ISSN 0975-8437

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DENTAL CLINICS 2011:3(1):14-17

RESEARCH PAPER

A Comparative evaluation of fatigue behavior of removable partial denture alloys with and without heat treatment
Murali Ramamoorthi, Abdul Aziz Al Khuraif

Abstract Aims: To compare the fatigue behavior of removable partial denture alloys with and without heat treatment. Material and Methods: A total of 35 specimens were casted and divided into 7 groups. The groups studied were low gold alloy, medium gold alloy, palladium alloy and cobalt chromium alloy group. One way deflection fatigue test was used to evaluate fatigue of alloys. The number of cycles required to fracture each specimen was recorded and subjected to statistical analysis. Results: More number of cycles required to fracture the heat treated noble alloys. The base metal alloy showed more fatigue resistance than low gold alloy but less than medium gold alloy and palladium alloy. Conclusion: Age hardening increases the fatigue resistance of noble alloys. Clinical Implications: The mechanical property of cast restorations can be modified by heat treatment of the alloys, and can improve the longevity of the restoration. Key Words: Deflection Fatigue Test;Noble Alloys;Age Hardening;Heat Treatment Received on: 25/08/10 Accepted on: 06/09/2010 Introduction Removable partial denture retentive clasp arms must be capable of flexing and returning to original form and should satisfactorily retain prosthesis. In addition, claps should not unduly stress abutment teeth or be permanently distorted during service. In this respect gold alloys have been favored as claps compared with base metal alloys because of high yield strength and low moduli of elasticity. Noble alloys are capable of undergoing heat treatments to change their mechanical and physical properties. The heat treatments for gold alloys are generally classified into solution treatment and age hardening treatment. Age hardening is caused by several mechanisms such as phase transformation, precipitation and special decomposition of the alloy system. The strain that is introduced by the change in crystal structure during phase transformation results in a significant increase in hardness, strength and reduction in ductility.(1) Clasps undergo permanent deformation and fatigue fracture under repeated flexures caused by denture insertion, removal and mastication. Permanent deformation and fatigue fracture are
Alloys Yellow special Pontor MPF Ceradelta Metalloy CC Manufacturer Metallor Switzerland Metallor Switzerland Metallor Switzerland Metallor Switzerland dental, dental, dental, dental,

caused by the stress created in the clasp. The purpose of this in-vitro study was to compare the fatigue behavior of noble alloys with and without age hardening and base metal alloy. Materials and Methods The basic test specimen used was the prefabricated clasp wax pattern of dimension 15mm length and 10mm outer diameter similar to the studies done by Vallitu and Kokkonen.(2) The wax patterns were invested and casted using type IV noble alloys (Yellow Special, Pontor MPF, Ceradelta) and a cobalt chromium base metal alloy (metalloy cc) with a phosphate bonded investment. A total of five specimens for each alloy group were casted. The composition and material properties of the alloys used were shown in table-1and table-2. The casting procedures were determined following the manufacturer’s instructions for the alloys and investments. Heat treatment of the alloys was done based on manufacturer suggestions. Recovered castings were cleaned with airborne particle abrasion using 80 micron aluminium oxide particles.
Investment Phosphate investment Phosphate investment Phosphate investment Phosphate investment

Composition Au-41% Ag-44.9% Pd-1.7% Cu-11% <1% -Pt,Ru,Sn,Zn Au-72% Ag-13.7% Pt-3.6% Cu-9.8% <1%- Zn,Ir Pd-57.5% Ag-32% In-6% Sn-2% Ga-1.5% Zn-1% Co-61.5% Cr-27.5% W-8.6% Si-1.3% <1%- Mn,N,Nb Table -1 Alloys studied

