condition was noted. but were adopted for use because they burn longer with more intensity and con1sequent1ly are more reliable. onl temperature distribution within ailrcrart fueli Objective: 1' Conclusion: fires. and at winds fin excess of approximately 15 knots the heat patternl begins to disperse. T'ests in winds till to 30 knots did not indicate any major changes inl thev fire environmient at the lower boundary. *'The 3 dlnwnqlunul cenuter uiid mminuinu tiieut patte~rn ciun be vie~wed Lisovefluu pItig o~li nders of hvnI. (fiat haveiivumu iiunI'ulperur m m e li mulporaulIltog ati t he i IM11nonaI 1.0 feet above thle fuel surface in tile horizontal plane and 2 feet within the lumninous flarine boundary in the vertical plane (Figure G1-1 ).5 feet inl the horizontal plan. It was concluded that in a no-wind condition maximunm heat boundaries inl a jet fuel fire lie between 1. No tests wcnre conducted inl thev test pan when winds were hin excess of 3 knots. this upper boundary begins to shift in thle direction of the wind (Figure G-2). (From fuel level uip to 1. Information from the above two sources along with flame temperature data fromi all phases 01f tile WeapUrIS survivability in fire program Were used to determine wind effects. 2. because of the shift in tile luminous flame boundary whicvh prevented complete flamne engulfmeont of thel. T1he thermite grenades did not improve thle timle to total ignition. Reference 1. Approach: Vand A fire research project.1111 IMMdiry. A litcraturo search produced a report. as an ignition source were conducted. Reference 2. Wind Effects Heat Measuring instru tie11t~s were positionvd within the flames of' still and wind blown JP.5 fuel tires to determine thle effect of wind onl flame intensity.5 and 6. Tests Were successfully C1cnucted inl the test pit in windis upl to 20 kniots. bomib Uinder test.

.. Directod Are Flames Under a No-Wind Condition the Unie3 AM... BTU/FT.~ x (TEMPERATURE IN UNITS OF . .. .. 0 4 5 6 -\ 7 8 9 1o0: DISTANCE X IN FEET FIGURE G-1 Fire Temperature Distribution Within a JP.- 1 1945 l511 i*3o 17411 19Z 7.. .p 0 _ -.0 KOO 15-30 ...14 309 1210 11...'' .14 13 LEGEND 54~iO1 il +4 MEAN TEMPERATURE x 6 I Ol 044 e 1o it I MEAN MEASURED RADIANT FLUX -F 12 x x If 'LRADIANT FLUX IN UNITS OF.5 Jet FuelStraight Up... L a 13 4 5 -I o.\ .F' jm 4 IVJS 940 A K/I 1800 /1/7 ' At- Ill AS 90PPROXiMATE LUMNOUS FLAME BOUNDARY '1'r N.

..4 .4 0-I 0 I 2 4 3 DISTANCE 7 6 5 X IN FEET a 9 10 FIGURE G-2 Wind Conditions Bending the Flames Luminous Boundry and the Temperature Distribution Within the Boundry (.. ....13 12 APPROXIMATE LUMINOUS FLAME BOUNDARY •lo- 9 1700 1800 1900 7 AJ WIND DIRECTION IL II.. .

Selection of Inert Filler To find a filler material that closely matches H-6 and TRITONAL's thermal properties (specific heat.3. A complete description of the material can be found in Reference 3. The thermocouples were then secured to the interface by welding. and passing the leads via an external connector. Picatinny Arsenal. Objective: Approach and Results: 0L Personnel at the Naval Weapons Station. non-toxic and closely simulated the physical and thermic properties of H-6 and TRITONAL explosives. located between the forward and after hanger lugs. etc). 425. G-5 . Iron-constantan thermocouples were chosen as the temperature measuring device because they are more accurate at the lower temperatures than chromel-alumel thernocouples. Internal Thermocouple Design To develop a method for mounting thermocouples internally. or hot-melt. or taping with Scotch brand aluminum foil tape No. conductance. They recommended such a material called Filler-E. inert. the interior surface of the bomb were thoroughly cleaned with a reliable solvent removing any foreign substance such as grease. cavity paint. The hole was then sealed with an ep( • and asbestos sealant creating a high pressure and flame proof closure. forming a bead junction. In order to obtain the most accurate interface temperature data (surface between bomb skin and hot-melt). cementing. 24 asbestos and fiber glass coated calibrated wire. The iron-constantan wires were thoroughly cleaned. Dahlgren using iron-constantan. AWG No. charging tube plug hole. without defeating the integrity ol thie bomb case. rust. twisted together "and then welded. Yorktown in the EER and D Division were contacted about a substitute filler that was castable. inelting point. Type J. The charging thermocouple tubes were removed out of from the bomb and the the bomb through the leads brought Objective: Approach: IT "i:1. Thermocouples employed are manufactured at NWL. 4. Filler-E was developed by Filtman Research and Engineering Laboratories.

