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Fire Tube Boiler

Fire tube boiler is one of the most basic types of boiler and the design is also very old. It was popular in 18th century. It was mainly used for steam locomotive engines.

Operation of fire tube boiler
Operation of fire tube boiler is as simple as its construction. In fire tube boiler, the fuel is burnt inside a furnace. The hot gases produced in the furnace then passes through the fire tubes. The fire tubes are immersed in water inside the main vessel of the boiler. As the hot gases are passed through these tubes, the heat energy of the gasses is transferred to the water surrounds them. As a result steam is generated in the water and naturally comes up and is stored upon the water in the same vessel of fire tube boiler. This steam is then taken out from the steam outlet for utilizing for required purpose. The water is fed into the boiler through the feed water inlet. As the steam and water is stored is the same vessel, it is quite difficult to produce very high pressure steam from. General maximum capacity of this type of boiler is 17.5 kg/cm 2 and with a capacity of 9 Metric Ton of steam per hour. In a fire tube boiler, the main boiler vessel is under pressure, so if this vessel is burst there will be a possibility of major accident due to this explosion.

Types of fire tube boiler
According to the location of furnace there are two types of fire tube boiler and these are external furnace and internal furnace type. There are mainly three types of external furnace fire tube boiler 1) Horizontal return tubular fire tube boiler 2) Short fire box fire tube boiler 3) Compact fire tube boiler There are also two types of internal furnace fire tube boiler 1) Horizontal tubular and 2) Vertical tubular fire tube boiler.

Working principle of Horizontal return fire tube boiler
Horizontal return fire tube boiler is most suitable for low capacity thermal power plant. The main constructional features of this boiler are one big size steam drum which lies horizontally upon supporting structures. There are numbers of fire tubes come from furnace and also aligned

In other words this is a self pressure controlled boiler. travel through these tubes from rear to front of the boiler drum and finally the gases come into the smoke box. When the drum is filled with water these tubes are submerged in water. 3) Cheaper than water tube boiler. Advantage of fire tube boiler 1) 2) Fluctuation Compact of steam demand in can be met construction. In this way a fire tube boiler controls its won pressure. The hot gasses in the tubes under water transfer heat to the water via the tube walls. steam pressure inside the drum increases which increase significantly the boiling temperature of the water and hence rate of production of steam is reduced. The fuels (normally coal) burnt in the furnace and combustible gasses move into the fire tubes. Due to this heat energy steam bubbles are created and come up upon the water surface.horizontally inside the drum. As the amount of steam is increased in that closed drum. easily. Disadvantage of fire tube boiler .

3) Very high pressure in order of 140 kg/cm2 can be obtained smoothly. is heated and steam is produced in them which comes to the upper drums naturally. 3) The steam received from fire tube boiler is not very dry. Advantages of Water Tube Boiler There are many advantages of water tube boiler due to which these types of boiler are essentially used in large thermal power station. In the upper drum the steam is separated from water naturally and stored above the water surface. 1) Larger heating surface can be achieved by using more numbers of water tubes. It consists of mainly tow drums. Working principle of Water Tube Boiler The working principle of water tube boiler is very interesting and simple. let us draw a very basic diagram of water tube boiler. . These upper drum and lower drum are connected with two tubes namely down-comer and riser tubes as shown in the picture. movement of water is much faster than that of fire tube boiler. 2) Output steam pressure cannot be very high since the water and steam are kept in same vessel. Actually this boiler is just opposite of fire tube boiler where hot gasses are passed through tubes which are surrounded by water. the steam drum is always under pressure. So there is one convectional flow of water in the boiler system. Water in the lower drum and in the riser connected to it. one is upper drum called steam drum other is lower drum called mud drum. 4) In a fire tube boiler. The colder water is fed from feed water inlet at upper drum and as this water is heavier than the hotter water of lower drum and that in the riser. This is the basic definition of water tube boiler. so there may be a chance of huge explosion which resulting to severe accident.1) Due to large water the required steam pressure rising time quite high. 2) Due to convectional flow. the colder water push the hotter water upwards through the riser. Water Tube Boiler A water tube boiler is such kind of boiler where the water is heated inside tubes and the hot gasses surround them. hence rate of heat transfer is high which results into higher efficiency.