bonded bonded bonded bonded

©INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DENTAL CLINICS VOLUME 3 ISSUE 1 JANUARY-MARCH 2011

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the loading waveform was square and R-5% (load ratio-ratio of minimum and maximum fatigue force).5 mm are too large for base metal wires. The loading frequency used in this test was 3.00. No polishing procedures were performed to ensure uniformity. Tokyo. the magnitude of deflection was greater than the retention undercut of the tooth used clinically. Incomplete and deformed castings were also discarded. Around 66480 cycles required for Pontor MPF without heat treatment and 66720 cycles with heat treatment. in the medium gold alloy specimen after 66720 loading cycles. The testing method used in this study was a deflection of 0. Nikon Corp.000 122. The number of loading cycles required to fracture each specimen was recorded automatically. an undercut of 0. Because of relatively high modulus of elasticity. Repeated stress cycles cause microscopic cracks mainly in the tension side of the construction and after a period of time a number of cracks had increased to such of size that a sudden fracture can occur even with a low stress level. It was previously claimed that the cobalt chromium alloy could withstand a stress slightly above its proportional limit without fracture over infinitely many cycles. time and number of loading cycles were registered.(6) The results revealed that a fatigue fracture occurred in the cobaltchromium specimen after approximately 44.25 mm provides adequate retention. The test was carried out until fracture of the specimen. The maximum deflection force. the cobalt-chromium alloy clasp should be used in retentive undercuts of less than 0. Japan).00. A fracture can also occur even if the stress was considerably lower than that required for the sudden fracture. The mean values were subjected to statistical analysis at 95% confidence level. Metalloy CC showed the least cycles comparable with yellow special without heat treatment. in the low gold alloy specimen after 38640 loading cycles. whereas it is 67440 cycles. and age hardened yellow special and yellow special and age hardened yellow special.ISSN 0975-8437 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DENTAL CLINICS 2011:3(1):14-17 Alloys Vicker hardness [hvs] Yellow special Pontor MPF Ceradelta 160 220 270 Modulus of elasticity [Mpa] 80. Sudden fracture occurs when a construction was loaded until it fractures with one bend. Based on the loads required to deflection noble alloys would be clinically advantageous due to low rigidity when compared to base metal alloys which was expected to have a minimum possibility of traumatic overloading to the abutment tooth during insertion and removal. whereas it was 52840 after heat treatment. Fatigue strength of the material was defined as the highest stress that the material can withstand. Discussion Material failures were divided to the sudden fracture and fatigue fracture. Cobalt chromium showed fracture at average 44640 cycles which was less than palladium and higher than gold alloys.6 mm one way constant amplitude force at intervals of 300 milliseconds.(4) Later.3 Hz.(3) This was not seen in this study. Ikebe et al(5) reported undercuts greater than 0. Results The results were tabulated from table-3.001mm) supplemented with a profile projector (Model 6c. It has been suggested that for an RPD with wrought-wire clasps. and ©INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DENTAL CLINICS VOLUME 3 ISSUE 1 JANUARY-MARCH 2011 15 .000 1. Fatigue test: A one way constant deflection fatigue test was used with the pneumatic testing machine used by the previous studies. Specimens with defects (macropores and metal protrusions) were rejected and repeated.(2) The specimens were deflected with a 0. Pontor MPF.5 mm. Only nodules were carefully removed under magnification. and 71520 cycles for Ceradelta without and with heat treatment respectively. age hardened Ceradelta. age hardened Pontor MPF. Alloy groups Yellow special[A1] Yellow special age hardened [B1] Pontor MPF[C1] 66480 Pontor MPF age hardened[D1] 66720 Ceradelta [E1] 67440 Ceradelta Age Hardened [F1] 71520 Metalloy CC [G1] 44640 Table-3 Mean Number of cycles required to Fracture special alloy specimens Mean Number of Cycles 38640 52840 The number of cycles required for the yellow special alloy without heat treatment was 38640 cycles. after testing wrought metal wire clasps. obviously.000 Metalloy 290 2.640 loading cycles.000 CC Table-2 Physical properties of alloys studied The dimensions of the specimens were measured by a digital micrometer (with an accuracy of 0.6 mm. There was a statistical difference existed between metalloy CC and Ceradelta.