5. an intumescent catalyst. a complete description of the system is presented and pictured (Figures 8-14) under Phase 3.id polyhydric phenols may also be C G-6 A ~ - - . specific configurations. It is the purpose of this project. Evaluation of Fire Retardant Paints Ordnance has a relatively short cook-off time when subjected to extreme heat such as would be encountered during flame envelopment. Starches and polyhydric alcohols are most frequently used as carbonifics. It is felt that perhaps thie cook-off time could be significantly increased if the exterior of the ordnance were painted with a fire retardant paint.j~-.Conclusion: After several tests and a study of* Reference 3.03 gal/ft 2 /mn that the NBC system is capable of dispensing was duplicated. The flow rate of 0. . the flow rate was Increased to 0. Objective: Approach: 6. Test Problem: Description of Fire Retardant Paints: Fire retardant paints are paints that either prevent or delay the ignition of a substrate or prevent or delay loss of integrity of the substrate when exposed to fire. instead of the paint presently used. In the main body of this report. and a blowing agent (Reference 4). to test and evaluate a number of fire retardant paints in an effort to establish whether or not certain paints in current development would significantly increase the cook-off time. Filler-E was selected as the inert material to he used in the program. Three characteristics of this type of paint are responsible for intumeseence. Water and Foam Rates-Apparatus l)esigin To design a system that would simulate the NBC washdown system currently found aboard aircraft carriers.48 gal/ft 2 /min to deliberately overtest. procedures and results. although sugars .. therefore. These are a carbonific. The fire retardant paints tested were primarily of the intunmescent type. In addition. The NBC washdown system that currently exists on carriers was reproduced in the slant pan using 3/4-inch Grennell S-i 10 .438 flush deck nozzles.

A distance of approximately 3-1/2 feet from the fuel surface to the cylinder is a representative distance from the fuel spill to ordnance attached to a plane wing. Paint was applied to the cylinder at various thicknesses. The carbonific. it Is necessary for these reactions to occur In the sequence described and at certain temperatures. and amido forms of mineral acids are suitable as intumescent catalysts. . Hollow metal cylinders were used to simulate the ordnance. for Intumescence to occur. Basically. sixteen inches In length. Simultaneously with the dehydration of the carbonific. A salt of the dehydrating agent is therefore used. The function of the carbonific is to provide large quantities of carbon material.used. which contains a large percentage of carbon. the intumescence of the paint occurs in the following manner. The hollow test cylinders were of the following dimensions. and 10 gallons of gasoline. chars as a result of this dehydration. The intumescent catalyst decomposes upon the addition of heat. organic esters. the blowing agent releases large quantities of gas that greatly expands the char. five inches in outside diameter and three-sixteenths of an inch in wall thickness. due to a fire caused by the inadvertent ignition of a jet fuel spill. Ammoniuni and amine salts. however. releasing the dehydrating agent that reacts with the carbonific. However. One hundred fifty gallons of JP-5 fuel is used for each test. However. "#' •6-7 A*j ". spread on top of the jet fuel in order to obtain minimum ignition time for the entire 20 X 20 foot surface. dehydration of the carbonific must not occur prior to an actual fire nonditlon. which decomposes to form the dehydrating agent when subjected to the heat of a fire. A 20 X 20 foot JP-5 jet fuel fire was used to simulate the fire resulting from a fuel spill. The char must also be produced before the carbonific is decomposed by fire. Organic amides and amines and chlorinated paraffins are used as blowing agents. salts of phosphoric acids are most commonly utilized. The dehydrating agent must react with the carbonific to produce the char prior to the release of gas by the blowing agent. The temperature of each ' ie •l Al N. Procedure: The test set-tip used for evaluating fire retardant paint is designed to simulate a condition to which ordnance might be subjected.