the pressure inside the system falls and consequently the convectional flow of water becomes faster which result in faster steam production rate. In this way the water tube boiler can control its own pressure. Hence this type of boiler is referred as self controlled machine. . Again if the steam is taken trough steam outlet.More and more steam is produced the pressure of the closed system increases which obstructs this convectional flow of water and hence rate production of steam becomes slower proportionately.

namely. such as i. Two Drum Bent Tube Boiler . They can be sub-categorized in three types. 1) Horizontal Straight Tube Boiler 2) Bent Tube Boiler 3) Cyclone Fired Boiler Horizontal Straight Tube Boiler again can be sub-divided into two different types. Cross Drum Boiler Bent Tube Boiler also can be sub-divided into four different types. Longitudinal Drum Boiler ii.Types of Water Tube Boiler There are many types of water tube boiler . such as i.

is fed by colder mater at its rear feed water inlet. Working principle of Longitudinal Drum Water Tube Boiler working principle of Babcock – Wilcox Boiler depends upon thermonyphon principle. one cylindrical drum is longitudinally placed above the heat chamber. Four Drum Bent Tube Boiler Horizontal or Longitudinal or Babcock – Wilcox Water Tube Boiler Construction of Babcock – Wilcox Boiler Babcock – Wilcox Boiler is also known as Longitudinal Drum Boiler or Horizontal Tubes Boiler . In this type of boiler.ii. The longitudinally placed drum as mentioned in the construction of longitudinal drum boiler. Low Head Three Drum Bent Tube Boiler iv. From down-comer the water enters in to horizontal water . As the colder water is heavier it falls down through downcomer fitted at the rear part of the drum. Three Drum Bent Tube Boiler iii. In rear of the drum down comer tube is filled and in front of the drum riser tube is fitted as shown in the figure. These down-comer tube and riser tube are connected to each other by 5o to 15 o straight water tubes as shown in the figure.

As the water becomes lighter.tube where it becomes hot and lighter. 1) The feed water is fed to the cross drum through feed water inlet. 5o to 15 o inclined water tubes are connected with downcomer and riser tubes in same manner of Babcock-Wilcox boiler. . These steam bubbles then come to the steam drum through riser and naturally separated from water and occupies the space above the water surface in the longitudinal drum of Babcock – Wilcox Boiler Cross Drum Water Tube Boiler Construction of Cross Drum Water Tube Boiler Cross Drum Boiler is essentially a variant of the Longitudinal Drum Boiler. Here. Working principle of Cross Drum Boiler The working principle of cross drum boiler is same as longitudinal drum boiler . surrounds the water tube. it absorves heat of the hot gases. In Cross Drum Boiler the steam drum is placed at cross ways to the heat source as shown in the figure. During travelling of water through inclined water tubes. consequently steam bubbles are created in these tubes. the down-comer is fitted on the bottom of the drum and riser is fitted on the top of the drum via a horizontal tube as shown in the figure. it passes up through these inclined horizontal tubes and ultimately comes back to the boiler drum through riser.

Working principle of Bent Tube or Stirling Boiler The feed water first enters into right most upper drum. 3) Here. Construction of Bend Tube Boiler Three drums are placed on the heat source as shown on the figure. Upper three drums are connected with equalizer tubes as shown in the figure. 4) Here in the steam drum steam is separated from water in natural way Bend Tube Boiler or Sterling Boiler Bend Tube Boiler or Sterling Boiler is the developed version of water tube boiler. The water within that water drum and the connecting pipes to the other .2) Then this water comes down through the down-comer pipe and enters into inclined water tube placed in hot chamber. Fourth drum is placed inside the heat chamber and this fourth drum is connected to upper three steam drums with help of bend water tube. the water becomes hot and steam is produced in the water which comes into steam chamber. but it utilizes four drums. Due to more density this water comes down in the lower water drum. Steam is taken from equalizer tubes. The working principle of bend tube boiler is more or less same as other water tube boilers.

two upper drums. are heated up and consequently steam bubbles are produced. Capacity of Stirling Boiler Capacity of Stirling Boiler is much higher than Babcock – Wilcox boiler as high as 50.000kg per hour and pressure as high as 60kg/cm . This is the most basic working principle of bent tube boiler .