Journal of Prosthodontics 1993. Reader.S. the crack initiation process is considerably facilitated by surface roughness and irregularities.S. metal fatigue may fracture the yellow special alloy after 11 years. Age hardened yellow special shows better fatigue resistance than cobalt chromium alloy. and the one way deflection fatigue test is a valuable tool to study the fatigue behavior. Dr. and ceradelta after 20 years and metalloy CC after 12. 74(4):412-9. If no wearing of the retentive undercuts of the tooth is seen. Within the limitations of the study. of Prosthodontics. 2. metallographic microstructure and presence of internal defects. 2(3):144-50. K. Deflection fatigue of cobalt-chromium. Bridgeport DA. College of Applied Medical Sciences. Abdul Aziz Al Khuraif. Affiliation of Authors: 1. Based on the loads required to deflection. Age hardening showed a drastic change in the properties of low gold alloy. 2. India. Sinhgad Dental College & Hospital. Pontor MPF alloy after 18. in a crosssection of a gold alloy clasp there can be as many as 100 grains. Further investigations should be conducted to determine whether inherent casting defects between alloys contribute to their fatigue behavior. Acknowledgement: This Study was funded by King Saud University. Riyadh.13(7):322-8.(2) The longevity of cast prosthesis is an important dental concern for patient as well as dentist. a) age hardened yellow special alloy shows better fatigue resistance than cobalt chromium alloy and yellow special alloy without heat treatment. age hardened yellow special alloy 14. which means that the clasp is affected by 3600 deflections per year. The grain count in a clasp cross-section has been reported to be as low as two or three. Finally although a sample size (N=5) was used in the current study. Dr. Pune. of Oral Health Sciences. Kokkonen M. whereas it has slight influence in the other two noble alloys studied. An important factor that affects the strength of an alloy is its grain structure. Partial denture design: modern concepts. Hence the influence of these factors should be considered in future experiments before a more accurate evaluation can be made. Further investigations should be conducted to determine whether inherent casting defects between alloys contribute to their fatigue behavior. and gold alloy cast denture clasp. and ©INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DENTAL CLINICS VOLUME 3 ISSUE 1 JANUARY-MARCH 2011 16 . Chairman. clinically the forces are multidirectional. In the present study noble alloys shows better longevity than base metal alloy. It can be roughly estimated that the clasp of the RPD bends 10 times per day from insertion and removal of the RPD. Although fatigue fracture can occur in a highly polished specimen.D.(8) Fatigue fracture of material is influenced by many factors including the quality of surface finish. Bridgeport (3)examined the grain size of cobalt-chromium alloy at different locations on the RPD and found that the grain count decreased continuously from the clasp tip towards the sprue. References 1. 4. requires further verification.(9) In this study specimens were not polished. titanium. Studies by different authors have shown that fractures in high stress cantilevered portion of the fixed partial denture decreased when materials with higher modulus and tensile strength were used. significant differences were found between the different groups.. Although no mechanical properties are directly related to the fatigue endurance of the materials. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 1995. Cobalt Chromium and Nickel Chromium Alloys for Removable Prosthodontics. Murali Ramamoorthi. such conditions apparently did not affect the base alloy specimen. This hypothesis. King Saud University. Brantley WA.4 years. Specimens were subjected only to vertical directed forces. Part 1: Mechanical Properties. Dept.5 years.5 years. Part III: Influence of wire alloys. gauges.(7-9) Furthermore mastication affects bending of the clasps and should also be considered.A. indicating sufficiently large effect size. Herman PF. 3. M. the effects of elastic modulus and ultimate tensile strength have been postulated. noble alloys would be clinically advantageous due to low rigidity when compared to base metal alloys which is expected to have a minimum possibility of traumatic overloading to the abutment tooth during insertion and removal. On the other hand. Stress-relaxation testing. Morris HF. Design:[II] retention.ISSN 0975-8437 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DENTAL CLINICS 2011:3(1):14-17 in the palladium alloy specimen after 71520 loading cycles. Conclusion In conclusion the noble alloys showed better longevity than base metal alloy. Although the quality of surface finish might have influenced the fatigue resistance of noble alloys. It was previously claimed that the cobalt chromium alloy could withstand a stress slightly above its proportional limit without fracture over infinitely many cycles. however. Vallittu PK. Surface irregularities like coldshuts and scratches acts as stress raisers and most often become the sites of fatigue crack initiation. Maharashtra. Brudvik JS. Dental Update1986. Dept. safety and occlusal correction. Bates J.

Farah J. Influence of dimensional factors and heat treatment on permanent deformation of wrought wire clasps. Frequency of damage to and need for repairs of removable dentures. Ono T. Riyadh. India.70(2):180-8. Nokubi T.ISSN 0975-8437 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DENTAL CLINICS 2011:3(1):14-17 5. Address for Correspondence Dr.S. 6. Craig R. The Journal of Osaka University Dental School1992. Ikebe K. of Prosthodontics Sinhgad Dental College and Hospital Pune.com Source of Support: King Saud University. Faulkner MG. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry1993. Stress distribution within circumferential clasp arms. Dept. Morris H.32:75-83. lengths on clasp behavior. Maharashtra. Yli-Urpo A. Mahood M..17(3):229-37.D. Lappalainen R. Kibi M. A laboratory examination of the behaviour of cast cobalt-chromium clasps.81(3):151. Email: muralee. A comparison of various removable partial denture clasp materials and fabrication procedure for placing clasps on canine and premolar teeth. Murali Ramamoorthi. Ghani F. 7. Okuno Y. VandenBrink JP. 9. Proceedings of the Finnish Dental Society Suomen Hammaslääkäriseuran toimituksia1985. Reader.46(4):374-9. Wolfaardt JF.dr@gmail. 8. KSA Conflict of Interest: None Declared ©INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DENTAL CLINICS VOLUME 3 ISSUE 1 JANUARY-MARCH 2011 17 . Journal of Oral Rehabilitation1990. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry1981.M. Hood J. Huuskonen O. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation1976.3(4):387-94.

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