Results: The heat flux density for each standard cylinder tested was calculated using the following equation: • 2.a2 ) a! " ar where a 1r I slope of the time-temperature curves =heal flux density density of cylinder material p G-8 . . same heat flux). an OD painted cylinder was used in each flame enveloping test.1 t.k. which was supported by rciinforcing rods uttached to an "A" frame. which also supported the cylindcrs on the pipe. The end of the cylinders were insulated by asbestos plugh. A cylinder containing such a material was therefore tested in the flame with an empty cylinder. The time-temperature curves of this test do not indicate a necessity for replacing the empty cylinders with cylinders containing a simulated explosive material. The thermocouple wires were contained in a pipe and in a double wall conduit that extends from the end of the pipe past the 20 X 20 foot fire area. Due to the variation of the fire from test to test and the fact that fire retardant paints are evaluated by comparing the temperatures recorded in the fire retardant painted cylinder with the temperatures recorded in the OD painted standard cylinder. cylinder was recorded by four thermocouples spotwclded in the center of the cylinder and spaced at 90' intervals. The cylinders were supported on a pipe.g." .1 b pc(b 2 . Therefore. it is necessary that both cylinders be subjected to the same conditions (e. It was Mt that perhaps a cylinder containing a simulated explosive material would more accurately represent ordnance than the hollow cylinder used.

: '• . The values of q calculated for each test Indicate that the wind conditions cannot be neglected in evaluating the fire retardant paints. .... The vertical line extending from the time axis represents the time at which TA is equivalent to 4000F. ..5 ... _'." .... is the absolute temperature of standard cylinder. . The values for T...• .:. The percentage time increase for each fire retardant paint to reach 4000F was also obtained from the time-temperature curve with the lowest time corresponding to 4000F...c = specific heat of cylinder material a = inside radius of the cylinder b outside radius of the cylinder The values of ai7/ar were obtained from the time-temperature graphs using the temperatures recorded in the standard cylinder. . . For each test.+. . . . . where T. .... When no wind was present during the test.. The effectiveness of the fire retaidant paints in Increasing the.• . •'" : •"-"- t .••L.'.. the values of q calculated are two to three times greater than those values calculated when wind was present.. • . Computer Studies and Analysis The heat transfer computer program written simulates the "Objective: "cook-off process and can be used to predict time to bomb cook-off time under a variety of flame enveloping conditions. and Tfd are obtained using the time-temperature curves with the lowest time corresponding to 4000°F.. 7. A list of definition of input variables and a sample data card layout is also included.. : . no tests were conducted unless winds were under 3 knots.. . G-9 !E .. . the temperatures recorded by each thermocouple were presented in the form of a time-temperature curve. "cook-off time of ordnance was determined by comparing the time necessary for the fire retardant paint cylinder to reach an arbitrary temperature of 400°F with the time necessary for the standard to reach 400*0F.'t . •: +" L. ..' .+ :. The results are also expressed in a graph of TS/Tod versus time. Therefore..•- . ' I'j.• .. This program is written in FORTRAN IV for the CDC 6700 computer system. ..

4HMel.ACfC!.RFK.XZ<.SP'ý 3.T.PQOfl< GM Tfl mi fin 5 509 5 CO'NTINUE 50i cflNTTNIIF 1 FflRMATX2F1fl.1C.!I.<.2XNI.R1. 13 FnPMATT11W 1 W T~f'vq.5.flT HM.1.3HAS#.FI.f1omRI 4.27HP.F7.ITAR NI IN11 pf~ID17PUT< n I MNSI(IfN.5.L3 9~kR KK 500 AF.19AARsnppST0MATFM.ALPHAV.62XAPt4'#<UF7.nr.2.F7.496F5.flT.2< RPAn 6.P60.F10. V.14< RFAIT) At WAPfL I RFAl) 105.. 12FORM~XAT2H 1PT!3<.' CTR #n.7HPPHLN#.FP'.X.2X.4H S3rA( 11 FflPMAT!K6OHTHF FLAVFR ISITA TF PEO.TIMF.FkATino.nRPT.F PS ILN.3< oXR4l.2x.3< 1PIK.P.%2X.Ar)A 3 FORMAT Xt39F1§5.A~lt<.F/7.TM 1C)5 FnRMAT2F7.T"< .<.MC.62X. TpT.2)(.PR. 106 EFnPMATX///br)H ACII 16F7.< CAL0. IH F~flPATI/.Pr~fIfRAM C.2q1Fl*A RFAD 4p TfTC9TFI . F7.7B2X.?..2.0 SIGMA 4 1 o3S6F-' MAXT iNIFTXITIM!/DT< 7 1140-DT ALPHAT <Ei KI</!RHf!I <*C~jI< flxiij (EP I TIfALPHA! I *nT/THET AZI<< IPT1T<4TF IX~fAMIfflXtt« PUXI<#FAMfl</~PTT1< G- 10 .6HPT4 27XHTMVIR~.flT 6 FRMAT1F46IvF7. FfRMATX3FIn.T0.1RFHIATnt ?IJr1.PT.6I(S.3< 10FflMATX25/6H AP~si# CRTTCATEMP HAS THCNrTRES BEN#4X9ACHPO2 WITHIN Tr1P1'Ttr TI-5 l lTrA 2F7.t~.2.// T. ARwfR0..K'4. Pn%6 IQRI.2XHDX WTHINTHP .TC.

<r~n TO 420) C.PTgt4(FPpSILphiAM~nR PR INT1OA.tPTX2<tPTU3<.nD 1<.0 C -------ST TFMP 161ITTALLV Tn Ml~ 201 TI"ITNlN Tt JN7Tv2<#Tfl r C0NiTAI ---.0. FXPLIn.THWTA21<ffAi.<**2< NWiN&TPTT< 15 CnhMT!INUF J24<4I TV1<FJ JR7<M !PTT1<rAIPT%?< JE1O<OTPTt1 I<TPT%7<GC TvT3< Al I #oi% l<r..OT MNy (I r ---.< nn Tn 167 IA 00.COmPIJTF LAYER TFMPFRAYUREs ---CALL LAYP0IC!CRTT< IF SICRYTT.mA)CT TOP TIM OTJmF.MTrPPr4rVr.Dxt2<C ~ll. M.-.175 147 IFICTR.-. nn 160 14#l1IK IA 0 PT 2 4 <TA IO On 165 mp*1j.W94PID PRINT1P~flItlTPT1(...PHA!1(. nn ii L3#K-1 HM?O.Oy/zrXu.16 R iknm P 9 1< RAn tm p < nx! 14 < 16ý5 CflNTIN MiP 160 CrINT INUFi PRINT 10.ODfA(. .MMM*70 FKMSTFI-Tn</ALnT RA n%I o.RLnT .NiP.F0( PrR PRINTOUT TIMF --------------IPUAmnOOWCTR .600 Ws0 nOMLL<OO.--00 600 mj#1. MC . TM PRINT PA.V<<17'5.r-VALIJATF TFMPERATIJRF IN LAYFRS AinA THRnljr~m f. o ICRIT i00 nRT 0 0.r .I47.RI.io 01l6<075 840 LL*1.---.-.T ---- C------.Pn.-.

HM2.171e2PF-3*XtO.kHHOItQ<. .NT5S*TSq*TýS 4 G-12 .OT .f)lRCT GPT .OC I.37qn4F-13*X*X-O.T TMTFC4Rt<.SZ1.rT .1R2YF-7*Yý.1ICfl Tn 7130 140 IrPITTM~r.flhm!Q<.rRTT< 2C~134flT.ALDHhtlOc.VýF RKS(<.Ti.10'.-EXPflt375.yimr13<.I<"'TII.RLT<ofl TO 141 143 TFOiFK*TJM*TTM*TIM/IRtfl. 1401.PRINT 17 nn 171 I~fl). K S01.T*RLOTC&TO ARMS IOMA*TP*TF*TF*.TIM. RFK .KK.RAT 100 .43595P.K5#1.16< T TRMINT 11-ITARAn1 CNT PRI5 IAROK3.#lKK< PRINT 110.5C< PRINT 11 JAMJ~J7< PrlSWI17(#RAn9JA< PRINT 12.11314-0.CKIUQ<.TF.nR. S0 T 500) f MTIM SiIRPOJT IMP LAYr.i< 11c nNIT INIIF P R'TNTIO07.r1VgiC 3.'zAHCOLL.1I< 75 4iMT S2 *TS72 1IPXXl(*ARrniflP*nR/CK1K1<-flXR1(*FPSTI. 71PRINT 1%..%5~RtJM<. ItPOSIJA6<.KK< 110 FORIMATRIN .TIVATION FNF RflYS21 XF Ir!<< lox FnRMIAT!IR .Kr*.41 TFMTFI 142 TS20T!1.KlI<C TS44 0 TqS.1A 167 nfl16$% 114*1.C«</241.OP.FIO.16< 175 CTRACTRF1.IA1ANWAT nfl RPACTIONStKAx.T'-WTAWI .CrY9<.9 0lX<0RlA1rIRt0.Rtr.TIM.lfl*X*X SX*X<1241 .IC PRINT 131.FI.5( ORJTNTiOQ.X Y I CO .RFkjlTFK.1RM1.'K(KC< 107 FllRMATRLHO .TF an TO 142 1.EM~tlr<.iAM1.?C 600 C nNT 1N tIIP n0 TO 500 420 00 425 jfJ1dI16 42 10 dlJJCOXJlP 45PUiNT i3.0mYAflf<.-XC/2O.1<MlTltSFT .TP1.HMI.16 11l 168 AW IPA(OTUJ I.XXMK9C.. TQ.I7M*C.5t1KXF113.M~*S1CzMAsTS4/r.vISIN N(JMRER.HCL FIX<030.Q 120L I& ITFIL1. nn 600 tSqFT#1 9NI TIISFT.

2<rgn TO 179 1'CK!L 9C*wTt~MF1.91 <P.«ntL cc/gp1-TP. 2< 00 TO 4114 431 CK1IUCK ? K2CK3K PriliiSF02 TST3#TE I Al 1.1c</2 *<*I.CT f1.TtbrP ..44.hLQCi1< <l~ r0 TOn pi0 1254 TSTAR0ttTtMC1.17P.OýP.l1.7 mC0TOl 432 CK3#FP(TST3< Ffl3#fFK *0K1' G0 TOn 414 432 CKA#011TSýTl( 431 41I P )<0T 'I I<P.PT3CL-I! IFM.1<*1 ..ST2*OT1t II1< *tI.. RI TT nnr TM 171 P4 IFTL I. -'4.M0.L I-L C1<1P7 .:rT*XCK.c nl TO 4317 CK2edP¶TSTP C Pfl2fiAPK'f'CKP 0.'P t t 3.Fri.434 IFTT.Ih ff A IARSIRP COP OCT. I11 127 1PWLi. r it tlmT/f)T MOMMF. .<nn TO 241 CKO0FXTS tAR< rm TOn 11A P741.l.K i 0M TO 414 436 C'KII4O!TST1C rn1MRFPK~r. T.0PAo ) -r A I .rl TO 436 C KIM PFTTST 1< P01 #AFK*.Fr3.Kj .noj<rn T) 4100 1FI.O . OCT RATI~n P05. 014T a OPT F.11 TO) 411 4 07 UPFK*CK. IPHTST1.17S.< r. *TTF.). 1LN*S IG(MA* T .T.R-4hO.~. IFTT. I NOC.?0.F.M-460.<*1 . O)RlION '1T 0 CAT F. CKO#rTSTAu< P9KPHn2L2<9WL?<*lXVL2c<< rn TO 2 lin 120 1ft11 rP TST1#TTI-1.T'yI. TST3i#TYh~l.LF.7<-Tn<.F3' .1 <F.A-4A60o IFIXTSTAP *.A-4A0.I<rzn Tri 121 IFVA~FSV.<*1.

). (r.q2<MTV.LlI<-I*T ".iT. nil 776 721 AF hAPF LLf01lKK . r. LT .1 I V 011 * . j< *('tL I <*O)XW. </ l-rK!LPc*%TMOlI.tI.?P<< I iIV2<*C 91L < OX 1l1.7 K3t5M2. IT#1 rn TOl 400n137 C MIT INIIF 250 C M.TM L 0"L F. 1 I$F? II 71..tTS TAPloC AP *0.21<C/rlXEL?.51)T*R0CK4*TTEtM.I< -T 9M& It T'cMt~1.iTfl7Ol1 Tn7()] Hil <r'IJ~i I 20A F. <IF.1nj~rn TO 12m F2 .flM)ff G('1 TO 711 AXL 4 Ik<AxAXL Ij1 ~I~X L I < AnFrCK'YL I e TO 127 7F Ih. T%ý.IlTa1flnytt 1<.Hp Fl/XIXL 2<AFP*I'XtL<l2/.OM*CK 6*VT 50 .o...1 <E1 On 1'.<COTltnxL2C*AF/2.C VL? *OytL?«< ?V.*HMI I<TOl17f)? I1F9yT9:It1.F FT FARSk.Lvc</tXP*oTSTNlc< XM9!I.rio T 02509.)aI< *1VI1.IF. T11 431 AR s%%T VA1FT!I<11«<?<EIH -4 A0 r.1 1«ffl 1 <-T.79.*Y0M!I.-5. 701 TWMA .T.<-T )<-TO< I.5TW I.L 1<OPlHn!L2<".MCV *If o1 <orm H40( Ii y 1' K?40 rn.< 127 M74#M-IPTPL. TM "XL <6 r. .L 0MZLC#0nt1.1e'.t 1<< 1 t.er..<-HM 1</1vRHn0!L 1<*CT L @OY*L j<gA .3 APr)0. '702 TV MC1 2<ITVMrIU .L <1*RwrL.'rFII< F2 4 .t<-T!MgF. D0"77'7 LLM01 . ' ITP'AOM!L < #(. 1 91< </OX9.1CKY.0 Ap. Ffn.() I F TTSrIA ~TS TAP < 'Kh UrT r0 70 13A.LJr:.I. <*?IlLL<*FYP'Ii-FVLL< /!EP*T!xI <rrOTrljP IF!T941 1<. I <r.M IFVTWKi. TO I Vi I T.P< 6 L.<*RH~lV I<*PVLj.~inlHO nil TMI 2 6.2<#T I-.T Ti 24.2<-Tfl<.91<-1Ic.TC<flf1l TI) 137 tr.5' TO 7 12 F <FOV -IM/tHitICVL1mY¶L1C .:tA 71Ty I17..l .rIPTH 7) 1FtARsVTW1.<mLL <*7!SLL <*P XPV-FW.M.K 4ur. <*O))5('A.? .<VT~ !VI1 r.IT I NIlkH 8400 RAFTI1)JPN Cr-14 .KR 727 *PAP)FXMVI1.

6) E(I.6) CK(l) (F10.6) CK(1) (F10.5) CO.3) J(3) 3(9) 3(15) J(4) 3(10) J(16) J(5) J(11) J(6) J(12) Mimi .4) EPSILN(PI0.4) HC(PI0.5) QCl) (F10.6) 4-RHO(3) (F1O.4) DT(F5.6) 2 RHO (1) (FI0.5) Q(1) (F1O.6) TF1(F10.2) 6 V(F4.6) E(1) (E1O.) Cr10.S) c(1) (F10.5) Q(1) (F1O.6) CO.6) DAM(1) (110.5) 1 K (13) CK(1) (710.6) z(1) (EIo.) (F1O.6) DAM(1) (F1O.6) z(1) (BIO.6) PT(1) (F10.4) TIME(F7.6) (F10.6) Z(1) (E1O.4) QRI(F1o.6) TC(71O.) (E1O.3A8) J(2) 9 3(1) J(8) 3(7) J(13) J(14) 10 BLDT (F7.6) PT(1) (F10.4) DAM(1.) (F10.5) E(l) (EIO.1) 7 EXPLID(3A8) 8 WEAPID(.6) 3 RHO(2) PT(l) (F10.4) 15 TO(F10.Card R (F15.

thickness of outer layer in cm. Z will be zero except for the explosive. -.) 4. is the heat explosive.. Z 6. DAM C Q Q is zero except for the Card 3: All definitions are the same as in Card 2 except for the second or middle layer.' . G-16 . . 5. K is the number of different material layer in the ordnance. Is called the collision number or frequency factor in seconds-1. PT details. is the number of spaces chosen within the outer layer for numerical calculation. is the heat capacity in cal/gm0 K. is the thermal conductivity. 2. in (cal/cm sec) *K. . 8. of the outer layer. (See attachment page G-19 for more 3. E is the activation energy in calories. RHO CK is the density of the outer layer in gm/cms. E will be zero for all layers except the explosive layer. R Card 2: I. Card 4: All definitions are the same as in Card 2 except for the explosive layer. of reaction cal/gm. . ..987 Cal/*K). 2. . 7. . . is the gas constant in calories/* Kelvin (R=1. .Definition of Input Variables Card 1: 1. For the present program K is always 3.

• -:•: .10000. '. :i.e. The program will stop after 10000 time steps of 0. i• " . TIME . flux is Btu/ft2 sec. but it takes more computer running time. See definition' of DT for more details.. ..7 . i .'a "t•. The smaller DT is chosen. .•::'9 ..• . is called the critical temperature of the explosive. 4... the computer running is approximately one-halt the calculated cook-off time.... . The temperature of the explosive will jump instantaneously from low temperatures (400-4500F) to very high temperatures.. Since the ordnance surface is covered with a soot layer within a few seconds after immersion in the flame.e.) j 0-1 7 S • . -.. is a number to limit the running time of the program in the event of no reaction. EPSILN is assumed to have a constant value of 0.5 Btu/hr ft 2 OF. It can be any relative large number (generally 10000). _. -"-. 3. (no units) is the emissivity of the ordnance surface.. . It • :'.5. Thus. QRI Card 6: 1. . ' . " '•l . . 3.. .0625 sec. The best value for this at the present time is 10..99 which is the emissivity of the soot. The best average value for QRI is 13.TIMEIDT is the number of time steps to be taken in the program unless a reaction Is reached first (i.• :. 2..: • .'.[I .) 'TIME is chosen such that MAXT . Generally assumed to be that of the air temperature..V DT .".625 see. TC is a measure to indicate the reaction. . .0.: .Card 5: I. L. : • . for DT .0625 and V w'80. .. For DT equal to 0.. 2. .. Then V DT will give the seconds between printout of the ca!cuiated temperatures (i. • t "'• •.. is the average maximum flame temperature. .• . . is the maximum radiant. ... HC 6..• .. P IV must be chosen as some whole number. .. . iI • . TO (F) TC (F) is the initial constant temperature of the ordnance item.. -. .:( . .:? •• :.. . is the connection coefficient Btu/hr ft 2 *F.. V TIME (sec)? DT Is a number chosen to determine printout times. DT a 0...:" ... .l• "! !t'• : " ="I .5 .0625 sec MAXT . the more accurate is the numerical calculations..0 so that temperatures are printed out every 5 seconds.. is the time interval over which numerical calculations are performed... TGi (IF) EPSILN 5. . -''B' ..0625 sees even if a reaction has not been reached.Btu/ft 2sec.. ..

Card 9: The P's identify the location (or temperature modes) where the temperatures are to be printed out.. Card 8: 1. I. i G-1 8 ji. . j\.Card 7: 1. 1. EXPLID identification of explosive (such as H-6). -. It is not feasible to print out all temperatures calculated. The attachment will help to identify the number of the temperature modes. . WEAPID identification of weapon (such as MK 82). A -.' -* .. Card 10: BLDT (see) is the time for the flame to buildup to quasi a steady-state condition...

DT -(PT) RHO -C -(DAM)2 <1/ The computer program will be unstable if this condition is not met. G-19j A 1 . .ATTACHMENT: CASE FLAMEj TEMPERi~rURE MODES W~ES H. Temperatures are calculated at the modes as indicated by dots In the diagram~.M EXP PT for each layer Is the number of spaces In that layer. Sixteen of these temperatures can be printed out by setting the Ps equal to the integers by the mode you want ptinted. It must be chosen to meet the following condition: DT (DX) 2 CK an V ~RHO -Can DAMA DX PT therefore 2 CK .

n Resear:1ý andEngneeingLaboratories. Murry aid Kentish. and L. 34. Intuescnce. "Simulation of Thermals Response of Cylindrical Ordnance When Emersed In Fires. 3." NAVWEPS Report 8277." Explosive Developm~ent Section. "A Study of the Temperature Distribution Within Aircraft-Fuel Fires. June 1958. Inorganic Division.HyLouis. Felt:. Russell. McMillan. May 1970. A. G-20 . Canfield. William and Robert D.REFERENCES 1. J. "Dev~elopment of Inert' Fillers Containing the Glyceride of St." NWL Technical Report TR-266 I. 2. ert Acid." eserchDepartment. Picatinny Arsenal. Report No.Gordon. Monsanto Company. H. August 1963.

I I It 'I 4. .1 APPENDIX H *1 I- I - II.1 ..(1 1 I. .- . *1 I I -*1 Ii I ". . II I I.. I. . * . .. Ii'Ji.. II Li. t -.

. D.DISTRIBUTION Chief of Naval Operations Washington. Naval Ship Engineering Center Prince George's Center.. . 20360 Attn: NSHP. • ORD-054 ORD-9132 Commander.O0 NSHP-OIGI ( 2) (2) NSHP-2052A NSHP-422 Commander. Naval Ship Systems Command Washington. C. Naval Ordnance Systems Command Washington. C. t .. Maryland 20782 Attn: NSEC-6105 NSEC-61 10 J HI S --. 20360 Attn: ORD-O0 ORD-0332A "ORD-048 ORD-053 * . 20350 Attn: NOP-03B NOP-43 NOP-05 B NOP-05F "NOP-55 NOP-55I NOP-506 NOP-09 NOP-982 "NOP-982E32 "NOP-506F Commander. Center Building Hyattsville. C. D. D.

D. Naval Ait Station San Diego. Naval Air Force U. D. Naval Electronic Systems Command Washington. Naval Air Force U.V Commander. Virginia 2351 1 Chief of Naval Material Washington. S. C. Naval Air Systems Command Washington. California 92135 Commander. 20360 Attn: AIR-00 AIR-09 AlIR-007X AI R-03 AIR-03A AI R-303 AI R-3034A AIR-350 AIR-411 AIR-413 AIR-05 AIR-Si 0A3 AIR-532 AIR-53 2D AI R-5323 AIR-53231 AIR-53233 AIR-537 PMA-246 Commander. D. C. Atlantic Fleet Naval Air Station Norfolk. S. 20360 (2) (2) H-2 . Pacific Fleet Box 1210. 20360 Attn: NMAT-00 NMAT-0 16C NMAT-03 NMAT-046 Commander. C.

Maryland 21402 Attn: A701 Commanding Officer. Second Fleet FPO New York. Fleet Training Center Norfolk. Seventh Fleet FPO San Francisco. U. Naval Research Laboratory Washington. Naval Schools Command Norfolk. First Fleet FPO San Francisco. Pennsylvania 19112 Officer-in-Charge. S. Europe FPO New York. New York 09501 Commander. S. Naval Forces. U. C. Virginia 23511 Director. Sixth Fleet FPO New York. D. California 96601 Commander. Virginia 23511 Commander-in-Chief. Annapolis Laboratory Naval Ship Research and Development Center Annapolis. Naval Damage Control Training Center Philadelphia. New York 09501 Commander. Virginia 23511 Commanding Officer.I- - Commander. California 96601 Commanding Officer. Naval Safety Center Naval Air Station Norfolk. New York 09501 Commander. 20390 Attn: Technical Library H-3 dd• -~i" .

S. Naval Weapons Station Yorktown. S. California 90740 Commanding Officer. U. Naval Ammunition Depot Crane. South Carolina 29408 Commanding Officer. Pennsylvania 18974 Attn: MACO Commander. Virginia 23491 Attn: NEDE Commanding Officer. California 93041 Attn: 5700 5704 5710 HJ. California 94520 Commanding Officer. S. U. U. Naval Weapons Station Seal Beach. Naval Air Development Center Johnsville Warrninster. Naval Weapons Station Concord. Maryland 20910 Attn: Technical Library Commander. Indiana 47522 Commanding Officer.Commander. Maryland 20640 Attn: Technical Library Commanding Officer. Naval Ordnance Loboratory Silver Spring. California 93555 Attn: 301 453 b 454 456 556 4561 Technical Library Commanding Officer. Naval Weapons Center China Lake. Naval Ordnance Station Indian Head. Naval Weapons Station Charlestown. . Naval Missile Center Point Mugu.

California 92409 Officer-in-Charge.if. Florida 32542 Attn: DLRW Director of Aerospace Safety Norton AFB. Air Force Armament Laboratory Eglin AFB. 5. New Mexico 87117 Commanding Officer. Maryland 20034 Attn: 748 Defense Documentation Center k Building No. Naval Weapons Evaluation Facility Kirtland Air Force Base Albuquerque. New Jersey 07801 Commanding Officer. Commanding Officer. Virginia 22314 Locals: (2) TPE ESE MIL MIP-3 MIP-2 (2) (2) (5) . U. Cameron Station Alexandria. Picatinny Arsenal Dover. Carderock Laboratory Naval Ship Research and Development Center Bethesda. S. i' H-S 'a' .

water and light-water rates apparatus desiqn. time to reaction and.I C PHID 1 ILl T 11 I. Hontgas_____ MI d 14 rA'C1... inert tiller. internal thermocouple design. . severit. internal timewere: (1) temperature information were obtained. tory. -.UKLLHblt1LU K~ NILAc: IL~siI L I 1...3 ~i7ý.- C.. 807-6801itIA1` .lJ.C 4. P. Naval Weapons Labora1111 ~ . explosive load and fuzing of aircraft structure on bomb cook-ottm f( influence an likelihood of bomb cook-oft after abbreviated heating ecaction. December 1972. I ! I It.1 rýl NO "S1 kP oli~ir N M1. ejection cartridge cook-off. ---. .O 05.. LYA The bomb survivability in fire program was initiated to determine the hazards that fire (tast cook-off) and to exist when bombs are exposed in a carrier flight deck investigate methods of minimizing or eliminating these hazards..( of ractin. Also determined from the program time cook-oft to contiguration relationship of bomb size. AN4165 and MARK 80 series bombs employed in the program were exposed in a JP-5 jet fuel tire environment that simulated a flight deck contlagration The severity of reaction. AllI Ml 17." 'J DOCUMENT CONTROL DATA R & D h. Gov't.. and sevrityof peios (ýadequacy ofwtrand aqueous film forming foam (light-water) as cooling temperatures on measures for preventing bomb cook-off. F I . L . Test and Evaluation. I -NWL TR-2869 (A-IIy I 01 'lN -1 V ri.C1. l~.~i~ll.1 1111'. Other requests for this document must be referred to Commander. when pertinent.- . and (5)effect of elevated dtcidental drops othier or aircraft parked from ejection bombs subjected to accidental on board shipThe results of supporting tasks investigating quick fire starting.. I-is r t. I'. Virglnia 22448.lO lflL M ILI K III.(ILlvfl f .1 .). agencies only.. wind effects. Dahigren.... LtJi t .I. hi-. evaluation of fire retardant paints and coniputer studies and analysis are also presented. 1-0 DII1 J .1Iil II. ' FDIORM 1l47 (PA GE 1) I w ASSFlED 'lI o S/N 0101.i~llL~r I 1 Fr 7. i hH IF In PD Distribution limited to U.ILILI mIL'l LL1..11.S. ll Naval Weapons Laboratory I IIU'- BOMB SURVIVABILITY IN FIRE PROGRAM.

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